Profile of Pakistan · Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan · Father of the Nation Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali innah

!"#$%-"&'#( · National Poet Allama Muhammad I)bal !"#$$-"&*#( · +ead of the ,tate -eneral Per.ez Musharraf/ President · +ead of -o.ernment 0haudhr1 ,hu2aat +ussain/ Prime Minister · 0apital Islamabad · Area 3otal $&%/4&5 ,)6 km6 Pun2ab 745/*'' ,)6 km6 ,indh "'4/&"' ,)6 km6 North 8estFrontierPro.ince $'/57" ,)6 km6 9alochistan *'$/"&4 ,)6 km6 Federall1 Administered 3ribal Areas 7$/774 ,)6 km6 Islamabad !0apital( &4% ,)6 km6 · Population "'&64* million · Administrati.e ,etup Pakistan is di.ided into four pro.inces .iz6/ North 8est Frontier Pro.ince !N8FP(/ Pun2ab/ ,indh and 9alochistan6 3he tribal belt ad2oinin: N8FP is mana:ed b1 the Federal -o.ernment and is named FA3A i6e6/ Federall1 Administered 3ribal Areas6 Azad ;ashmir and Northern Areas ha.e their o<n respecti.e political and administrati.e machiner1/ 1et certain of their sub2ects are taken care of b1 the Federal -o.ernment throu:h the Ministr1 of ;ashmir Affairs and Northern Areas6 Pro.inces of Pakistan are further di.ided into =i.isions and =istricts =i.isions =istricts N8FP $ 7' Pun2ab # *' ,indh 5 7"

9alochistan % 77 8hile FA3A consist of "* Areas>A:encies and Azad ;ashmir and Northern Areas ha.e $ and 5 =istricts respecti.el16 · Reli:ion &5? Muslims/ 5? others6 · Annual Per capita income Rs6 7#/&** !@, A '&7 approBimatel1( · -=P 56"? · 0urrenc1 Pak6 Rupee6 · Imports Industrial e)uipment/ chemicals/ .ehicles/ steel/ iron ore/ petroleum/ edible oil/ pulses/ tea6 · CBports 0otton/ teBtile :oods/ rice/ leather items carpets/ sports :oods/ handi-crafts/ fish and fish prep6 and fruit · Dan:ua:es @rdu !National( and Cn:lish !Official( · Diterac1 rate 5"6%? · -o.ernment Parliamentar1 form · Parliament Parliament consists of t<o +ouses i6e6/ the ,enate !@pper +ouse( and the National Assembl1 !Do<er +ouse(6 3he ,enate is a permanent le:islati.e bod1 and s1mbolises a process of continuit1 in the national affairs6 It consists of "44 members6 3he four Pro.incial Assemblies/ Federall1 Administered 3ribal Areas and Federal 0apital form its electoral colle:e6 3he National Assembl1 has a total membership of *'7 elected throu:h adult suffra:e !7$7 :eneral seats/ %4 <omen seats and "4 non-Muslim seats(6 · Pakistan National Fla: =ark :reen <ith a <hite .ertical bar/ a <hite crescent and a fi.e-pointed star in the middle6 3he Fla: s1mbolises PakistanEs profound commitment to Islam/ the Islamic <orld and the ri:hts of reli:ious miniorities6 · National Anthem Appro.ed in une/ "&5' Ferses 0omposed b1G Abdul Asar +afeez ullundhri 3une 0omposed b1G Ahmed -6 0ha:la =urationG #4 seconds · ,tate Cmblem 3he ,tate Cmblem consists ofG "6 3he crescent and star <hich are s1mbols of Islam 76 3he shield in the centre sho<s four ma2or crops *6 8reath surroundin: the shield represents cultural herita:e and '6 ,croll contains QuaidEs mottoG @nit1 Faith/ =iscipline · PakistanEs Official Map =ra<n b1 Mian Mahmood Alam ,uhra<ard1 !"&74-"&&&( · National Flo<er asmine6 · National 3ree =eodar !0edrus =eodara(6 · National Animal

Markhor6 · National 9ird 0hakor !Red-le::ed partrid:e( · Flora Pine/ Oak/ Poplar/ =eodar/ Maple/ Mulberr1 · Fauna 3he Pheasant/ Deopard/ =eer/ IbeB/ 0hinkara/ 9lack buck/ Neel:ai/ Markhor/ Marco-Polo sheep/ -reen turtles/ H ,ea fish/ 0rocodile/ 8aterfo<ls · Popular :ames 0ricket/ +ocke1/ Football/ ,)uash6 · 3ouristEs resorts Murree/ Quetta/ +unza/ Iiarat/ ,<at/ ;a:han/ 0hitral and -il:it · Archaeolo:ical sites Moen2o =aro/ +arappa/ 3aBila/ ;ot =i2i/ Mehr -arh/ 3akht 9hai6 · Ma2or 0ities Islamabad/ ;arachi/ Dahore/ Pesha<ar/ Quetta/ Ra<alpindi/ +1derabad/ Faisalabad/ Multan and ,ialkot · Ma2or 0rops 0otton/ 8heat/ Rice and ,u:arcane · A:ricultural -ro<th Rate '6"5? in 7447-4* · 3otal cropped area 7764 million hectares · Industr1 3eBtiles/ 0ement/ Fertilizer/ ,teel/ ,u:ar/ Clectric -oods/ ,hipbuildin: · Cner:1 Ma2or sources Clectricit1 !+1del/ 3hermal/ Nuclear( Oil/ 0oal/ and Di)uid Petroleum -as Po<er -eneratin: 0apacit1 "#/4%7 M8 · +ealth +ospitals &'$ =ispensaries '/#44 9asic +ealth @nits !9+@s( '/#74 Maternit1 H 0hild +ealth 0entres "/4#' Rural +ealth 0entres !R+0s( 5#" 3uberculosis !39( 0entres *5$ +ospital 9eds #7/#'' =octors !re:istered( "4"/%*5 =entists !re:istered( 5/4%# Nurses !re:istered ''/574 Paramedics 77/$"'

Dad1 +ealth 8orkers %/*&$ · Cducation Primar1 ,chools "%'/744 Middle ,chools "&/"44 +i:h ,chools "7/&44 Arts H ,cience 0olle:es &75 Professional 0olle:es *$' @ni.ersities Public ,ector !includin: one 8omen@ni.ersit1( 7& Pri.ate ,ector "4 · 3ransport H 0ommunication 3otal len:th of roads 75"/#'5 km Pakistan Rail<a1 net<ork $/$&" km Rail<a1 stations $#" Pakistan International Airlines 0o.ers ** international and 7" domestic stations <ith a fleet of '' planes6 Ma2or Airports # !Islamabad/ ;arachi/ Dahore/ Quetta/ Pesha<ar/ Multan/ Faisalabad and -<adar( · ,eaports International 7 !;arachi and 9in Qasim6( Fish +arbours-0um-Mini Ports * !Minora/ -a<adar/ and ;eti 9andar( · 0ommunications Post Offices "7/7%$ 3elephone connections '/5#&/444 Public 0all Offices "/"'/57$ 3ele:raph offices *7# Internet 0onnections "6& million · Cmplo1ment 3otal Dabour force

ision ' channels !P3F-I/ P3F-II !P3F 8orld(/ P3F-III H P3F-IF( Re:istered 3F sets .ices 56&4 million Others 56#$ million · Media Print Media !In accordance <ith 0entral Media Dist( =ailies '"' 8eeklies *&7 Fortni:htlies 54 Monthlies 75& Annuall1 4" Quarterl1 4* Ne<s A:encies Official APP Pri.'76*# million Cmplo1ed Dabour Force *&6'" million A:riculture .ate PPI/ NNI/ On Dine and .ocial .arachi co.e 3F centres at Islamabad/ Dahore/ Pesha<ar/ Quetta and .erin: ##65#? population and 7& re-broadcastin: stations6 Pakistan 3ele.ana6 Clectronic Media 3F 0entres "#6&" million Manufacturin: H Minin: sector '65" million 0onstruction 7675 million 3rade 567$ million 3ransport "6&$ million Finance/ 0ommunit1 H .

er #" countries in "5 lan:ua:es Pri.hun2rabPass Northern Areas .ices in "& lan:ua:es6 CBternal .h1ber .elopment 9ank of Pakistan Federal 9ank for 0o-operati.urramPass FA3A 3he 3ochiPass FA3A 3he -omalPass N8FP 3he 9olan Pass 9alochistan 3he Do<ariPass 0hitral !N8FP( 3he .incial 0o-operati.e 9ank · Famous MountainPeaks .ices co.tations PublicG 3otal 75/ +ome Industrial =e.ateG Radio stations */ 3F transmitter channels * 0able Operators &44 · 9anks 0entral 9ank .tate 9ank of Pakistan Other 9anks National 9ank of Pakistan +abib 9ank Dtd6 @nited 9ankn Dtd6 Muslim 0ommercial 9ank Dtd6 Allied 9ank of Pakistan Dtd6 First 8oman 9ank Mehran 9ank 3he 9ank of Pun2ab 9ank of .-7 !Mt6 -od<in Austin( 7#/754 ft6>#%"" m !7nd in 8orld( Nan:a Parbat 7%/%%4 ft6>#"7% m !#th in 8orld( -asherbrum-I 7%/'$4 ft6>#4%# m !""th in 8orld( · Famous Mountain Passes 3he .pecialized 9anks A:ricultural =e.*/%4'/444 Radio .h1ber Pass N8FP 3he .elopment 9ank of Pakistan 3he Pun2ab Pro.

i &4" km .een2ar .· Ri.indh .utle2( *&# km · Famous -laciers .indh 0holistan Pun2ab 3hal Pun2ab · Dakes Manchar .atpara Northern Areas .iachin $5 km 9atura 55 km 9altoro %5 km · =eserts 3har .ers 3he Indus 7/#&% km helum #75 km 0henab "/7'7 km Ra.achura Northern Areas · Ma2or =ams Man:la =am .utle2 "/55" km 9eas !tributar1 of .indh +anna 9alochistan .aif-ul-Maluk N8FP .

ation eBtremesG lo<est pointG Indian Ocean 4 m hi:hest pointG .o.e natural :as satisfactoril1 the disputed .es/ limited petroleum/ poor )ualit1 coal/ iron ore/ copper/ salt/ limestone Dand useG .e led to decreased tensions since 74476 Geography DocationG .in <hich India capitalized on IslamabadEs mar:inalization of 9en:alis in Pakistani politics resulted in Cast Pakistan becomin: the separate nation of 9an:ladesh6 In response to Indian nuclear <eapons testin:/ Pakistan conducted its o<n tests in "&&#6 3he dispute o.Pun2ab 3arbela =am N8FP 8arsak =am N8FP BackgroundG 3he separation in "&'$ of 9ritish India into the Muslim state of Pakistan !<ith t<o sections 8est and Cast( and lar:el1 +indu India <as ne.ea/ bet<een India on the east and Iran and Af:hanistan on the <est and 0hina in the north -eo:raphic coordinatesG *4 44 N/ $4 44 C Map referencesG Asia AreaG totalG #4*/&'4 s) km landG $$#/$74 s) km <aterG 75/774 s) km Area .ashmir territor16 A third <ar bet<een these countries in "&$" "&'$-'# and "&%5 .ed/ and India and Pakistan fou:ht t<o <ars .er the state of .outhern Asia/ borderin: the Arabian .ashmir is on:oin:/ but discussions and confidence-buildin: measures ha.7 !Mt6 -od<in-Austen( #/%"" m Natural resourcesG land/ eBtensi.eG sli:htl1 less than t<ice the size of 0alifornia Dand boundariesG totalG %/$$' km border countriesG Af:hanistan 7/'*4 km/ 0hina 57* km/ India 7/&"7 km/ Iran &4& km 0oastlineG "/4'% km Maritime claimsG territorial seaG "7 nm conti:uous zoneG 7' nm eBclusi.e economic zoneG 744 nm continental shelfG 744 nm or to the ed:e of the continental mar:in 0limateG mostl1 hot/ dr1 desertJ temperate in north<estJ arctic in north 3errainG flat Indus plain in eastJ mountains in north and north<estJ 9alochistan plateau in <est Cle.

1oto Protocol/ =esertification/ Cndan:ered .e access to potable <aterJ deforestationJ soil erosionJ desertification Cn.ironment .ersit1/ 0limate 0han:e/ 0limate 0han:e-.h1ber Pass and 9olan Pass/ traditional in.current issuesG <ater pollution from ra< se<a:e/ industrial <astes/ and a:ricultural runoffJ limited natural fresh <ater resourcesJ a ma2orit1 of the population does not a:reementsG part1 toG 9iodi.hip Pollution/ 8etlands si:ned/ but not ratifiedG Marine Dife 0onser.ubcontinent People PopulationG "%5/#4*/5%4 ! ul1 744% est6( A:e structureG 4-"' 1earsG *&? !male **/7&*/'7#>female *"/'*'/*"'( "5-%' 1earsG 5%6&? !male '#/7"'/7&#>female '%/4%7/&**( %5 1ears and o.noteG controls .e births femaleG $464' deaths>"/444 li.1 rains ! ul1 and Au:ust( Cn.eB ratioG at birthG "645 male!s(>female under "5 1earsG "64% male!s(>female "5-%' 1earsG "645 male!s(>female %5 1ears and o.ironmental Modification/ +azardous 8astes/ Da< of the .erG 46&7 male!s(>female total populationG "645 male!s(>female !744% est6( Infant mortalit1 rateG totalG $46'5 deaths>"/444 li.arable landG 7'6''? permanent cropsG 46#'? otherG $'6$7? !7445( Irri:ated landG "#7/*44 s) km !744*( Natural hazardsG fre)uent earth)uakes/ occasionall1 se.ation -eo:raph1 .ere especiall1 in north and <estJ floodin: alon: the Indus after hea.pecies/ Cn.erG '6"? !male */75%/4%5>female */5'7/577( !744% est6( Median a:eG totalG "&6# 1ears maleG "&6$ 1ears femaleG 74 1ears !744% est6( Population :ro<th rateG 764&? !744% est6( 9irth rateG 7&6$' births>"/444 population !744% est6( =eath rateG #67* deaths>"/444 population !744% est6( Net mi:ration rateG -465& mi:rant!s(>"/444 population !744% est6( .e births maleG $46#' deaths>"/444 li.ea/ Marine =umpin:/ Ozone Da1er Protection/ .asion routes bet<een 0entral Asia and the Indian .e births !744% est6( Dife eBpectanc1 at birthG total populationG %*6*& 1ears .ironment .

