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commitment to either of the two power blocs in the world, which were led by the United tates and the Union of oviet ocialist !epublics (U !)" #he group was formed in eptember $%&$ by a conference of '( heads of state in )elgrade, *ugoslavia" #he conference was organi+ed by leaders of countries that had recently freed themselves from foreign domination and re,ected renewed ties to any big power" -rominent among these leaders were -rime Minister .awaharlal Nehru of /ndia and -residents u0arno of /ndonesia, 1amal Abdel Nasser of 2gypt, 3wame N0rumah of 1hana, 40ou #our4 of 1uinea, and .osip )ro+ #ito of *ugoslavia" #he movement has grown to include more than $$5 countries, mostly from Africa, Asia, and 6atin America" NAM conferences are held every three years" #he group has no formal administrative body7 at each NAM conference the office of chairperson rotates to the head of state of the host country" Membership in NAM is distinct from neutrality in that it implies an active participation in international affairs and ,udgment of issues on their merits rather than from predetermined positions" #hus, a large ma,ority of NAM nations opposed the United tates during the 8ietnam War ($%(9: $%9() and the U ! after its $%9% invasion of Afghanistan" /n practice, however, many NAM nations leaned heavily toward one power bloc or the other" #he early members of NAM saw themselves as an important buffer between rival military alliances, decreasing the possibility of a ma,or confrontation" Any pretension of being a ;force,< however, was tempered by the diversity of the nations= governments, which ranged from leftist to ultraconservative and from democratic to dictatorial, and by the economic and military wea0nesses that often made them dependent on foreign aid from the big power blocs" #he dissolution of the U ! in $%%$ re>uired NAM nations to redefine their role in a world where intense ideological and military rivalry between two superpowers was no longer a factor" #oday the movement focuses on promoting cooperation between developing countries and on advocating solutions to global economic and political problems" Warsaw Pact Warsaw -act (formally the Warsaw #reaty of ?riendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance), military alliance of eight 2uropean Communist nations, enacted to counter the rearmament of West 1ermany, officially called the ?ederal !epublic of 1ermany (?!1), and its admission to the North Atlantic #reaty @rgani+ation (NA#@)" #he treaty was signed in Warsaw, -oland, on May $A, $%((, by Albania, )ulgaria, C+echoslova0ia (now the C+ech !epublic and lova0ia), 2ast 1ermany (now part of the united ?ederal !epublic of 1ermany), Bungary, -oland, !omania, and the Union of oviet ocialist !epublics (U !)" #he alliance was dominated by the U !, which 0ept strict control over the other countries in the pact" /n $%&$ Albania bro0e off diplomatic relations with the U ! because of ideological differences and in $%&C withdrew from the pact" ?rom the mid:$%(5s through the $%C5s, two ma,or bodies carried out the functions of the Warsaw -actD the -olitical Consultative Committee and the Unified Command of -act Armed ?orces, both head>uartered in Moscow" Under the terms of the treaty, the -olitical Consultative Committee coordinated all activities, eEcept those purely military, and the Unified Command of -act Armed ?orces had authority over the troops
assigned to it by member states" /t was agreed that the supreme commander would be from the U !" #he Warsaw -actFs only military action was directed against C+echoslova0ia, a member state" (/n the autumn of $%(&, the U ! too0 unilateral military action against Bungary, another Warsaw -act member state, 0illing thousands of Bungarians and causing '55,555 to flee the country") /n August $%&C, after the C+ech government enacted reforms offensive to the U !, forces of the U !, -oland, Bungary, 2ast 1ermany, and )ulgaria invaded C+echoslova0ia and forced a return to a oviet:style system" !omania opposed the invasion and did not participate, but remained a member" Although the Warsaw -act was officially renewed in $%C( for another '5 years, the political transformation of 2astern 2urope at the end of the $%C5s profoundly wea0ened the organi+ation" #he U ! began withdrawing its troops from other Warsaw -act countries, and 2ast 1ermany pulled out to ,oin West 1ermany as the reunified nation of 1ermany in @ctober $%%5" All ,oint military functions ceased at the end of March $%%$, and in .uly leaders of the remaining siE member nations agreed to dissolve the alliance" Persian Gulf War I -INTRODUCTION -ersian 1ulf War, conflict beginning in August $%%5, when /ra>i forces invaded and occupied 3uwait" #he conflict culminated in fighting in .anuary and ?ebruary $%%$ between /ra> and an international coalition of forces led by the United tates" )y the end of the war, the coalition had driven the /ra>is from 3uwait" II -C U!"! O# T$" W R #he /ra>i:3uwaiti border had been the focus of tension in the past" 3uwait was nominally part of the @ttoman 2mpire from the $Cth century until $C%% when it as0ed for, and received, )ritish protection in return for autonomy in local affairs" /n $%&$ )ritain granted 3uwait independence, and /ra> revived an old claim that 3uwait had been governed as part of an @ttoman province in southern /ra> and was therefore rightfully /ra>=s" /ra>=s claim had little historical basis, however, and after intense global pressure /ra> recogni+ed 3uwait in $%&G" Nonetheless, there were occasional clashes along the /ra>i:3uwaiti border, and relations between the two countries were sometimes tense" !elations between the two countries improved during the /ran:/ra> War ($%C5:$%CC), when 3uwait assisted /ra> with loans and diplomatic bac0ing" After the war ended in $%CC, the /ra>i government launched a costly program of reconstruction" )y $%%5 /ra> had fallen HC5 billion in debt and demanded that 3uwait forgive its share of the debt and help with other payments" At the same time, /ra> claimed that 3uwait was pumping oil from a field that straddled the /ra>i:3uwaiti border and was not sharing the revenue" /ra> also accused 3uwait of producing more oil than allowed under >uotas set by the @rgani+ation of -etroleum 2Eporting Countries (@-2C), thereby depressing the price of oil, /ra>=s main eEport" /ra>=s complaints against 3uwait grew increasingly harsh, but they were mostly about money and did not suggest that /ra> was about to revive its land claim to 3uwait" When /ra>i forces began to mobili+e near the 3uwaiti border in the summer of $%%5, several Arab states tried to mediate the dispute" 3uwait, see0ing to avoid loo0ing li0e a puppet of outside powers, did not call on the United tates or other non:Arab powers for support" ?or their part, the U" " and other Western governments generally eEpected that at worst /ra> would sei+e some border area to intimidate 3uwait, so they avoided being pulled into the dispute" Arab mediators convinced /ra> and 3uwait to negotiate their differences in .iddah, audi Arabia, on August $, $%%5, but that session resulted only in charges and
countercharges" A second session was scheduled to ta0e place in )aghdId, the /ra>i capital, but /ra> invaded 3uwait the neEt day, leading some observers to suspect that /ra>i president addam Bussein had planned the invasion all along" III -IR % IN& D"! #he /ra>i attac0 began shortly after midnight on August '" About $(5,555 /ra>i troops, many of them veterans of the /ran:/ra> War, easily overwhelmed the unprepared and ineEperienced 3uwaiti forces, which numbered about '5,555" )y dawn /ra> had assumed control of 3uwait city, the capital, and was soon in complete control of the country" Bussein=s political strategy was less clear than his military strategy" #he /ra>is initially posed as liberators, hoping to appeal to 3uwaiti democrats who opposed the ruling abah monarchy" When this claim attracted neither 3uwaiti nor international support, it was dropped" /n place of the abahs, most of whom fled during the invasion, /ra> installed a puppet government" #he United Nations ecurity Council and the Arab 6eague immediately condemned the /ra>i invasion" ?our days later, the ecurity Council imposed an economic embargo on /ra> that prohibited nearly all trade with /ra>" /ra> responded to the sanctions by anneEing 3uwait on August C, prompting the eEiled abah family to call for a stronger international response" /n @ctober, 3uwait=s rulers met with their democratic opponents in .iddah, with the hope of uniting during the occupation" #he abah family promised the democrats that if returned to 3uwait, they would restore constitutional rule and parliament (both of which had been suspended in $%C&)" /n return, the democrats pledged to support the government in eEile" #he unified leadership proved useful in winning international support for an eviction of /ra>" ?ewer than half of all 3uwaitis stayed in 3uwait through the occupation7 of those who stayed, some formed resistance organi+ations but with little effect" Any armed attempt to roll bac0 the /ra>i invasion depended on audi Arabia, which shares a border with both /ra> and 3uwait" audi Arabia had neither the power nor the inclination to fight /ra> alone7 if the audi government invited foreign troops into the country to attac0 /ra>, however, it ris0ed appearing to be under their influence" audi rulers did eventually open the country to foreign forces, in large part because they were alarmed by /ra>=s aggressive diplomacy and because U" " intelligence reports claimed that /ra>i forces were well positioned for a stri0e against audi Arabia" @ther Arab countries, such as 2gypt, yria, and the smaller states along the -ersian 1ulf, feared that even if /ra>=s con>uests stopped at 3uwait, /ra> could still intimidate the rest of the region" Western powers supported a rollbac0 of /ra>i forces because they were afraid /ra> could now dominate international oil supplies" ?inally, other members of the United Nations (UN) did not want to allow one UN member state to eliminate another" )eginning a wee0 after the /ra>i ta0eover of 3uwait and continuing for several months, a large international force gathered in audi Arabia" #he United tates sent more than A55,555 troops, and more than '55,555 additional troops came from audi Arabia, the United 3ingdom, ?rance, 3uwait, 2gypt, yria, enegal, Niger, Morocco, )angladesh, -a0istan, the United Arab 2mirates, Jatar, @man, and )ahrain" @ther countries contributed ships, air forces, and medical units, including Canada, /taly, Argentina, Australia, )elgium, Kenmar0, 1reece, Norway, -ortugal, pain, C+echoslova0ia, New Lealand, the Netherlands, -oland, and outh 3orea" till other countries made other contributionsD #ur0ey allowed air bases on its territory to be used by coalition planes, and .apan and 1ermany gave financial support" #he initial goal of the force was to prevent further /ra>i action, but most countries were aware the force might ultimately be used to drive /ra> from 3uwait"
most of these were states such as . the U" " Congress narrowly passed a resolution authori+ing the president to use force. even threatening to attac0 /srael" ?or the United tates. coalition forces began a massive air attac0 on /ra>i targets" #he air assault had three goalsD to attac0 /ra>i air defenses.anuary $'.ordan and *emen.anuary $(. such as Morocco. $%%$" #he /ra>is re. nullifying the domestic debate" I& -T$" CO 'ITION TT C(! )* IR When the UN deadline of . the meeting was its way of showing the conflict could not be resolved through negotiation" A large minority of the U" " population opposed military action" @pponents were concerned that the armed forces would suffer large casualties and argued that the only reason for the invasion was to guarantee a cheap supply of oil" Many such opponents thought economic sanctions would eventually force /ra> to leave 3uwait" -resident 1eorge )ush maintained that larger political principles were involved and that economic sanctions would not wor0" Be also argued that the UN resolution gave him the authority to use military force" @ther Americans believed the president did not have the constitutional authority to order an attac0 without a congressional declaration of war" @n . with coalition forces massing in audi Arabia and /ra> showing no signs of retreat.ority of coalition members .ames )a0er and /ra>=s foreign minister" #he two sides met on .oined in the decision to attac0 /ra>" A few members. elected not to ta0e part in the military stri0es" /n the early morning of . $%%$. /ra> tried to lin0 its occupation of 3uwait to the larger Arab:/sraeli conflict in the region" #he /ra>is argued that since the UN had not forced /srael to leave Arab territories it occupied during and after the iE:Kay War of $%&9. but no such attac0 too0 place" #he coalition was also troubled that /ra> might partially withdraw from 3uwait. a vast ma.#he /ra>is tried to deter and split the growing international coalition through several means" #hey made it clear that their adversaries would pay heavily if war bro0e out.anuary %" Neither offered to compromise" #he United tates underscored the ultimatum. which could split the coalition between nations eager to avoid fighting and nations wanting to push for full withdrawal" #he United tates in particular feared that signs of progress might lessen the resolve of some coalition partners and so discouraged attempts to mediate the crisis" /ra>=s uncompromising stand helped build support among coalition members for the American hard line" @n November '%. as they had against /ran during the /ran:/ra> War" /ra> also detained citi+ens of coalition countries who had been in 3uwait at the time of the invasion and said they would be held in militarily sensitive areasMin effect using them as human shields to deter coalition attac0s" /ra> eventually released the last of the foreigners in Kecember $%%5 under pressure from several Arab nations" /n an effort to wea0en Arab support within the coalition. the United tates agreed to a direct meeting between ecretary of tate .use all necessary means< to force /ra> from 3uwait if /ra> remained in the country after .anuary $9. to disrupt command and control. $%%$. which were not part of the coalition" @nly in Morocco and yria did government support for coalition involvement wea0en as a result of /ra>=s initiative" #he coalition=s greatest military concern during the closing months of $%%5 was that /ra>i forces would attac0 before coalition forces were fully in place. and the /ra>is refused to comply with it. and to 4 . and they hinted they would use chemical weapons and missile attac0s on cities. it should not force /ra> to leave 3uwait" #he /ra>is further implied they might leave 3uwait if /srael withdrew from the @ccupied #erritories" everal Arab countries responded positively to /ra>=s statements7 however.ected the ultimatum" oon after the vote. the UN ecurity Council passed a resolution to allow member states to .anuary $( passed without an /ra>i withdrawal.
