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/'/

.-//

NASA

Contractor

Report

198300

Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Fan Noise Prediction for Small Engines
Joe W. Hough AlliedSignal and Donald Engines, Phoenix, S. Weir Arizona

Contract April

NAS1-20102

1996

National Space

Aeronautics Administration

and

Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001

AIRCRAFT NOISE PREDICTION PROGRAM (ANOPP) FAN NOISE PREDICTION FOR SMALL ENGINES

Final

Report

Prepared

for

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Contract NAS1-20102 Task Order 6

By
Joe W. Hough and Donald S. Weir

SUMMARY

ANOPP has been successfullyrevised to include a module which improves fan noise prediction capability with small turbofan engines. The modifications have been verifiedwith measured data from three separate AlliedSignal fan engines. Comparisons of the revised prediction show a significantimprovement in overall and spectral noise predictions. The revised technique provides predictions which now coincide with the measured data spread from the AlliedSignal engines. The most notable revisions to the Heidmaun method include the reduction of peak discrete tone levels and combination tone levels.

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Pa.e
1.0 STATEMENT 1.1 I. 2 1.3 2.0 OF WORK 1 1 1 2 3 Approach Small Engine 3 5 6 6 7 Versus Versus Revisions Prediction Method Data 8 Predictions Engine Noise Data 9 I0 11 13 17 20 23 25 DATA 28 28 29 30 REVISION TEST CASE 31 32

Background Objective Summary

RESULTS 2.1 2.2 Technical Update of 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 Develop 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5

Data

Base

Engine Fan Design Dominant Engine Fan Noise ANOPP And GASP Predictions From Engine 1 ANOPP And GASP Predictions From ANOPP Engine 2 And GASP

Frequencies Versus Data

From Engine Generalized Small Inlet Inlet Inlet Engine

3 Small Fan

Discrete Tone Noise Combination Tone Noise Broadband Noise Discrete Broadband COMPARISONS Tone Noise Noise WITH MEASURED

Discharge Discharge

3.0

REVISED 3.1 3.2 3.3 SMALL

PREDICTION 1 2 3

Engine Engine Engine ENGINE

REFERENCES

iii

OF

C_S

(Contd)

APPENDICES I II ANOPP THEORETICAL DATA I, MANUAL UPDATE (15 pages) GASP, AND HEIDMANN,

MEASURED ENGINE

VERSUS

REVISED

PREDICTION,

(20 pages) REVISED PREDICTION, GASP, AND HEIDMANN,

III

MEASURED DATA VERSUS ENGINE 2, (28 pages) MEASURED DATA VERSUS ENGINE 3, (20 pages) MEASURED DATA VERSUS ENGINE 1, (5 pages) MEASURED DATA VERSUS ENGINE 2, (7 pages) MEASURED DATA VERSUS ENGINE 3, (4 pages) SMALL ENGINE REVISION;

IV

REVISED

PREDICTION,

GASP,

AND

HEIDMANN,

REVISED

PREDICTION,

GASP,

AND

HEIDMANN,

VI

REVISED

PREDICTION,

GASP,

AND

HEIDMANN,

VII

REVISED

PREDICTION,

GASP,

AND

HEIDMANN,

VIII

FAN

NOISE

PREDICTION

TEST

CASE

(9 pages) IX SMALL ENGINE REVISION (15 pages) USER'S MANUAL AND ANOPP CODE

DEVELOPMENT X

INTERIM PREDICTION METHOD FOR FAN AND COMPRESSOR SOURCE NOISE, M. F. HEIDMANN, LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER (SELECT FIGURES ONLY) AND AIRCRAFT NOISE PREDICTION PROGRAM THEORETICAL MANUAL, W. E. ZORUMSKI, LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER (SELECT TABLES ONLY) (20 pages)

iv

FINAL REPORT AIRCRAFT NOISE PREDICTION PROGRAM(ANOPP) FAN NOISE PREDICTION FOR SM_LL ENGINES

1.0 1.1

STATEMENT Background In 1982, produced

OF

WORK

AlliedSignal a "Computer (NASA the a need NASA

Engines Program

(then to

Garrett the

Turbine Noise with of NASA

Engine General Lewis (GASP). predict(ANOPP) to

Company) Aviation Research This ion study

Predict

Aircraft," Center under

CR-168050) General to

under Aviation the

contract Synthesis Heidmann

Program fan noise

identified in the

modify Noise fan

procedure correlate 6000-pound

Aircraft of

Prediction from

Program engines in

better to

measurements thrust range. time for

noise

the made

3000by the

Additional have confirmed engines.

measurements the need to

AlliedSignal ANOPP fan

since noise

that

revise

method

smaller

1.2

Objective

The large

NASA

ANOPP

has

been

used

successfully of ANOPP

for to

predictions smaller to task regional improve is to

of

transport and

aircraft. business

Application has

transport fan noise a

aircraft capability. prediction include:

demonstrated objective for

a need of this

the ininto

prediction fan noise

The

tegrate ANOPP.

capability

smaller

engines

Four

subtasks

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Update Develop Code

of

small

engine engine a

data fan

base prediction fan noise method module

small

noise

and

validate and report

revised results

ANOPP

Document

1.3

S_ary ANOPP has fan been successfully prediction have been fan significant revised capability verified engines. improvement to with with include small measured a module which engines. from the and three revised spectral

improves The

noise

turbofan data of

modifications AlliedSignal show a

separate prediction noise

Comparisons in overall

predictions.

Figure Heidmann predictions AlliedSignal method combination include and

shows GASP now

the

improved

prediction The revised measured revisions discrete

as

compared technique

to

the

predictions. coincide The reduction with most of

provides from the

which

the notable peak

data

spread to tone the

engines. the levels.

Heidmann and

levels

tone

The fan data noise and

small module. a test

engine The case

revisions revised been

have module included

been has for

incorporated been verified

into with

the

ANOPP

measured

has _

demonstration

purposes.

o/total soundpower levelsfor threesmallAE engines


B m -I::llS_8_ON

----"'"

.... (lt]r)d

GASP : 1.5 _%

I05.0
,

..... .... ......


9s.o

i ..o
,85.0
0.6 I 0.7 I 0.8

-I-I"
I 0.9 I 1.0 I 1.1 I 1.2 I 1.3 l 1.4

Rotortip retatJve inletroachnumber,Mtr

R_isionimpmv_fannoisepredi_onby2_SdB Revised In Fan Noise Module Small Shows Engine Overall Prediction.