.alence rateG 46"? !744" est6( +IF>AI=.ernment t1peG federal republic 0apitalG nameG Islamabad :eo:raphic coordinatesG ** '7 N/ $* "4 C time differenceG @30K5 !"4 hours ahead of 8ashin:ton/ =0 durin: .entional short formG Pakistan local lon: formG amhur1at Islami Pakistan local short formG Pakistan formerG 8est Pakistan -o.ernment ministries(/ 9urushaski and other #? Diterac1G definitionG a:e "5 and o.unni $$?/ .hiEa 74?(/ other !includes 0hristian and +indu( *? Dan:ua:esG Pun2abi '#?/ .ariant( "4?/ Pashtu #?/ @rdu !official( #?/ 9alochi *?/ +indko 7?/ 9rahui "?/ Cn:lish !officialJ lin:ua franca of Pakistani elite and most :o.tandard 3ime( Administrati.ectorborne diseasesG den:ue fe.iraiki !a Pun2abi .indhi/ Pashtun !Pathan(/ 9aloch/ Muha2ir !immi:rants from India at the time of partition and their descendants( Reli:ionsG Muslim &$? !.entional lon: formG Islamic Republic of Pakistan con.G $'/444 !744" est6( +IF> pre.isionsG ' pro.e di.e close contact <ith birds !744$( Nationalit1G nounG Pakistani!s( ad2ecti. citizens <ho <ith +IF>AI=.indhi "7?/ .ian influenza has been identified amon: birds in this countr1 or surroundin: re:ionJ it poses a ne:li:ible risk <ith eBtremel1 rare cases possible amon: @.maleG %76' 1ears femaleG %'6'' 1ears !744% est6( 3otal fertilit1 rateG ' children born><oman !744% est6( +IF>AI=.deathsG '/&44 !744* est6( Ma2or infectious diseasesG de:ree of riskG hi:h food or <aterborne diseasesG bacterial diarrhea/ hepatitis A and C/ and t1phoid can read and <rite total populationG '#6$? maleG %"6$? femaleG *567? !744' est6( Government 0ountr1 nameG con. . .er .people li.eG Pakistani Cthnic :roupsG Pun2abi/ .inces/ " territor1L/ and " capital territor1LLJ 9alochistan/ Federall1 Administered 3ribal AreasL/ .er/ malaria/ and cutaneous leishmaniasis are hi:h risks dependin: on location animal contact diseaseG rabies noteG hi:hl1 patho:enic +5N" a.

a2id MIRNJ amiat-i-Islami or I MQazi +ussain A+MC=NJ amiat @lema-i-Islam/ Fazlur Rehman faction or @I>F MFazlur RC+MANNJ amiat @lema-i-Islam/ .enate !"44 seatsJ members indirectl1 elected b1 pro.incial assemblies chief of stateG President -eneral Per.( National holida1G Republic =a1/ 7* March !"&5%( 0onstitutionG "7 April "&$*J suspended 5 ul1 "&$$/ restored <ith amendments *4 =ecember "&#5J suspended "5 October "&&&/ restored in sta:es in 7447J amended *" =ecember 744* De:al s1stemG based on Cn:lish common la< <ith pro.enate/ National Assembl1/ and four pro.incial assemblies for a fi.e and le:islati.percent of .ashmir and Northern Areas IndependenceG "' Au:ust "&'$ !from @.Islamabad 0apital 3erritor1LL/ North-8est Frontier Pro. 7/ 9NP "/ 8P "/ MQM-+ "/ PA3 "/ PkMAP "/ PMD>I "/ P3I "/ independents * udicial branchG .NAJ seats b1 part1 .es in the National Assembl1 to ser.uffra:eG "# 1ears of a:eJ uni.e siB-1ear termsJ half of the .upreme 0ourt !2ustices appointed b1 the president(J Federal Islamic or .er1 three 1ears( and the National Assembl1 !*'7 seatsJ 7$7 seats filled b1 popular .taff and 0hairman of the oint 0hiefs of .enate results .e branchG noteG follo<in: a militar1 takeo.e more 1earsJ on " anuar1 744'/ M@.ince/ Pun2ab/ .taff 0ommittee/ -eneral Per.e-1ear terms( electionsG .ote b1 part1 .last held "4 October 7447 !neBt to be held in 744$( election resultsG .ashmir re:ion consists of t<o administrati.alidated the October "&&& coup and :ranted M@.PMD>Q "7%/ PPPP #"/ MMA %*/ PMD>N "&/ MQM "$/ NA "%/ PMD>F 5/ PMD> */ PPP>.+ANNJ 9alochistan National Part1>+a1ee -roup or 9NP>+ M=r6 +a1ee 9AD@0+NJ 9aluch National Part1>A<ami or 9NP>A<ami MMoheem .NAJ seats b1 part1 .e branchG bicameral Parliament or Ma2lis-e-.PMD *&/ MMA "#/ PPPP &/ MQM %/ PMD>N '/ PkMAP */ PPP */ ANP 7/ 9NP-A<ami "/ 9NP>M "/ 8P "/ PMD>F "/ independents "7J National Assembl1 results .hoora consists of the .+ARRAF named himself as president and <as s<orn in replacin: Mohammad Rafi) 3ARARJ in a referendum held on *4 April 7447/ e.ember 7447J the prime minister is selected b1 the National Assembl1 !neBt elections to be held in late 744$( election resultsG AIII elected b1 the National Assembl1 on 7$ Au:ust 744' on "7 October "&&&/ 0hief of Arm1 .percent of .ez M@.ations .oteJ %4 seats reser.enate .isions to accommodate PakistanEs status as an Islamic stateJ accepts compulsor1 I0 2urisdiction/ <ith reser.indh noteG the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed ammu and .incial assemblies and the territoriesE representati.e entitiesG Azad .hariEa 0ourt Political parties and leadersG A<ami National Part1 or ANP MAsfand1ar 8ali .e-1ear termJ note .+ARRAFEs presidenc1 <as eBtended b1 fi.haukat AIII !since 7# Au:ust 744'( cabinetG 0abinet appointed b1 the prime minister electionsG the president is elected b1 an electoral colle:e dra<n from the national parliament and pro.ersalJ 2oint electorates and reser.+ARRAF eBecuti.ardar Ataullah MCN-ADNJ amhoori 8atan Part1 or 8PJ amiat-al-+adith or A+ M.ote of confidence in the .+ARRAF/ suspended PakistanEs constitution and assumed the additional title of 0hief CBecuti.e authorit1 for three 1ears from the coup dateJ on 74 une 744"/ M@.ernmentG Prime Minister .Musharraf <as last s<orn in as President in No.ed parliamentar1 seats for <omen and nonMuslims CBecuti.e fi.enateEs seats turn o.ez M@.+ARRAF <on a .eJ on "7 Ma1 7444/ PakistanEs .otes b1 part1 .upreme 0ourt unanimousl1 .ed for non-MuslimsJ members ser.ed for <omenJ "4 seats reser.ami .+ARRAF !since 74 une 744"( head of :o.last held in March 744% !neBt to be held in March 744&(J National Assembl1 .han 9ADO0+NJ 9aluch National Part1-Men:al or 9NP>M M.

e/ Ramna 5/ Islamabad mailin: addressG P6 O6 9oB "4'#/ @nit %7744/ APO AC 4&#"7-7744 telephoneG M&7N !5"( 74#-4444 FAOG M&7N !5"( 77$%'7$ consulate!s( :eneralG . M.AINNJ National Alliance or NA M-hulam Mustapha A3OIN !mer:ed <ith PMD(J Pakhtun .ice sectors/ remained in the .+ANNJ 3ehrik-i-Islami MAllama .er1 the last fi.han .ami ul-+AQNJ amiat @lema-i-Pakistan or @P M.o.A0CP/ .atizin: the bankin: sector6 Po.ernment policies/ bolstered b1 :enerous forei:n assistance and rene<ed access to :lobal markets since 744"/ ha.+CRPAONJ Pakistan PeopleEs Part1 Parliamentarians or PPPP M9enazir 9+@33ONJ Pakistan 3ehrik-e-Insaaf or P3I MImran . !obser.ement/ or MQM MAltaf +@.h<a Milli A<ami Part1 or PkMAP MMahmood .0O/ @N+0R/ @NI=O/ @NI3AR/ @NMID/ @N/ @N03A=/ @NC.the result of chronicall1 lo< taB collection and increased spendin:/ includin: reconstruction costs from the October 7445 earth)uake .elopment of its social sector6 3he fiscal deficit .0O !obser.ernment has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 7444/ most notabl1 pri.AAR0/ .G chief of missionG Ambassador R1an 0RO0.ale !0alifornia( =iplomatic representation from the of Ma1 744'/ the PMD>Q chan:ed its name to PMD and absorbed the PMD> / PMD>I/ and NAJ Pakistan PeopleEs Part1 or PPP MAftab Ahmed .erished and underde.estment/ and a costl1/ on:oin: confrontation <ith nei:hborin: India6 +o<e.els of forei:n OI0/ ON@9/ OP08/ P0A/ .CR embass1G =iplomatic<G Pakistan/ an impo.3A+/ MON@0/ NAM/ OA./ @NO0I/ @NOMI-/ @N83O/ @P@/ 80D/ 80O/ 8F3@/ 8+O/ 8IPO/ 8MO/ 83O =iplomatic representation in the @.arachi consulate!s(G Dahore/ Pesha<ar Fla: descriptionG :reen <ith a .e :enerated solid macroeconomic reco.elopment in fiscal 1ear 744$/ a necessar1 step to<ard IMF-appro.e 1ears6 3he :o.han chief of missionG Ambassador Mahmud Ali =@RRANI chancer1G *5"$ International 0ourt/ 8ashin:ton/ =0 7444# telephoneG M"N !747( 7'*-%544 FAOG M"N !747( %#%-"5'' consulate!s( :eneralG 9oston/ 0hica:o/ +ouston/ Dos An:eles/ Ne< Pork/ .hu2aat +@..AINNJ note .appears mana:eable for no<6 -=P :ro<th/ spurred b1 :ains in the industrial and ser..+ARIFNJ Pakistan Muslim Dea:ue or PMD M0haudhr1 .elopment spendin: in recent 1ears/ includin: a 57-percent real increase in the bud:et allocation for de./ I+O/ IDO/ IMF/ IMO/ Interpol/ IO0/ IOM/ IP@/ I.O/ MIN@.ed :o.ertical <hite band !s1mbolizin: the role of reli:ious minorities( on the hoist sideJ a lar:e <hite crescent and star are centered in the :reen fieldJ the crescent/ star/ and color :reen are traditional s1mbols of Islam Economy Cconom1 .ul-+AQ faction or @I>.O/ I3@/ I3@0/ MI-A/ MIN@R.hah Faridul +AQNJ Muttahida Ma2lis-e-Amal or MMA MQazi +ussain A+MC=NJ Muttahida Qaumi Mo.e decreased b1 "4 percent since 744"/ and Islamabad has steadil1 raised de.a2id NAQFIN noteG political alliances in Pakistan can shift fre)uentl1 Political pressure :roups and leadersG militar1 remains most important political forceJ ulema !cler:1(/ lando<ners/ industrialists/ and small merchants also influential International or:anization participationG ARF/ As=9/ 0 !reinstated 744'(/ 0P/ C0O/ FAO/ --7'/ --$$/ IACA/ I9R=/ I0AO/ I00/ I0RM/ I=A/ I=9/ IFA=/ IF0/ IFR0.ert1 le.harif faction or PMD>N MNa<az .els ha.eloped countr1/ has suffered from decades of internal political disputes/ lo< le.IAINJ Pakistan A<ami 3ehrik or PA3 M3ahir ul QA=RINJ Pakistan Muslim Dea:ue/ Functional -roup or PMD>F MPir PA-ARONJ Pakistan Muslim Dea:ue/ Na<az .ersin: the broad underde.unn1.

productsG cotton/ <heat/ rice/ su:arcane/ fruits/ .productionG #467' billion k8h !744'( Clectricit1 .raisin: interest rates in 744% .en b1 a <idenin: trade :ap as import :ro<th outstrips eBport eBpansion .enuesG A74655 billion eBpendituresG A756%5 billionJ includin: capital eBpenditures of ANA !744% est6( Public debtG 55? of -=P !744% est6( A:riculture .%-#? ran:e in 744'-4%6 Inflation remains the bi::est threat to the econom1/ 2umpin: to more than &? in 7445 before easin: to $6&? in 744%6 3he central bank is pursuin: ti:hter monetar1 polic1 .<hile tr1in: to and dampen -=P :ro<th in the medium term6 -=P !purchasin: po<er parit1(G A'7$6* billion !744% est6( -=P !official eBchan:e rate(G A"7' billion !744% est6( -=P .ert1 lineG 7'? !FP45>4% est6( +ousehold income or consumption b1 percenta:e shareG lo<est "4?G '6"? hi:hest "4?G 7$6%? !FP&%>&$( =istribution of famil1 income .es are bolstered b1 stead1 <orker remittances/ but a :ro<in: current account deficit .-ini indeBG '" !FP&#>&&( Inflation rate !consumer prices(G $6&? !744% est6( In.e:etablesJ milk/ beef/ mutton/ e::s IndustriesG teBtiles and apparel/ food processin:/ pharmaceuticals/ construction materials/ paper products/ fertilizer/ shrimp Industrial production :ro<th rateG %? !744% est6( Clectricit1 .estment !:ross fiBed(G "56%? of -=P !744% est6( 9ud:etG re.dri.e eBport of labor/ mostl1 to the Middle Cast/ and use of child labor !744% est6( Dabor force .icesG *#? !744' est6( @nemplo1ment rateG %65? plus substantial underemplo1ment !744% est6( Population belo< po.per capita !PPP(G A7/%44 !744% est6( -=P .composition b1 sectorG a:ricultureG 77? industr1G 7%? ser.real :ro<th rateG %65? !744% est6( -=P .could dra< do<n reser.b1 occupationG a:ricultureG '7? industr1G 74? ser.e :ro<th6 Forei:n eBchan:e reser.icesG 57? !744% est6( Dabor forceG '#67& million noteG eBtensi.consumptionG .

dollar .%46*5 !744%(/ 5&65"5 !7445(/ 5#675# !744'(/ 5$6$57 !744*(/ 5&6$7' !7447( Fiscal 1earG .importsG 4 k8h !744'( Oil .productionG %*/444 bbl>da1 !7445 est6( Oil .eBportsG 4 cu m !744' est6( Natural :as . 7'6#?/ @AC $6#?/ Af:hanistan %6%?/ @.u<ait 5?/ -erman1 '65? !7445( Reser.importsG 4 cu m !744' est6( Natural :as .esG *5#6& million bbl !744% est6( Natural :as .esG $5&6$ billion cu m !" anuar1 7445 est6( 0urrent account balanceG A-56'#% billion !744% est6( CBportsG A"&67' billion f6o6b6 !744% est6( CBports .productionG 7$6' billion cu m !744' est6( Natural :as .pro.eBternalG A'76*# billion !744% est6( Cconomic aid .audi Arabia ""6"?/ @AC "46*?/ 0hina &67?/ apan %6'?/ @.consumptionG 7$6' billion cu m !744' est6( Natural :as .consumptionG *7'/444 bbl>da1 !744' est6( Oil .eBportsG NA bbl>da1 Oil .ed reser. %?/ .commoditiesG teBtiles !:arments/ bed linen/ cotton cloth/ 1arn(/ rice/ leather :oods/ sports :oods/ chemicals/ manufactures/ carpets and ru:s CBports .pro. 56$?/ -erman1 '65? !7445( ImportsG A7%6$& billion f6o6b6 !744% est6( Imports .R( CBchan:e ratesG Pakistani rupees per @.eBportsG 4 k8h !744'( Clectricit1 .importsG NA bbl>da1 Oil .partnersG @.commoditiesG petroleum/ petroleum products/ machiner1/ plastics/ transportation e)uipment/ edible oils/ paper and paperboard/ iron and steel/ tea Imports .ed of forei:n eBchan:e and :oldG A"*67& billion !744% est6( =ebt .partnersG .$'6%7 billion k8h !744'( Clectricit1 .recipientG A76' billion !FP4">47( 0urrenc1 !code(G Pakistani rupee !P.

ed run<a1sG totalG &" the same period and there are still difficulties :ettin: main line ser." ul1 .er */4'$ mG "' 7/'*# to */4'$ mG 7" "/57' to 7/'*$ mG ** &"' to "/57* mG "5 under &"' mG # !744%( Airports .e radio rela1 to nei:hborin: countries !744%( Radio broadcast stationsG AM *"/ FM %#/ short<a.ailabilit1 has risen onl1 mar:inall1 dramaticall1 <ith forei:n and domestic in.e radio rela1/ coaBial cable/ fiber-optic cable/ cellular/ and satellite net<orks internationalG countr1 code .<ith pa.estments into fiBed-line and mobile net<orksJ mobile cellular subscribership has sk1rocketed/ approachin: 54 million in late 744%/ up from onl1 about *44/444 in 7444J fiber s1stems are bein: constructed throu:hout the countr1 to aid in net<ork :ro<thJ main line a.atel1-o<ned satellite channels( !744%( Internet countr1 codeG 6pk Internet hostsG $7/$%5 !744%( Internet usersG "465 million !7445( Transportation AirportsG "*& !744%( Airports .ed run<a1sG totalG '# o.<ith */4'$ mG " "/57' to 7/'*$ mG "7 &"' to "/57* mG "7 under &"' mG 7* !744%( +eliportsG "# !744%( PipelinesG :as "4/75$ kmJ oil 7/44" km !744%( Rail<a1sG totalG #/"%* km broad :au:eG $/$"# km "6%$%-m :au:e !7&* km electrified( .&7J satellite earth stations .main lines in useG 5/"%7/$&# !744%( 3elephones .mobile cellularG '#/7#&/"*% !744%( 3elephone s1stemG :eneral assessmentG the telecom infrastructure is impro.*4 une Communications 3elephones .ision broadcast stationsG 74 !5 state-run channels and "5 pri.e NA !744%( 3ele.arachi and 7 at Islamabad(J micro< to rural areas6 domesticG micro<a.* Intelsat !" Atlantic Ocean and 7 Indian Ocean(J * operational international :ate<a1 eBchan:es !" at .