the attac0s caused many civilian casualties and completely disrupted /ra>i civilian life" #he third tas0. was larger and more difficult" /t re>uired attac0s on the /ra>i electrical system. thic0 blac0 smo0e. believed the war was fought to restore one Arab country and not to destroy another" #he United tates also worried that eEtending the goal would have involved them in endless fighting" #he /ra>is achieved none of their initial goals" !ather than enhancing their economic. creating huge oil la0es. but the coalition offensive advanced more >uic0ly than anticipated" #housands of /ra>i troops surrendered" @thers deserted" /ra> then focused its efforts on withdrawing its elite units and sabotaging 3uwaiti infrastructure and industry" Many oil wells were set on fire. and 5 . the coalition united behind a demand for /ra>=s unconditional withdrawal from 3uwait" & -' ND W R @n ?ebruary 'A the coalition launched its long:anticipated land offensive" #he bul0 of the attac0 was in southwestern /ra>. which were accepted by /ra> in a meeting of military commanders on March G" More eEtensive aims. and other military and government targets" #hese targets were often located in civilian areas and were typically used by both civilians and the military" Although the coalition air forces often used very precise weapons.anuary G5 before being driven bac0" @ne month into the air war. in part because the /sraeli government did not retaliate" /ra> also issued thinly veiled threats that it would use chemical and biological weapons" #he United tates hinted in return that such an attac0 might provo0e a massive response. for eEample. and other environmental damage" #wo days after the ground war began. communications centers. which especially disrupted /sraeli civilian life" /ra> could thus portray its Arab adversaries as fighting on the side of /srael" #he strategy failed to split the coalition. wea0ening /ra>=s ground forces. and to undermine morale" After five and a half wee0s of intense bombing and more than $55. where coalition forces first moved north. military. to destroy their e>uipment. roads and bridges. then turned east toward the /ra>i port of Al )aNrah" #his maneuver surrounded 3uwait. did not have the support of all coalition members" Most Arab members. /ra> fired cud missiles at both audi Arabia and /srael. and allowed coalition forces (mainly Arab) to move up the coast and ta0e 3uwait city" ome /ra>i units resisted. possibly including the use of nuclear weapons" /ra>i ground forces also initiated a limited amount of ground fighting.wea0en ground forces in and around 3uwait" #he coalition made swift progress against /ra>=s air defenses.555 flights by coalition planes. /ra> announced it was leaving 3uwait" @n ?ebruary 'C. /ra>=s forces were severely damaged" /n an attempt to pry the coalition apart. was larger still" #he coalition used less sophisticated weaponry to stri0e /ra>i defensive positions in both /ra> and 3uwait.i on . disrupting command and control. it might have split the coalition7 now it simply seemed a sign that the war was weighing heavily on /ra>" #he war made diplomacy difficult for /ra>D officials had to travel overland to /ran and then fly to Moscow to ferry messages bac0 and forth" ensing victory. occupying the audi border town of 3haf. giving the coalition almost uncontested control of the s0ies over /ra> and 3uwait" #he second tas0. such as overthrowing the /ra>i government or destroying /ra>i forces. encircling the /ra>i forces there and in southern /ra>. the /ra>is began negotiating with the Union of oviet ocialist !epublics (U !) over a plan to withdraw from 3uwait" Bad this initiative come before the start of the coalition=s attac0. with the collapse of /ra>i resistance and the recapture of 3uwaitMthereby fulfilling the coalition=s stated goalsMthe coalition declared a cease:fire" #he land war had lasted precisely $55 hours" #he cease:fire came shortly before coalition forces would have surrounded /ra>i forces" @n March 'the UN ecurity Council issued a resolution laying down the conditions for the cease: fire.
claiming that its withdrawal from 3uwait was sufficient compliance" Many Western observers believed the victory was hollow because addam Bussein was still in power" At first. militarily defeated. armed resistance" /n the end.555 /ra>is 0illed. and accept international inspections to ensure these conditions were met" /f /ra> complied with these and other resolutions. the UN would discuss removing the sanctions" /ra> resisted.political position.555 and G(. they were economically devastated. honored his pledge in eEile to reconvene the country=s parliament" -alestinians in 3uwait fared poorly after the war. which did not end with the war" @n April '. which established . and they too received no help" #he 3urds were able to withstand Bussein longer than the hias. destroy its chemical and biological weapons and ballistic missiles. $%%$. when Bussein was greatly wea0ened. and in $%%' the emir.555 casualties" #he coalition losses were eEtremely light by comparisonD 'A5 were 0illed. which they did to great effect" pontaneous and loosely organi+ed. most of the -alestinian population (estimated at A55.555 to $55. though. Western powers believed a rebellion might succeed in overthrowing him" Meanwhile. 3urds in the north of the country rebelled. /ra> might disintegrate. potential rebels within /ra> believed they might receive international help if they rebelled" )ut when the hia population of southern /ra> rebelled shortly after the cease:fire. the ecurity Council laid out strict demands for ending the sanctionsD /ra> would have to accept liability for damages.aber al: abah. and politically isolated" *et because the government and many of the military forces remained intact. but could use helicopters. most Western governments decided that if Bussein collapsed. the /ra>is could claim mere survival as a victory" #he surviving military forces were used a short time later to suppress two postwar rebellionsD one involving hia Muslims in southern /ra> and one involving 3urds in the north" Almost all of the casualties occurred on the /ra>i side" While estimates during the war had ranged from $5. in large part because *asir Arafat of the -alestine 6iberation @rgani+ation (-6@) and other prominent -alestinians had endorsed Bussein and his anti: /sraeli rhetoric" )lamed for collaborating with the /ra>is. they were greeted not with international help but with /ra>i military forces returning from the southern front" /t >uic0ly became clear that the rebels would receive no international help. $AC of whom were American" #he number of wounded totaled 99&. /ra>is could not attac0 the hias with airplanes. forego any nuclear weapons programs. the rebellion was crushed almost as >uic0ly as it arose" #he defeat of the hias made the debate over helping /ra>i rebels even more urgent" Ultimately. although several governments gave them verbal support" Under the terms of the cease:fire.aber al:Ahmad al:. ushering in a new round of regional instability" A short while later. however.555 before the war) was eEpelled from 3uwait or forbidden to return" 6 . hei0h . including UN sanctions against /ra>. the 3urds achieved only a very modest successD a UN:guaranteed haven in the eEtreme north of the country" No permanent solutionMsuch as 3urdish self:ruleMwas negotiated" 2lsewhere the effects of the war were less severe" /n 3uwait the prewar regime was restored. in part because they had a history of organi+ed. Western military eEperts now agree that /ra> sustained between '5. of whom A(C were American" &I -CON!"%U"NC"! O# T$" W R #he end of the fighting left some 0ey issues unresolved.no:fly +ones< in the north and south.
C+echoslova0ia. Kenmar0.oin. Canada. led by the Union of oviet ocialist !epublics (U !)" #he original signatories were )elgium.?ollowing the war. $%A%. well:being. and lova0ia. 6atvia. at the beginning of the Cold War" NA#@ has its head>uarters in )russels. and pain in $%C'" /n $%%5 the newly unified 1ermany replaced West 1ermany as a NA#@ member" After the formal end of the Cold War in $%%$. NA#@ reached out to former members of the Warsaw -act. the Communist military alliance created in $%(( by the U ! to counter NA#@" /n $%%% former Warsaw -act members Bungary. blurred vision.555 American troops may have been eEposed to sarin. rashes.INTRODUCTION North Atlantic #reaty @rgani+ation (NA#@). including abdominal pain. -oland. /taly. short:term memory loss. and several coalition countries enforced other sanctions. -ortugal. and 6ithuania. such as the no:fly +ones" /n $%%( the UN amended the sanctions to allow /ra> to sell limited amounts of oil for food and medicine if it also designated some of the revenue to pay for damages caused by the war7 /ra> initially re. formerly part of Communist *ugoslavia. insomnia. West 1ermany in $%((. and !omania were all former Warsaw -act members" NA#@Fs purpose is to enhance the stability. and the United tates" 1reece and #ur0ey were admitted to the alliance in $%('. formerly part of the U !. 6uEembourg. and aching . bringing the total membership to $% nations" /n '55' !ussia. headaches. and the C+ech !epublic became members of NA#@. #he Netherlands. )elgium" #he original purpose of NA#@ was to defend Western 2urope against possible attac0 by Communist nations. a toEic nerve gas (see Chemical and )iological Warfare)" /n $%%9 the U" " Central /ntelligence Agency (C/A) suggested the deadly gas may have spread farther than previously thought. !omania. /celand. once part of C+echoslova0ia" #hese countries were eEpected to become members of NA#@ in '55A" )ulgaria. ?rance.oints" #he symptoms became 0nown collectively as 1ulf War syndrome but their cause was un0nown" peculation about the cause centered on eEposure to chemical and biological weapons7 eEperimental drugs given to troops to protect against chemical weapons7 vaccinations against illness and disease7 insecticides sprayed over troop:populated areas7 and smo0e from burning oil wells ignited by retreating /ra>is" #he U" " Kepartment of Kefense originally stated it had no conclusive evidence that troops had been eEposed to chemical or biological weapons" Bowever. became a limited partner in NA#@ as a member of the NA#@:!ussia Council" #he same year NA#@ invited the )altic states of 2stonia. and freedom of its members through a system of collective security" Members of the alliance agree to defend one another from attac0 by other nations" @ver the years the eEistence of NA#@ has led to closer ties among its members and to a growing community of interests" #he treaty itself has provided a model for other collective security agreements" II . in $%%& the department ac0nowledged that more than '5. once the U !=s largest republic. Organi-ation I . affecting perhaps hundreds of thousands of troops" #he UN continued to maintain most of the economic embargo on /ra> after the war.ected this plan but then accepted it in $%%&" Nort+ tlantic Treat.) C(GROUND 7 . the United 3ingdom. regional defense alliance created by the North Atlantic #reaty signed on April A. along with lovenia. and )ulgaria. to . thousands of American soldiers developed mild to debilitating health problems. diarrhea. Norway.
Allied Command Atlantic. and administrative actions. including the re.une $%(5 convinced the allies that the oviets might act against a divided 1ermany" #he result was not only the creation of a military command system. territorial demands by the oviets. budgetary outlines. in permanent session with representatives of the members. and is the decision:ma0ing body of NA#@" #he ecretariat.unite their efforts for collective defense"< Article $ calls for peaceful resolution of disputes" Article ' pledges the parties to economic and political cooperation" Article G calls for development of the capacity for defense" Article A provides for . a 2uropean Communist organi+ation.ection by 2astern 2uropean nations of the 2uropean !ecovery -rogram (Marshall -lan) and the creation of Cominform. and in $%(( West 1ermany was accepted under a complicated arrangement whereby 1ermany would not be allowed to manufacture nuclear. many Western leaders believed the policies of the U ! threatened international stability and peace" #he forcible installation of Communist governments throughout 2astern 2urope. defines military policies" )elow the Military Committee are the various geographical commandsD Allied Command 2urope. which handles all the nonmilitary functions of the alliance" #he temporary committees deal with specific assignments of the council" #he Military Committee consists of the chiefs of staff of the various armed forces7 it meets twice a year" )etween such meetings the Military Committee. led to the )russels #reaty signed by most Western 2uropean countries in $%AC" Among the goals of that pact was the collective defense of its members" #he )erlin bloc0ade that began in March $%AC led to negotiations between Western 2urope.!TRUCTUR" #he highest authority within NA#@ is the North Atlantic Council. and their support of guerrilla war in 1reece and regional separatism in /ran appeared to many as the first steps of World War ///" uch events prompted the signing of the Kun0ir0 #reaty in $%A9 between )ritain and ?rance. which pledged a common defense against aggression" ubse>uent events. headed by a secretary general" /t is responsible for general policy. various temporary committees./n the years after World War // ($%G%:$%A(). and the Canada:U" " !egional -lanning 1roup" #hese commands are in charge of deploying armed forces in their areas" & .collective self:defense"< Article & defines the areas covered by the treaty" Article 9 affirms the precedence of membersF obligations under the United Nations Charter" Article C safeguards against conflict with any other treaties of the signatories" Article % creates a council to oversee implementation of the treaty" Article $5 describes admission procedures for other nations" Article $$ states the ratification procedure" Article $' allows for reconsideration of the treaty" Article $G outlines withdrawal procedures" Article $A calls for the deposition of the official copies of the treaty in the U" " Archives" I& . Canada.$I!TOR* -"arl. and the United tates that resulted in the North Atlantic #reaty" III -TR" T* PRO&I!ION! #he North Atlantic #reaty consists of a preamble and $A articles" #he preamble states the purpose of the treatyD to promote the common values of its members and to .oint consultations when a member is threatened" Article ( promises the use of the membersF armed forces for . composed of permanent delegates from all members.oined the alliance. *ears Until $%(5 NA#@ consisted primarily of a pledge by the United tates to defend other members of the alliance under the terms of Article ( of the treaty" Bowever. but also the eEpansion of the organi+ation" /n $%(' 1reece and #ur0ey . 8 . in $%A9. there was no effective military or administrative structure to implement this pledge" #he outbrea0 of the 3orean War in . and the Military Committee are among the committees that report to the North Atlantic Council" #he secretary general runs the ecretariat.