I Improvement

Figure

1.

AlliedSignal

2.0

RESULTS

2.1

Technical

Approach

The revision noise under data

proposed are

fan

noise to

prediction improve originally and the later upon

revisions the

in

the

small

engine source Company engine In the

intended

well-established by by F. The Boeing

prediction contract from NASA

procedures with Lewis NASA-Ames under procedure

developed improved of is M.

full-scale Heidmann. into five

direction noise

Heidmann modules:

prediction

fan

divided

separate

Broadband

noise

emitted

from

the

inlet

and

discharge

ducts

Discrete ducts

tone

noise

emitted

from

the

inlet

and

discharge

Combination

tone

noise

emitted

from

the

inlet

duct

Predictions spectrum directivity then levels is shape at a

within function, radius

each a of

module total

provide spectrum from the

one-third and a

octave

band

level, source.

free-field fan the noise sound

one-meter the five

Total of

calculated each of

through the

logarithmic

summation

within

modules.

Several are that vision from dure. specified only

engine within

performance this

parameters and

and drive

engine the

build

parameters Given revary proce-

procedure available these were

predictions. proposed appreciably in this

three

engines some

were of and

for

AlliedSignal's did not

procedure, engine-to-engine, The

parameters not fully

investigated are shown

influential

prediction

parameters

below:

Performance

Parameters

Mass

flow

rate

Total

temperature

rise

across

the

fan

Design remained 5

rotor nearly

tip

relative constant

inlet for was the made

Mach three to

number

This

parameter d 1.5 cor-

engines, the

(Mtr) Heichnann

percent. where

No

attempt (Mtr) d was

modify

rections

used

Operating

rotor

tip

relative

inlet

Mach

number

Engine

Build

Parameters

Rotor-Stator not vary enough

Spacing to

(RSS) improve

the

RSS RSS

for

the

three

engines

did

correction.

Presence gines vary do due

of not to

Inlet have IGVs

Guide IGVs. could not

Vanes

(IGVs)

the

AlliedSignal"s corrections

enwhich

Therefore, be adjusted.

Presence operation) inlet into were have use flow the not

of -

Inlet During

Flow

Distortion testing, (ICD) to

(ground

effects;

static uses distortion effects does and can an

acoustic device Therefore, in this data

AlliedSignal flow distortion AlliedSignal without the ICD

control inlet. examined engine for

eliminate flow

inlet investigation. with studies. and

separate this data

future

AlliedSignal's to the spectrum each module

revised level, based

predictions spectrum on the shape, measured

concentrate and data

on

the

adjustments adjustments

directivity of three

within

small

engines.

No attempt was made to add new modules porate different prediction procedures approach. 2.2
Update Subtask nesses engine data it same current and is of the Of 1 Small calls Heidmann Figure correlation that the function fan fan tone and, noise noise to a 2

to the prediction not related to

or to incorthe Heidmann

Engine
for and

Data the GASP a NASA

Base identification predictions comparison Lewis fan of based of full-scale noise fan data small fan strengths on the engine data. not and weak-

AlliedSignal fan noise

data. with the

shows of small

Clearly, obey the the inlet noise noise and level

evident correlation Heidmann

engine for large

does

data.

Specifically, overpredicts peak peak

routine levels, lesser

significantly inlet degree, buzz-saw broadband

discharge content,

spectrum and

spectrum

content.

Correlation of total sound power levels for/Ulk_lS_md fan data

" Engine #1 140

u Engine #2

a Engine #3 I _ DmaCowelatm PWL = 98.5 + 101og_TI,aTo) + 101og(SHP)

.=
"3" :.1.
o

,30
o A o & u & A A A

o.

120 1000 Shaft Horsepower, SHP


5OOO 1OOOO

NASA-Lewis Data Correlation is Nearly 5 dB Higher Than AIIiedSignal Data

Figure

2.

ItlliedSignal Well With

Small HASALewis

Engine Fan

Data Data.

Does

Not

Correlate

2.2.1

Engine

Fan

Desiqn

Provided three has ground IGVs control and a AlliedSignal single idle

in

Table test

are

the

fan Each

design of output the

property geared varies These or from engines use of

ranges ungeared 400 do an

for

the fans at have flow

engines.

stage. to 6500

Corrected pounds is at

thrust full eliminated

pounds not

speed. with

inlet device

distortion for static

the

inlet

engine

acoustic

testing.

TABLE

1.

AlliedSignal

FAN

DESIGN

PROPERTY

R&NGES

Fan 1,2, and3


214Z790-001

Total Pressure Ratio, PR 1.5 - 1.6

Mass Flow Rate, Iblsac 100-22C

Rotor Tip Design Relative Rotor Tip inlet Macl Math Number Number, (Mtr)d Idt 0.3-1.2 1.45-1.53

Vane-to. Blade Ratio, VIB 2.0-2.5

Blade Passage Frequency, fin Hz 3600-5300

Cut-Off Factor, 6 0.77-1.15

RotorStator Spacing Factor, RSS, percent 170-214

Inlet Guide Vanes None

2.2.2

Dominant

Engine

Fan

Noise

Frequencies

All_edSignal in are noise engine kHz. tribute the far-field in

measures over this a

engine reflecting

noise plane.

with All

multimicrophone noise routinely fan noise,

array components performs for most 1

engine

measured source speeds, In some up to

arrangement. and dominant engine the aft has

AlliedSignal determined engine source that for points, arc.

separation is lower ~3 kHz the

frequencies jet noise

above can con-

speed in

operating microphone

Given the tave lower bands

the

strong

noise bands,

contributions fan 10 noise is Overall this

by only

other shown

engine for levels range.

sources one-third shown in

in octhe

frequency from figures 1

kHz

to computed

kHz. from

noise

provided

are

frequency

2.2.3

_NOPP

And

GASP

Predictions

Versus

Data

Frc_

Enqine

Figure and the

shows

the fan

correlation noise tip sound fan

of

sound

power the

levels Heidmann and maximum the

for

Engine and GASP

associated For

predictions speeds, power the

using Heidmann

routines. consistently higher blade the to than pass measured be

subsonic provide

GASP 6-

routines to 7-dB for over appear

predictions Examination shows levels an and

a of

measured tones data. as and

data. harmonics noise

predictions 2to 6-dB

their Broadband well.

average spectrum

content

mismatched

For the 4 dB measured and data.

supersonic data. the

tip

speeds, fan tone

the tones noise

predictions are spectra still are

fair

better

against by 2 to

However,

overpredicted slightly higher

combination

than

test

Fan Noise C.,ormlalbnfix Test F.ngine#1 x Measured

iD Heiclmann 150
!

u GASP

> o..z-

_m

140
X D

a
X

130

_ g'"
0 120 1000

g
x
I

il
X I 2OO0
I I I I I I

1500

2500

:3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

Shaft Horsepower, SHP

Discrete Figure 3.