narro< :au:eG ''5 km "6444-m :au:e !744'( Road<a1sG totalG 75#/*'4 km 0reek estuar1 at the mouth of the Rann of .ailable for militar1 ser.ashmir(/ and Pakistan !Azad .aint Fincent and the -renadines "( !744%( Ports and terminalsG .internationalG .utch in the Arabian .ertheless remains the site of the <orldEs lar:est and most militarized territorial dispute <ith portions under the de facto administration of 0hina !Aksai 0hin(/ India ! ammu and .e inducted their first female pilots and sailors !744%( Manpo<er a:e annuall1G males a:e "#-'&G "/&%&/455 females a:e "%-'&G "/#'&/75' !7445 est6( Militar1 eBpenditures .iceG males a:e "%-'&G 7&/'7#/$'$ females a:e "%-'&G 7#/*&"/##$ !7445 est6( Manpo<er reachin: militar1 ser.ashmir/ <hich is part of the lar:er dispute on <ater sharin: of the Indus Ri.ashmir/ particularl1 since the October 7445 earth)uake in the re:ionJ .arious talks and confidence-buildin: measures cautiousl1 ha.tateJ b1 7445/ Pakistan/ <ith @N assistance/ repatriated 76* million Af:han refu:ees -roup in India and Pakistan !@NMO-IP( has maintained a small :roup of peacekeepers since "&'&J India does not reco:nize PakistanEs cedin: historic .ashmir and Northern Areas(J @N Militar1 Obser.oluntar1 militar1 ser.e maintained their 744' cease fire in .1 !includes Marines(/ Pakistan Air Force !Pakistan FizaE1a( !744%( Militar1 and its tributariesJ to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundar1/ India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundar1 in .iachen :lacier re:ionJ Pakistan protests IndiaEs fencin: the hi:hl1 militarized Dine of 0ontrol and construction of the 9a:lihar =am on the 0henab .ice a:e and obli:ationG "% 1ears of a:e for .iceG males a:e "%-'&G *&/47#/4"' females a:e "%-'&G *%/$$&/5#' !7445 est6( Manpo<er fit for militar1 *&$/$'4 -R3>%5$/%5% =83 b1 t1peG bulk carrier "/ car:o "4/ container "/ petroleum tanker ' re:istered in other countriesG "" !0omoros 7/ North .edG "%$/"'% km !includin: $"" km of eBpress<a1s( sli:htl1 less than a million/ man1 of <hom remain at their o<n choosin:J Pakistan has proposed and Af:hanistan protests construction of a fence and la1in: of mines alon: portions of their porous borderJ Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border <ith Af:hanistan and stem terrorist or .ashmir ne.orea */ Malta "/ Ni:eria "/ Panama */ .1 ha.ashmir and initiated discussions on defusin: the armed stand-off in the .edG &"/"&' km !744'( Merchant marineG totalG "% ships !"444 -R3 or o.arachi/ Port Muhammad 9in Qasim Military Militar1 branchesG Arm1 !includes National -uard(/ Na.percent of -=PG '65? !744% est6( Transnational Issues =isputes .er in ammu and .eaJ Pakistani maps continue to sho< the una:adh claim in IndiaEs -u2arat .ashmir lands to 0hina in "&%'J India and Pakistan ha.e be:un to defuse tensions o.iceJ soldiers cannot be deplo1ed for combat until a:e of "#J the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Na.

outh 8aziristan(/ *'/444 !October 7445 earth)uake/ most of those displaced returned to their home .other ille:al acti.arachi/ Dahore and Islamabad The $tar/ .ation is not obser.ABI $a--an/ Dahore )ha*ran/ Dahore Bhulekha/ Dahore $%AI)I )ook/ .tates/ and AfricaJ financial crimes related to dru: traffickin:/ terrorism/ corruption/ and smu::lin: remain problems BALOC I !a"ai #atan/ Quetta E!GLI$ Balochistan Post/ Quetta Business %ecorder/ .ernment strikes on Islamic militants in .arachi &aily Mail' Islamabad &aily Times/ Dahore &a"n/ .incial authorities continue to conduct anti-popp1 campai:ns that force eradication .arachi The $tatesman/ Islamabad PA$ TO &aily #ahdat/ Pesha<ar P+!.arachi &aily ilal Pakistan/ +1derabad &aily $indhu/ +1derabad &aily Alakh/ +1derabad &aily Tameer/e/$indh/ +1derabad &aily )oshish/ +1derabad &aily Mehran/ +1derabad &aily $ach/ +1derabad .edJ ke1 transit point for Af:han dru:s/ includin: heroin/ opium/ morphine/ and hashish/ bound for 8estern markets/ the -ulf .ities Refu:ees and internall1 displaced personsG refu:ees !countr1 of ori:in(G "/4#'/74# !Af:hanistan( I=PsG undetermined !:o./ .arachi The (rontier Post/ Pesha<ar )hy*er Mail' Pesha<ar The !ation/ Dahore and Islamabad Pakistan O*server/ Islamabad Pakistan Times/ Islamabad The !e"s/ .ation estimated to be #44 hectares in 7445 1ieldin: a potential production of ' metric tons of pure heroinJ federal and pro.arachi $I!& I &aily )a"ish/ +1derabad &aily I*rat/ +1derabad &aily A"ami A"a.illa:es in the sprin: of 744%( !744%( Illicit dru:sG opium popp1 culti.fines and arrests <ill take place if the ban on popp1 culti.

arachi &aily Islam/ .asarat/ .han and .arachi &aily Al/1amar/ Islamabad/ &aily E2press/ .ar:odha/ Rahim Par .&aily $ham/ +1derabad &aily $a0eer/ +1derabad +%&+ Aa.arachi/ Dahore/ Islamabad/ Pesha<ar/ Multan/ Faisalabad/ -u2ran<ala/ .ukkar &aily Imro.arachi and Dahore Gu-ran"ala Times/ -u2ran<ala/ &aily .arachi and Dahore &aily .&aily/Pesha"ar / Islamabad and Abbottabad &aily Al/Akh*ar/ Islamabad &aily Ausa0/ Islamabad &aily A"am/ .ang/ .e/ . Karachi List o0 Pakistan %ail"ays Trains INTERNATIONAL • Samjhauta Express • Thar Express NATION WIDE • Allama Iqbal Express • Awam Express • Baddar Express • Badin Express • Bahuddin Zakaria Express • Bahawalpur Express • Baluchistan Express • Bolan ail • Buraq Express • !ar"o Express • !henab Express • !hiltan Express • #achi Express • Express • $aisal Express • $aisalabad Express • $areed Express • $ast • $ast %assen"er .arachi and Dahore &aily Mashri3/ Pesha<ar &aily !aya 4amana/ Dahore &aily Pakistan/ Dahore &aily &een/ .arachi &aily )ha*rain/ Pesha<ar &aily Millat/ Dahore &aily !a"a/i/#a3t/ Dahore Daily Ummat.

ahore *on+Stop .asani Express alik /al Express ari Indus Express ehr Express ehran Express ianwali Express (Lahore-Mianwali-Lahore) illat Express *ishtar Express (Rawalpindi-Lahore-Karachi) usa %ak *arowal Express *i"ht !oach %akpattan Express %assen"er 0alander Express 0uetta Express 1achna Express 1a2i Express 1ohi Express 1ohri Express Sakhi Abbas Express Sandal Express Sar"odha Express Shah .Landikotal) &houri Express Islamabad *on+Stop .atee' Express Shah 1ukne Alam Express Shah Shams Express Shalimar Express Shuttle Train Sir S-ed Express (Rawalpindi-Karachi-Rawalpindi) Subak Kharam Express Subak 1a'tar Express Sukkar Express Supper Express Te3"am Thal Express Tipu Sultan Express ASTOLA (AKA HAFT TALAR) .innah Express Karachi Express Karkoram Express Khushhal Khan Khattak Express Kh-ber ail .ala usa Express .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • &andhara Steam Sa'ari (Rawalpindi .a''ar Express .

to catch lobsters and o-sters4 $rom . C rsori s coromandeli part o' the %asni subdi2ision o' the district o' &wadar4 Between September and a. $ meni s ar# ata. e2en the mutton had a fishy taste4 The %ersian phrase Mahi horan. approximatel. accordin" to *earchus. admiral o' Alexander the &reat.7 km84 The island is about 'our kilometres in len"th and one kilometre in width. its altitude is 5+655 'eet and the total area is approximatel. Lar s genei. inhabited b. there is a small solar+ operated beacon 'or the sa'et. Lar s argentat s.twent-+'i2e kilometres south o' the Balochistan coast o' %akistan4 The island lies about 'ort. %alerida cristata.the 'ishermen durin" the 'ishin" season4 !ild life The isolated location o' the island has helped maintain endemic li'e 'orms4 The endan"ered &reen turtle (Chelonia mydas) and possibl.and o''er pra-ers there4 The pra-er -ard is used b.o' each -ear. with an isolated rock to the southeast which has broken awa-4 There are ca2es on the south 'ace cli''s4 Astola is the onl. Astola becomes a temporar.o' the area4 The island is reported to support a lar"e number o' breedin" seabirds includin" Lar s hemprichii and se2eral species o' terns4 A2i'auna includes> !rdeola cinerea. and it is a 2erimportant area 'or endemic reptiles such as the 2iper Echis carinat s astolae4 The island is maintainin" the "enetic and ecolo"ical di2ersit.une to Au"ust. (Fish eaters) has become the modern name o' the coastal re"ion o' Ma ran4 9n the island are the remains o' an ancient <indu temple o' the "oddess. %akistan4 It comprises three small 'ishin" islands which in the centre o' the harbour o' Karachi4 .kilometres east+ southeast o' the port o' %asni.base 'or mainland 'ishermen.introduced b'ishermen to control the endemic rodent population pose an increasin" threat to birds? nestin" and breedin" sites4 and as such maintains the "enetic and ecolo"ical di2ersit.the Ichthyophagoi (Fish eaters in &reek) where. uninhabited island in the Arabian Sea. mentioned Astola island as Carnine Island.5+:55 B!E). "l vialis s#"ni'icant o''shore island alon" the north coast o' the Arabian Sea4 The island is owned b. Limosa limosa. Kali #e2i4 The island was also known as to <indus as =Satadip=4 There is also a pra-er -ard built 'or the uslim Su'i %ir Khawaja Khi3r who accordin" to mainland le"ends is said to rule o2er the oceans and is belie2ed to 2isit the area occasionall.o' the area4 "HIT SHAH ISLA#D "a$a "hit Shah Island is the smallest nei"hborhood o' Kiamari Town in Karachi. and "rinia spp4 $eral cats ori"inall.the Balochistan Board o' 1e2enue and administrati2el. Sindh.humans because o' the rou"h sea and hi"h tides4 9n one o' the cli''s o' the island. the island remains uninhabited b. Egretta g laris.the <awksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbracata) nest on the beach at the 'oot o' cli''s.o' passin" 2essels44 History *earchus (:.Astola or Astola Island (also known as Haft Talar or seven hills) is a small. Calidris min t s. &enanthe deserti.

Kashmiris..local 'ishermen4 Buddo and Bundal Islands ser2e as a temporar.2istas.port 'or local 'ishermen4 The. "o2ernment o' %akistan "a2e a #ubai propert. Sindh. Sindh.555 acres o' land in these Islands4 De&elo'ment (ro)e*t In September 655. emons. about CF.555 acres o' land. %akistan4 Buddo Island is also known as 'ingi b.DA+CEF6). extraordinar.'ish on these islands4 The Bundal and Buddo Islands comprisin" C6. pronounced (handar b. are the assets o' the %ort 0asim Authorit-4 "U#DAL ISLA#D "%ndal Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea o'' the coast o' Karachi. Seraikis. %akistan4 Bundal.durin" the urs4 !hurma and Buddo Islands are also located near Bundal Island4 There is a dispute between the pro2incial "o2ernment o' Sindh and Karachi %ort Trust on the ownership ri"hts o' C6.usin" technolo"-4 Accordin" to initial plan. %unjabis. Ismailis4 92er AAB o' the population is uslim4 The population o' Kiamari Town is estimated to be nearl. is a twin island o' Buddo and lies to its /est4 9n Bundal Island the tomb o' uslim su'i Gusu' Shah is located4 The annual urs o' HGusu' ShahH which attracts thousands o' coastal people to the island4 The island looked like a cit.%hase+D with Bundal and Buddo Islands4 The islands are situated at a distance o' C4Fkm 'rom Karachi #e'ence %hase+D4 A major portion o' one o' the two islands has submer"ed beneath the sea and the land o' Emaar &roup would reclaim the land b.local *&9s.island with a bi" reputation embrace cr-stal clear water.clean their nets and dr. it?s a culmination o' -our search 'or the best Sport $ishin" action in %akistan with a plethora o' choices excursions to our undersea world.'irm. Sindh.ati' Bhittai (C. .local 'ishermen. %akhtuns. million4 There is another place named "hit Shah located in the interior part o' pro2ince o' Sindh. Emaar the "o+ahead 'or a I7:bn (J664Dbn) project to de2elop two island resorts in Bundal and Buddo Island4 A brid"e would be constructed at a cost o' IF5 million to link Karachi #e'ence <ousin" Societ. %akistan4 Bhit Shah is the town where the shrine o' Shah Abdul . Bohras. political parties and e2en Sindh &o2ernment ha2e raised their 2oice about these de2elopment projects4 CHURMA ISLA#D (AKA CHUR#A ISLA#D) Ch%rma Island or Ch%rna Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea o'' the coast o' Karachi. Sindhis.There are se2eral ethnic "roups in Kiamari Town includin" @rdu speakers.555 houses would be constructed and would be sold to public4 9n #ecember Dth contruction o' the islands started4 Contro&ersy an. the patron saint o' Sindh4 "UDDO ISLA#D "%ddo Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea o'' the coast o' Karachi. %akistan4 !hurna is a tin.

scuba di2in". . %akistan4 The island is connected to the mainland b. with berths 'or na2al 2essels located alon" the eastern ed"e o' the island4 The island has been "o2erned as a militar. %akistan4 KHI(RIA#!ALA ISLA#D Khi'rian-ala Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea o'' the coast o' Karachi. this is one o' the bi""est and most acti2e 'ishin" spot in %akistan.o' the harbour contains endan"ered man"ro2e 'orests which border the Sandspit and anora island4 To the east is Karachi Baand the beach towns o' Kiamari and !li'ton4 The island is located at 67K7DL55M*.the British in CD:A because o' the strate"ic location o' Karachi4 Althou"h the 'ort is now buried beneath the na2al base. the li"hthouse is a 2isible reminder o' the British presence ha2in" been built in CDDA to assist 2essels approachin" Karachi harbour4 The island o' anora has ser2ed 'or more than F5 -ears as the main base o' the %akistan *a2-. sailin" around and snorkelin". .R ROCKS Clifton Oyster Ro* s is an island located near Karachi. %akistan4 MALA# ISLA#D Malan Island is located in Arabian Sea : kilometres o'' the coast o' Balochistan. The island o' !hurna is 'requentl2isited b.o' #ebal4 The island was the site o' a small 'ort constructed in the ei"hteenth centur. %akistan4 It is an o''shore mud 2olcano and rose out o' the water o2erni"ht in arch CAAA4 MA#ORA (AKA MA#ORO) Manora or Manoro is a small island (64F km8) located just south o' the %ort o' Karachi..innah *a2al Base at 9rmara.. There is enou"h sea li'e which attracts an"lers 'or Bi" &ame $ishin" all o2er %akistan4 CLIFTO# O+ST. has meanHt that approximatel. which mer"e into the beaches o' the Sandspit and then extend se2eral kilometres to the beaches at <awkesba-4 At the southeastern end o' anora island is the tallest li"hthouse (6D m or AC 'eet hi"h) in %akistan4 . Sindh. parts o' cit.cantonment despite bein" located so close to Karachi4 The openin" o' the new .hal' o' the na2al 2essels ha2e mo2ed awa.when the port o' Karachi traded with 9man and Bahrain4 The 'ort was stormed b.'rom anora4 To%rism anora is also a popular picnic spot because o' the lon" sand. 6F5 kilometres awa-. Sindh.beaches alon" the southern ed"e o' the"lers (recreational 'ishermen) 'or 'ishin".o' Karachi and the island o' anora at port o' Karachi constituted the cit. Sindh.called the Sandspit4 anora and nei"hbourin" islands 'orm a protecti2e barrier between Karachi harbour to the north and the Arabian Sea to the south4 The western ba.4AE5555)4 History Accordin" to the British historian Eliot.KFDL55ME (674D55555.a C6 kilometre lon" causewa.