accepting a seat on the military 9 . 2astern 2uropean nations. and peace0eeping operations" #he -artnership for -eace was a step toward providing security and cooperation throughout all of 2urope" Many former oviet satellites were eager to . nonmembers could be invited to participate in information sharing. designed to cope with oviet weapons targeted on 2uropean cities" #he signing of the /ntermediate:!ange Nuclear ?orces #reaty (/N?) in $%C9 presaged the brea0down of the Warsaw -act (see Arms Control)" #he decade ended with the apparent success of NA#@ in surmounting the challenge of the Communist bloc" C -"nd of t+e Cold War /n the late $%C5s Communist governments began to crumble throughout 2astern 2urope" West 1ermany absorbed 2ast 1ermany to form the ?ederal !epublic of 1ermany in $%%5. are met" /n $%%(. and the Warsaw -act dissolved in early $%%$" #he oviet Union bro0e apart later that year. many Western observers saw NA#@ in the post:Cold War era as an umbrella of security in a 2urope buffeted by the nationalist passions unleashed in 2astern 2urope and the former U !" ?ollowing the dissolution of the U !. some 2uropean nations feared that the United tates would not honor its pledge to defend other members of the alliance" #he $%&5s were characteri+ed by two conse>uent developments in NA#@D the withdrawal of ?rance. provides a forum for consultations between NA#@ members.biological.oin NA#@ troops. such as a trained army to . .may eventually attain full membership in NA#@ if other membership re>uirements. in which new defense efforts were accompanied by new efforts at d4tente" #he $%C5s opened with a deepening crisis between the 2ast and West" /n $%CG the U ! failed to prevent the deployment of intermediate:range ballistic missiles. and the former oviet republics" /n $%%G NA#@ members endorsed a proposal to offer former Warsaw -act members limited associations with NA#@" Under the plan. drastically reducing the military threat to NA#@" Nevertheless. established in November $%%$.oin" Although !ussia opposed their membership and threatened to abstain from the -artnership for -eace.oint eEercises. or chemical weapons" /n its first decade NA#@ was mainly a military organi+ation dependent on U" " power for security and for the revival of 2uropeFs economy and national governments" ) -T+e Cold War "ra NA#@=s importance grew with the worsening of relations between the oviet Union and Western powers" As the oviet Union achieved parity in nuclear weaponry with Western powers. NA#@ sought to strengthen relations with the newly independent nations that had formerly made up the U ! and with other Central 2astern 2uropean countries that belonged to the Warsaw -act" #he North Atlantic Cooperation Council. which sought to use NA#@ as an instrument of d4tente as well as defense" #he crisis in C+echoslova0ia in $%&C was a turning point for NA#@7 thereafter it was viewed as a source of security for 2urope" AmericaFs involvement in the 8ietnam War ($%(9:$%9() further diminished U" " authority and contributed to dissatisfaction within NA#@" Although the $%95s began with some agreements as a result of the trategic Arms 6imitation #al0s ( A6# /). 0nown as -artnership for -eace (-?-). ?rance returned to NA#@. under -resident Charles de 1aulle. it did . the decade ended in disillusionment as the oviets rapidly built up their military arsenal" NA#@ resolved this problem with the dual:trac0 program of $%9%.oin eventually" Members of -?. from the organi+ation but not from the alliance in $%&&7 and the rising influence of the smaller nations. after a G5:year boycott.
NA#@ forces began a campaign of air stri0es against the ?ederal !epublic of *ugoslavia (?!*.une $%%%. NA#@ deployed a multinational force of tens of thousands of troops. to monitor and enforce the cease:fire in )osnia" A year later NA#@ replaced this force with a smaller tabili+ation ?orce ( ?@!)" /ts mission was eEtended indefinitely to ensure stability in the region" D -Recent Develo/ments /n March $%%% three former members of the Warsaw -actMBungary. @hio.555 warplanes under NA#@ command were involved in stri0es throughout the republic" /t was the largest military operation ever underta0en by NA#@" /nstead of persuading *ugoslav leaders to accept a negotiated peace. the United tates and NA#@ began serious efforts to bring to an end the continuing war in )osnia and Ber+egovina. 0illed civilians in 3osovo. the )osnian erb leaders agreed to be represented at a peace conference near Kayton. and the C+ech !epublicM. China. as part of the Kayton agreement. but the alliance dramatically eEpanded the air campaign against the ?!* after reports of widespread atrocities by erb forces against 3osovoFs ethnic Albanian civilian population" )y April $%%% more than $. which threatened 2uropean stability" 6eaders of the NA#@ alliance authori+ed a campaign of air stri0es against )osnian erb positions to force the )osnian erbs to negotiate a peace settlement" After wee0s of air attac0s. after $$ wee0s of NA#@ bombing had incapacitated or destroyed much of 10 . many of whom were fighting for autonomy or independence for 3osovo" Western leaders hoped the NA#@ attac0s would bring MiloOeviP bac0 to the bargaining table" #hey also hoped to end the ongoing repression of the minority ethnic Albanians by the ?!*Fs ethnic erbian ma. and forced hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians to flee the province" #he flight of refugees was the largest mass migration in 2urope since World War //" Critics charged that NA#@ failed to anticipate the refugee crisis" /nternational opposition to the NA#@ assault came swiftly" !ussia. now the republic of erbia and Montenegro)" #he NA#@ stri0es were launched after *ugoslav president lobodan MiloOeviP refused to accept an international peace plan that would have granted a period of autonomy for the *ugoslav province of 3osovo" #he province was populated mainly by ethnic Albanians. 0nown as the /mplementation ?orce (/?@!). -oland.oined the alliance" #he same month. and in Kecember $%%( the warring parties signed a peace accord that ended the war (see Kayton -eace Accord)" #he following month.committee after U" " president )ill Clinton accelerated plans for NA#@Fs eEpansion" Also at this time. the air stri0es appeared to deepen erbian resolve to oppose NA#@ demands and intensified the violence directed at ethnic Albanians" erbian army and police forces destroyed villages. which it maintained were accidental. and /ndia accused NA#@ of violating international law by not see0ing the approval of the United Nations (UN) before stri0ing *ugoslavia" !ussia bro0e off all diplomatic ties with NA#@ and introduced a resolution to the UN ecurity Council that called for an end to the bombardment" #he resolution was re. Chinese officials called on NA#@ to end the air campaign" /n .ected decisively" (!ussia and NA#@ did not formally resume contact until early '555") NA#@ was further critici+ed after warplanes under its command bombed civilian structures and convoys of ethnic Albanians trying to flee 3osovo" NA#@ leadership apologi+ed for the attac0s.ority" #he first NA#@ attac0s were limited to a few do+en military targets. but insisted that MiloOeviP was responsible for the continuing conflict" After NA#@ warplanes bombed ChinaFs embassy in )elgrade by mista0e.
6ithuania. NA#@ invited seven other countriesM)ulgaria. lovenia. and to prevent the possibility of a wider conflict in 2urope" NA#@ intervened in 3osovo despite the fact that none of the allianceFs members were directly attac0ed by the ?!*" /n '55' !ussia became a limited partner in NA#@ as part of the NA#@:!ussia Council" #he creation of the council gave !ussia the opportunity to ta0e part in discussions about NA#@ decisions but without having a binding vote" Most 0ey decisions. 2stonia. remained eEclusive to the $%:member council of ministers" Also in '55'. 6atvia. saw its mission eEtended indefinitely to protect public safety.INTRODUCTION 8ietnam War. while other members of the alliance publicly opposed plans to invade 3osovo" Kespite these disagreements. 0nown as 3?@!. military struggle fought in 8ietnam from $%(% to $%9(. bringing NA#@=s total membership to '&" &ietnam War I . the core members of the alliance continued to support the air campaign" NA#@Fs involvement in 3osovo also indicated the eEpanded role of the alliance in 2uropean and world affairs" -rior to the hostilities. !omania. the 8ietnamese had struggled for their independence from ?rance during the ?irst /ndochina War" At the end of this war. and lova0iaMto become members of the organi+ation" All seven were eEpected to be admitted in '55A. and it eEposed differences of opinion in the eEpanded organi+ation" Kuring the conflict. helped to create the anti:Communist outh 8ietnamese government" #his government=s repressive policies led to rebellion in the outh. and in $%&5 the N6? was formed with the aim of overthrowing the government of outh 8ietnam and reunifying the country" /n $%&( the United tates sent in troops to prevent the outh 8ietnamese government from 11 . the ?!* consented to most of the allianceFs demands" ?!* leaders signed an agreement that ended the bombing and placed 3osovo under international control" As part of the agreement. such as NA#@=s eEpansion.domino theory"< #he U" " government. the country was temporarily divided into North and outh 8ietnam" North 8ietnam came under the control of 8ietnamese Communists who had opposed ?rance and who aimed for a unified 8ietnam under Communist rule" #he outh was controlled by non:Communist 8ietnamese" #he United tates became involved in 8ietnam because American policyma0ers believed that if the entire country fell under a Communist government. )ritish leaders advocated attac0ing the ?!* with ground forces. military forces under NA#@ command served primarily to deter would:be attac0ers" Kuring the 3osovo operation. a guerrilla army organi+ed prior to the NA#@ campaign that had attempted to drive erb troops and police forces from the province" #he campaign against the ?!* revealed the difficulty of sustaining military action that re>uires the consensus of the entire $%:country NA#@ alliance. a NA#@:led multinational force of thousands of troops occupied 3osovo to help ensure the safe return of ethnic Albanian refugees" #he 3osovo peace0eeping force. and provide humanitarian assistance" #he agreement also mandated the disarmament of the 3osovo 6iberation Army (36A). NA#@ attempted to use its military might to advance humanitarian goals. involving the North 8ietnamese and the National 6iberation ?ront (N6?) in conflict with United tates forces and the outh 8ietnamese army" ?rom $%A& until $%(A. therefore.*ugoslaviaFs infrastructure. also 0nown as the econd /ndochina War. Communism would spread throughout outheast Asia" #his belief was 0nown as the . to force compliance with the allianceFs wishes. demilitari+e 3osovo.
including moderates7 it was replaced in $%(( by the ?atherland ?ront. ?rance governed 8ietnam as part of ?rench /ndochina.apan and entered an effective alliance with the United tates" 8iet Minh troops rescued downed U" " pilots. which sought a broader base of support. which served as the Communist:front organi+ation of the K!8" (#he N6? later served as the southern front") Bowever. resulting in the Cold War" #he foreign policy of the United tates during the Cold War was driven by a fear of the spread of Communism" After World War // Communist governments came to power in 2astern 2uropean nations that had fallen under the domination of the U !.555 Americans lost their lives" II . approEimately G"' million 8ietnamese were 0illed. however.collapsing" Ultimately. $%A(. and in $%A% Communists too0 control of China" United tates policyma0ers felt they could not afford to lose outheast Asia as well to Communist rule" #he United tates therefore condemned Bo Chi Minh as an agent of international Communism and offered to assist the ?rench in reestablishing a colonial regime in 8ietnam" 12 . warning of military action" #he 8iet Minh began guerrilla warfare against . which he called the Kemocratic !epublic of 8ietnam (K!8)" 2mperor )ao Kai had abdicated the throne a wee0 earlier" #he ?rench. united party. and provided valuable intelligence to the @ffice of trategic ervices (@ ). seeing the turmoil of World War // as an opportunity to overthrow ?rench colonial rule" #he 8iet Minh. imploring him to recogni+e 8ietnam=s independence" Many @ agents informed the U" " administration that despite being a Communist.apanese prison camps. and later that year drove the 8iet Minh into the north of the country" #here they regrouped as the 6ien 8iet ?ront. was even made a special @ agent" When the . refused to ac0nowledge 8ietnam=s independence.apanese troops invaded and occupied ?rench /ndochina" /n May $%A$ 8ietnamese nationalists established the 6eague for the /ndependence of 8ietnam.) C(GROUND ?rom the $CC5s until World War // ($%G%:$%A().apanese formally surrendered to the Allies on eptember '. Bo used the occasion to declare the independence of 8ietnam. the forerunner of the Central /ntelligence Agency (C/A)" Bo Chi Minh. which also included Cambodia and 6aos" 8ietnam was under the nominal control of an emperor. however. which had been operating clandestinely since $%A( in the war against the ?rench" #he 6ao Kong was conceived as a nationwide. and in $%9( 8ietnam was reunified under Communist control7 in $%9& it officially became the ocialist !epublic of 8ietnam" Kuring the conflict. and it was formally based in the K!8 capital of Banoi" )y $%(G most 8iet Minh were members of the 6ao Kong" /mmediately after Bo declared the formation of the K!8. )ao Kai" /n $%A5 . sought popular support for national independence. or 8iet Minh. as well as social and political reform" #he United tates demanded that . he wrote eight letters to U" " president Barry #ruman. located . a front organi+ation of the /ndochinese Communist -arty.apan leave /ndochina. in addition to another $"( million to ' million 6ao and Cambodians who were drawn into the war" Nearly (C. helped U" " prisoners to escape. the term 8iet Minh continued to be commonly used for supporters of the movement for a unified 8ietnam" Also in $%($ some 8ietnamese nationalists created the 6ao Kong (Wor0ers= -arty) as the successor to the /ndochinese Communist -arty. the United tates failed to achieve its goal. Bo Chi Minh was not a puppet of the Communist:led Union of oviet ocialist !epublics (U !) and that he could potentially become a valued ally in Asia" #ensions between the United tates and the U ! had mounted after World War //. the principal leader of the 8iet Minh.