Tones

and Combination
_ For

Tones

Require
To

Revision
Fan Noise

Heickk_nn _nd Overprediction

Show Slight Engine 1.

Moderate

2.2.4

ANOPP

And

GASP

Prediotions

Versus

Data

Frc_

Engine

Figure 2. to over is Unlike 3-dB over

shows 1,

the

correlation pass data supersonic the tones for

of

sound and their tip

power

levels

for are

Engine only to 27-dB noise and

Engine the

blade

harmonics speeds, Combination of but

measured for

subsonic tip speeds.

4tone

measured underpredicted

data

during fan speed

early

introduction

buzz-saw

overpredicted

as

increases.

Broadband distribution

noise appears to

is peak

predicted at a lower

well,

however, than

the 2.5f b.

spectral

frequency

Fan Noise Correlali_ tot Test Engine#2

J m Heidmann u GASP 140


I

b.

|
D

X D

_.
5 0
o

is0

120

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

ShaftHorsepower,SHP

Broadband Spectral Distribution

and Combination

Tones Require Revision

Figure

4.

HeidBann

And

GKSP For

Show Engine

Moderate 2.

Fan

Noise

Overprediotion

2.2.5

ANOPP

and

GASP

Predictions

Versus

Data

From

Engine

Figure 3. the The fan

shows

the to

correlation supersonic with 7 dB for tip this all

of

sound speeds

power is the Fan and

levels least tones

for

Engine in still tone match 5 dB

transition noise by

evident are

spectra 2 to

engine. fan speeds Broadband are

overpredicted noise well is at well the for

combination levels by 3 to

above lower high

the fan fan

measurements. speeds speeds. but

noise

overpredicted

especially

Fan Noise Cormlal_onfor Test Engine

I" Heidmann aGASP x


140
!

130 x

R
g x x

t
x

_o"
0 120 1000
! I I I I I I

I 5000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Shaft Horsepower, SHP

Discrete

Tones

and

Combination

Tones

Require

Revision

Figure

5.

Heicksann And Overprediction

GASP Show Significant For Engine 3.

Fan

Noise

2.2.6

Generalized

Small

Engine

Revisions

For are

each

of to

the the

three peak For

engines, sound example, or

it

is

clear levels,

that

many

revisions and spectra

necessary

pressure broadband centered functions

directivity, noise high not in match and

spectrum content Inlet well noise

distribution. were either

peak too did

overpredicted tone to directivity

frequency. test data tone

and in

discharge the 70-

100-degree were

midarc so

angles,

and

combination they

predictions of the

sometimes fan noise

overpredicted

that

dominated

a majority

spectra.

Following agreement is provided with

review

of

the

predictions a summary is

and of

their the

agreement required in paragraph

or

dis-

the

measured Further

data,

revisions 2.3.

below.

discussion

supplied

Inlet proach:

prediction

revisions

relative

to

the

Heidmann

ap-

Peak creased Rolloff to 9.2

pressure by of dB of of the the 6 dB the

of

the

fundamental

tone

has

been

de-

first

harmonic

has

been

increased

from

Rolloff Rolloff
u

second remaining has of the

harmonic

is

1.6

dB 3 dB

harmonics slightly

remains modified tone

Tone Peak

directivity pressure

been

combination

noise

has

been

significantly Peak by 3 pressure dB noise

decreased of the broadband noise has been decreased

Broadband quency

spectrum

has

been

shifted

lower

in

fre-

10

Discharge proach:

prediction

revisions

relative

to

the

Heidmann

ap-

Peak creased Rolloff to


D

pressure by of dB of of the the 4 the dB

of

the

fundamental

tone

has

been

de-

first

harmonic

has

been

increased

from

9.2

Rolloff Rolloff Tone Peak by 2

second remaining has of the

harmonic harmonics

is

1.6

dB 3 dB

remains modified has

directivity pressure dB noise

been

slightly noise

broadband

been

decreased

Broadband quency

spectrum

has

been

shifted

lower

in

fre-

The detail see in

changes Figures I.

in 6

the to

small 19. The

engine ANOPP

revision manual has

module been

are updated

provided as

in well,

Appendix

2.3

Develop

Small

Engine

Fan

Noise

Prediction

Method

The two-stage

procedure process:

for

predicting

inlet

and

discharge

fan

noise

is

(a)

Calculate

the

characteristic

one-third

octave

band

SPL,

L c

Lc + C

20

log(aT/AT

o)

i0

log(m/m

O)

Fl[Mtr,

(Mtr)d]

F 2[RSS]

F 3[e]

where:

L c

one-third pressure radius, dB

octave level of

band a

characteristic single-stage

partial fan at

sound 1-meter

11

AT AT m m o

= = = = = = = =

total

temperature value rate value relative value of

rise T,

across IR fan, ib/sec number Mtr in percent

fan,

reference mass flow

through of m, mach of

ib/sec

reference rotor design tip

Mtr (Mtr) d RSS e

point

rotor-stator directivity degrees

spacing or polar

at

rotor to

tip inlet axis,

angle

relative

correction

for

IGVs

The or

function noise and

F1

determines The

the

peak

inlet of the F1

or is

discharge determined of F3

discrete by the

broadband of Mtr

level. (Mtr) d.

variance

values spacing

F 2 determines on each inlet noise flow

influence

rotor-stator the

with

a dependency function for

distortion.

determines

directivity

contributor.