.%rd-ara (atti Sahi$.boat ride 'rom mainland Karachi but there are no "ood hotels a2ailable 'or an o2erni"ht sta-4 $or this and other reasons. *ankana Sahib + This site is O.ahore .childhood o' the &uru in particular the e2ents link to the !obra and ehta Kalu • .%rd-ara "hai "%dh% Da A-a.arh0 .%rd-ara "aoli Sahi$ . !huharkana • .%rd-ara (an)a Sahi$.ahore • .anam Asthan4 • . *ankana Sahib • .%rd-ara Dehra Sahi$ Sri . .%rd-ara /anam Asthan.ahore • . *ankana Sahib + This site is where.'or %orts and Shippin" has just si"ned emorandum o' @nderstandin" in 655.the two countries was one nation4 The 'ollowin" is a list o' important places in Sikh histor-> • #an ana Sahi$ This is the most sacred Sikh placeN the location o' the birth o' the Sikh 'ounder. &uru *anak4 • .%r% Ar)an De&. . *ankana Sahib + This site is connected with ad2entures o' the earl.%rd-ara (atshahi Chhe&in • .ahore • .%rd-ara Lal Khooh.%rd-ara Mall /i Sahi$.elopment6 3he de.%rd-ara Di-an Khana0 .%r% Amar Das0 .ahore • .di2ided in CA7E when the separate nations o' India and %akistan were 'ormed4 Be'ore this. .%rd-ara Sri #an .elopment/ so to speak/ <ill comprise of establishin: hi:h rise hotels and apartment buildin:s in the areas6 Gurd"aras in Pakistan .ahore (1oo'ed /ell) • (ar ash Asthan Sri . the area co2ered b.ahore • .anam Asthan? meanin" O%lace o' Birth? and childhood home4 • . .%rd-ara Sa*h*ha Sa%da.%rd-ara Shi ar1arh (atshahi Chhe&in .%r% Har1o$ind Sahi$.The island lies approximatel.ahore • Dharamshala Sri .%rd-ara . .%rd-aras in (a istan are an essential part o' Sikhism and 'orm an important part o' the historo' Sikhism4 The %unjab was onl. .ahore • . with #ubai /orld and Emaar %roperties 'or the rede2elopment o' anora Island4 As part o' the de2elopment plans.%rd-ara Kiara Sahi$.%r% Ramdas.%r% Ram Das. the K%T and all Militar1 establishments <ill . as a -oun"ster.%rd-ara "al Lilah. &uru *anak used to "ra3e cattle4 It is at a distance o' about C4F Km 'rom the .with an up"rade 'or the li"hthouse to add to the quaint 'eel o' the island4 De&elo'ment %akistanHs to the the companies for de. *ankana Sahib + This site is connected with ad2entures o' the earlchildhood o' the &uru4 • .acate the island and hand it o. <asan Abdal P This is the site where &uru *anak #e2 stopped the rock with his hand and the palm print is impressed on the rock4 • .CF+65 minutes b. the &o2ernment o' %akistan has been considerin" de2elopin" the island into a tourist destination4 The island has been en2isioned as an exotic location with natural landscapes such as the beaches and the man"ro2e 'orests. *ankana Sahib P O%atti? means OAlphabet? and is the site where &uru *anak learnt the 2arious di''erent lan"ua"es and particular the alphabet o' these lan"ua"es4 • . .%rd-ara (ehli (atshahi.%rd-ara Tam$% Sahi$0 *ankana Sahib • .ahore • "aoli Sahi$ Sri .ahore • .%rd-ara #ihan1 Sin1han0 *ankana Sahib • .%r% Ar)an De&. and secluded beaut.%rd-ara (atshahi Chhe&in M%2an1 • .

0!C0( Dahore American CBpress 9ank Dimited/ .arachi (oreign Banks Abn Amro 9ank NF/ .arachi 9ank of 3ok1o Mitsubishi Dimited/ .arachi +abib 9ank Dimited/ .arachi Meezan 9ank Dimited/ .arachi =eutsche 9ank A-/ .arachi +abib 9ank A.arachi 0rescent 0ommercial 9ank Dimited/ .arachi 9ank Al-Falah Dimited/ .han:hai 9ankin: 0orporation/ .arachi Askari 0ommercial 9ank Dimited6 Ra<alpindi Atlas 9ank Dimited/ .ahore Shahid .arachi 0itibank NA/ .Iurich/ .arachi Muslim 0ommercial 9ank Dimited !M09(/ Islamabad M1bank Dimited/ .arachi . 9ank .ahore Banks o0 Pakistan Central Bank .MC 9anks/ Islamabad .e 9ank .A.ed $cheduled Banks First 8omen 9ank Dimited National 9ank of Pakistan $peciali.tate 9ank of Pakistan ! "hai Mani Sin1h0 .arachi Fa1sal 9ank Dimited/ .arachi =a<ood 9ank Dimited/ .an) "hai Tar% Sin1h .an) Si1hnian.MC 9ank Iarai 3ara)iati 9ank !A:ricultural =e.• • • Shahid .elopment 9ank Pun2ab Pro.arachi NI9 9ank Dimited/ .ed Banks Industrial =e.arachi Metropolitan 9ank Dimited/ .arachi6 Albaraka Islamic 9ank 0ommercial 9ank Dimited/ .arachi .arachi @nited 9ank Dimited/ .arachi Prime 0ommercial 9ank Dimited/ Dahore .9 9ank Dimited/ .arachi 9ank AD +abib/ .oneri 9ank Dimited/ . .%rd-ara Shahid .elopment 9ank( Private $cheduled Banks Allied 9ank of Pakistan Dimited/ .arachi +on:kon: and .arachi PI0I0 0ommercial 9ank Dimited/ .arachi @nion 9ank/ .incial 0ooperati.arachi Arif +abib Rupali 9ank Dimited/ .arachi .

estment 9ank Dimited Islamic In.arachi .estment 9ank Dimited 0rescent In.arachi Investment Banks Al-3o<feek In.arachi National =e.estment 0ompan1 !P.arachi =ubai Islamic 9ank/ .estment 9ank Dimited ahan:ir .er.arachi Rupali 9ank Dimited/ .estment 9ank Dimited Franklin In.estment 9ank Dimited Fidelit1 In.estment 9ank Dimited Cscorts In.estment 9ank Dimited OriB In.estment 9ank Dimited Atlas In.estment 9ank !Pakistan( Dimited Prudential In.estment 9ank Dimited Asset In.u<ait In..ices Dimited .elopment 9ank of Pakistan/ .estment 9ank Dimited &iscount 5 Guarantee ouses First 0redit H =iscount 0orp Dimited Prudential =iscount H -uarantee +ouse Dimited National =iscountin: .Oman International 9ank .arachi Pak-Oman In.estment 0orp Dimited/ .estment 9ank Dimited First International In.arachi &evelopment (inancial Institutions Pakistan Industrial 0redit and In.arachi .arachi In.arachi Pak .iddi)ui In.hushali 9ank Net<ork Micro Finance 9ank Pak Oman Micro Finance 9ank Roz:ar Micro Finance 9ank/ .elopment Finance 0orporation/ .estment 0ompan1 Dimited/ .arachi .estment 9ank Dimited 3rust In.estment 0ompan1 Dimited/ .t( Dimited Islamabad +ouse 9uildin: Finance 0orporation/ .tandard 0hartered 9ank Dimited/ .peed<a1 Fordmetall !Pakistan( Dimited ousing (inance Companies Asian +ousin: Finance Dimited 0itibank +ousin: Finance 0ompan1 Dimited +ouse 9uildin: Finance 0orporation International +ousin: Finance Dimited 6enture Capital Companies Pakistan Fenture 0apital Dimited Pakistan Cmer:in: Fentures Dimited Micro (inance Banks 3he First Micro Finance 9ank Dimited .OA.arachi Pak Dib1a +oldin: 0ompan1 Dimited/ .arachi Industrial =e.estment 0orporation Of Pakistan/ .audi Pak Industrial And A:ricultural In.

la*ier The "altoro .o' ice connects two ancient mountain kin"doms. *a"ar (immediatel. bordered b. and the Germandendu &lacier. includin" the &odwin Austen &lacier. just north o' Batura (E.'rom 2er.ake.3ameer Microfinance 9ank Dimited Islamic Banks First =a<ood Islamic 9ank =ubai Islamic 9ank Meezan 9ank 9ank Alfalah @9D Ameen Islamic 9ankin: Al9araka Islamic 9ank Qaiser Islamic 9ank A$r%22i ..rocks4 o2in" ice has 'ormed depressions. and runs throu"h part o' the Karakoram mountain ran"e4 The Baltoro u3ta"h lies to the north and east o' the "lacier.6FC 't).D67 'eet)at <ispar .la* the trunk "lacier4 The sidewalls 2ar."laciers 'orm ice'alls where the.o' the Indus 1i2er4 Se2eral lar"e tributar. 'lowin" 'rom the &asherbrum "roup o' peaksN the Qi"ne &*ier is a . cows and -aks and where roses and juniper trees are common4 "iafo .: km lon" "lacier in the Karakoram ountains o' the *orthern*ier is a "lacier in the north o' the Baltoro Kan"ri peak in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 The "lacier joins the hu"e Baltoro &lacier (one o' the lar"est "laciers outside polar re"ion) that 'lows northwest in the be"innin" and then turns westward4 "altoro ..wide and its central part is a 2ast snow'ield4 Small*ier A$r%22i .CC m (*ier The "iafo .: km and all o' the <ispar &lacier to 'orm a C55 km "lacial route4 The Bia'o &lacier presents a trekker with se2eral da-s o' 2er. while the asherbrum ountains lie to the south4 At D. o'ten hectic boulder hoppin".a(%ass) to create the worldHs lon"est "lacial s-stem outside o' the polar re"ions4 This hi"hwa.a 'ew summer 2illa"es and pastures with herds o' sheep. "*ier "at%ra . in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan.strenuous.F55 m) massi's4 It 'lows west to east4 The lower portions can be described as a "re.sea o' rocks and "ra2ell.C6Dm (*ier (FEkm lon") is one o' the lar"est and lon"est "laciers outside the polar re"ions4 It lies in the &ojal re"ion o' the *orthern Areas o' %akistan. at FE kilometers lon".ake near the hi"h point4 Snow . . is one o' the lon"est "laciers outside o' the polar re"ions4 It is located in Baltistan."laciers 'eed the main Baltoro "lacier.south o' <un3a) in the west with Baltistan in the east4 The tra2erse uses FC o' the Bia'o &lacierHs . which is a tributar.steep to precipitous4 The "lacier has car2ed striations on the surroundin" countr. with spectacular 2iews throu"hout and Snow . 'lowin" south 'rom K6N the Abru33i and the 2arious &asherbrum &laciers. which ser2e as basins 'or numerous "lacial lakes4 The "lacier can be approached 2ia the important Balti town o' Skardu4 "at%ra . K6 is the hi"hest mountain in the re"ion. %akistan which meets the 7A km lon" <ispar &lacier at an altitude o' F.moraine. 'lowin" 'rom !ho"olisa.EAF m) and %assu (E. and three others within 65 km top D. 'lowin" 'rom asherbrum4 The con'luence o' the main Baltoro &lacier with the &odwin Austen &lacier is known as !oncordiaN this location and K6 base camp are popular trekkin" destinations4 The trou"h o' this "lacier is 2er.555 m4 The "lacier "i2es rise to the Shi"ar 1i2er.

55 'oot) peaks and o' the snow co2ered cli''s and mountains on the south side o' the "lacier are particularlimpressi2e4 Lona .la*ier is a 7A km4 lon" "lacier in the Karakoram ountains o' the (*orthern Areas.ondo1oro .includes walkin" on the <ispar &lacier4 The crossin" o' 'our major tributar. %akistan) which meets the .C6Dm (C.places to spend the da. in the <imala-a ran"e in *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 .la*ier is located near K6 in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 Its con'luence with the Baltoro &lacier is called !oncordia and is one o' the most 'a2orite spots 'or trekkin" in %akistan since it pro2ides excellent 2iews o' 'our o' the 'i2e ei"ht+thousanders in %akistan4 The "lacier can be approached 2ia the important Balti town o' Skardu4 . the third camp site. *orthern Areas o' His'ar .hi"h nullah crossin"s can be dan"erous4 The 2iews o' ED55 meter (6F.rock climbin" or rappellin"4 E2idence o' wildli'e can be seen throu"h out the trek4 The Ibex and the arkhor ountain &oat can be 'ound and the area is 'amous 'or brown bears and snow leopards. *a"ar (immediatel. is o'ten used as a rest da-4 A lar"e "reen meadow. are o'ten co2ered in 'lowers and *amla has an ama3in" water'all*ier His'ar .la*ier Lona .a*ier is one o' the three major "laciers o'*ier is a "lacier near Tran"o Tower mountain in Baltistan.the <ispar .la*ier . althou"h si"htin"s are rare4 "iar*hedi .near the campin" area4 Biantha. it has a 'ew runnin" streams near the camp and man.consistin" o' parts o' the upper Bia'o &lacier and its tributar.ondo1horo .od-in3A%sten .: km4 lon" Bia'o &lacier at the <ispar ..south o' <un3a) in the west with Baltistan in the east4 The extreme steepness o' the hillsides and strenuous nature o' the boulder hoppin" on the lateral moraines and hillsides make this routeHs upper hal' the most di''icult part o' the Bia'o + <ispar tra2erse4 9nl. the 'irst two campsites. adjacent to the lateral moraines and steep mountainsides4 The 'irst three (headin" up 'rom the last 2illa"e be'ore the "lacier. is one o' the worldHs lar"est basins o' snow or ice in the world outside o' the polar re"*ier The "iar*hedi .la*ier is "lacier near !oncordia in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 It ser2es as an alternati2e means to reach !oncordiaN the con'luence o' Baltoro &lacier and &odwin+Austen &lacier4 Haina$la Haina$la %akistan4 ."lacier Sim &an".to the E5 km Siachen &lacier disputed between %akistan and India and TajikistanHs EE km lon" $edchenko &lacier4 !ampsites alon" the Bia'o are located o'' o' the "*ier is located on the northeast o' Biarchedi %eak in %akistan4 It 'lows north into the Baltoro &lacier4 .D67 'eet) to create the worldHs lon"est "lacial s-stem outside o' the polar re"ions4 This C55 km4 hi"hwa. up to one mile in depth4 The Bia'o &lacier is the worldHs third lon"est "lacier outside o' the polar re"ions.o' ice connects two ancient mountain kin"doms..od-in3A%sten . the thousand+ -ear+old Askole 2illa"e) are beauti'ul sites with 'lowin" water nearb-4 an"o and *amla."laciers 'rom the north is most taxin".la*ier or . and*ier .a (%ass) at an altitude o' F. second*ier The .ondo1oro .

means Hthe place o' wild roses. at approximatel. 'rom north to south. a re'erence some people attribute to the abundance o' <imala-an wild'lowers 'ound in the 2alle-s below the "lacier.Miar .outcrops4 The "lacier is also the hi"hest battle"round on earth.DD5 to 6F.DD5 't).::..DA m (*ier or Tashain .la*ier The Sia*hen .. Bila'ond .DDE m) in *altar Qalle-. where India and %akistan ha2e 'ou"ht intermittentl. a 2ital water source4 &lobal warmin" has had one o' its worst impacts here in the <imala-as with the "laciers meltin" at an unprecedented rate4 The 2olume o' the "lacier has been reduced b. which drains into the Sh-ok 1i2er4 The Sh-ok in turn joins the Indus 1i2er4 The "lacierHs meltin" waters are a major source o' the ri2er*ier is a "lacier in the &reat <imala-a subran"e o' <imala-as4 It starts in the north o' an unnamed . and &-on" . m hi"h peak (:FK DH:F4A:=* E7K67HF647. %akistan4 Sia*hen .. Sia .la*ier is a "lacier that 'orms in the north o' iar %eak (.la*ier The Sar'o La11o .555 metres4 The site is a prime example o' mountain war'are4 The "lacierHs meltin" waters are the main source o' the *ubra the west and the main Karakoram ran"e to the east4 The Saltoro 1id"e ori"inates in the north 'rom the Sia Kan"ri peak on the !hina border in the Karakoram ran"e4 The crest o' the Saltoro 1id"eHs altitudes ran"e 'rom F7F5 to EE65 m ( much as "lobal warmin"4 .re'ers to the*ier (ass% .since April C:.DEF 't4) The Siachen &lacier lies south o' the "reat watershed that separates !entral Asia 'rom the Indian subcontinent4 The E5 km (7:4F mile) lon" Siachen "lacier lies between the Saltoro 1id"e line immediatel. in the Karakoram mountain ran"e o' the <imala-as4 Shani .65 m (CC.:F4FK * EE45K E4 It is the lon"est "lacier in the Karakoram and second lon"est in the worldHs non+polar areas4 It ran"es 'rom an altitude o' FEF: m (*ier is a "lacier in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 It is included in the !entral Karakoram *ational %ark4 (ass% . CAD74 Both countries maintain permanent militarpersonnel in the re"ion at a hei"ht o' o2er .a at*ier (anmah ...DEF 't4) abo2e sea le2el at its source at Indira !ol (pass) on the !hina border to its snout at :.F 't4) Confli*t 4one The "lacier is located in the disputed re"ion o' Kashmir in the Indian subcontinent4 The a2era"e winter snow'all is C54F m (:F 't4) and temperatures can dip to minus F5 de"rees celsius (minus FD de"rees 'ahrenheit4 In spite o' the se2ere*ier Miar .::5 'eet)4 The major passes on this rid"e*ier 'orms in the east o' the %assu Sar (%assu %eak)4 R%'al . the word HSiachenH ironicall.D67 m)4 (anmah . 't).-ears4 9ne report blames*ier Shani .aila %eak (1upal Qalle-) and in the south o' *an"a %arbatHs man.=E) and 'lows northeast in the north o' .la*ier R%'al .a at FFDA m (*ier ()arpo Laggo> -oun" husband) is a "lacier in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan.wild plants which "row on the rock.a at F7F5 m (*ier is located in the eastern Karakoram 1an"e in the <imala-a ountains.:F percent o2er the last twent.peaks4 The melt water 'rom the "lacier 'orms 1upal 1i2er4 Sar'o La11o .la*ier is a "lacier in the north o' Shani %eak (F. but speci'icall.