uly '$. -oland. Ka Nang. the U !.555 troops at the time 8ietnam=s independence was declared. became the mechanism by which Washington . also did not become a signatory" /mmediately after the 1eneva Conference. or the K!8. the ?rench public forced their government to reach a peace agreement at the 1eneva Conference" ?rance as0ed the other world powers to help draw up a plan for ?rench withdrawal from the region and for the future of 8ietnam" Meeting in 1eneva.555 more people voted in aigon than were registered" Kiem then deposed )ao Kai. the U" " government moved to establish the outheast Asia #reaty @rgani+ation ( 2A#@). which Bo Chi Minh and the 6ao Kong were favored to win" /nstead. attended delegations to draft a set of agreements called the 1eneva Accords" #hese agreements provided for a cease:fire throughout 8ietnam and a temporary partition of the country at the $9th parallel" ?rench troops were to withdraw to the south of the dividing line until they could be safely removed from the country. in @ctober $%((" Be won the elections with %C"' percent of the vote. during the 1eneva Conference. since about $(5. a regional alliance that eEtended protection to outh 8ietnam. $%(A. with himself as president and aigon as its capital" 8ietnamese Communists and many non:Communist 8ietnamese nationalists saw the creation of the !8N as an effort by the United tates to interfere with the independence promised at 1eneva" III -T$" )"GINNING O# T$" W R0 1232-1243 13 . the 8iet Minh had hundreds of thousands of soldiers and were fighting the ?rench to a draw" /n $%A% the ?rench set up a government to rival Bo Chi Minh=s.uly $%(& throughout the North and outh under the supervision of the /nternational Control Commission. but recruiting increased after the arrival of ?rench troops" )y the late $%A5s. installing )ao Kai as head of state" /n May $%(A the 8iet Minh mounted a massive assault on the ?rench garrison at Kien )ien -hu. Kiem held elections only in outh 8ietnam.une $%(A. and declared outh 8ietnam to be an independent nation called the !epublic of 8ietnam (!8N). as well as representatives from 8ietnam. comprised of representatives from Canada. and /ndia" ?ollowing these elections. Kiem announced he had no intention of participating in the planned national elections. 1reat )ritain. including Banoi. while 8iet Minh forces were to retreat to the north" Bo Chi Minh maintained control of North 8ietnam. while 2mperor )ao Kai remained head of outh 8ietnam" 2lections were to be held in . and Cambodia.ustified its support for outh 8ietnam7 this support eventually became direct involvement of U" " troops" Meanwhile. in northwestern 8ietnam near the border with 6aos" #he )attle of Kien )ien -hu resulted in perhaps the most humiliating defeat in ?rench military history" Already tired of the war.or cities. the United tates pressured )ao Kai to appoint Ngo Kinh Kiem prime minister of the government in outh 8ietnam" #he United tates chose Kiem for his nationalist and anti:Communist credentials" With U" " support. while the 8iet Minh controlled the countryside" #he 8iet Minh had only '. who had been the only other candidate. but many historians believe these elections were rigged. wit+erland. from May C to . diplomats from ?rance. 6aos. Baiphong. and the United tates. 8ietnam was to be reunited under the government chosen by popular vote" #he 8iet Minh reluctantly agreed to the partitioning of 8ietnam in the eEpectation that the elections would reunify the country under Communist rule" #he United tates did not want to allow the possibility of Communist control over 8ietnam" /n . Bue. which acted as an observer during the delegations./n $%A& United tates warships ferried elite ?rench troops to 8ietnam where they >uic0ly regained control of the ma. Cambodia. the -eople=s !epublic of China. which came into force in $%((. and 6aos in cases of Communist subversion or insurrection" 2A#@. and aigon (now Bo Chi Minh City). Kiem refused to sign the 1eneva Accords" #he United tates.
but they predominated in government positions because Kiem himself was Catholic" )etween $%(A and $%((. eventually led to increasingly organi+ed opposition within outh 8ietnam" #he United tates initially bac0ed Kiem=s government with military advisers and financial assistance to 0eep it from collapsing" #he political situation in outh 8ietnam became even more unstable after Kiem was 0illed in a military coup in $%&G. Catholic minority in outh 8ietnam" Although Kiem also found some support in the countryside among non:Communists.Kiem represented the interests of the urban.Commies<). which feared that this would invite the entry of U" " armed forces" /n $%&5. Kiem too0 land away from peasants and returned it to former landlords. which caused nearly $ million Catholics to flee to the south" #heir resettlement uprooted )uddhists who already deeply resented Kiem=s rule because of his severe discrimination against them" 14 .ohnson permission to launch a full:scale military intervention in 8ietnam" #he first American combat troops arrived in 8ietnam in March $%&(" -Re5ellion in !out+ &ietnam When 8ietnam was divided in $%(A. or N6?)" #he N6? was a classical Communist:front organi+ation7 although Communists dominated the N6? leadership. leading to more direct involvement by the United tates" #he 1ulf of #on0in !esolution of $%&A gave -resident 6yndon )" . the United tates created the Army of the !epublic of 8ietnam (A!8N) in outh 8ietnam" Using these troops. reunification of 8ietnam. and he drafted their sons into the A!8N" Kiem sought to undermine the 8iet Minh. which alienated many peasants" )eginning in $%((. amounting to no more than $5 percent of the population. and many of these became A!8N officers" Catholics were a minority throughout 8ietnam.oy a broad base of support" #he repressive measures of the Kiem government. he did not en. reversing the land redistribution program implemented by the 8iet Minh" Be also forcibly moved many villagers from their ancestral lands to controlled settlements in an attempt to prevent Communist activity. operatives paid by the C/A spread rumors in northern 8ietnam that Communists were going to launch a persecution of Catholics. the N6? began to train and e>uip a guerrilla force that was formally organi+ed in $%&$ as the -eople=s 6iberation Armed ?orces (-6A?)" Kiem=s support was concentrated mainly in the cities" Although he had been a nationalist opposed to ?rench rule. whom he derogatorily referred to as 8iet Cong (the 8ietnamese e>uivalent of calling them . the organi+ation also embraced non:Communists who opposed the outh 8ietnamese government" #he aim of the N6? was to overthrow the Kiem government and reunify 8ietnam" #oward this end. many 8iet Minh who had been born in the southern part of the country returned to their native villages to await the $%(& elections and the reunification of their nation" When the elections did not ta0e place as planned. widespread opposition to Kiem in rural areas convinced the party leadership to officially sanction the formation of the National ?ront for the 6iberation of outh 8ietnam (commonly 0nown as the National 6iberation ?ront. however. and reconstruction of society along socialist principles" )y the late $%(5s they were anEious to begin full:scale armed struggle against Kiem but were held in chec0 by the northern branch of the party. yet their influence continued to grow" Most southern 8iet Minh were committed to the 6ao Kong=s program of national liberation. these 8iet Minh immediately formed the core of opposition to Kiem=s government and sought its overthrow" #hey were greatly aided in their efforts to organi+e resistance in the countryside by Kiem=s own policies. designed to persecute 8iet Minh activists and gain control of the countryside. he welcomed into his government those 8ietnamese who had collaborated with the ?rench.
the Kiem government developed a . the N6? forces lost only $' men" ome U" " military advisers began to report that aigon was losing the war. and armored personnel carriers. but 3ennedy decided to try to increase support for the A!8N among the people of 8ietnam through counterinsurgency" United tates pecial ?orces (1reen )erets) would wor0 with A!8N troops directly in the villages in an effort to match N6? political organi+ing and to win over the outh 8ietnamese people" #o support the U" " effort.ournalists began to report pessimistically about the future of U" " involvement in outh 8ietnam. helicopters.oined the N6?" *oung men who were drafted into the A!8N often also wor0ed secretly for the N6?" #he 3ennedy administration concluded that Kiem=s policies were alienating the peasantry and contributing significantly to N6? recruitment" #he number of U" " advisers assigned to the A!8N rose steadily" /n . there were C55 U" " advisers in 8ietnam7 by November $%&G there were $&. but the official military and embassy press officers reported Ap )ac as a significant A!8N victory" Kespite this official account.ungle cover" Kespite these measures. Kiem was viewed as an embarrassment both by the United tates and by many of his own generals" #he aigon government=s war against the N6? was also going badly" /n . &$ A!8N soldiers were 0illed. and the demonstrators were fired on by police" At least 9 )uddhist mon0s set themselves on fire to protest the repression" Kiem dismissed these suicides as publicity stunts and promptly arrested $. and they hoped for increased U" " aid" 1eneral Kuong 8an Minh informed the C/A and U" " ambassador Benry Cabot 6odge of a plot to conduct a coup d=4tat against Kiem" Although the United tates wanted to remove Kiem from power. the United tates sought to blame it on Kiem=s incompetence and hoped that changes in his administration would improve the situation" Nhu=s corruption became a principal focus7 Kiem was urged to remove his brother./n May $%&G )uddhists began a series of demonstrations against Kiem. which was intended to deprive the N6? of food and .955" American airpower was assigned to support A!8N operations7 this included the aerial spraying of herbicides such as Agent @range. when 3ennedy too0 office. which led to increasing public concern" -resident . a corrupt official who charged villagers for building materials that had been donated by the United tates" /n many cases peasants were forbidden to leave the hamlets. but he refused" Many in Kiem=s military were especially dissatisfied with Kiem=s government and the A!8N=s inability to rout the N6?. often at gunpoint. as were G U" " military advisers" )y contrast. but many of the young men >uic0ly left anyway and . the A!8N continued to lose ground" As the military situation deteriorated in outh 8ietnam.555 encountered a group of G(5 N6? soldiers at Ap )ac. the program removed peasants from their traditional villages. while the N6? forces had only small arms" Nonetheless.ohn ?" 3ennedy still believed that the A!8N could become effective" ome of his advisers advocated the commitment of U" " combat forces. a handful of U" " .strategic hamlet< program that was essentially an eEtension of Kiem=s earlier relocation practices" Aimed at cutting the lin0s between villagers and the N6?.anuary $%&G an A!8N force of '. it did not give formal support for a coup" When the military generals finally staged the coup 15 . and resettled them in new hamlets fortified to 0eep the N6? out" Administration was left up to Kiem=s brother Nhu.et fighters.A55 mon0s" Be then arrested thousands of high school and grade school students who were involved in protests against the government" After this. a village south of aigon in the Me0ong !iver Kelta" #he A!8N troops were e>uipped with .anuary $%&$.
North 8ietnam began to dispatch well:trained units of its -eople=s Army of 8ietnam (-A8N) into the south" #he N6? guerrillas coordinated their attac0s with -A8N forces" @n ?ebruary 9. the N6? launched surprise attac0s on the U" " helicopter base at -lei0u. it resulted in the murder of both Kiem and Nhu" /n the political confusion that followed.ohnson=s advisers. and on August A both the MaddoE and the U #urner . $%&G. which had penetrated North 8ietnam=s territorial boundaries in the 1ulf of #on0in" . 3osygin abandoned his initiative to persuade North 8ietnamese leaders to consider negotiations with the United tates.ohnson ordered more ships to the area. which effectively handed over war:ma0ing powers to . wounding $'&. but .ohnson believed that the 0ey to success in the war in outh 8ietnam was to frighten North 8ietnam=s leaders with the possibility of full:scale U" " military intervention" /n . including commando raids against bridges. $%&G.We see0 no wider war"< United tates bombing was significantly reduced" Meanwhile.ohnson then ordered the first air stri0es against North 8ietnamese territory and went on television to see0 approval from the U" " public" ( ubse>uent congressional investigations would conclude that the August A attac0 almost certainly had never occurred") #he U" " Congress overwhelmingly passed the 1ulf of #on0in !esolution. $%&(. continued to insist that North 8ietnam was orchestrating the southern rebellion" Be was determined that he would not be held responsible for allowing 8ietnam to fall to the Communists" .ohnson until such time as Qpeace and securityQ had returned to 8ietnam" After the 1ulf of #on0in incident . and instead promised them unconditional military aid" . a growing networ0 of paths and roads used by the N6? and the North 8ietnamese to transport supplies and troops into outh 8ietnam" Banoi concluded that the United tates was preparing to occupy outh 8ietnam and indicated that it.ohnson felt he had to ta0e a forceful stance on 8ietnam so that other Communist countries would not thin0 that the United tates lac0ed resolve" 3ennedy had begun to consider the possibility of withdrawal from 8ietnam and had even ordered the removal of $. 0illing 'G U" " servicemen and wounding '$ at the U" " enlisted personnel=s >uarters there" #he attac0s coincided with two high:level diplomatic visitsD one in Banoi by oviet premier Ale0sey 3osygin.555 by mid:$%&A" 2ven though intelligence reports clearly stated that most of the support for the N6? came from the south. chiefly )undy and Kefense ecretary !obert McNamara.ohnson increased the number of U" " advisers to '9. believed it was imperative to conduct an intensive air campaign against the North. li0e his predecessors. . covert attac0s against North 8ietnamese territory. in part to demonstrate it would pay a price for supporting the N6?" 16 . 0illing C Americans.ohnson declared.ohnson approved reprisal air stri0es against North 8ietnam" /n Banoi.on November $. 6yndon )" . North 8ietnamese coastal gunboats fired on the destroyer U MaddoE. railways.555 advisers shortly before he was assassinated. was preparing for full:scale war" @n August '. too.ohnson also ordered the U" " Navy to conduct surveillance missions along the North 8ietnamese coast" Be increased the secret bombing of territory in 6aos along the Bo Chi Minh #rail. the C/A was forced to admit that the strength of the N6? was continuing to grow" ) -T+e Gulf of Ton6in Resolution ucceeding to the presidency after 3ennedy=s assassination on November ''. and coastal installations" . .anuary $%&A he approved top:secret.oy reported that North 8ietnamese patrol boats had fired on them" .ohnson. . and destroying $5aircraft7 on ?ebruary $5 they struc0 again at Jui Nhon. the security situation in outh 8ietnam continued to deteriorate" Meanwhile. and the other in aigon by U" " national security adviser Mc1eorge )undy" Within hours of the attac0s. $%&A.