(b)

Calculate

the

spectrum

shape

function,

SPL(f)

where The a of spectrum the sound

SPL(f) pressure

L c + F4(f/f level F4, for

b) each is contributor, centered on Lc, a is then given value a

shape

function,

which For is

multiple tip

blade

passage tone noise

frequency. component

supersonic and

rotor has its

speeds, spectral

combination shape

included

own

function.

The for the

process five fan

of

calculating components

Lc

and

SPL(f)

is

performed

separately

noise

listed:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Inlet Inlet Inlet

discrete combination broadband

tone

noise tone noise (when applicable)

noise tone noise noise

Discharge Discharge

discrete broadband

12

Total five band ius. noise sound

fan

noise

is

obtained These of

through calculations

the

energy provide noise

summation one-third at a

of

these octave rad-

components. pressure levels

the

free-field

one-meter

To based Each file, ence

accelerate

the

revision of the noise linked to

process, GASP and

AlliedSignal Heidmann was fan

created noise in file. the a

PC-

Excel of the

spreadsheet five component file were total of the in was

modules. separate influ-

sources a total changes

programmed noise both were against

and

each

fan in

As

parameters and

modified, fan noise

the

corresponding observed. documented

component The fan accuracy noise

contributions was library. verified

readily the

spreadsheet the GASP

version

Using ponent process ment diction AlliedSignal provided revision model are in or with and was

the

temporary with many data which fan

spreadsheet, measured times was data until

revisions from the

were

made

to

each

comThis agreeprein are engine

compared repeated

three

engines.

satisfactory The result

prediction is a revised

measured method small the

achieved. a The

provides noise. sections Suggestions

significant to each to

improvement component as small

revisions are

following

and for

referred

revision.

further

improvements

in

this

requested.

2.3.1

Inlet

Discrete

Tone

Noise

The tone is:

characteristic

peak

sound

pressure

level

for

the

fundamental

L c -- 20

log(AT/ATo)

i0

log(m/mo)

+ F l[Mtr

(Mtr) d]

+ F 2[RSS]

+ F 318]

13

(a)

Changes the

to

Fl[Mtr, peak to with the

(Mtr)d]: SPL

Figure

6 shows FI. A

the 6-dB

revisions reduction

to was

normalized due level

function,

chosen tone

overall data

improvement for all

of three

the

fundamental

measured

engines.

Notes Mtr is

for

future as The to be MOre

investigation a transition data

of

FI:

value between

of

0.72

for

used

parameter indicates to

prediction 0.72 of value 0.9 or a

functions. may even better need 1.0.

measured increased

that the

this value to

possibly is

investigation of this

required value.

determine

approximation

transition

L c = 20log(AT/AT o) + 101og(m/mo) +lF,[Mtr,(Mtr)d]l+

F=[RSS] + Fa[0]

Heidmann, GASP revision

For (Mtr)a>l, Mtr<0.72


60.5 54.5 + +

201og(Mtr)d 201og(Mtr)d

Heidmann, GASP

For (Mtr)d>l, 1_0.72


-

lesser of: 60.5 + 501og(Mtr/0.72) or 59.5 + 801og((Mtr)d/Mtr))

revision - lesser of: 54.5 + 501og(Mtr/0.72) or 53.5 + 801og((Mtr)d/Mtr))

Reference

Figure

10a shown

in

Appendix

Figure

6.

Inlet

Discrete

Tone

Noise

Revisions

Improve

Peak

SPL.

14

(b)

Changes directivity function was

to

F3[0]: function,

Figure F 3. the

shows slope

the of

revisions the to

to

the

The

directivity 40 degrees)

relative

to

maximum

angles

(20

slightly

decreased.

Notes analysis future

for can

future be used

investigation to better

of evaluate

F3: the

Narrowband tone rolloff

data in

studies.

The

sound -

pressure Lc + I0

level log[ 10

spectrum 0.1F4(f/fb

is: ) ]

SPL(f)

Lc : 2Olog(AT/ATo) + 1Olog(m/mo) + F,[M.,(I_,)_]


Theta 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 8O 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 I Figure 7. Reference Heidmann .3.0 -1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.2 .3.5 -6.8 -10.5 -14.5 -19.0 -24.5 -30.0 -35.5 -41.0 -46.5 -52.0 -57.5 -63.0 Figure GASP -4.5 -3.0 -1.5 -1.5 -1.5 -2.5 -4.0 -6.0 -8.5 -12.5 -17.0 -20.5 -24.0 -27.5 -31.0 -34.5 -38.0 -41.5 -45.0 13a shown -1.5 -1.5 -1.5 -1.5 -2.0 -3.0 -4.0 .6.0 -9.0 -12.5 -16.0 -19.5 -23.0 -26.5 .30.0 -33.5 .37.0 -40.5

+ F,[RSS]

+IF,[0] !

Revision -3.0

in Appendix

1 J Improve

Inlet Discrete Tone Noise Directivity Correction.

Revisions

15

(c)

Changes

to

F4(f/fb): interaction

Figure

shows

the tone

revision harmonic

to

the

rotor-stator levels. from and 3 the to

discrete second of

rolloff increased is 1.6 dB,

Rolloff 9.2 dB.

of

the Rolloff

harmonic the third a 3-dB

has

been

harmonic rolloff.

remaining

harmonics

retain

Notes engines exhibit

for

future operating the at

investigation at low harmonic the visible the other two fan

of

F4: speed

Only does rolloff.

one not

of

the

three

completely this band fan tone

revised low

tone fundamental above fans.

For

operating level is

speed,

1/3-octave broadband

barely with

sources,

inconsistent

Harmonic may

tone a

rolloff closer

for

fans

operating for

at

low-speed studies.

points

require

examination

follow-up

SPL(f) H0idmsnn, GASP

: I. c + 10 log

[1010"IF4(U J])
Revision

4
Harmonic Level, L

Harmonic

order, k

Harmonic order, k L=Lc L = Lc - 8 8< 1.05 L = Lc- 9.2; L=Lc -3k- 1.8; 8 > 1.05'_ k=l 8 < 1.05 J k=2 k>3

L = Lc + 3- 3k; 8> 1.05 L=Lc-8;k=I L =Lc+3-3k; }

k>2

Reference Figure 8a shown in Appendix X Figure 8. Inlet And Discharge Improve Interaction Discrete Tone Tone Harmonic Noise Revisions Levels.