555 'eet (.%akistan in CAA5. reprinted as =9ropolitics= in the Alpine . with some :.555 sq4 mi4 o' territor. current %akistani president. and &-on" .permanent presence in the area4 Fi1htin1 In the CAE5s and earl.documentation.about a week4 The two northern passes + Sia .west o' the "lacier.-ear more soldiers were killed because o' se2ere weather than enem.would proceed =thence north to the "laciers4= In the CA.just 'i2e kilometers southwest o' &-on" . as these expeditions arri2ed on the "lacier with a permit obtained 'rom the &o2ernment o' %akistan4 9nce ha2in" become aware o' this in about CAED. in CAD74 India launched O'eration Me1hdoot (named a'ter the di2ine cloud messen"er in a Sanskrit pla-) on C: April CAD7 when the Kumaon 1e"iment o' the Indian Arm.!aptain). when an attempt was made b.::C Km6 (A55 i6) o' territor-4 TI E states that the Indian ad2ance captured nearl.statin" that 'rom the *. thus holdin" onto the tactical ad2anta"e o' hi"h "round4 &-on" . with no le"al justi'ication or an. showin" an international boundar.'irin"4 The two sides ha2e lost an estimated 6.AD76 east+northeast to the Karakoram %ass at FF:7 m (CD. Sia . e2er. the %akistanis were thrown back and the positions remained the same4 The onl. 't4) on the !hina border4 *umerous "o2ernmental and pri2ate carto"raphers and atlas producers 'ollowed suit4 This resulted in carto"raphicall...and the Indian Air $orce went into the "lacier re"ion4 %akistan quickl. and %akistan "ranted them4 This rein'orced the %akistani claim on the area. howe2er. while the Indians cannot come down and abandon their strate"ic hi"h posts4 A cease'ire went into e''ect in 655:4 E2en be'ore then.holdin" on to their respecti2e posts is bein" increasin"l. as %akistan was beaten to most o' the Saltoro 1id"e hi"h "round b.755 m) abo2e the sea le2el.%aram Qir !hakra + IndiaHs hi"hest "allantr.ahore Summit4 The CAAF attack b%akistan SS& was si"ni'icant as it resulted in 75 casualties 'or %akistan troops without an.expedition to Teram Kan"ri peaks (in the Siachen area on the !hina border and just east o' a line drawn due north 'rom *.AD76 location the boundar.a.chan"es in the positions4 C%rrent sit%ation The Indian Arm.a.ondon.AD764 The CA7A Karachi A"reement and the CAE6 Simla A"reement did not clearl. but with little success4 The most well known was in CADE. a2alanches and other complications4 Both nations ha2e CF5 manned outposts alon" the "lacier. Bila'ond . the Indians were in control o2er most o' the area.555 troops each4 9''icial 'i"ures 'or maintainin" these outposts are put at SI:55 and SI655 million 'or India and %akistan respecti2el-4 India has built the worldHs hi"hest helipad on this "lacier at a place called Sonam.5Hs and CAE5Hs.555 'oot (.award + to be awarded 'or combat in the Siachen area went to *aib Subedar Bana Sin"h (retired as Subedar ajorR<onorar.ine (A&%.a and Bil'ond .%akistan to dislod"e India 'rom the area4 The attack was led b.%akistan4 Since then %akistan has launched se2eral attempts to displace the Indian 'orces.a race to the top4 /ithin a 'ew da-s. E55 m) peak. which is at 6C.CAD5s se2eral mountaineerin" expeditions applied to %akistan to climb hi"h peaks in the Siachen area.The con'lict in Siachen stems 'rom the con'usion in the improperl. to ser2e the area4 India also .a.secured b. CAAF.a4 The line where Indian and %akistani troops are presentl.claimed b. &eneral %er2e3 usharra' states that %akistan lost almost'erred to as the Actual &round %osition .C.due to 'rostbite.India4 In his memoirs.)4 The %akistanis ha2e been unable "et up to the crest o' the Saltoro 1id"e.mention who controlled the "lacier.%er2e3 usharra' (later %resident o' %akistan) headin" a newl'ormed elite SS& commando unit in the area4 A special "arrison with ei"ht thousand troops was built at Khapalu4 The immediate aim was to capture Bila'ond .demarcated territor.AD76) as a counter+exercise4 The 'irst public mention o' a possible con'lict situation was an article b. merel. now named Bana %ost4 $urther attempts to reclaim positions were launched b.a (%ass) itsel' is at :F+C5+6A*.took note4 %rior to CAD7 neither India nor %akistan had an. EE+57+CF EN that hi"h point is controlled b.C:.India4 The %akistanis control the "lacial 2alle. !olonel *4 Kumar o' the Indian Armmounted an Arm.CAAA.on their maps a2ailable to the public and pilots as proceedin" 'rom *.on the map be-ond the map coordinate known as *.controls all o' the Siachen &lacier and the three main passes o' the Saltoro 1id"e immediatel.=awardin"= the entire 6E55 square kilometers (C575 square miles) Siachen area to %akistan4 Indian "o2ernment and militar.555 personnel primaril. just prior to the .boundar.(now *ational &eospatial+Intelli"ence A"enc-) be"an.a but a'ter bitter 'i"htin" that included hand to hand combat. and e2en in earl.ournal. .a + were quickl. the @nited States #e'ense appin" A"enc.o-deep Sircar in *he *elegraph newspaper o' !alcutta in CAD6. who assaulted and captured a %akistani post in a darin" da-li"ht raid atop a 66.responded with troop deplo-ments and what 'ollowed was literall. CAA.

the 1a2i 1i2er4 It then mer"es with the Sutlej 1i2er near @ch Shari' to 'orm the %anjnad (H$i2e 1i2ersH). and pla-s a prominent part in the tale o' <eer 1anjha.purposes4 %akistanHs %IA 'lies tourists and trekkers dail.2acated Indian posts across the . which it .ahul and Spiti #istrict o' <imachal %radesh.A.ammu and Kashmir into the plains o' the %unjab. sa.ine o' !ontrol. callin" 'or a peace'ul resolution o' the problem4 In the pre2ious$ila Ri&er .5 kilometres4 The waters o' the !henab are allocated to %akistan under the terms o' the Indus /aters Treat-4 The ri2er was known to Indians in Qedic period as !shkini or Iskmati and as !cesines to the Ancient &reeks4 In :6F B!. and then b.o''icial con'irmation o' its positions in the "lacier4 #urin" her tenure as %rime inister o' %akistan. is located in Bannu #istrict. the %resident o' India. Balochistan. as. Alexander the &reat alle"edl.militar.'ounded the town o' Alexandria on the Indus (present da. makin" her the 'irst premier 'rom either side to "et to the Siachen re"ion4 9n . also called the Tochi 1i2er.@ch Shari' or ithankot or !hacharan) at the con'luence o' the Indus and the combined stream o' %unjab ri2ers (currentl.the con'luence o' the !handra and Bha"a ri2ers at Tandi located in the upper <*ier 5i1ne .helum 1i2er at Trimmu. 655F.between the 1echna and .the 1hine holds 'or the &*ier is a "lacier near Tran"o Tower mountain in Baltistan. althou"h bad weather 'requentl. %akistan4 ItHs source are the hills six miles south o' the Su'ed Koh. which joins the Indus at ithankot4 The total len"th o' the !henab is*ier Tran1o . mainl. the source o' the Kurram 1i2er. s Bena3ir Bhutto."rounds these scheduled 'li"hts4 Tran1o . India has backed o'' 'rom withdrawin" in Siachen4 India 'eels that %akistan would resort to the same thin" i' Siachen &lacier is 2acated without*ier is a "lacier in the *orthern Areas. the worldHs second hi"hest point just :: kilometers (654F miles) northwest o' the Siachen area. 2isited the area west o' &-on" . Balochistan. %akistan4 .outposts but a'ter the Kar"il /ar in CAAA where %akistan sent in'iltrators to occup.the .une C6. or the #anube 'or the Austrians and the <un"arians4 It is the iconic ri2er around which %unjabi consciousness re2ol2es. *orth+/est $rontier %ro2ince. %rime inister anmohan Sin"h became the 'irst Indian %rime inister to 2isit the area. 'ormin" the boundar. %akistan4 #asht ri2er to pro2ide drinkin" water to &wadar cit-4 irani #am is bein" built on Dashtiari Ri&er Dashtiari Ri&er is located in &wadar #istrict. %akistan near &ondo"oro &lacier and Baltoro &lacier4 Chena$ Ri&er The !henab 1i2er is 'ormed b.ech inter'lu2es ('oabs in %ersian)4 It is joined Skardu. which is the jumpin" o'' point 'or K6. in the . India4 In its upper reaches it is also known as the Chandrabhaga4 It 'lows throu"h the .'or militar. the Thoise airbase. the %unjabi national epic4 Dasht Ri&er Dasht Ri&er is located in &wadar$ila Ri&er ri2er. Abdul Kalam became the 'irst head o' state to 2isit the area4 India based . *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 5i1ne .installed the worldHs hi"hest telephone booth on the "lacier4 Both sides ha2e been wishin" to disen"a"e 'rom the costl.known as the %anjnad 1i2er)4 The !henab has the same place in the consciousness o' the people o' the Airwa-s plans to open a chartered ser2ice to the "lacierHs nearest airlink.ammu re"ion o' .

continued throu"h the entire re" o' the <akra 1i2er. Gamuna.ha11ar is a seasonal ri2er in India.joins4 The . but it is disputed i' at all 1i"2edic re'erences to the Saras2ati 1i2er re'er to this ri2er4 It is a dried out ri2er which 'low durin" rainseason onl. and iri and Barak3ai Bannuchis4 .the Indus and Gamuna ri2ers. Saras2ati.the Saras2atiN that name is still known amon"st the people.ha11ar Ri&er The . so that b.dried up due to the capture o' its tributaries b. 'rom 6F55 to 6555 B!.a 'ew "enerations a"o.and used to 'lush out 'lood waters o' %unjab4 Estimated period at which the ri2er dried up ran"e. the order is &an"a. and that it 'ormerl.the dried up #rishad2ati ri2er4 The wide ri2er bed o' the &ha""ar ri2er su""est that the ri2er once 'lowed 'ull o' water.!i2ili3ation (6D55 to CD55 B!) it makes all the di''erence whether the ri2er dried up in 6F55 (its earl.phase) or 6555 (its late phase)4 Similarl-.Tons 1i2er was the ancient upper+part o' the Saras2ati 1i2er.55 B!. o'ten identi'ied with the earl. while the lower terraces in these 2alle-s do not contain such rocks4 In India there are also 2arious small or middle+si3ed ri2ers called Saras2ati or Saraswati4 9ne o' them 'lows 'rom the west end o' the Ara2alli 1an"e into the east end o' the 1ann o' Kutch4 Ha ra Ri&er The Ha ra is the dried+out channel o' a ri2er in %akistan that until about 6555 B! + CF55 B! was the continuation o' the &ha""ar 1i2er in India4 . and other "eolo"ical and paleobotanical 'indin"s4 This howe2er. with a 'urther mar"in o' error at either end o' the date+ran"e4 This ma. or onl.C55 miles below the present junction with the &ha""ar4= (9ldham CDA:> FC+F6) . 'or the &andhara "ra2e culture. joins the &ha""ar4 *ear Surat"arh the &ha""ar is then joined b.dr. is disputed4 The Qictorian era scholar !4$4 9ldham was the 'irst to su""est that "eolo"ical e2ents had redirected the ri2er.ha2e been acquired4 The identi'ication with the Saras2ati 1i2er is based the descriptions in Qedic texts (e+g+ in the enumeration o' the ri2ers in 1i"2eda C54EF45F. in the presentl. as it ser2es to irra"ate a lar"e area o' land that it runs throu"h4 %articularl.knowled"e o' the e2ent precise in "eolo"ical terms.ha11ar3Ha ra Ri&er The .empt-in" into the 1ann o' Kutch4 It supposedl. this seasonal ri2er 'eeds two irri"ation canals that extend into 1ajasthan4 The$ila is an important ri2er 'or the inhabitants o' the #awar 2alle-. possibl. and to connect it to the lost Saraswati> =TitU was 'ormerl.rou"hl-.ha11ar3Ha ra Ri&er is the (rain-) seasonal ri2er in India and the <akra 1i2er ri2erbed in %akistan4 It is o'ten identi'ied with the Qedic Saras2ati 1i2er. which would then had been 'ed with <imala-an "laciers4 The terrain o' this ri2er contains pebbles o' quart3ite and metamorphic rocks.runs parallel too and 'inall. nearl. le"'lux o' Indo+Ar-ans 'rom ca4 C. Sutlej). but perhaps much earlier4 %uri and Qerma (CAAD) ha2e ar"ued that the present+da. and the 'amous 'ortress o' Sarsuti or Saras2ati was built upon its with remnants o' the IQ! like the !emeter. and the loss o' rain'all in much o' its catchment area due to de'orestation and o2er"ra3in"4 This is supposed to ha2e happened at the latest in CA55 B!E. but 'or the Indus Qalle.< culture. it makes a "reat di''erence whether the ri2er dried up a millennium earlier.that belon"in" to the Bakkakhel /a3irs. a dried out channel o' the Sutlej. 'lowin" when water is a2ailable 'rom monsoon rains4 It ori"inates in the Shi2alik <ills o' <imachal %radesh and 'lows throu"h %unjab and <ar-ana to 1ajasthanN just southwest o' Sirsa in <ar-ana and b.Saras2ati 1i2er ori"inates in a submontane re"ion (Ambala district) and joins the &ha""ar near Shatrana in %E%S@4 *ear Sadul"arh (<anuman"arh) the *aiwala channel.the side o' Ti$i in 1ajasthan. 2er.

ate <arappan sites) and in the Indus Qalle-R Baluchistan (less than C55 sites)4 Earl.<arappan sites are mostl.satellite ima"er.55 sites o' the Indus ci2ili3ation ha2e been disco2ered on the <akra+&ha""ar ri2er and its tributaries4 In contrast to this.conducted b.sites on the <akra+&ha""ar between the <arappan and the .also ha2e been a''ected b. and some in the Indus Qalle-4 ost o' the ature <arappan sites are located in the middle &ha""ar+<akra ri2er 2alle-.that de2eloped a'ter the dr-in" up o' the ri2er4 .between ca4 6F55 to 6555 B4!4 The dried out <akra ri2er bed is between three and ten kilometers wide4 1ecent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibl.!i2ili3ation4 Alon" the course o' the &ha""ar+<akra ri2er are man.(nearl. which indicates the Sutlej did 'low into the Saras2ati at that period o' time4 It has been shown b.archaeolo"ical sites o' the Indus Qalle!i2ili3ationN but not 'urther south than the middle o' Bahawalpur district4 It could be that the permanent Saras2ati ended there. some archaeolo"ists ha2e proposed to use the term =Indus Saras2ati !i2ili3ation= to re'er to the <arappan culture4 In a sur2e.has shown that the &ha""ar+<akra was indeed a lar"e ri2er that dried up probabl.due to the dr-in" up o' the <akra+&ha""ar ri2er4 Because most o' the Indus Qalle.seasons4 It ma.414 u"hal between CAE7 and CAEE.settlements o' the Indus Qalle./are sites (ca4 C555 B!E) ha2e been 'ound on the bed and not on the banks o' the &ha""ar+<akra ri2er4 The .that at 1opar the Sutlej ri2er its upper course near the Siwaliks./ and references therein04 The disappearance o' the ri2er ma.655 sites).ha11ar3Ha ra and the S%tle) There are no <arappan sites on the Sutlej in its present lower course. not includin" #e"enerate <arappan or 9!%) are located on the <akra+&ha""ar4 The other sites are mainl.ate <arappan phase was probabl. and its water onl.wet rain.sites are actuall. onl..situated on the middle &ha""ar+<akra ri2er bed.!i2ilisation ha2e been 'ound alon" the &ha""ar and <akra ri2ers4 Ind%s 5alley Ci&ili2ation The ri2er was also o' "reat importance to the Indus Qalle.ha2e led to the redirection o' its tributaries4 It has also been su""ested that the loss o' rain'all in much o' its catchment area due to de'orestation and o2er"ra3in" in what is now %akistan ma.reached the sea in 2er. Gamuna Qalle.!i2ili3ation4 Archaeolo"ists ha2e su""ested that the dr-in" up o' this ri2er .also the Gamuna once 'lowed into the Saraswati ri2er bed4 The Sutlej and Gamuna 1i2ers ha2e chan"ed their courses o2er the time4 %aleobotanical in'ormation also documents the aridit.o' these sites were dated to the 'ourth or third millennium B!E4 %ainted &re. Kutch+Saurashtra (nearl.A5 to A. sites on the Indus ri2er itsel'4) Q4*4 isra states that o2er F:5 <arappan sites (o' the more than D55 known sites. and alon" the dried up channel o' the ancient Sutlej. while it expands in the upper &ha""ar+Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra4 The abandonement o' man.%adgil and *hapar -.sites ha2e been disco2ered on the Indus and its tributaries (about :.ha11ar3Ha ra and its an*ient tri$%taries Satellite photo"raph.ha2e been caused b.ha2e also contributed to the dr-in" up o' the ri2er4 The .much o' its water bein" taken 'or irri"ation4 92er . o2er 755 sites were mapped alon" :55 miles o' the <akra ri2er4 The majorit.ha2e been one o' the causes 'or the decline o' the Indus Qalle.earthquakes which ma. and some on the Indus and in the Kutch+Saurashtra4 <owe2er in the late <arappan period the number o' late <arappan sites in the middle <akra channel and in the Indus 2alle. Indus Qalle.'rom the .diminishes.'lows awa.located on the <akra+&ha""ar ri2er and its tributaries and not on the Indus ri2er.