#he strategy developed against the United tates was the result of intense debate between the northern and southern members of the 6ao Kong=s -olitical )ureau in Banoi" #ruong Chinh. argued that the southern 8ietnamese must liberate themselves. revered widely throughout 8ietnam as the father of independence. if successful.or turning point within the party in which southerners came to dictate party policy in Banoi" #he Central Committee Kirectorate for the outh (also 0nown as the Central @ffice for outh 8ietnam. for most of the war" After the United tates initiated large:scale bombing against the K!8 in $%&A. both the North 8ietnamese and the N6? had anticipated the U" " escalation" With full:scale movement of U" " troops onto outh 8ietnamese territory. advocated the North=s full support of the armed struggle in the outh.ohnson=s senior planners reached the consensus that U" " combat forces would be re>uired to protect U" " air bases. G.(55 U" " Marines. the trail was originally a series of footpaths7 by the late $%&5s it would become a networ0 of paved highways that enabled the motor transport of people and e>uipment" #he N6? guerrillas and North 8ietnamese troops were poorly armed compared to the Americans. on the premise that 8ietnam was one nation and therefore dependent on all 8ietnamese for its independence and reunification" Bo Chi Minh. who too0 over the Military Assistance Command in 8ietnam (MAC8) in $%&A. a northerner and the leading Communist ideologist in Banoi. result in a reunified 8ietnam7 6e Kuan. so 17 .555 troops would be reached" Baving easily pushed aside the A!8N. in the wa0e of the 1ulf of #on0in incident.people=s war< strategy that would.555" I& -"!C ' T"D UNIT"D !T T"! IN&O'&"M"NT0 1243-1242 When some of the soldiers of the U" " %th Marine !egiment landed in Ka Nang in March $%&(. a southerner and a -A8N general. commanded by generals who usually had been born in the south.555 U" " troops in 8ietnam by the end of $%&(7 by $%&% a pea0 of about (AG. landed at Ka Nang" )y the end of April. began to set up bases in the Central Bighlands of outh 8ietnam in order to gain strategic position" Unable to cross the Kemilitari+ed Lone (KML) at the $9th parallel separating North from outh 8ietnam. their orders were to protect the U" " air base. or C@ 8N). in accordance with a . Banoi dispatched the first unit of northern:born regular soldiers to the south" -reviously. southern:born 8iet Minh. (&.oined N6? guerrilla units" Now -A8N regulars. the Communists claimed that the aigon regime had become a puppet. not unli0e the colonial collaborators with the ?rench" )oth the North 8ietnamese and N6? appealed to the nationalism of the 8ietnamese to rise up and drive this new foreign army from their land" -DR& and N'# !trateg.oined them7 by . and other party leaders ultimately sided with Kuan=s point of view" Kuan=s triumph represented a ma. formed in $%&$ as the leadership group of the newly merged southern and central branches of the 6ao Kong. was able to coordinate a unified strategy" C@ 8N was under the direction of Nguyen Chi #hanh. as the A!8N was considered to be too wea0 for the tas0" @n March C the first of these forces. -A8N regulars moved into outh 8ietnam along the Bo Chi Minh #rail through 6aos and Cambodia" /n use since $%(9. advocated establishing a large American force and then unleashing it in big sweeps" Bis strategy was that of attritionMeliminating or wearing down the enemy by inflicting the highest death toll possible" #here were C5.. 0nown as regroupees. had returned to their native regions and . a southerner who became secretary general of the 6ao Kong. but the mission was >uic0ly escalated to include search:and: destroy patrols of the area around the base" #his corresponded in miniature to the larger strategy of 1eneral William Westmoreland" Westmoreland.une the number had risen to 9A.555 other combat troops had .ohnson authori+ed a sustained bombing campaign to begin on March '" .
oint Chiefs of taff. but the K!8=s ability to wage the war had not been affected" -lanners wished to avoid populated areas.555 U" " Marines and Army troops were called into the area. believing that this would ma0e the A!8N >uit fighting altogether" )y $%&( he agreed to the re>uest of 1eneral Westmoreland for combat forces" #aylor initially advocated an enclave strategy. the military advisory group to the president. hitting rapidly.ohnson and McNamara to increase the ferocity of the air war" #he . declared that no more . about (5.< the Communist stronghold in the rural provinces near aigon" #his operation was intended to find and destroy North 8ietnam and N6? military head>uarters.oint Chiefs of taff.ond /n $%&9 North 8ietnam and the N6? decided the time had come to mount an all:out offensive aimed at inflicting serious losses on both the A!8N and U" " forces" #hey planned the #et @ffensive with the hope that this would significantly affect the public mood in the United tates" /n Kecember $%&9 North 8ietnamese troops attac0ed and surrounded the U" " Marine base at 3he anh.ma. with surprise if possible. placing it under siege" Westmoreland ordered the outpost held at all costs" #o prevent the Communists from overrunning the base. the U" " Kepartment of Kefense had to admit stalemate in the air war as well" #he damage that had already been inflicted on 8ietnam=s population was enormous" C -T+e Tet Offensive and )e./ron #riangle. and then withdrawing . at the start of #et.une $%&A retired general MaEwell #aylor replaced Benry Cabot 6odge as ambassador to outh 8ietnam" A former chairman of the .or military targets< were left" Unable to widen the bombing to population centers for fear of Chinese and oviet reactions in support of North 8ietnam. since N6? strength was considerable virtually everywhere in outh 8ietnam" /n @ctober $%&( the newly arrived $st Cavalry Kivision of the U" " Army fought one of the largest battles of the 8ietnam War in the /a Krang 8alley. inflicting a serious defeat on North 8ietnamese forces" #he North 8ietnamese and N6? forces changed their tactics as a result of the battle" ?rom then on both would fight at times of their choosing. thus wea0ening positions further south" #his concentration of American troops in one spot was eEactly what the C@ 8N strategists had hoped would happen" #he main thrust of the #et @ffensive then began on .once they were in outh 8ietnam they avoided open combat" /nstead they developed hit:and:run tactics designed to cause steady casualties among the U" " troops and to wear down popular support for the war in the United tates" ) -United !tates !trateg. $%&C.ust as >uic0ly to avoid the impact of American firepower" #he success of the American campaign in the /a Krang 8alley convinced Westmoreland that his strategy of attrition was the 0ey to U" " victory" Be ordered the largest search:and:destroy operations of the war in the . /n .anuary G$. but there was already some indication that intensified bombing would not produce the desired results" /n $%&& the bombing of North 8ietnam=s oil facilities had destroyed 95 percent of their fuel reserves. civilian casualties were inevitable" #hese casualties provo0ed revulsion both in the United tates and internationally" /n $%&9 the chairman of the . when a lull in fighting traditionally too0 18 . which led . but when $(5. where U" " forces would see0 to preserve areas already considered to be under aigon=s control" #his >uic0ly proved impossible. but the campaign failed to wipe out Communist forces from the area" )y $%&9 the ground war had reached a stalemate.oint Chiefs of taff had been pressing for this for some time. or the 8ietnamese lunar new year celebration. #aylor at first opposed the introduction of American combat troops. 1eneral 2arle Wheeler.555 sorties per year were being flown by U" " warplanes.
was ta0en over by the N6?. and when it was over the North 8ietnamese and the N6? had suffered acute losses" #he U" " Kepartment of Kefense estimated that a total of A(. however.ohnson re. with some favoring an immediate withdrawal while others held out for a negotiated peace" -resident . a secret C/A operation that resulted in the 19 . NiEon announced that he had a secret plan to end the war" /n . and U" " troops were on stand:down in many areas" @ver C(. the American public had reached a psychological brea0ing point" #he success of the N6? in coordinating the #et @ffensive demonstrated both how deeply rooted the Communist resistance was and how costly it would be for the United tates to remain in 8ietnam" After #et a ma. sending their defenders reeling" #he U" " 2mbassy in aigon.ority of Americans wanted some closure to the war. one horrifying event during the #et @ffensive would indelibly affect America=s psyche" /n March $%&C elements of the U" " Army=s Americal Kivision wiped out an entire hamlet called My 6ai.or city and provincial capital across outh 8ietnam. N6? sympathi+ers were murdered" United tates Marines and paratroopers were ordered to go from house to house to find North 8ietnamese and N6? soldiers" 8irtually indiscriminate shelling was what 0illed most civilians.ohnson himself decided not to see0 reelection in $%&C" !epublican !ichard NiEon ran for the presidency declaring that he would bring .555 N6? fighters from aigon" Kuring the #et @ffensive.ected Westmoreland=s re>uest for more troops and replaced him as the commander of U" " forces in 8ietnam with Westmoreland=s deputy. however. NiEon also stepped up the -hoeniE -rogram.light at the end of the tunnel.555 N6? soldiers simultaneously struc0 at almost every ma.8ietnami+ation"< Under this policy.anuary $%&%" #he new president retained his predecessor=s goal of a non:Communist outh 8ietnam. !ichard NiEon won a narrow victory in the election of $%&C" lightly more than G5.ob" #old by succeeding administrations since $%(( that there was . previously thought to be invulnerable. most of them N6? fighters" Although it was covered up for more than a year. mostly women and children" After #et. 1eneral Creighton Abrams" .555 North 8ietnamese and N6? soldiers had been 0illed. after he had become president. and he lowered draft calls" @n the other hand.555 young Americans had been 0illed in the war when NiEon too0 office in .< that victory in 8ietnam was near. and the architectural treasures of Bue were laid to waste" More than $55.peace with honor< if elected" & -"NDING T$" W R0 1242-1273 -romising an end to the war in 8ietnam.555 troops. and this could not be ensured without continuing the war" NiEon=s most pressing problem was how to ma0e peace and war at the same time" Bis answer was a policy called . he would withdraw American troops and the outh 8ietnamese army would ta0e over the fighting" -Ni8on9s &ietnami-ation Kuring his campaign for the presidency.place" Most A!8N troops had gone home on leave. and held for eight hours before U" " forces could reta0e the compleE" /t too0 three wee0s for U" " troops to dislodge $. to be followed by more.uly $%&%. Westmoreland said that the enemy was almost con>uered and re>uested '5&.555 residents of the city were left homeless" #he #et @ffensive as a whole lasted into the fall of $%&C. 0illing (55 unarmed civilians. which stated that U" " troops would no longer be directly involved in Asian wars" Be ordered the withdrawal of '(. the imperial capital of Bue witnessed the bloodiest fighting of the entire war" outh 8ietnamese were assassinated by Communists for collaborating with Americans7 then when the A!8N returned.555 more troops to finish the . he issued what came to be 0nown as the NiEon doctrine.
NiEon ordered them to withdraw from Cambodia" #he combined effects of the bombing and the invasion. on the other hand.555 peasants died in the bombing. the bombing was more intense than that carried out over 8ietnam" An estimated $55. . two students were 0illed at . while ' million people were left homeless" /n April $%95 NiEon ordered U" " troops into Cambodia" Be argued that this was necessary to protect the security of American units then in the process of withdrawing from 8ietnam. the removal of the aigon government. a land of farmers that had not 0nown war in centuries" Code:named @peration Menu.ohnson had initiated peace negotiations after the first phase of the #et @ffensive" )eginning in -aris on May $G. the campaign failed utterly" #he secret bombing lasted four years and caused great destruction and upheaval in Cambodia. which the aigon government refused to recogni+e" /n @ctober $%&C. which the N6? created in .une $%&% to ta0e over its governmental role in the south and serve as a counterpart to the aigon government" #he United tates. it could not hold its own without the help of heavy U" " airpower" ) -#ailed Peace Negotiations . Banoi=s leaders planned their final offensive" While the A!8N had increased in si+e and was better armed than it had been in $%&(. insisted that all North 8ietnamese troops be withdrawn" C -Invasion of Cam5odia /n March $%&% NiEon ordered the secret bombing of Cambodia" /ntended to wipe out North 8ietnamese and N6? base camps along the border with outh 8ietnam in order to provide time for the buildup of the A!8N.ac0son tate College in Mississippi" Congress proceeded to repeal the 1ulf of #on0in !esolution" Congress also passed the Cooper: Church Amendment. to hold out for better terms under a NiEon administration" tating that he would never negotiate with Communists. it was also necessary to bomb their sanctuaries in Cambodia and to increase air stri0es against 6aos" #he K!8 leadership. $%&C. #hieu caused the -aris tal0s to collapse and contributed to Bumphrey=s defeat as well" NiEon thus inherited the -aris peace tal0s.555 suspected N6? guerrillas. so NiEon continued the air stri0es on Cambodia until August $%9G" #hree months after committing U" " forces. remained committed to the eEpulsion of all U" " troops from 8ietnam and to the overthrow of the aigon government" As U" " troop strength diminished. however. the tal0s rapidly bro0e down over disagreements about the status of the N6?.ust before the U" " presidential elections. and one:third of them shut down due to student wal0outs" At 3ent tate University in @hio four students were 0illed by panic0y national guardsmen who had been called up to prevent rioting" #wo days later. driving millions of peasants from their ancestral lands" #he right:wing government then in power in Cambodia was supported by the United tates. but they continued to remain stalled as each faction refused to alter its position" Banoi insisted on the withdrawal of all U" " forces. had completely disrupted Cambodian life. candidate Bubert Bumphrey called for a negotiated settlement. Nguyen 8an #hieu. and its replacement through free elections that would include the -rovisional !evolutionary 1overnment (-!1). and the government was blamed for allowing the bombing to occur" ?armers who had never concerned themselves with politics now 20 . but he also wanted to buy security for the aigon regime" When NiEon announced the invasion. however. however. many of whom were innocent civilians" #he operation increased funding for the A!8N and intensified the bombing of North 8ietnam" NiEon reasoned that to 0eep the Communists at bay during the U" " withdrawal. U" " college campuses erupted in protest. but NiEon secretly persuaded outh 8ietnam=s president. which specifically forbade the use of U" " troops outside outh 8ietnam" #he measure did not eEpressly forbid bombing.assassination of '5.