16

2.3.2

Inlet

Combination

Tone

Noise

The tone is:

characteristic

peak

sound

pressure

level

for

the

fundamental

Lc =

20

log(_T/ATo)

I0

log(m/m

o)

+ F l[Mtr]

+ F 2[el

+ C

(a)

Changes sions levels cantly. better to

to

Fl[Mtr]: the the normalized 1/2, slopes the

Figures peak and the

9, SPL 1/8 F 1

10,

and

11

show F 1. reduced also

the The

revipeak

function, were were

for

1/4, of peak

tones curves levels.

significhanged to note distri-

The match

measured

Furthermore, the "Mtr

the "201og[Mtr]" bution which is

distribution used in the

rather Heidmann

than curves.

(f/fb = 1/2)
B E

Lc = 201og(AT/ATo) + 101og(m/m o) +IF,[I_]I+

F2[0] + C

Combination tone noiselevelsat 1/2 of bladepassagefrequency

O_

&GASP

X Smmll_
,

80.0

-J _

70.0

,_.o

4o.0

.j_

30.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

2010g(Rotor Tip RelativeMachNumber)

I Figure 9.

Reference Figure 15a shown in Appendix X Inlet Combination SPLCorrection. Tone Noise Revisions

} Improve Peak

17

Notes tone = 1.0

for levels for

future

investigation are 1/4

of

FI: by Mtr the

The GASP 3.0

peak to

combination occur 1/8 at Mtr

currently 1/2 and data

predicted and that the

tones,

for peak

tones. may

The not

measured be solely

suggests on will

actual of Mtr. need

levels

dependent likely

value the

Also, to

further the

investigation slopes of the

reveal peak level

improve

normalized

curves.

(f/fb = 1/4) Lc : 201og(ATIATo) + 101og(mlmo)

+IFI[M ]I+ F2[0]

+ C

Combination tone noise levels at 1/4 of blade passage frequency


X GASP I 13 Heidmann . 'A 80.0

Small Engine Revision I

.oo 600
"_ so.o
m ._ E,Z
O

40.0

o "

30.0 0.0

I 1.0

I 2.0

I 3.0

I 4.0

I 5.0

I 6.0

20log (Rotor Tip Relative Mach Number)

Reference

Figure

15a shown

in

Appendix

Figure

I0.

Inlet Combination SPL Correction.

Tone

Noise

Revisions

Improve

Peak

18

(f/fb = 118) L = 20log(AT/To) + 101og(m/mo) +IF,[Mt,]I+ F2[0] + C

Combination tone noise levels at 1/8 of blade passage frequency x GASP


I D Heidmann

Small Engine Revision

._- '.L.

80.0

_!
i _ 70.0 60.0

so0
....... _ Z_ 40.0 I ...... "_ " " _ ....... ............ "& ............ t ............

30.0 0.0
1.0 2.0 3.0

I 4.0

I 5.0

I 6.0

20log (Rotor Tq:) Relative Mach Number)

Reference

Figure

15a shown

in

Appendix

Figure

11.

Inlet Combination SPL Correction.

Tone

Noise

Revisions

Improve

Peak

(b)

Changes directivity been

to

F2[e]: function,

Figure F 2.

12 The

shows slope

the of

revision the function

to

the has

decreased.

The

sound

pressure

level

spectrum

is:

SPL(f)

Lc

F 3(f/fb

(c)

Changes combination was tone were

to

F3(f/fb): tone from The noise

Figure spectrum to and

13

shows content.

the

revision The

to

the

distribution combination tone spectra

decreased spectrum. not changed.

301og 1/4

151og 1/8

for

the

1/2

combination

19

Lc = 201og(ATIATo)
Theta 10 20 3O 40 5O 60 7O 8O 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 150 170 180 Reference

+ 10log(mira
Heidmann -_5 -7.0 -5.0 -2.0 0.0 0.0 -,%5 -7.5 -9.O -9.5 -10.0 -10_ -11.0 -11._ -12.0 -12.5 -13.0 -1:L5

o) + FI[M_]

GASP, Revision -4.5 -3.O -1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2.5 -5.0 -6.0 -6.9 -7.9 -8.8 -9_ -10.7 -11.7 -12.6 -13.6

Figure 16 shown in Appendix X

Figure

12.

Inlet Combination Correction.

Tone

Revisions

Improve

Directivity

Notes levels spectral data

for were

future so

investigation highly were

of

F3:

The that

combination revisions to

tone the

overpredicted not thoroughly room for

content

investigated. improvement for

Measured F 3.

suggests

significant

2.3.3

Inlet

Broadband

Noise

The

characteristic stage is:

peak

sound

pressure

level

for

the

single

fan

Lc :

20

log(AT/AT

o)

i0

log(m/m

o)

F l[Mtr,

(Mtr)d]

F 2[RSS]

+ F 3[e]

20

(f/fb = 1/2)

SPL(f)

= Lc +IFa=(flfb) I

, 0

I Revision:

"151og(f/fb) I

Relative 1/3 Octave Band

-10

-20
I

g(flfb)

-30 0.1 0.5

1.0

5.0

Dimensionless

frequency, flfb

Reference Figure 14a shown in Appendix X

Figure

13.

Inlet Combination Spectrum Content. to Fl[Mtr,

Tone

Noise

Revisions

Improve

(a)

Changes to was the made

(Mtr)d]: peak overall SPL

Figure function,

14

shows F I. A

the 3-dB

revisions decrease broadband with the

normalized for The data. an

improvement of Mtr = 0.9

of is

the

inlet

noise. measured

parameter

agreeable

The

sound

pressure

level

spectrum

is:

SPL(f)

Lc

+ F 4(f/fb

21

L c = 201og(ATIATo)

+ 101og(m/m o) +IF,[M_,(I_)_]I+

F=[RSS]

+ F318]

Heidmann, GASP revision

For (M_)_.I, -

M_0.9 d)

58.5 + 201og((l_) 55.5 + 201og((l_r)d)

For (1_)_1, Heidmann, GASP revision

M_0.9 - 201og(M,] - 201og(Mtr )

- 58.5 + 201og((l_r)d) - 55.5 + 201og((M_)d)

I
Figure 14. Inlet

Reference

Figure 4a shown Noise

in Appendix X Improve

I Peak SPL.