&omal ri2er surrounds South /a3iristan a"enc-. Balochistan. since the Zhob 1i2er4 /ithin %akistan.il1it Ri&er .ha2e 'lown into the Saraswati durin" <arappan times4 There are se2eral o'ten dried out ri2er beds (paleochannels) between the Sutlej and the Gamuna. %akistan4 . 'orms the boundar.o' 'ish species which increase in abundance durin" periods o' hi"h water4 The ahseer (*or p titora). with its headwaters in the south+east o' &ha3ni4 The headwater sprin"s o' the &omalHs main le" come to"ether close to the 'ort o' Babakarkol in Katawa3.chan"ed their courses4 The Sutlej has also probabl. an indi"enous ri2erine 'ish 'ound in the <ub 1i2er.omal Ri&er is a ri2er in A'"hanistan and %akistan.sand o' the dried out ri2er channels4 The Gamuna ma.'alls in ri2er Indus4 H%$ Ri&er H%$ Ri&er is located in .sometimes 'lown into the Beas.b.ha11ar3Ha ra and the +am%na There are also no <arappan sites on the present Gamuna ri2er4 There are howe2er %ainted &ra/are (C555 + .<arappan sites ha2e been disco2ered on these dried out ri2er beds4 .omal Ri&er . a district inhabited primaril. CAEF.asbela.partl.between the *orth+/est $rontier %ro2ince and Balochistan4 The ri2er passes then throu"h the #amaan plain in Kulachi Tehsil and later on throu"h #era Ismail Khan Tehsil and then 'inall. "eomorphic and sedimentolo"ical research the Gamuna ma. some o' them two to ten kilometres wide4 The. CAEE) ha2e shown that based on archaeolo"ical.o' the Indus 1i2er. and 'lows past the town o' &il"it4 It is located in the *orthern Areas o' Kashmir. %akistan4 . "rows up to 6m in len"th and pro2ides 'or excellent an"lin"4It is in pakistan4 H%n1ol Ri&er H%n1ol Ri&er or Hin1ol Ri&er is located in akran. Balochistan. CAE:.il1it Ri&er is a tributar.dried up4 Scholars like 1aikes (CA.asbella district o' Balochistan and drinkin" water 'or the cit. and the combined stream sometimes in the &ha""ar 1i2er4 The con'luence o' the &ha""ar and the Sutlej was downstream 'rom the Kurukshetra re"ion.indicates that durin" this period the &ha""ar ri2er was alread.55 B!) sites on the Gamuna channel.o' Karachi4 It is an important sta"in" and winterin" area 'or an appreciable number o' waterbirds and contains a 2ariet. where most <arappan sites are located4 The .are not alwa-s 2isible on the "round because o' excessi2e siltin" and encroachment b.ha2e 'lown into the Saras2ati ri2er throu"h the !hautan" or the #rishad2ati channel. %akistan4 It 'orms the pro2incial boundar.'lowin"=) is called Shatudri (ShatadruRShatadhara). west o' Karachi4 <ub #am is a lar"e water stora"e reser2oir constructed in CADC on the <ub 1i2er in the arid plains north o' Karachi4 The reser2oir supplies water 'or irri"ation in the .Kharoti and Suleiman Khel %ashtuns4 The &omalHs chie' tributar.&ha""ar in a sharp turn4 The be'orehand narrow &ha""ar ri2er bed itsel' is becomin" suddenlwider at the conjunction where the Sutlej should ha2e met the &ha""ar ri2er4 And there is a major paleochannel between the point where the Sutlej takes a sharp turn and where the &ha""ar ri2er bed widens4 In later texts like the ahabharata.D) and Suraj Bhan (CAE6.between Sindh and Balochistan. which means a ri2er with C55 'lows4 The Sutlej (and the Beas and 1a2i) ha2e 'requentl. the 1i"2edic Sutudri (=swi'tl./are sites in the &ha""ar ri2er 2alle. showin" that the ri2er must ha2e 'lown in the present channel durin" this period4 The distribution o' the %ainted &ra.

.%anjnad 1i2er at ithankot4 Be-ond this con'luence.The Kin1 Ri&er4 History %aleolithic sites ha2e been disco2ered in %othohar. 'lowin" throu"h the *orth in a southernl. with the stone tools o' the Soan !ulture4 In ancient &andhara. the <un"ol is BalochistanHs lon"est ri2er4 @nlike most other streams in Balochistan which onl. and Sindh4 It also supports man.water resources 'or the econom. to mer"e into the Arabian Sea near %akistanHs port cit."lacieral waters into the main ri2er4 It "raduall.amshoro.The <un"ol 2alle. while 'loodin" its banks in the monsoon months 'rom .in the winter.hea2. 1a2i. nadi V ri2er) as the ri2er was now carr-in" the waters o' Kabul 1i2er. Kashmir and *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 The 'low o' the ri2er is also determined b.the con'luence o' the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas ("or"es) which are 'ed b.ake ansaro2ar. comin" out o' the hills between %eshawar and 1awalpindi4 The Indus passes "i"antic "or"es (CF. and is dammed at the Tarbela 1eser2oir4 The Kabul 1i2er joins it near Attock4 The remainder o' its route to the sea is in plains o' the %unjab and Sind.the snows and "laciers o' the Karakoram. the ri2er runs a course throu"h in and pro2ides the main suppl. Sutlej. pinnacles and buttresses.o' %akistan + especiall. e2idence o' ca2e dwellers dated CF.555 square miles4 The ri2erHs estimated annual 'low stands at around 65E cubic kilometres4 Be"innin" at the hei"hts o' the world with "laciers. 'lowin" 'rom north to south4 The Karakoram <i"hwacrosses the <un3a 1i2er near <un3a and *a"ar 2alle-s4 Ind%s Ri&er Indus is the lon"est and most important ri2er in %akistan and one o' the most important ri2ers on the Indian subcontinent4 9ri"inatin" in the Tibetan plateau in the 2icinit. the <un"ol alwa-s has 'lowin" water in it4 The water is cr-stalPclear. it ends in a lar"e delta to the east o' Thatta4 The Indus is one o' the 'ew ri2ers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore4 The Indus s-stem is lar"el'ed b."laciers4 It is joined b. the ri2er windin" between4 Some :F5 miles in len"th.ammu and Kashmir and *orthern Areas. the Indus 'orms the )apta )indh (=Se2en 1i2ers=) delta in the Sindh pro2ince o' %akistan4 It has 65 major tributaries4 The Indus pro2ides the ke. Indus 1i2er and the 'i2e %unjab ri2ers4 %assin" b.Karachi4 The total len"th o' the ri2er is :655 km (CADD miles)4 The ri2er has a total draina"e area exceedin" 7F5.555+CE. Shi"ar and &il"it streams September4 There is also e2idence o' a stead.braided4 It is joined b. such as <arappa and ohenjo #aro. <indu Kush and <imala-an ran"es o' Tibet.helum.!i2ili3ation (IQ!).has 'antastic scener.the seasons + it diminishes "reatl. plains and arid countr-side4 To"ether with the ri2ers !henab.adakh+Baltistan into &il"it. re'lectin" the incredible blue o' the sk-4 It makes 'or picturePpostcard scener-4 <un"ol ri2er and 2alle.o' towerin" cli''s. just south o' the Karakoram ran"e4 The Sh-ok.'low durin" rare rains.shi't in the course o' the ri2er since prehistoric times + it de2iated westwards 'rom 'lowin" into the 1ann o' Kutch4 It is the 9''icial and #ational Ri&er o' %akistan in @rdu as 6a%mi Daryaa and Sindhi it is called Daryaa "adshah . in the *orthern Areas o' %akistan4 It is 'ormed b. date .bends to the south.the &il"it 1i2er and the *altar 1i2er be'ore it 'lows into the Indus 1i2er4 The ri2er cuts throu"h the Karakoram ran"e. the ri2er.o' potable water in %akistan4 The ultimate source o' the Indus is in TibetN it be"ins at the con'luence o' the Sen""e and &ar ri2ers that drain the *"an"lon" Kan"ri and &an"dise Shan mountain ran"es4 The Indus then 'lows northwest throu"h . and the ri2er becomes slow+'lowin" and hi"hl. which accounts 'or most o' the nationHs a"ricultural production. Beas and the extinct Saras2ati 1i2er. .the breadbasket o' %unjab pro2ince. was named as Satnad 1i2er (sat V se2en.are located in <un"ol *ational %ark4 H%n2a Ri&er H%n2a Ri&er is the principal ri2er o' <un3a.direction alon" the entire len"th o' countr-. the ri2er 'eeds the ecos-stem o' temperate 'orests.'lows across <a3ara. at one time.555 -ears a"o has been disco2ered at ardan4 The major cities o' the Indus Qalle.o' .555 'eet) near the *an"a %arbat massi' It swi'tl.

also b.5F6 cities and settlements ha2e been 'ound.%eter !li't.7F million -ears a"o.Indo+Ar-ans 'lourished in &andhara 'rom CE55 to .helum to 1upar on the upper Sutlej4 The coast settlements extended 'rom Sutka"an #or at Iranian border to .between the Indian hinterland and its 'rontier with A'"hanistan and Iran4 It has been crossed b. not just "rammaticall-. when ohenjo #aro and <arappa had alread.A5 to A.'rom a root sidh =to "o.655mm (7E inches) and at urree around C.E inches) with as much as E:5mm (6D inches) in .been 'ound in the Katawa3 Basin.dried b. now a tributar. in <arappan times 'lowed into the &ha""ar+<akra 1i2er. in turn the Iranian 2ariant o' )indh . recei2e considerable rain'all 'rom the summer monsoon> at Abbottabad the a2era"e annual rain'all is around C. the 1a2i. probabl.the armies o' Alexander the &reat + &reek 'orces retreated alon" the southern course o' the ri2er at the end o' the Indian campai"n4 The Indus plains ha2e also been under the domination o' the %ersian empire and the Kushan empire4 The uslim armies o' uhammad bin 0asim.Rig 1eda and !tharva 1eda+= The name Ind s is a .othal. mainl. which the 1i"2eda su""ests 'lowed 'rom the <imala-a between the Sutlej and the Gamuna 1i2ers.6D km 'rom #elhi4 To date.modern researchers belie2e that the IQ! was indeed an Ar-an ci2ili3ation4 1esearchers such as pro'essor E"bert 1ichter @shanas concernin" the IQ! seals has said. notabl. . showed that sand and silt 'rom western Tibet was reachin" the Arabian Sea b. & the later h-mns.55 B!E.on the Earth at around F million cubic kilometers o' material eroded 'rom the mountains4 Studies o' the sediment in the modern ri2er indicate that the Karakoram ountains in northern %akistan are the sin"le most important source o' material. which is the second lar"est sediment bod. l-in" just to the west o' the Thar #esert o' 1ajasthan + and rain'all is extraordinaril. stream=.hellum.marine "eolo"ists %eter !li't and . 'or example in the list o' ri2ers o' the *adistuti sukta4 This resulted in the anomal.that time4 The delta o' this proto+Indus ri2er has subsequentl.o' the Indus. =!ll the seals are based on 1edas -. !henab and the Sutlej)4 Anal-sis o' sediments 'rom the Arabian Sea b. and 1akhi"arhi4 9nl.erratic owin" to the passa"e o' c-clones 'rom the Arabian Sea4 The %unjab plains. with an upward reach to the darcon 'rom east o' 1i2er .Blus3tajn has demonstrated that prior to 'i2e million -ears a"o the Indus was not connected to these %unjab 1i2ers which instead 'lowed east into the &an"es and were captured a'ter that time4 Earlier work. in the watershed o' which were more <arappan sites than alon" the Indus4 Some scholars belie2e that settlements o' &andhara "ra2e culture o' the earl.E55mm (.archeolo"ical h-drolo"ical radio carbon datin"s4 Climate The Indus delta is one o' the driest in the Indian subcontinent. the meanin" o' the word is narrowed to re'er to the Indus ri2er in particular.back to around ::55 B!.sites ha2e been disco2ered on the Indus and its tributaries4 The Sutlej. more o'ten used in the "eneric meanin"4 Alread. and the Indus site Alam"irpur at the <indon ri2er is located onl.o' a ri2er with masculine "ender> all other 1i"2edic ri2ers are 'emale.atini3ation o' 2ind . the name o' the Indus in the 1i"2eda4 Sanskrit sindh "enericall.eolo1y The Indus 1i2er 'eeds the Indus submarine 'an located in the Arabian Sea. close to modern da.means =ri2er. %unjab and 1ajputana4 The word =India= is a re'erence to the Indus 1i2er4 . bein" ima"ined as "oddesses and compared to cows and mares -ieldin" milk and butter4 The Indus has 'ormed a natural boundar. mostl. #hola2ira. ahmud o' &ha3ni and Babur also crossed the ri2er to strike into the inner re"ions o' &ujarat. mo2e=N sindh is attested CE. as well as . o' the o2er D55 known Indus Qalle.2ia the lar"e ri2ers o' the %unjab (i4e4.CA55 B! as con'irmed b.and Au"ust alone4 The upper basin o' the Indus recei2es 7+D inches o' rain'all (hi"her in the west) in the winter months . AF times in the plural.er3.been abandoned4 <owe2er man.!handi"arh4 The Saraswati ri2er was totall. and represent some o' the lar"est human habitations o' the ancient world4 The IQ! was extended 'rom Balochistan to &ujarat.the ancient Saraswati the 1i"2eda. howe2er. impl-in" the existence o' an ancient Indus 1i2er b. o2er the "eneral re"ion o' the &ha""ar+<akra 1i2er and its tributaries4 Amon" the settlements were the major urban centers o' <arappa and ohenjo+daro.othal in &ujarat4 There is an Indus site on the 9xus ri2er at Shortu"hai in northern A'"hanistan (Keno-er CAAD>A. times in the 1i"2eda. on the A'"han+%akistan border4 ost recentl.).the Indus was paralleled b. with the <imala-a pro2ide the next lar"est contibution.