such as dropping its insistence on the immediate resignation of Nguyen 8an #hieu.555 North 8ietnamese troops crossed the KML. the K!8 leadership decided the time had come to crush the A!8N" @n March G5 more than G5. the U" " attac0s on 6aos promoted their rise" /n $%(C the -athet 6ao had the support of one:third of the population7 by $%9G a ma.flooded to the Communist opposition group. and about A55.peace was at hand"< #he negotiations had not involved outh 8ietnam. NiEon unleashed the first sustained bombing of North 8ietnam since $%&% and moved >uic0ly to mine the harbor of Baiphong" )etween April and @ctober $%9' the United tates conducted A$. NiEon too0 the advice of 1eneral Creighton Abrams and attempted to cut vital Communist supply lines along the Bo Chi Minh #rail" @n ?ebruary C. who controlled the northern part of the country" !oughly $(5.555 tons of bombs were dropped on the -lain of . supported by American ):(' bombers. and NiEon subse>uently refused to sign it" 21 . while the rest were routed and eEpelled from 6aos" #he success of 8ietnami+ation seemed highly doubtful. and attac0ed Juang #rR -rovince.555 U" " combat troops remaining in outh 8ietnam.555 -!1 fighters. adopted more aggressive military tactics but also counseled the renewal of negotiations with the United tates" ?urther negotiations were held in -aris between 3issinger and 6e Kuc #ho. $%9$.555 sorties over North 8ietnam. easily scattering A!8N defenders" #he attac0. 8an #ien Kung.555 6ao had been 0illed" -rohibited by the Cooper:Church Amendment from deploying U" " troops and anEious to demonstrate the fighting prowess of the improved A!8N.555 A!8N soldiers were 0illed or wounded. who represented North 8ietnam" ee0ing an end to the war before the U" " presidential elections in November. while accepting the presence of ten North 8ietnamese divisions in outh 8ietnam and recogni+ing the political legitimacy of the -!1" Banoi also made important concessions.555 A!8N troops. along with another $(5. '$. 3issinger made remar0able concessions" #he United tates would withdraw completely. since the Communist forces showed that the new A!8N could be defeated" /nstead of inhibiting the Communist -athet 6ao. 0nown as the 2aster @ffensive. however.ars in northern 6aos between $%&A and $%&%" )y $%95 at least one:>uarter of the entire population of 6aos were refugees. was perceived as too conservative in his use of force and was compelled to resign" Bis successor. this operation was as much a failure as the Cambodian invasion" Abrams claimed $A. and the aigon government=s acceptance of the terms was not set as a precondition" #hieu was outraged by the agreement.555 North 8ietnamese casualties. especially targeting Juang #rR" North 8ietnam=s 2aster @ffensive was crushed" At least $55. who had become president of outh 8ietnam in $%&9" 3issinger announced on @ctober '9 that . head of the -A8N and chief military strategist. could not have come at a worse time for NiEon and his national security adviser. invaded 6aos" /ntended to disrupt any North 8ietnamese and N6? plans for offensives and to test the strength of the A!8N. the 3hmer !ouge" After a gruesome civil war. the 3hmer !ouge too0 power in $%9( and became one of the bloodiest regimes of the '5th century" D -Cam/aign in 'aos #he United tates began conducting secret bombing of 6aos in $%&A. Benry 3issinger" A military defeat of the A!8N would leave the United tates in a wea0 position at the -aris peace tal0s and would compromise its strategic position globally" !is0ing the success of the upcoming Moscow summit.ority denied the legitimacy of the U" ":supported royal 6ao government" )y $%9( a Communist government was established in 6aos" " -)om5ing of Nort+ &ietnam /n the spring of $%9'. but over %. with only &.555 Communist troops were 0illed" 8o Nguyen 1iap. targeting both the North 8ietnamese forces along sections of the Bo Chi Minh #rail and the Communist -athet 6ao guerrillas.
3issinger attempted to revise the agreements he had already made" North 8ietnam refused to consider these revisions. the continued presence of North 8ietnamese soldiers in outh 8ietnam absolved him of honoring the cease:fire agreement" #hieu immediately began offensives against -!1 villages. all four parties to the 8ietnam conflictMthe United tates. primarily over the delineation of two separate +ones.After the $%9' elections. which he had signed under duress" /n his view. southerners on both sides refused to give up the fight" #hieu >uic0ly showed that he had no desire to honor the terms of the treaty. an agreement that Congress ultimately refused to uphold" G -Cease-#ire ftermat+ @n March '%. the last U" " troops left 8ietnam" #he -aris peace treaty did little to end the bloodshed for the 8ietnamese. and he issued an order to the A!8ND . the -!1. and 3issinger threatened to renew air assaults against North 8ietnam unless the new conditions were met" NiEon then unleashed at Christmas the final and most intense bombing of the war over Banoi and Baiphong" # -United !tates Wit+drawal While many U" " officials were convinced that Banoi was bombed bac0 to the negotiating table. the withdrawal of U" " personnel resulted in a collapsing economy throughout outh 8ietnam" Millions of people had depended on the money spent by Americans in 8ietnam" #hieu=s government was ill:e>uipped to treat the mass unemployment and deepening poverty that resulted from the U" " withdrawal" #he A!8N still received H955 million from the U" " Congress and was twice the si+e of the Communist forces. outh 8ietnam. however" Although he had won reelection by a landslide in November $%9'. however" -roblems arose immediately. he was suffering from revelations about the Watergate scandal" #he president=s campaign officials had orchestrated a burglary at the Kemocratic National Committee head>uarters./f Communists come into your villageSshoot them in the head"< /n @ctober Banoi authori+ed southern Communists to stri0e bac0 against A!8N troops" Meanwhile.anuary '9.anuary $%9G indicated it would cut off all funding for operations in /ndochina once U" " forces had withdrawn" /n mid:. $%9G. $%9G. and he secretly promised #hieu that the United tates would punish North 8ietnam should they violate the terms of the final settlement" NiEon=s political fortunes were about to decline. and North 8ietnamMsigned the #reaty of -aris" #he final terms provided for the release of all American prisoners of war from North 8ietnam7 the withdrawal of all U" " forces from outh 8ietnam7 the end of all foreign military operations in 6aos and Cambodia7 a cease:fire between North and outh 8ietnam7 the formation of a National Council of !econciliation to help outh 8ietnam form a new government7 and continued U" " military and economic aid to outh 8ietnam" /n a secret addition to the treaty NiEon also promised HG"'( billion in reparations for the postwar reconstruction of North 8ietnam. the final treaty changed nothing significant from what had already been agreed to by 3issinger and #ho in @ctober" NiEon=s Christmas bombings were intended to warn Banoi that American air power remained a threat. as re>uired by the agreement. and NiEon had attempted to cover it up by lying to the American people about his role" #he president made new enemies when the secret bombing of Cambodia was revealed at last" Congress was threatening a bill of impeachment and in early .anuary NiEon halted all military actions against North 8ietnam" @n . and the mutual withdrawal of troops to these respective +ones" Northerners in the 6ao Kong leadership wanted to 0eep hostilities to a minimum in order to 0eep the United tates out of 8ietnam" Bowever.555 A!8N 22 . but morale was collapsing" More than '55.
had been in place virtually without interruption since the end of World War //. '5. instituted a lottery system. the A!8N was poorly led and failed most of the time to chec0 its opponents= actions" United tates troops came to disli0e and mistrust many A!8N units.555 per month were slipping away from the war" Although e>uipped with high:tech weaponry that far eEceeded the firepower available to its enemies. the agency that administered the draft. was overta0en" @n April '5 #hieu resigned. and an individual=s date of estimated return from overseas (K2!@ ) was therefore set at the same time as the assignment date" #hose conscripted were mostly youths from the poorer section of American society" #hey did not have access to the eEemptions that were available to their more privileged fellow citi+ens" @f the numerous eEemptions from military service that Congress had written into law. and it set $%9( as the year to mount a final offensive" Banoi eEpected the offensive to last at least two years7 the rapid collapse of the A!8N was therefore a surprise even to them" After the initial attac0 by the North 8ietnamese in the Central Bighlands northeast of aigon on . so as not to alienate middle:class voters" )y then his 8ietnami+ation policy had lowered monthly draft calls. or the draft. especially from draft boards in affluent communities" )oth North and outh 8ietnam also conscripted troops" !evolutionary nationalist ideology was >uite strong in the north. and the K!8 was able to create an army with well:disciplined. and physical eEemptions were still easily obtained by the privileged. accusing the United tates of betrayal" Bis successor was Kuong 8an Minh. Ka Nang. re>uired more draftees" /n $%&( about '5. site of the former U" " Marines head>uarters. military conscription. who had been among those who overthrew Kiem in $%&G" @n April G5 Minh issued his unconditional surrender to the -!1" Almost G5 years after Bo Chi Minh=s declaration of independence.555 men per month were inducted into the military. most into the Army7 by $%&C about A5. the aigon leadership did little to educate A!8N soldiers on the nature of the war or boost their morale" /n $%&(. tours of duty were fiEed in length. highly motivated troops" /t became the fourth:largest army in the world and one of the most eEperienced" outh 8ietnam also drafted soldiers. $$G. accusing them of abandoning the battlefield" 23 . usually for a period of $' or $G months. which might have produced an army more representative of society at large" tudent deferments were 0ept by NiEon until $%9$. 8ietnam was finally unified" &I -T$" TROOP! /n the United tates.soldiers deserted in $%9A in order to be with their families" #he apparent wea0ening of outh 8ietnam led Banoi to believe it could win control over the south through a massive conventional invasion. however.555 deserted from the A!8N7 by $%9'. the A!8N immediately began to fall apart" @n March '( the ancient imperial city of Bue fell7 then on March '%. however. younger than in World War // or the 3orean War" ?or the first time in U" " military history. the elective ervice. beginning in $%(( when the A!8N was created" Although many A!8N conscripts were committed anti:Communists. and Marines were volunteer units" #he escalating war. the most far: reaching were student deferments" #he draft laws effectively enabled most upper: and middle:class youngsters to avoid military service" )y $%&C it was increasingly evident that the draft system was deeply unfair and discriminatory" !esponding to popular pressures. but volunteers generally predominated in combat units" When the first U" " combat troops arrived in 8ietnam in $%&( they were composed mainly of volunteers" #he Air ?orce.555 young men were drafted each month to meet increased troop levels ordered for 8ietnam" #he conscript army was largely composed of teenagers7 the average age of a U" " soldier in 8ietnam was $%. Navy.anuary 9.
rather than political.short:timer< mentality in which combat troops became more reluctant to engage in ris0y military operations as their departure date approached" /n some cases.ustice of the elective ervice system also turned soldiers against the war" )y $%&C coffeehouses run by soldiers had sprung up at '& U" " bases. battles verging on civil war bro0e out between troops within the A!8N" /nternal disunity on this scale was never an issue among the North 8ietnamese troops or the N6? guerrillas" #he armed forces of the United tates serving in 8ietnam began to suffer from internal dissension and low morale as well" !acism against the 8ietnamese troubled many soldiers. Americans routinely referred to all 8ietnamese. and it provo0ed profound misgivings among U" " troops" #he in. serving as forums for antiwar activities" At least '(5 underground antiwar newspapers were published by active:duty soldiers" After NiEon=s troop:withdrawal policy was initiated in $%&%. the fiEed one:year tours of duty in 8ietnam resulted in a . chiefly among traditional pacifists. 9.#he A!8N also suffered from internal corruption" Numerous commanders would claim noneEistent troopers and then poc0et the pay intended for those troopers7 this practice made some units dangerously understaffed" ome A!8N soldiers were secretly wor0ing for the N6?. as . was a clear sign that military discipline had bro0en down in 8ietnam" As the war dragged on and morale sagged within the U" " armed forces. such as the American ?riends ervice Committee and antinuclear activists" 2arly protests were organi+ed around >uestions about the morality of U" " military involvement in 8ietnam" 8irtually every 0ey event of the war.555 had completed a full tour of duty in 8ietnam but still had obligations of military service7 the remaining (.goo0s"< #his process of dehumani+ing the 8ietnamese led to many atrocities. U" " military personnel in 8ietnam found it increasingly difficult to carry out their service" /ncidents in which soldiers were absent without leave (AW@6) also became more fre>uent toward the end of the war" ome soldiers who were AW@6 for G5 days or more were administratively classified as deserters" Most deserted for personal. postcombat rehabilitation" &II -R"!PON!" TO T$" W R IN T$" UNIT"D !T T"! @pposition to the war in the United tates developed immediately after the 1ulf of #on0in !esolution. if any.fragging< came to be used to describe soldiers attac0ing their officers. and '5.555 reported desertions occurred in or near 8ietnam" Most who went AW@6 or deserted later returned or were found. entire units refused to go out on combat patrols. which too0 place mostly late in the war. including the #et @ffensive and the invasion of Cambodia. reasons" @f G'. providing information that undermined the U" " effort" At various times. disobeying direct orders" oldiers sometimes too0 out their frustrations and resentments on officers who put their lives at ris0. particularly those who had eEperienced racism directed against themselves in the United tates" /n 8ietnam. many soldiers became reluctant to ris0 their lives for a war without a clear purpose" No soldier wished to be the last one 0illed in 8ietnam" 2specially toward the end of the war.555 reported deserters who were assigned to combat duty in 8ietnam. especially officers they deemed to be incompetent or over+ealous" #he term . contributed to a steady rise in antiwar sentiment" #he revelation of the My 6ai Massacre in $%&% caused a dramatic turn against the war in national polls" 24 .555 had failed to report for deployment to 8ietnam. and they received less:than:honorable discharges" Conse>uently. both friend and foe. most often by tossing fragmentation grenades into the officers= sleeping >uarters" #his practice. including the massacre at My 6ai. they received fewer veterans benefits and little.