Broadband

Revisions

(b)

Changes spectrum center f/fb" quencies f/fb"

to

F4(f/fb):

Figure

15

shows log down been

the

revision

to

the

content frequency Sound below

correction. has been shifted

The

normal from 2.5

distribution f/fb for to 2.0 freabove

level f/fb'

rolloff and

has increased

decreased for frequencies

Notes analysis follows at 2.5

for

future suggests

investigation that normal the data broadband distribution other agree need

of

F4: spectral

NASA

Lewis

data content

noise one 20

two f/fb

log and

functions, near log

centered The but distri-

centered with for a the

f/fb"

measured suggests bution

engine the function.

distribution spectrum

possible

second

22

SPL(f) = Lc +_

Heidmann, GASP - 101og(exp(-0.5(In(fl2.5fh))2)) In2.2 for all f

Revision - 101og(exp(-O.35(In(f/2.0fh))2)) In2.2 - 101og(exp(-2.0(In(fl2.0fb))2)) In2.2 for f < 2f b for f > 2f b

Reference

Figure

3a shown

in

Appendix

Figure

15.

Inlet And Discharge Broadband Noise Improve Spectrum Content Correction.

Revisions

2.3.4

Discharge

Discrete

Tone

Noise

The tone is:

characteristic

peak

sound

pressure

level

for

the

fundamental

L
c

20 F318

log(AT/AT ] + C

o)

I0

log(m/m

o)

F l[Mtr,

(Mtr)d]

F 2[RSS]

(a)

Changes to the

to

Fl[Mtr,

(Mtr)d]: peak SPL

Figure function,

16 F 1.

shows A

the 4-dB

revisions rolloff was

normalized

chosen
level

due
with

to

the

overall
data.

improvement

of

the

blade

passage

measured

23

I-c: 201og(ATIATo) + 101og(rn/mo)

++ c
Mv<I

For (M_)d>l,

Heidmann, GASP - 63.0 + 201og((Mtr) d) revision - 59.0 + 201og((Mtr) d) For (l_r)d >1, M_I

Heidmann, GASP - 63.0 + 201og((l_r) _) - 201og(l_r) revision - 59.0 + 201Og((lVltr) d) - 20lOg(My)

Reference

Figure 10b shown in Appendix X

Figure

16.

Discharge

Discrete

Tone

Noise

Revisions

Improve

Peak

SPL.

(b)

Changes directivity function was

to

F318]: function,

Figure F 3. peak

17 The

shows slope angles

the of (110

revisions the to

to

the

directivity 130 degrees)

below

the

level

slightly

decreased.

The

sound

pressure

level

spectrum

is:

SPL(f)

Lc

+ F4(f/f

b)

(c)

Changes harmonic

to

F 4 (f/fb) is

Revisions in Figure

to 8.

the

discrete

tone

rolloff

provided

24

i. c = 201og(ATIL_T o) + 101og(m/m
Theta 10 20 30 40 50 6O 70 8O 9O 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

o) + FI[Mu,(I_)
GASP

d] + F2[RSS ] _
Revision -3O.O -2_0 -22.0 -1_0 -14.0 -10.5 -6.5 -4.0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.0 -3J -7.0 -11.0 -16.0

Iteidmann -,15.0 -31.0 -27.O -23.0 -19.0 -15.0 -11.0 -_0 .9.O -_0 -1.0 0.0 0.0 -2.0 o5_ -9.0 -1_0 -18.0

-28.5 -24.q -20._ -16.5 -12.5 -8.5 -S.5 -2-5 -0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2.0 -_5 -9.0 -I:L0 -18.0

Reference

Figure 13b shown in Appendix X

Figure

17.

Discharge Directivity

Discrete Tone Correction.

Noise

Revisions

Improve

2.3.5

Discharge

Broadband

Noise

The stage is:

characteristic

peak

sound

pressure

level

for

the

single

fan

Lc

20

log(AT/AT + C

O)

i0

log(m/m

O)

F l[Mtr,

(Mtr)d

F 2[RSS]

F318]

(a)

Changes to the the

to

Fl[Mtr,

(Mtr)d]: peak pressure SPL

Figure function, level was

18 F 1.

shows A

the 2-dB for

revisions decrease an overall data. in

normalized sound of the

peak

made with

improvement

inlet

broadband

noise

measured

25

For

(Mtr)d

>1,

I_r<l

Heidmann, GASP - 60.0 + 201og((Mtr)d) revision


Heidmann, GASP

- 58.0 + 201og((Mtr)d) For (Mtr)d>l, I_1


60.0 +

201og((Mtr)d) - 201og(M_)

revision

- 58.0 + 201og((l_r)d ) - 201og(Mtr )

Reference

Figure 4b shown in Appendix X

Figure

18.

Discharge

Broadband

Noise

Revisions

Improve

Peak

SPL.

(b)

Changes directivity function been

to

F3[0]: function,

Figure F 3. maximum

19 The

shows slope

the of

revisions the (130

to

the

directivity degrees) has

below

the

level

angle

decreased.

The

sound

pressure

level

spectrum

is:

SPL(f)

Lc +

F4(f/f

b)

(c)

Changes spectrum

to

F4(f/fb): are

Revisions provided in

to

the

discharge 15.

broadband

content

Figure

26

Lc = 201og(AT/ATo) + 101og(m/m o) + FI[M_,(IV_)d] + F2[RSS] Fs_rrr_


Theta 10 20 3O 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 Reference Heidmann, -36.0 -32.0 -28.0 -24.0 -20.0 -16.0 -11.5 -8.0 -5.0 -2_7 -1_. -0_ 0.0 -2_0 -6.0 -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 Figure 7b shown GASP Revision -29.5 -26.0 -22.5 -19.0 -15.5 -12_0 -8.5 -5.0 -3.5 -2_5 -2.0 -1.3 0.0 -3.0 -7.0 -11.0 -15.0 -20.0 in Appendix X

Figure

19.

Discharge Directivity

Broadband Noise Correction.