due to irri"ation works4 The Blind Indus 1i2er #olphin (%latanista "an"etica minor) is a sub+species o' #olphins 'ound onlin the Indus 1i2er4 It 'ormerl.o' ethnicit. with smaller populations o' Sindhis and people 'rom re"ions in modern India4 In northern %unjab and the */$%. with close cultural.'rom the times o' AlexanderHs campai"n indicate a health. peoples o' Sindhi. lies to the west o' the ri2er in Sindh4 !ildlife Accounts o' the Indus 2alle. &ujarati. with Kashmiris who practise both Islam and <induism4 As it descends into *orthern Areas o' %akistan. includin" pom'ret and prawns4 . Balochi. and later b.helum link canal + linkin" the waters o' the Indus and . o' Tibetan stock. %unjabi and @rdu+speakin" ohajir back"rounds 'orm the local populations4 @pon the western .also occurred in the tributaries o' the Indus ri2er4 %alla 'ish (2ilsa ilisha) o' the ri2er is a delicac. %athan peoples and ethnic %ashtun tribes li2e alon"side %unjabi peoples4 In the southern portion o' the %unjab pro2ince. economic and ethnic ties to Iran and A'"hanistan4 The eastern banks are lar"el. the Serakai peoples speak a distincti2e ton"ue and practise distincti2e traditions4 In the pro2ince o' Sindh. and o' other A'"han stock. with Sukkur.and quite warm in the summer4 Annual temperatures 'all below 'ree3in" in the northern mountainous re"ions in the winter. the *orthwest $rontier %ro2ince4 The extensi2e irri"ation and dam projects pro2ide the basis 'or %akistanHs lar"e production o' crops such as"ions are arid with poor 2e"etation4 A"riculture is sustained lar"el. the Indus ri2er 'orms a distincti2e boundar. which is one o' the hottest spots in the CDF5 + the construction o' modern canals accompanied with the restoration o' old canals4 The British super2ised the construction o' one o' the most complex irri"ation networks in the world4 The &uddu Barra"e is 7.the en"ineers o' the Kushan Empire and the u"hal Empire4 odern irri"ation was introduced b.555 'eet lon" and pro2ides additional supplies 'or Karachi4 The Taunsa Barra"e near #era &ha3i Khan produces C55.critical as rain'all is mea"re in the lower Indus 2alle-4 Irri"ation canals were 'irst built b.%ashtun.adakh.marshes.ocated southeast o' Karachi.conser2ationists as one o' the worldHs most important ecolo"ical re"ions4 <ere the ri2er distributes into man.helum ri2ers + extendin" water supplies to the re"ions o' Bahawalpur and ultan4 %akistan also constructed the Tarbela #am near 1awalpindi + standin" A. while exceedin" C55 de"rees $ahrenheit in the plains o' %unjab and Sindh in the summer4 .receded4 The u"hal Emperor Babar writes o' encounterin" rhinoceroses alon" its bank in his memoirs (the Baber*ameh)4 Extensi2e de'orestation and human inter'erence in the ecolo". Thatta and Kotri bein" the major 'ishin" centres + all in the lower Sindh course4 But dammin" and irri"ation has made 'ish 'armin" an important economic acti2it-4 .the British East India !ompan.'or people li2in" alon" the ri2er4 The population o' 'ishes in the ri2er is moderate.acobabad.7F5 'eet lon" + irri"atin" Sukkur.555 km8)4 A'ter partition. which has now considerabl. with a F5 mile+lon" reser2oir4 The Kotri Barra"e near <-derabad is :.ci2ili3ation. the %akistan /ater and %ower #e2elopment Authorit.'orest co2er in the re"ion.555 'eet lon" and 7E5 'eet hi"h.*onomy The Indus is the most important supplier o' water resources to the %unjab and Sindh plains + it 'orms the backbone o' a"riculture and 'ood production in %akistan4 The ri2er is especiall. reli"ion.and cultures + upon the western banks the population is lar"el.dr. streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow le2els4 <ere marine 'ishes are 'ound in abundance.o' the Shi2alik <ills has led to a marked deterioration in 2e"etation and "rowin" conditions4 The Indus 2alle.555 kilowatts o' electricit-4 The extensi2e linkin" o' tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the 2alle.the peoples o' the Indus 2alle. .'or hea2. su"arcane and wheat4 The dams also "enerate electricit.o' %eshawar.acobabad.undertook the construction o' the !hashma+.owin" to northwestern winds4 <i"her ele2ations in Kashmir and the *orthern Areas recei2es a lar"e amount o' precipitation in the 'orm o' snow. the lar"e delta has been reco"nised b.populated with peoples o' %unjabi and urban centres4 (eo'le The inhabitants o' the re"ions throu"h whom the Indus ri2er passes and 'orms a major natural 'eature and resource are di2erse in ethnicit-. . national and lin"uistic back"rounds4 9n the northern course o' the ri2er in Kashmir li2e the Buddhist people o' .arkana and Kalat4 The Sukkur Barra"e ser2es o2er 'i2e million acres (65. but the lower 2alle-s are extremel.

times in the 1i"2eda4 The name sur2i2es the a Kashmiri name 'or this ri2er as 1yath4 The ri2er was re"arded as a "od b.that India could di2ert ri2ers in the time o' war. while a''ectin" a"ricultural production as well4 There are also concerns that the Indus ri2er ma. %orus4 Accordin" to Arrian (!nabasis3 6A).banks o' the ri2er li2e the Balochi and %ashtun peoples o' Balochistan4 Modern iss%es A 'looded Indus ri2er inundates the Srina"ar+Kar" some parts o' %akistan4 The concern o2er India buildin" lar"e dams o2er 2arious %unjab ri2ers that could undercut the suppl.<indus in Kashmir4 Conser&ation There are concerns that extensi2e de'orestation. Beas and the 1a2i. /ater+clo""in" owin" to poor maintenance o' canals has a''ected a"ricultural production and 2e"etation4 In addition. and hal'+brother to the harpies.=on . while %akistan "ained control o' the three western ri2ers.2ital resource 'or %akistanHs econom.scriptures o' the Indo+Ar-ansXthe 1i"2eda4 It has been speculated that the Qitasta must ha2e been one o' the se2en ri2ers (sapta+sindhu) mentioned so shi'tin" its course westwards + althou"h the pro"ression spans centuries4 9n numerous CA.helum was called 1itasta b."a2e India the control o' the three easternmost ri2ers o' the %unjab.o' the Indus 1i2er4 History A photo"raph 'rom CA55 shows a passen"er tra2ersin" the ri2er precariousl. Indus is a strate"icall. most pil"rima"e and reli"ious ceremonies are per'ormed b.crossed the . !henab and the Indus4 India retained the ri"ht to use o' the western ri2ers 'or non irri"ation projects4 (See discussion re"ardin" a recent dispute about a h-droelectric project on the !henab (not Indus) known as the Ba"hli"har project)4 (il1rima1e <indu pil"rima"e to hol.the ancient Indians in the Qedic period and 2ydaspes b. the snatching winds4 Since the ri2er is in a countr. the son o' the sea+"od Thaumas and the cloud+"oddess Elektra4 <e was the brother o' Iris the "oddess o' the rainbow.the hol.'orei"n to the ancient & hi"hwa-4 #ue to its location and 2ast water resources. caused political consternation in %akistan4 <oldin" diplomatic talks brokered b. as were most mountains and streamsN the poet *onnus in the #ion-siaca (section 6. India and %akistan si"ned the Indus /aters Treat.sites alon"side the ri2er has been a source o' con'lict between the nations4 %akistan does "enerall.54 The treat.helum in :6.and the Bari #oab were split + with the canals l-in" primaril.helum. as well as the possibilit.'or reli"ious purposes.. B! at the Battle o' the <-daspes where he de'eated the Indian kin". extreme heat has caused water to e2aporate lea2in" salt deposits that render lands useless 'or culti2ation4 /hel%m Ri&er /ehl%m Ri&er or /hel%m Ri&er is the lar"est and most western o' the 'i2e ri2ers o' %unjab.the /orld Bank. industrial pollution and "lobal warmin" are a''ectin" the 2e"etation and wildli'e o' the Indus %akistan and the headwork dams in India + disruptin" suppl. he built a cit.and societ-4 Ind%s !aters treaty A'ter the partition o' India in CA7E.seated in a small suspended cradle4 The ri2er .'lowin" to %akistan.the ancient &reeks4 The QitastW is mentioned as one o' the major ri2er b. <owe2er.named the ri2er a'ter the "od. Sutlej. line :F5) makes the 2ydaspes a titan+descended "od. or whether the "od 2ydaspes was named a'ter the ri2er4 Alexander the &reat and his arm. it is not clear whether the. .allow Indian citi3ens to 2isit the countr. the use o' the waters o' the Indus and its 'i2e eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and %akistan4 The irri"ation canals o' the Sutlej 2alle. owin" to the 2olatile nature o' bilateral relations.helum #istrict4 It is a tributar. and passes throu"h .the ancient &reeks.

that the name %halia was the distortion o' the word Bucephala4 The waters o' the . is one o' the lar"est earth'ill dams in the world.between the !haj and Sindh Sa"ar #oabs4 It ends in a con'luence with the !henab at Trimmu in #istrict . presents a 2er. belie2ed that their tehsil %halia was named a'ter Bucephala. the earliest scripture o' <induism.helum. constructed in CA. but the people o' andi Bahauddin.o' Srina"ar.alalabad. it 'lows throu"h the plains o' %akistanHs %unjab. which he named Bukephala (or Bucephala) to honour his 'amous horse Bukephalis which was buried in . constructed in CA:A at the con'luence with the !henab. %anjshir. the Kunhar 1i2er o' the Ka"han 2alle-4It also connects with %akistan and %akistan+held Kashmir on Kohala Brid"e east o' !ircle Bakote4 It is then joined b. the lar"est tributar. !haharba"h. under the name K bh4 (man.helum !it-4 Accordin" to a historian o' &ujrat district.helum.ammu and Kashmir and is 'ed b. alon" with the lake #al which lies in its course. . Kunar and Alin"ar ri2ers4 The Kabul ri2er itsel' is little more than a trickle 'or most o' the -ear. the ri2er continues as the Kabul 1i2er a'ter this con'luence.555 'tZRs (67. ansoor Beh3ad Butt. has a maximum 'low o' !anal runs 'rom the 1asul barra"e to the !henab4 • The !hashma+. AlexanderYs dead horse4 The. 'lowin" 'rom the !hiantar "lacier in !hitral.the @nai %ass4 It is the main ri2er in the eastern part o' A'"hanistan4 It 'lows E55 km be'ore joinin" the Indus 1i2er near Attock 4 It passes throu"h the cities o' Kabul. and ('lowin" into %akistan some :5 km north o' the Kh-ber %ass) *owshera4 The major tributaries o' the Kabul 1i2er are the .the %oonch ri2er.o" the Kunar.helum ri2er downstream o' 1asul Barra"e4 Ka$%l Ri&er Ka$%l Ri&er or Ka$al Ri&er is a ri2er that rises in the San"lakh 1an"e o' A'"hanistan. and 'lows into the an"la #am reser2oir in the district o' irpur4 The . the serpentine . separated 'rom the watershed o' the <elmand .7F.'or the political and historical si"ni'icance o' the name4 This ri2er is attested in the 1i" Qeda.alalpur Shari'4 It is thou"ht that ancient Bukephala was near the site o' modern . a district close to . as does the next lar"est. 'ormin" the boundar. which is reser2oir o' water 'or Islamabad4 *ear %harwala $ort it cuts throu"h a hi"h mountain ran"e and that is a wonder'ul phenomenon o' nature4 The place is called Swan !ut4 *o stream can cut such a hi"h mountain4 It pro2es the Swaan was there be'ore .555 'tZRs (CD.helum enters the %unjab in the . with a stora"e capacit.E.555 mZRs)4 • Trimmu Barra"e.the spot whence he started to cross the ri2er <-daspes=.555 mZRs)4 Canals • The @pper .han"4 The !henab mer"es with the Sutlej to 'orm the %anjnad 1i2er which joins the Indus 1i2er at ithankot4 Dams and "arra1es • an"la #am.helum !anal runs 'rom an"la to the !henab4 • The 1asul+0adirabad . joins it near u3a''arabad.o' .helum are allocated to %akistan under the terms o' the Indus /aters Treat-4 Co%rse The ri2er .E.o' the ri2ers o' A'"hanistan are mantioned in the 1i" Qeda)4 The Sanskrit word later chan"ed to K4b l4 S-aan Ri&er The S-aan Ri&er is the most important stream o' the %othohar re"ion o' %akistan4 It drains much o' the water o' %othohar4 It starts near a small 2illa"e Bun in the 'oothills o' %atriata and urree4 It pro2ides water to Simlbee #am.helum #istrict4 $rom there. Bukephala was buried in .the Bash"al ri2er 'lowin" 'rom *urestan4 The Kunar meets the Kabul near . which starts out as the astuj 1i2er. but swells in summer due to meltin" snows4 Its lar"est tributar.o' F4A million acre+'eet (E4: kmZ) • 1asul Barra"e. completed in CA. and then passes throu"h the Srina"ar district4 At the !anal runs 'rom the !hashma Barra"e on the Indus 1i2er to the . mainl.o' the . %akistan and once it 'lows south into A'"hanistan it is met b.picturesque site4 The Kishen"an"a(*eelum)1i2er.alalabad4 In spite o' the Kunar carr-in" more water than the Kabul.helum rises 'rom north+eastern ."laciers.alalpur Shari'.ehlum. has maximum dischar"e capacit.

the soldiers li2in" meanwhile at 'ree quarters . and joins the .Shah .between %akistan and A'"hanistan territor.cuttin" the risin" mountain4 . -ou can 'ind ancient t-pes o' 'lour mills near !hakian4$ishin" is not possible in this stream as a pro'ession4 1ohu is the main species o' 'ish in this stream4 K%ndar Ri&er K%ndar Ri&er is located in Balochistan.the 'ormation o' this ran"e4 And when the mountain rose throu"h millions o' -ears. well peopled. stretchin" across the A'"han+%akistani border west to east (crosses 'rom the %aktia %ro2ince o' A'"hanistan into the Kohat border re"ion o' %akistan) at ::K7AL* .'or a considerable len"th4 The other subsidiar. .the Kurram Qalle. a tribe o' Turki and %arthian ori"in who are supposed to ha2e subju"ated the Ban"ash %athans about six hundred -ears a"o4 It is hi"hl.snow 'or se2eral months o' the -ear4 $ part o' the %eshWwar #i2ision o' the *orthwest $rontier %ro2ince4 The Kurram 1i2er drains the southern 'lanks o' the Sa'ed Koh (1an"e).lon" course thou"h .the Turis. to which a 'ine back"round is a''orded stream joins this stream near Swaan !amp4 A'ter walkin" a tortuous path and creatin" a bi" cur2e. %akistan4 The meltwater 'rom the Sulaiman 'orms Kundar 1i2er and it 'lows throu"h Balochistan and drains into &omal 1i2er4 ountains The two principal draina"e channels o' the Zhob district are the Zhob 1i2er and the Kundar 1i2er.used 'or irri"ation purposes4 $or "rindin" wheat. it is hardl.alkhand. the watershed a distance o' about 755 kilometers4 The broad plain o' the Zhob 1i2er is occupied b.AKFDLE.attracted some o' the o"ul emperors o'" stream.the allu2ial 'ormation4 The Kundar 1i2er rises 'rom the central and hi"hest point o' the TobaKakar ran"e. nearl.crosses this stream near Sihala where 'amous brid"e !ock %ull is constructed o2er it4 Another 'amous.6D: 't) hi"h.7Dkm 'rom *aran Qalle-4 &laciers o' alka %arbat and akra %eak and the waters o' Sai'ul uluk lake 'eed the ri2er4 The Kunhar 'lows throu"h the entire Ka"han Qallethrou"h .ahan4 The Kurram 1i2er crosses the A'"han+%akistan border about D5 km southwest o' .alalabad and in ancient times o''ered the most direct route to Kabul and &arde34 The route crossed the %eiwar %ass :. Sawar. . %akistan4 A main source o' the ri2er is . 'ollowin" a relati2el. a 'ew kilometers northeast o' the Sakir4 It constitutes boundar. the stream reaches Kalaba"h where it 'alls into the Indus ri2er4 This relati2el. which was blocked b. both 'low into the &omal 1i2er4 The "eneral direction o' the ri2ers is 'rom Southwest to northeast4 The Zhob 1i2er rises at Tsari ehtara3ai pass. etc4 K%nhar Ri&er K%nhar Ri&er is located in *orth+/est $rontier %ro2ince.5554 It lies between the iran3ai Qalle. and the remains exist o' a "arden planted b. orchards and "ro2es.6ED sq miles)N pop4 approx4 :55.small stream is more than 6F5 kilometers lon"4 #ue to its mountainous course and shallow bed. just o2er 65 km west o' %arachinar.ehtrar and Kahuta 'alls in the Swaan near Sihala4 Islamabad <i"hwa. *aran. and enters the plains a north o' Bannu. Surab. and joins the Indus 1i2er at :6K:FL* ECK6ELE near Isa Khel a'ter a course o' more than :65 km (655 miles)4 The district has an area o' :.helum 1i2er4 The Kunhar ri2er trout is considered to be the best throu"hout the sub+continent K%rram Ri&er The K%rr%m Ri&er 'lows in the Kurrum Qalle-.was under the "o2ernment o' Kabul.:C5 km8 (C.7:A m (CC.and the A'"han border.irri"ated.and climate o' the 2alle.ared.expedition was sent to collect the re2enue.'i2e or six -ears a militar. Sri Toi. !hukhan. and is inhabited b. about CF5 km west+to+south+west o' the Kh-ber %ass4 The Kurram A"enc. and e2er. the stream continued its path b.ri2ers or streams are the Baskan.ulusar lake. %aras and Balakot. and crowded with small 'orti'ied 2illa"es.the dark pine 'orests and alpine snows o' the Sa'ed Koh4 The beaut. Ka"han.