or student:led demonstration against the war was organi+ed by the K in April $%&( and stunned observers by mobili+ing about '5. each carrying a placard with the name of a young person 0illed in 8ietnam" @pposition eEisted even among conservatives and business leaders. that at that time half of all Americans felt that the war was . the largest one:day demonstration against the war" Millions of people stayed home from wor0 to mar0 their opposition to the war7 college and high school students demonstrated on hundreds of campuses" A )altimore . toward both the 8ietnamese and African American soldiers. often spearheaded by tudents for a Kemocratic ociety ( K )" #he first ma. ranging from beer distributors to manufacturers of .or address at New *or0=s !iverside Church in which he condemned the war. the University of Wisconsin. had grown increasingly concerned about the racist nature of the war. who suffered disproportionately high casualty rates early in the war" /n $%&9 3ing delivered a ma.555 participants" Another important organi+ation was the tudent Non:8iolent Coordinating Committee ( NCC). an organi+ation that urged its student members to refuse to register for the draft.tudents and professors began to organi+e .teach:ins< on the war in early $%&( at the University of Michigan. however. primarily for economic reasons" #he government was spending more than H' billion per month on the war by $%&9" ome U" " corporations. virtually no college or university was without an organi+ed student movement. $%&%.morally indefensible. benefited greatly from this money initially.oined #he !esistance.et aircraft. for the Mobili+ation Against the War" More than A5.sit:ins< or street demonstrations" As antiwar sentiment mounted in intensity from $%&( to $%95 so did violence. culminating in the 0illings of four students at 3ent tate in @hio and of two at .great silent ma.udge even interrupted court proceedings for a moment of reflection on the war" /n 8ietnam. which denounced the war as racist as early as $%&(" tudents also .< while &5 percent admitted that it was a mista0e" /n November $%&% students from all over the country headed for Washington. and other blac0 leaders denounced the U" " presence in 8ietnam as evidence of American imperialism" Martin 6uther 3ing.r".ac0son tate College in Mississippi" to0ely Carmichael. troops wore blac0 armbands in honor of the home:front protest" NiEon claimed there was a .the world=s greatest purveyor of violence"< @n @ctober $(. Malcolm T. calling the United tates .555 participated in a March Against Keath from Arlington National Cemetery to the White Bouse. or if drafted to refuse to serve" 8ietnam 8eterans Against the War was organi+ed in the United tates in $%&9" )y the $%95s the participation of 8ietnam veterans in protests against the war in the United tates had an important influence on the antiwar movement" While law enforcement authorities usually blamed student radicals for the violence that too0 place on campuses. often it was police themselves who initiated bloodshed as they cleared out students occupying campus buildings during . citi+ens across the United tates participated in #he Moratorium.ority< who supported the war and he called on them to bac0 his policies" -olls showed. K"C". but the high eEpense of the war began to cause serious inflation and rising taE rates" ome corporate critics warned of future costs to care for wounded veterans" 6abor unions were also becoming increasingly militant in opposition to the war. and the University of California at )er0eley" #he teach:ins were large forums for discussion of the war between students and faculty members" 2ventually. as they were forced to respond to the concerns of their members that the draft was imposing an unfair burden on wor0ing:class people" Another factor that turned public opinion against the war was the publication of the -entagon -apers 25 . .
or city" #he national organi+ation. secretly photocopied 0ey documents and gave them to the New *or0 #imes" ubse>uently. the 8ietnam 8eterans Memorial has become a site of pilgrimage for veterans and civilians ali0e" While the United tates has been involved in a number of armed interventions worldwide since it withdrew from 8ietnam in $%9G. were significantly higher than in the general population" Baving felt ignored or disrespected both by the 8eterans Administration (now the Kepartment of 8eterans Affairs) and by traditional organi+ations such as the 8eterans of ?oreign Wars and the American 6egion.555 military nurses who treated soldiers in 8ietnam" Kespite all of the controversies. K"C" Also in the capital. !ed Cross nurses) 0illed throughout /ndochina" After returning from the war. by the New *or0 #imes" Compiled secretly by the U" " Kepartment of Kefense. unemployment and rates of prison incarceration for 8ietnam veterans. half of them very seriously" No accurate accounting has ever been made of U" civilians (U" " government agents. which is characteri+ed by persistent emotional problems including anEiety and depression" #he Kepartment of 8eterans Affairs estimated that '5. support for NiEon=s war policies plummeted. $%9$. depicting one white. many 8ietnam veterans suffered from -ost:#raumatic tress Kisorder. far more firepower was 26 . in every ma.555 U" " soldiers were wounded. especially those having seen heavy combat. has become one of the most important service organi+ations lobbying in Washington. they forced the 8eterans Administration to establish storefront counseling centers. 8ietnam veterans have formed their own self:help groups" Collectively. contributing to a substantially increased cost of living in the United tates between $%&( and $%9(. 8ietnam 8eterans of America (88A). was at first a source of controversy because it does not glorify the military but invites somber reflection" #he Asian ancestry of its pri+ewinning designer. was also an issue for some veterans" /n $%CG a bron+e cast was added.555 8ietnam veterans committed suicide in the war=s aftermath" #hroughout the $%95s and $%C5s. with continued repercussions thereafter" Nearly (C. defense planners have ta0en pains to persuade the public that goals were limited and troops would be committed only for a specified duration" #he war in 8ietnam created an ongoing debate about the right of the United tates to intervene in the affairs of other nations" &III -"##"CT! ND R"CO&"R* IN &I"TN M Although outh 8ietnam was ostensibly the U" " ally in the conflict. and at least that amount in indirect costs. the 8ietnam 8eterans Memorial was dedicated in $%C' to commemorate the U" " personnel who died or were declared missing in action in 8ietnam" #he memorial. and polls showed that &5 percent of the public now considered the war . Kaniel 2llsberg. which consists of a 8:shaped blac0 granite wall etched with more than (C. one blac0.< while 95 percent demanded an immediate withdrawal from 8ietnam" #he 8ietnam War cost the United tates H$G5 billion directly. religious missionaries.555 Americans lost their lives in 8ietnam" More than G55. Maya 6in.une $G.on . such as veterans= and widows= benefits and the search for Americans missing in action (M/As)" #he war also spurred serious inflation. and one Bispanic American soldier" #his led to additional controversy since some argued that the sculpture muted the original memorial=s solemn message" /n $%%G a statue of three women cradling a wounded soldier was also added to the site to commemorate the service of the $$.immoral.555 names. the papers were a complete history of the involvement of numerous government agencies in the 8ietnam War" #hey showed a clear pattern of deception toward the public" @ne of the senior analysts compiling this history. staffed by veterans.
and in $%%( the United tates formally restored full diplomatic relations with 8ietnam" #his initiated a process of normali+ation that was completed in '55$ when the U" " Congress approved an agreement that established normal trade relations with 8ietnam" 27 . in $%9( ?ord eEtended the embargo already in effect against North 8ietnam to all of newly unified 8ietnam" /n the ?oreign Assistance Appropriation Act of $%9&. especially after the 8ietnamese released a copy of NiEon=s secret letter of $%9G. the !8 increasingly relied on the oviet Union for loans and technical advisers" ?aced with widespread hunger and enormous health problems. nor Congress would assume any responsibility for the devastation of 8ietnam" /nstead. led to the eEodus of about $"G million people.Amerasians. the !8 leadership declared Communism a failed eEperiment and vowed radical change" Calling the reforms doi moi (economic renovation). sei+ing private property. Congress added amendments to trade bills that also cut 8ietnam off from international lending agencies li0e the /nternational )an0 for !econstruction and Kevelopment (World )an0) and the /nternational Monetary ?und (/M?)" Normali+ation of relations was suspended.or sources of food for 8ietnam" #here were C55.the destruction was mutual"< #al0s bro0e down. over the issue of American M/As and over the promised reparations. declaring that . probably due to the use of Agent @range and other chemical defoliants" #he defoliants used during the war also destroyed about $( percent of outh 8ietnam=s valuable timber resources and contributed to a serious decline in rice and fish production.unleashed on outh 8ietnamese civilians than on northerners" About $5 percent of all bombs and shells went uneEploded and continued to 0ill and maim throughout the region long after the war. who became president after NiEon=s resignation. the !8 leadership was forced to move further in this direction" tepping up efforts to find American M/As and cooperating with World )an0 and /M? guidelines for economic reform.555 orphans created in outh 8ietnam alone" At least $5 million people became homeless refugees in the south" 8ietnam=s government punished those 8ietnamese who had been allied with the United tates by sending thousands to . most as refugees to the United tates" #he children of U" " soldiers and 8ietnamese women. collectivi+ing plantations. and popular disillusion with the regime grew" At the iEth -arty Congress in $%C&. as did buried land mines" 8ietnam developed high rates of birth defects. the !8 opened 8ietnam to capitalism" After the collapse of the U ! in $%%$. the !8 placed an emphasis on restoring agricultural production" #he government vigorously pursued Communist economic policy.< were loo0ed down upon by the 8ietnamese. 8ietnam wor0ed to improve relations with the United tates" /n $%%A -resident )ill Clinton lifted the trade embargo. which promised aid . deepening the economic crisis facing 8ietnam in the aftermath of the war=s destruction" #he crisis was worsened by new wars with China and Cambodia in $%9C and $%9%7 China canceled any further aid to 8ietnam in . and nationali+ing businesses" About $ million civilians were forcibly moved from cities to new economic +ones" Mismanagement and corruption became common. often called .immy Carter attempted to resume relations with 8ietnam in $%99. however. Congress forbade any assistance for 8ietnam or Cambodia" -resident . combined with economic hardships throughout 8ietnam. but the aid was never granted" Neither 1erald ?ord. the ma.une $%9C" Cut off from most ma.reeducation camps< and depriving their families of employment" #hese measures. and many of them immigrated to the United tates" NiEon promised HG"'( billion in reconstruction aid to 8ietnam.or sources of aid.without any preconditions"< ?earing that reparations would amount to an admission of wrongdoing.
gorges. or farming cooperatives. $9. vegetable. an ancient synagogue in 3at+rin. the largest non:. yria. and the s0i slopes of Mount Bermon" #he 1olan Beights became part of the ?rench mandate of yria following World War / ($%$A:$%$C). cotton. the highest point on the 1olan Beights" Mount Bermon is divided among 6ebanon. however. cattle gra+ing. and wage labor in /sraeli communities" #he /sraelis live in approEimately G' agricultural communities in the southern 1olan Beights" Many /sraeli army officers stationed at military bases in the 1olan Beights have settled their families in the government:planned town of 3at+rin" Most of the /sraeli population is involved in cereal.'(5 s> 0m (ACG s> mi)" #he territory has been disputed between /srael and yria since the iE:Kay War of $%&9" #he 1olan Beights is a hilly.555 yrians. while more fertile. particularly in Ma. basalt plateau with a largely roc0y terrain" A high escarpment overloo0s /srael to the west and provides a vantage point over the city of Kamascus and the southern yrian plain to the north and east" /n the northern part of the region is a mountain range that eEtends into 6ebanon and rises to a pea0 of '.555 Kru+e. and several United Nations (UN) demilitari+ed +ones" #he foothills surrounding Mount Bermon are used primarily as pastureland for livestoc0 raising. and the ruins at Bamat 1ader. in northern /srael near the yrian border (see 3ibbut+)" yrians fired on the settlements from fortified posts on the western ridge of the 1olan" #he dispute that ensued over the strategically important region was one of the factors that precipitated the iE:Kay War of $%&9" Kuring the last two days of the war. and the region was later passed to independent yria" After the founding of /srael in $%AC.(55 ('55' estimate)" #his number includes about $(. /sraeli armed forces attac0ed the 1olan Beights" Most of the yrian army and civilian population fled. and dairy farming and the regionFs growing wine industry" /n recent years.'G' ft) at Mount Bermon.C$A m (%. most of the local population fled into yria" everal thousand members of the Kru+e community remained.(55 Alawites" #he Kru+e live in a number of towns and villages. as well as a small number of Alawites" #oday the 1olan has a population of about GG. and the area was immediately placed under /sraeli military administration" /n the years that followed. waterfalls.Golan $eig+ts 1olan Beights. a large reservoir located below the regionFs western boundary" -rior to $%&9 the 1olan Beights was home to approEimately $55. where one of the largest tan0 battles in history too0 place during the Arab:/sraeli War of $%9G" cenic and recreational attractions in the 1olan Beights include natural pools.ewish town in the 1olan Beights" Much of the Kru+e and Alawite population is engaged in orchard agriculture.dal hams. many of whom were of Kru+e or Circassian ethnicity" #he principal religions of the 1olan were the Kru+e religion and the unni and Alawite sects of /slam" Much of the population was involved in supporting yrian: army bases located in the region" When /srael drove the yrian army from the 1olan in the iE:Kay War. region in southwestern yria. agricultural land is located mainly in the south" #he 1olan Beights and its surrounding area contain various freshwater sources that are of great economic importance to /srael7 these include the ea of 1alilee (6a0e #iberias). the /sraeli government has made efforts to eEpand tourism in the 1olan Beights" 6ocal tourist attractions include the archaeological sites at 1amla. where ancient baths from natural hot springs have been rehabilitated" Another point of interest is the 8alley of #ears. /sraelis started a number of 0ibbut+im. occupied by /srael since $%&9"#he 1olan Beights covers $. and $. numerous /sraeli 28 . the )IniyIs pring. /srael.555 /sraelis.