Revisions

I_prove

27

3.0

REVISED

PREDICTION

COMPARISONS

WITH

The data and inlet and levels IV. and fan from

small three

engine

revisions

have engines.

been

verified

against of the

measured predicted of

AlliedSignal sound degrees midangle engines 1/3-octave to 100 I0

Differences levels (40

measured noise 120

far-field arc, 80 three show 1 60 kHz to

pressure - near of are

degrees inlet and

- midangle and

midangle exhaust provided band

between noise in arc)

exhaust, power and SPL of 1/3for and all

degrees for the plots from from

sound II, in a III,

Appendices differences points speed. cover

These AdB PWL

spectral data

AdB

kHz. of and

The the

spread

speeds band 10

percent

design level

Tabulated

octave angles,

level to 160

differences degrees, are

overall in

differences V, VI,

provided

Appendices

VII.

3.1

Engine

(See

Appendices

II

And

Five from 65 to

data 99

points percent

were speed. in

used

for The

this revised for remains

engine. prediction the 65

Fan

speeds method

ranged shows a fan

significant speeds, especially but

improvement discharge for the exhaust

inlet

noise

and

75

percent

noise noise

still

slightly to 160

over-predicted

angles,

100

degrees.

This noise cent

particular behavior point. the At

engine as seen

seems in

to the the inlet

have inlet

an

abrupt

combination for the 85

tone perhas

cut-on speed but

midangles noise has

this

speed, for

buzz-saw fan tones

prediction

improved

predictions

worsened.

Conversely, improvement saw band noise noise with fair show

the the well

95

and

99

percent

speeds method.

show

significant for and buzzbroad-

revised and inlet

prediction and

Predictions tones

discharge

discrete

improvement.

28

Notes o

for Inlet still

future and

prediction discharge

improvements: discrete for low tones fan speeds and broadband noise are

overpredicted

Inlet dicted

and for

discharge higher fan

broadband speeds

noise

is

slightly

underpre-

Combination speeds

tone

noise

is

still

overpredicted

for

higher

fan

3.2

Engine Seven

2 data

(See

J_ndices were speed. in to speed to to 75

III used

And for The

V I) this revised noise engine. prediction for all Fan speeds method fan ranged shows but for is not a

points percent

from

61

to

100

significant inlet the severe the 61 noise to for rolloff 88

improvement is slightly

discharge marginally points.

speeds,

underpredicted The discrete but as tone fan

especially rolloff speed to

percent 65

the

percent show

speeds,

increases, the revised

begins

characteristics

similar

prediction.

Buzz-saw ment of 10 dB

noise and

prediction more is seen

has in

improved the peak

tremendously. combination tone

An

improve-

levels.

For broadband

the

higher show

fan

speeds

inlet with

fundamental the revised

tones, prediction

harmonics method.

and

noise

improvement

Notes

for

future

prediction

improvements:

Inlet slightly

and

discharge underpredicted

discrete for

tones lower fan

and speeds

harmonics

are

now

Inlet fan

broadband speeds

noise

is

slightly

underpredicted

for

lower

29

3.3

Engine

(See

]qopendices

IV

And

VII)

Four from 60

data to 87

points percent

were

used

for The

this revised 75

engine.

Fan

speeds method

ranged shows

speed. the 60

prediction fan where speeds. the

excellent also has is

agreement improved over for 10

for the dB.

to

percent speeds

Agreement noise

higher

fan

buzz-saw

improved

Discrete revised Heidmann method, and

fundamental but by

tones only 2

are to

still 5 dB

being instead improved

overpredicted of but 9 is to 15

with dB

the with

GASP. as

Broadband well.

noise

has

still

slightly

overpredicted

Notes

for

future

prediction

improvements:

Inlet still

and

discharge

discrete

tone for

and

broadband speeds

noise

are

slightly

overpredicted

high

fan

Combination

tone

noise

is

overpredicted

for

the

1/4

tone

30

4.0

SMALL

ENGINE

REVISION

TEST

CASE

A revision Appendix

sample module VIII.

fan

noise has been

prediction compared

test to

case measured

using

the

small 1 data,

engine see

Engine

Using predictions Revision four

the were modules. and

supplied made The figures

engine with results which the

parameters Heidmann, of these the

for

Engine and are

1,

fan

noise Engine in

GASP, predictions

Small

provided

tables

show

following:

O O

Third-octave Third-octave inlet

sound sound

power

level

spectra level spectra 40 degrees from

pressure

Third-octave inlet

sound

pressure

level

spectra

80

degrees

from

Third-octave inlet -

sound

pressure

level

spectra

120

degrees

from

The revisions

ANOPP in the

theoretical Small Engine

manual

has

been

modified see

to

reflect I.

the

Revision

procedure,

Appendix

Appendix

IX

contains

description

of

the

ANOPP

code

changes.

31

5.0

REFERENCES

Interim F.

Prediction NASA

Method Lewis

For

Fan

And

Compressor NASA

Source TM

Noise,

M. June

Heidmann,

Research

Center,

X-71763,

1975.

Aircraft Zorumski,

Noise NASA

Prediction Technical

Program Memorandum

Theoretical 83199, Parts

Manual, 1 and 2.

W.

32

APPENDIX

ANOPP

THEORETICAL

UPDATE

33

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48

APPENDIX

II

MEASURED

DATA

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AND

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III

MEASURED

VERSUS I/3_VE

REVISED PREDICTION, ENGINE 2. FROM

GASP,

ARD

HEIDMRJN

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APPENDXX

IV

MEASURED

DA_%

VERSUS I/3_VE

REVISED PREDICTION, GASP, ENGINE 3 BAND LEVEL DIFFERENCES FROM 1 TO I0 kHz, dB

RJND HEIDMANN

99

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APPENDIX

MEASURED

DATA

REVISED PREDICTIOI, GASP, BGINE 1 I/3-OCClVE BAND LEVEL DIFFERENCES 1 TO 10 kCz, cB

VERSOS

ARD

RRIDM_RN

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_%PPEHDIX

VI

ME/_SORED

D3L_I VERSOS

REVISED PREDICTION, GILSP, ENGIRE 2 1/3-OC21VE BARD LEVEL DIFFERIWCES FROM 1 TO I0 EHZ, dB

Z%RD HEIDMAB_

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J_PPERDIXVII
MEASURED _ REVISED PREDICTION, C_LqP, ENGIRE 3 1/3-OCTAVE BARD LEVEL DIFFERENCES FRCE I TO I0 EHZ, dB VERSUS AND HEIDMANN