the British had "i2en much trouble4 The.has once a"ain assumed a 2er. when a "o2ernor was appointed. who established himsel' in Kurram4 The Turis.. bein" Shiah uslims.-ari 1i2er4it has two other little ri2er help one is Thadho and other is Sukhan4In a rain.the asso3ai section o' the 9rak3ais. and 'requentl. and were replaced b. namel. and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts4 A 'orce o' C7. Sindh. in CDA54 Technicall.under the control o' Kabul. ne2er liked the A'"han rule4 #urin" the second A'"han / ranked. harbourin" 'u"iti2es.the British "o2ernment. a British 'orce o' 7. not as a British district. and the tribe entered into en"a"ements 'or 'uture "ood conduct4 (6) The Kohat+Kurram expedition o' F.7F miles and joins Indus 1i2er at ithankot4 The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea4 A dam on %anjnad has been erectedN . in CDF. when Sir $rederick 1oberts ad2anced b.assistance in their power.punished4 In .lea"ued with other tribes to harr. and then Sutlej and !henab join to 'orm %anjnad near @ch Shari'4 The combined stream runs southwest 'or approximatel. chie'l.was 'inall.acti2it. at the request o' the Turis themsel2es.had repeatedl.on the people4 It was not until about CD7D that the Turis were brou"ht directl. and in consequence their independence was "ranted them in CDD54 The administration o' the Kurram Qalle.strate"ic position and has been an area o' intense militar. troops tra2ersed their countr-. */$%.the iran3ai 2alle-. encoura"in" resistance. under Bri"adier+&eneral Sir *e2ille !hamberlain4 The Turis on the 'irst annexation o' the Kohat district b.helum. and the tribesmen were se2erel. the Turis lent him e2er. were in'ected bthe "eneral excitement. but as an a"enc.or administered area4 Two expeditions in the Kurram Qalle.the Kurram militia. it will bene'it the whole o' Karachi a "reat deal4 (an) ora The (an) ora Ri&er rises rises hi"h in the <indu Kush at lat4 :F47F and joins the Swat 1i2er near !hakdara.o' Karachi 'rom northeast to the centre and drains into the Arabian Sea4 alir ri2er is one o' the two ri2ers passin" throu"h Karachi and the other is . %akistan4 .o' the Kurram Qalleand the %eiwar Kotal to Kabul.also require mention> (C) The Kurram expedition o' CDF.wa.DAE under !olonel /4 <ill4 #urin" the 'rontier risin"s o' CDAE the inhabitants o' the Kurram 2alle-.attackin" Ban"ash and Khattak 2illa"es in the Kohat district4 Accordin"l-.season this ri2er 'low with lot o' water and millions o' "allons o' water waste in Arabian Sea4 I' the "o2erment becomes searious to this matter and construct a dam on this ri2er.between the Taliban and American and allied 'orces4 Lyari Ri&er Lyari Ri&er is located in Karachi. nadi V ri2er) is a ri2er in %unjab. %akistan4 %anjnad 1i2er is 'ormed bsuccessi2e con'luence o' the 'i2e ri2ers o' %unjab. Sindh. Beas and Sutlej4 . the British troops were withdrawn 'rom the 'orts in the Kurram Qalle-. alakand. Beas joins Sutlej. !henab. %akistan4 alir 1i2er passes throu"h the cit.ord !ur3onHs reor"ani3ation o' the 'rontier in CA55+CA5C.-ari 1i2er passes throu"h the cit.6:5 British troops tra2ersed the countr-.o' Karachi 'rom north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea4 .-ari ri2er is one o' the two ri2ers passin" throu"h Karachi and the other is alir 1i2er4 Malir Ri&er Malir Ri&er is located in Karachi.undertaken b. %akistan4 Its name is deri2ed 'rom the %ersian 'or HpanjH (meanin" H'i2eH) and HkoraH (meanin" Hri2erH)4 (an)nad Ri&er (an)nad Ri&er (panj V 'i2e.DA.helum and 1a2i join !henab. and chie'ldrawn 'rom the Turi tribe4 In recent -ears the Kurram Qalle. reor"ani3ed in two battalions. 1a2i.

joined the Beas ri2er4 As a result. and then cuts a "or"e in the #haola #har ran"e enterin" the %unjab plain near adhopur4 It then 'lows alon" the Indo+%ak border 'or some distance be'ore enterin" %akistan and joinin" the !henab ri2er4 The total len"th o' the ri2er is about E65 km4 The waters o' the 1a2i ri2er are allocated to India under the Indus /aters Treat. instead o' the Indus 1i2er4 It is belie2ed that tectonic acti2itcreated ele2ation chan"es that redirected the Sutlej 'rom southeast to southwest4 9nce 'lowin" in its new westward direction. and it recei2es the Beas 1i2er in the state o' pro2ides irri"ation channels 'or %unjab and Sind pro2inces south o' the Sutlej and east o' the Indus ri2ers4 Be-ond the con'luence o' Indus and %anjnad ri2ers. *orthern Areas. India and continues into %akistan to join the !henab 1i2er to 'orm the %anjnad 1i2er.o' the re"ion4 Saidu &roupHs o' teachin" hospitals also located at the banks o' Swat 1i2er4 alamjaba ski resort is . the mi"htSaras2ati 1i2er be"an to dr.between India and %akistan4 It is also called HThe ri2er o' . the Indus ri2er was known as Satnad (Sat V se2en) carr-in" the waters o' se2en ri2ers includin" Indus ri2er. near located on its eastern bank4 9n its western bank is located the 'amous tomb o' . and )ydr s to the 1omans4 The waters o' the ri2er are allocated to India under the Indus /aters Treat.up. most o' its water is di2erted to irri"ation canals and used up in India4 The Bhakra+*an"al #am is a hu"e multipurpose dam on the ri2er4 There is substantial e2idence to indicate that prior to CE55 B4!4 the Sutlej was once an important tributar.G4 S-at Ri&er 'lows 'rom <indukush peshawer 2alle.and mer"es into Kabul 1i2er in Swat 1i2er irri"ates 2ast area o' Swat #istrict and contributes to 'ishin" industr.ahan"ir4 Ri1 5eda %art o' the battle o' the ten kin"s was 'ou"ht on the %arushani ri2er. which 'urther down its course joins the Indus 1i2er at ithankot4 The Sutlej was known as )hatadr or ) ṭ dri to Indians in Qedic period and 5aradros or 2esidros to the &reeks. Kabul ri2er and the 'i2e ri2ers o' %unjab4 Ra&i Ri&er The Ra&i Ri&er is a ri2er in India and %akistan4 It is one o' the 'i2e ri2ers which "i2e %unjab its name4 The 1a2i was known as "ar shani or Iravati to Indians in Qedic times and 2ydraotes to the Ancient &reeks4 It ori"inates in the <imala-as in the !hamba district o' <imachal %radesh 'ollowin" a north+westerl.o' the Saras2ati 1i2er. is the lon"est o' the 'i2e ri2ers that 'low throu"h Indian %unjab in northern India4 Its source is in Tibet near ount Kailash and its terminus in %akistani %unjab4 It is the easternmost a'luent o' the %unjab. as well as the abandonment o' numerous ancient human settlements alon" its banks4 A canal is bein" built between the Sutlej and Gamuna ri2ers. %akistan4 The Shi1ar Ri&er is 'ormed 'rom the melt water o' the Baltoro &lacier and Bia'o &lacier4 The ri2er is tributar. known as the S.course4 It turns to the south+west.Sarhad.that o' the ri2er later called 1a2i (Ira2ati)= Shi1ar Ri&er Shi1ar Ri&er is located in Baltistan. causin" the deserti'ication o' !holistan and Sindh.ahoreH since that "reat cit. the ri2er e2entuall. %akistan4 S-at Ri&er ountains throu"h Kalam 2alle. which accordin" to Gaska (nirukta A46.) re'ers to the Ira2ati ri2er (1a2i 1i2er) in the %unjab4 acdonell and Keith write that =the name T%arusniU is certainl.between India and %akistan4 At Indus 1i2er and meets the Indus in Skardu 2alle-4 S%tle) Ri&er S%tle) Ri&er (also known as Satluj).

risin" in the uree <ills around . the Stora <aro. !hukhan.'or a considerable len"th4 The other subsidiar. both 'low into the &omal 1i2er4 The "eneral direction o' the ri2ers is 'rom Southwest to northeast4 The Zhob 1i2er rises at Tsari ehtara3ai pass. disco2ered in the 'orm o' pebble tools scattered lon" the ri2er4 In %eshawar Qalle.ora. the water was 'it 'or drinkin" e2en in in"ora (C55 km downstream 'rom Kalam). drainin" the area o' Siriban" and #ubran4 inor tributaries include ri2ulets o' .and be'ore turnin" south to subdue the locals at what are now Barikoot and 9de"ram4 Also. is the place o' ori"in o' the Shri2asta2a sub+clan o' the Indo+Ar-an Ka-astha clan Some :5 -ears a"o.o' %othohar %lateau re"ion o' %unjab4 This human acti2it-. the banks o' this ri2er.555 -ears a"o) in %akistan was 'ound in the Soan 1i2er 2alle.tourists 'rom all o2er %akistan durin" the summer4 It is said that Alexander the &reat crossed the Swat 1i2er with part o' his arm. risin" in the *ahia"ali <ills. to join the Kurram 1i2er and the Indus4 It surrounds /a3iristan in the *orth while the &omal 1i2er ri2er surrounds South /a3iristan4 It is also sometimes re'erred to as the &ambila 1i2er4 4ho$ Ri&er 4ho$ Ri&er is located in Balochistan. the *eelan. %akistan4 Tochi ri2er 'lows eastward. the Kunhad.ri2ers or streams are the Baskan..Administered Tribal Areas.555 -ears were 'ound near ca2es4 !a2e dwellers o' middle Stone A"e used quart3 'lakes tools4 . northern %akistan. there is e2idence o' existence o' Stone A"e men 'ound at San"hao near ardan4 Stone tools and burnt bones dated located on banks o' Zhob ri2er4 The two principal draina"e channels o' the Zhob district are the Zhob 1i2er and the Kundar 1i2er. in *orth /a3iristan.'our major tributaries. Sri Toi.ora <aro. identi'ied with the 1i"2edic Arjikiya4 It is 'ed b. $ederall.about C5 miles awa.the present name.'rom the ri2er4 A-ub Brid"e is one o' the attractions 'or 2isitors4 The scenerattracts man. the watershed a distance o' about 755 kilometers4 The broad plain o' the Zhob 1i2er is occupied b.ab. Sawar. which was earliest known as )hrivast .in the Abbottabad #istrict. %akistan4 The meltwater 'rom the Sulaiman ountains 'orms Zhob 1i2ers and it 'lows throu"h Balochistan and drains into &omal 1i2er4 Zhob cit.555 to .between %akistan and A'"hanistan territor.o' ancient &andhara. %akistan4 History The oldest e2idence o' human li'e (D.the allu2ial 'ormation4 The Kundar 1i2er rises 'rom the central and hi"hest point o' the TobaKakar ran"e. <all-H #esera and *aja'pur4 Soan Ri&er Soan Ri&er is a ri2er in %unjab. etc4 Haro Ri&er Haro is the name o' a ri2er and its 2alle. risin" in the *ara <ills. later ) vast and currentl. but now it is not sa'e e2en in Kalam4 To*hi ri&er To*hi ri&er is located in *orth /a3iristan. called Soan !ulture. Surab. a 'ew kilometers northeast o' the Sakir4 It constitutes boundar. the .

and is approximatel..alle1 in the %othohar re"ion o' the %unjab4 The oldest e2idence o' human li'e in South Asia was 'ound in the Soan 1i2er 2alle-4 Alon" the ri2er. and the <un3a 1i2er washed the road awa.'or some months4 .C:5 miles across where it meets the sea4 @nlike man.%))ar #allah . "ira''e and rodents ha2e been 'ound there4 Some o' these 'ossils are in displa.'ossil bearin" rocks are exposed on the sur'ace4 The C7 million -ear old 'ossils o' "a3elle.Soan C%lt%re The Soan C%lt%re is an extinct human culture.%))ar #allah is a stream in Karachi. crocodile. and is 2erswamp-4 The delta recei2es between C5 and 65 inches o' rain'all in a normal -ear4 %akistanHs 'i'th lar"est cit-.-ari 1i2er be'ore drainin" into the Arabian Sea4 The Ind%s Ri&er Delta The Ind%s Ri&er Delta occurs where the Indus 1i2er 'lows into the Arabian Sea in Sindh4 The delta co2ers an area o' about C. but there are no lar"e cities on the delta south o' <-derabad4 Karachi. km (C5 miles) 'rom 1awalpindi terrace on the bend o' the ri2er hundreds o' ed"ed pebble tools were disco2ered4 At !hauntrahand axes and clea2ers were 'ound4 #ue to the peculiarit. passin" throu"h <ispar. lies about C:5 miles north o' the mouths o' the Indus4 Towns are 'ound throu"hout the delta.anuar-4 The Indus 1i2er #elta is an important re"ion 'or mi"ratin" water birds. treacherous at worst4 In Au"ust 655.o' the tools to the 2alle.the Soan !ulture4 *o human skeletons o' this a"e ha2e -et been 'ound4 In the Soan 1i2er &or"e man. in the 1awalpindi #i2ision hundreds o' man made tools can be 'ound4 These tools ha2e been dated to the con'luence. 'ound alon" the Soan 1i2er .and other in'ertile soils. a brid"e below <ispar 2illa"e was condemned.555 to :55.. %akistanHs lar"est cit-.useum o' Islamabad4 His'ar Ri&er The His'ar Ri&er 'orms 'rom the melt water o' the <ispar &lacier + a 7A kilometer+lon" "lacier in the *orthern Areas o' %akistanHs Karakoram ountains4 The <ispar &lacier and ri2er both 'low northwest. and is an area rich in 'reshwater 'auna4 $ish 'ound in the delta include the . eliminatin" all 2ehicular access to the entire 2alle.other the *atural <istor. <-derabad. rhinoceros.archaeolo"ists named this human acti2it.775 km8). <opar and *a"ar (*a"ir) 2illa"es until the con'luence with the <un3a 1i2er in the <un3a Qalle-4 1oad conditions are spectacular at best.555 square miles (7C. the Indus 1i2er #elta consists o' cla. %akistan4 It passes throu"h the cit'rom northwest to the center and mer"es with . lies west o' the delta on the coast o' the Arabian Sea4 A2era"e temperatures 'or the delta re"ion in . and F5 + E5 K$ in .ran"e 'rom E5 + DF K$.555 -ears a"o4 9n Adi-ala and Khasala about C. Sindh.

adakh and the disputed *orthern Areas o' %akistan (&han"che #istrict)4 Sh-ok ri2er (a A'"hanistan.wide at the con'luence with the *ubra ri2er (a tributar.o' Attock4 Be'ore the political di2ision o' A'"hanistan and %akistan di2ided the KunarR!hitral tra2el 'rom the %amir ountainsH passes to the plains o' the Indian subcontinent4 (e*he Ri&er (e*he ri2er is located in A'"hanistan4 %eche ri2er s-stem is 'ed 'rom "laciers and snow4 It includes the Kunar 1i2er. Indus baril. "olden mahaseer and the 1ita cat'ish4 K%nar Ri&er The K%nar Ri&er (K nar R d) is about 7D5 km lon". Indus "arua (a cat'ish). %akistan4 Shyo Ri&er The Shyo Ri&er is a ri2er 'lowin" throu"h . the "iant snakehead. which rises in *uristan pro.ince of Af:hanistan/ and the main . where it is re'erred to as the Kunar 1i2er4 The Kunar 1i2er empties into the Kabul 1i2er just to the east o' the A'"hanistan4 R%'al Ri&er R%'al Ri&er rises 'rom the melt water o' 1upal &lacier in the south o' the *an"a %arbat peak and 'lows northeast throu"h the 1upal Qalle. be'ore Tirit the SE 'lowin" ri2er takes a */ turn on meetin" the ri2er Sh-ok4 The similarit. bein" the easiest wa.and Tarashin"4 #eel%m Ri&er #eel%m is a ri2er in A3ad Kashmir. one o' the toun"es o' Siachin "lacier and and becomes 2er.alalabad in A'"hanistan4 The combined ri2ers then 'low eastwards into %akistan.o' .suddenl. located in eastern A'"hanistan and north+western %akistan4 The Kunar ri2er s-stem is 'ed 'rom meltin" "laciers and snow o' the <indu Kush mountains4 The .in the courses o' these two important ri2ers probabl.o' Sh-ok. it 'ormed an important trade route.unar Ri. ori"inatin" 'rom Siachin &lacier)4 The ali"nment o' the Sh-ok ri2er is 2er.enters a narrow "or"e a'ter !halunka and then joins the Indus at Skardu (%akistan)4 The *ubra ri2er ori"inatin" 'rom the Siachin "lacier also beha2es like the Sh-ok. joinin" the Indus 1i2er at the cit.o' the Indus) ori"inates 'rom the 1imo "lacier.sediments a .utkho 1i2er joins the astuj 1i2er just north o' the important re"ional centre o' !hitral in Pakistan and is then called the 0hitral before flo<in: south into the upper Kunar <hich rises in the eastern %amir ountains be'ore 'lowin" throu"h !hitral in %akistan into the upper Kunar Qalle.<ilsa. ori"inatin" 'rom the 1imo "lacier it 'lows in a SE direction and at joinin" the %an"on" ran"e it takes a */ turn and 'lows parallel to its pre2ious path4 The Sh-ok 'lowin" in a wide 2alle.indicates a series o' palaeo 'ault lines trendin" */+SE in delimitin" the upper courses o' the ri2ers4 The importance o' the Indus and the Sh-ok ri2ers is in the deposition o' a hu"e thickness o' 0uaternar.unusual.

researchers4 Sohan Ri&er The Sohan is a ri2er o' the %unjab.treasure tro2e 'or "eolo". 'ormin" the northern border o' the Bannu #istrict (at ca4 ::456K EC4E: EK )4 It has been identi'ied with the Sushoma o' the 1i"2eda4 The name =Sohan= deri2es 'rom this ri2er4 I4e> Sohan mikkilinenineni444etc444 . northern %akistan.

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