if a country wishes to enter into relations with a government. revolutionary or otherwise.amin Netanyahu insisted that future negotiations would have to start over from the beginning" Neither course was pursued. a former center of Circassian settlement destroyed in the fighting of $%&9. as have most other countries" -eace tal0s between /srael and yria began in @ctober $%%$.settlements were established in the region on formerly Arab:held land" yria tried but failed to recapture the area in @ctober $%9G. a buffer +one between the two armies has been patrolled by UN forces" /n $%C$ /srael effectively anneEed the 1olan Beights by eEtending /sraeli civil law to the region" yria has refused to recogni+e /sraeli authority in the region.ure recognition of the Continental Congress by )ritain and other countries" ?or various reasons. a de facto corporation is one that is functioning and in pursuance of an effort made in good faith to organi+e a corporation within eEisting law" /f a de facto corporation that has eEercised corporate powers for a considerable period of time inadvertently omits a re>uirement for 29 . 2hud )ara0 ($%%%:'55$)" ubse>uent /sraeli prime minister Ariel haron shows little sign of willingness to compromise. de facto means a power eEercised but without established legal basis" /t has been applied to a revolutionary government. who too0 office upon his father=s death in '555" De #acto Ke ?acto. won the countryFs May election" Whereas yrian president Bafe+ al:Assad wanted to continue the tal0s from the point reached with /srael=s former leadership. such as the Continental Congress. was returned to yria along with some of the additional land captured in $%9G" ince that time. which had no legal basis but which showed that its authority was effective by its victorious conduct of the American !evolution" uccess in the war resulted in recognition of the independence of the $G colonies and in de . when yrian and 2gyptian armies attac0ed /srael in the $%9G war" #he /sraeli army suffered heavy casualties in the surprise attac0. and negotiations were noneEistent during the tenure of the neEt /sraeli prime minister. it will generally accord de facto recognition" /n business law.ure.ure recognition. but is unwilling to accord de . Al JunayUirah. which signifies the lawful eEercise of a power" #he phrase is applied when a person or group occupies public office or purports to eEercise political or other authority without legal right" /n constitutional and international law. thereby gaining additional territory from 2gypt and yria" -art of the 1olan Beights was demilitari+ed as a result of the disengagement agreements signed following the war" )y the terms of these agreements. which was far less li0ely to cede territory than its predecessor. and in March $%%&. phrase used to signify the eEercise of a power in spite of the absence of legal authority" Ke facto contrasts with de . and yria countered with a demand for an $C:month withdrawal" Neither side compromised significantly. but defeated the Arab forces. /srael suspended the tal0s" #he tal0s were further postponed after /sraelFs conservative 6i0ud -arty. in law. centering largely on the status of the 1olan Beights" )y $%%A the negotiations were deadloc0ed" /n March $%%( /sraeli and yrian leaders agreed to meet for a new round of tal0s in Washington. 6i0ud prime minister )en. K"C" /srael offered to withdraw from the 1olan over a four:year period. and the same is true of yrian president )ashar al:Assad. following several attac0s on /sraelis by fundamentalist Muslims.
the United tates has the largest >uota" /n '55$ the U" " >uota was about K! G9"$ billion" #he smallest >uota.or currencies" (/n @ctober '55$ the K! was worth about U" " H$"'%") 2ach memberFs >uota is an amount corresponding to its relative position in the world economy" As the worldFs leading economy. at the UN Monetary and ?inancial Conference held in $%AA at )retton Woods. in which member nations are encouraged to maintain an orderly pattern of eEchange rates and to avoid restrictive eEchange practices" #he /M? was established. the term state refers to a country with a government and a population" #he term balance of power refers to the relatively e>ual power capabilities of rival states or alliances" ?or eEample. along with the /nternational )an0 for !econstruction and Kevelopment. most courts hold that the corporation is entitled to practically the same rights and protection as a regularly constituted. that of the !epublic of -alau. which represents member nations individually (for larger countries) or in groups" #he managing director serves as chairperson of the eEecutive board" #he /M? has its main head>uarters in Washington.establishing a regular corporation.oining the fund. made up of leading monetary officials from each of the member nations.INTRODUCTION )alance of -ower. the fundFs unit of account.ure. to which all members have contributed through payment of their >uota subscriptions" #he member may use this foreign eEchange for a certain time (up to about five years) to eEtricate itself from its balance:of:payments problem. international economic organi+ation whose purpose is to promote international monetary cooperation to facilitate the eEpansion of international trade" #he /M? operates as a United Nations speciali+ed agency and is a permanent forum for consideration of issues of international payments. corporation" International Monetar.INTRODUCTION /nternational Monetary ?und (/M?). #und I . theory and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective chec0 on the power of a state is the power of other states" /n international relations. K"C" )alance of Power I . New Bampshire" #he /M? began operations in $%A9" Membership is open to all independent nations and included $CG countries in '55$" II . and how many K!s it will receive in periodic allocations" Members who have temporary balance:of:payments difficulties may apply to the fund for needed foreign currency from its pool of resources. or de . each member is assigned a >uota in special drawing rights ( K!s). was about K! G"$ million" #he amount of the >uota subscription determines how large a vote a member will have in /M? deliberations. how much foreign eEchange it may withdraw from the fund. the United tates and the 30 . is the highest authority in the /M?" Kay:to:day operations are the responsibility of the 'A:member eEecutive board. CTI&ITI"! Members underta0e to 0eep the /M? informed about economic and financial policies that impinge on the eEchange value of their national currencies so that other members can ma0e appropriate policy decisions" @n .ORG NI: TION #he board of governors. after which the currency is to be returned to the /M?Fs pool of resources" #he borrower pays a below:mar0et rate of interest for the /M? resources it uses7 the member whose currency is used receives almost all of these interest payments7 the remainder goes to the fund for operating eEpenses" III . whose value is based on the weighted average value of five ma.
leaders= misperceptions can seriously distort the calculation of power" Kuring the 8ietnam War ($%(%:$%9(). !ussia. which helped sustain a military balance of power" #he balance of power theory maintains that when one state or alliance increases its power or applies it more aggressively. 31 . which ruled Austria and pain. and other countries" II -!IGNI#IC NC" TO INT"RN TION ' R"' TION! As a policy. consisting of the oviet Union. cohesive states accompanied the creation of irrigation systems. and large armies e>uipped with iron weapons" #hese Chinese states pursued power through a constantly shifting networ0 of alliances" /n ancient 1reece during the -eloponnesian War (AG$:A5A )C). )ritain. shifting its support to oppose whatever state or alliance is strongest" )ritain played this role in 2urope in the $Cth and $%th centuries. for eEample. population. bureaucracies. and Asia" As a theory. or form of government" @ccasionally a single state plays a balancer role. led by parta. the United tates followed a containment policy towards the oviet Union after World War // by building military alliances and bases throughout 2urope. the United tates. the development of large. threatened to dominate 2urope" Kuring the #hirty *ears= War ($&$C:$&AC). and the Netherlands defeated the rulers of the Babsburg 2mpire" 2arly in the $%th century. U" " presidents consistently underestimated the strength of the 8ietnamese Communists because by conventional measures of power they were much wea0er than the United tates" III -#ROM NCI"NT TIM"! TO WOR'D W R II Bistorical eEamples of power balancing are found throughout history in various regions of the world. morale. ?rance. particularly in its relations with ?rance. balance of power predicts that rapid changes in international power and statusM especially attempts by one state to con>uer a regionMwill provo0e counterbalancing actions" ?or this reason. geography. when it shifted its support between the oviet Union and the United tates" A wea0ness of the balance of power concept is the difficulty of measuring power" Ultimately a state=s power derives from the si+e of its land mass. threatened states will increase their own power in response. the rise of 1erman power before and during World War / ($%$A:$%$C) and World War // ($%G%:$%A() triggered the formation of an anti:1erman coalition. and luc0" ?urthermore.oviet Union maintained e>uivalent arsenals of nuclear weapons in the $%95s and $%C5s. and its level of technology" )ut this potential powerMmeasured roughly by a state=s 1ross Komestic -roduct (1K-)Mtranslates imperfectly into military capability" #he effective use of military force depends on such elements as leadership. the rising power of Athens triggered the formation of a coalition of city:states that felt threatened by Athenian power" #he alliance. succeeded in defeating Athens and restoring a balance of power among 1ree0 cities" /n the $9th century the Babsburg dynasty. balance of power suggests that states counter any threat to their security by allying with other threatened states and by increasing their own military capabilities" #he policy of forming a geographically based coalition of states to surround and bloc0 an eEpansionist power is 0nown as containment" ?or eEample. )ritain. when they are easily formed or bro0en on the basis of eEpediency. religion. ?rance. the Middle 2ast. the balancing process helps to maintain the stability of relations between states" A balance of power system functions most effectively when alliances are fluid. regardless of values. leading some scholars to characteri+e balance of power as a universal and timeless principle" Kuring the -eriod of the Warring tates in China (A5G:''$ )C). history. a coalition that included weden. often by forming a counter:balancing coalition" ?or eEample. and 1ermany" China acted as a balancer during the Cold War.
Cuba=s relations with the United tates soured" At that time. world trade regulations.oc0eyed for influence" mall states sometimes benefited from the superpower competition" /n the $%&5s.or battles that climaEed with Napoleon=s defeat at the )attle of Waterloo in $C$(" #he classical 2uropean balance of power system emerged thereafter in an alliance 0nown as the Concert of 2urope.apan triggered yet another coalition of opposing statesMnotably the capitalist democracies of )ritain and the United tates. Cuba allied itself with the oviet Union and received large economic and military subsidies" & -IN T$" PO!T-CO'D W R "R #he collapse of the oviet Union in $%%$ left the United tates as the world=s sole superpower" )alance of power theory suggests that without the oviet threat the United tates. along with smaller states such as /ra> and North 3orea. Austria.french emperor Napoleon / repeatedly made efforts to con>uer large areas of 2urope" A broad coalition of 2uropean statesMincluding )ritain. 1ermany=s rising power. the command structure of the North Atlantic #reaty @rgani+ation (NA#@). !ussia. which had been very hostile in the $%95s and $%C5s. and alliance with /taly and . the United Nations. and the Communist oviet Union" I& -IN T$" NUC'" R G" #he Cold War standoff between the United tates and the oviet Union shaped the global balance of power after World War //" Although an actual war between these two superpowers never occurred. the balance of power principle should continue to reduce the li0elihood of aggression" 1reat powers such as China and !ussia. and AfghanistanMtoo0 place in politically contested regions of the world where both superpowers . as the dominant world power. Austria. will face difficulties in its relations with such states as China and the 2uropean powers" ?or eEample. generally understand that aggression creates new sources of resistance and is thus self:defeating" 32 . 8ietnam. the U" " policy of containment encircled the oviet Union with military and political alliances in Western 2urope. aggressive con>uests. with none able to dominate the others" Under this system. and with )ritain playing a balancer role. and responses to conflicts in Africa and the former *ugoslavia" At the same time. aggression by /ra> cataly+ed a broad alliance against that nation" /n the future. in $%%( and $%%& ?rance openly challenged U" " actions or proposals on a range of issues" #hese included Middle 2ast policy. and ?rance ensured that a handful of great powers would coeEist.or U" " and oviet military interventions of the Cold WarMin 3orea. !ussia. for eEample. peace largely prevailed in 2urope during the $%th century" Kuring World War //. improved dramatically in the $%%5s" #his improvement occurred largely because both countries feared the predominant power of the United tates" /n regional conflicts. !ussian:Chinese relations. in the $%%$ -ersian 1ulf War. and outheast Asia" #he ma. -russia. in which each superpower responded by adding to their military buildup" #he possession of large arsenals of nuclear weapons by both the United tates and the oviet Union ensured that any potential war would prove disastrous for both" )ecause of the threat to human survival posed by nuclear weapons.balance of terror"< Kuring the Cold War. the balance of power process instead too0 the form of a massive arms race. and -russiaMdefeated ?rance in a series of ma. the Middle 2ast. organi+ed in $C$( by Austrian statesman 3lemens von Metternich" #his loose alliance between )ritain. military strategists often referred to the balance of power as a . balance of power continues to operate in a traditional manner in the post:Cold War era" ?or eEample.
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