134

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APPEHDIX

VIII

S_LL

_GIHE

R_VlSIOM TEST

F/%N NOISE C2&SE

PREDICTION

140

Engine

#1 Input

parameters

for Small

Engine

Revision

test case Enqine #1 3O 61 10006 5OO3 132.48 2.455 537 617 1.200 80 1.44( 17(

Engine Information: Fan blade #: Stator blade #: Fan speed,rpm: Fan blade pass,Hz: Fan physical flow,lb/s: Fan diameter,R: Inlet total temp,R: Discharge total temp,R: Rel. Tip mach #: T,R: Rel. Tip mach # (design): RSS, %: Reference mass flow,lb/s: Reference total temp,R: GASP(G), Heidmann(H), or Small Engine Revision(J)?(G,H,J):

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151

APPENDIX

IX

SNALL

ENGXI_ _NOPP

REVISION CODE

USER'S

MANUAL

DKVKLOPMKHT

152

The input

small

engine through

revision the Under the USER

routine

discussed

in this data

report

can be

accessed in the

in data

ANOPP

PARAMETERS

input

as shown

attached

section. T provides

USER original

PARAMETERS_METHOD: Heidman method

whereas, '2' provides the AJliedSignal Small Engine Method.

The

specific I.

changes An approval

used of the

in the version proposed

small

engine coded

method changes

have will

been module.

provided

in to NASA

Appendix following

electronic

of the small

be provided

engine

revision

153

_ee

PURPOSE

PREDICT AXIAL METHOD HEIDMAN

THE BROADBAND FLOW COMPRESSOR - NASA FOR FAN TM AND

NOISE AND OR FAN BY X-71763, COMPRESSOR

PURE THE

TONES HEIDMAN NOISE,

FOR AN METHOD M. F.

REFERENCE

INTERIM SOURCE

PREDICTION

AUTHOR INPUT USER AE RS AFAN DIAM MD RSS MDOT MA N DELTAT CA REOA METHOD

- CBF(L03/00/00)

DSW(
PARAMETERS ENGINE DISTANCE FAN FAN FAN INLET ROTOR ROTOR

REFERENCE FROM

AREA SOURCE

(RS), TO

M**2 AREA

(FT**2) (RS), (RS), AT RE M (FT) AE

OBSERVER

CROSS-SECTIONAL DIAMETER RELATIVE SPACING (RS),

(RS), RE TIP MACH (RS), RE REOA

SQRT(AE) NUMBER RE * MEAN CA *

DESIGN BLADE

POINT (RS) ROTOR-STATOR CHORD MASS FLOWRATE

ROTOR AE

AIRCRAFT ROTATIONAL

MACH NUMBER (RS) SPEED (RS), RE RISE SOUND

CA/DIAM FAN (RS), M/S (FT/S) (SLUG/FT**3) RE TA

TOTAL TEMPERATURE AMBIENT SPEED OF

ACROSS (RS), KG/M**3 METHOD ENGINE BANDS

AMBIENT DENSITY (RS), PREDICTION METHOD FLAG i, 2, ORIGINAL ALLIEDSIGNAL OF 1/3 HEIDMAN SMALL OCTAVE (I) BLADES VANES

METHOD TONE FREQUENCY

NBANDS NENG NB NV IGV

NUMBER

FOR

SHIFT
NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER INLET i, 2, DIS INLET i, 2,
. .

(I)
OF OF OF GUIDE FOR A FOR A ENGINES ROTOR STATOR (I) (I) (I) INLET GUIDE VANES

VANE INDEX FAN WITH NO FAN WITH

INLET

GUIDE

VANES

FLOW DISTORTION IF THERE IS NO IF THERE TIME OUTPUT IS (RS) AND

INDEX (I) INLET FLOW DISTORTION FLOW OUTPUT DISTORTION OPTION (I)

INLET PRINT

STIME IOUT

SOURCE TABLE 0 -i -2 -3 1 2 3

NO PRINT BUT PRINT OUTPUT

GENERATE TABLE HDNFAN(XXXNNN) IN DB UNITS, BUT DO NOT FORM (XXXNNN) AND GENERATE FORM AND TABLE BUT DO

GENERATE TABLE HDNFAN(XXXNNN) PRINT OUTPUT IN DIMENSIONLESS NOT BOTH PRINT GENERATE OPTIONS OUTPUTIN IN TABLE HDNFAN -i AND -2 DB UNITS

RDNFAN(XXXNNN) PRINT OUTPUT

DIMENSIONLESS RDNFAN(XXXNNN) AND 2

GENERATE TABLE BOTH OPTIONS 1

IPRINT

PRINT FLAG (I) 0 NO PRINT DESIRED 1 2 3 INPUT OUTPUT BOTH PRINT PRINT INPUT VALUE, MEMBER LETTER NAME UNITS ONLY ONLY AND NNN, OUTPUT .GT. 0 PRINT USED TO FORM FORM TABLE TABLE UNIT

SCRNNN SCRXXX IUNITS

INTEGER UNIT THREE MEMBER INPUT 2HSI,

NAME CODE

HDNFAN(XXXNNN) XXX USED TO

HDNFAN(XXXNNN) FLAG ENGLISH SI UNITS UNITS

7HENGLISH,

154

(THE NEXT (. FALSE. (. TRUE. INRS


t

SIX

CODES

HAVE

THE

FOLLOWING

VALUES) ) ) TONES

DO NOT INCLUDE INCLUDE IN TOTAL PREDICTION INLET ROTOR-STATOR INTERACTION COMBINATION INLET FLOW DISCHARGE TONE NOISE DISTORTION BROADBAND TONES INTERACTION

INCT INDIS IDBB IDRS INBB REAL USER PARAMETER AE RS AFAN DIAM MD RSS MDOT MA N

NOISE TONES

DISCHARGE ROTORSTATOR INLET BROADBAND NOISE PARAMETER LIMITS MINIMUM 0.01 0.01 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -i00.0 PARAMETER 0. 1076 0.03281 0.I 0.3 0.5 0.2 0 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -I00.0 PARAMETER MINIMUM 1 1 1 -3 0 2 -3 1 i0 001 1312 LIMITS - ENGLISH - SI UNITS

MAXIMUM 50.0 i00.0 i0.0 4.0 2.0 i0.0 I0.0 0.9 0.5 i. 3 400.0 i. 5 500.0 UNITS MAXIMUM 500.0 328.084 I0.0 4 .0 2.0 10.0 I0 . 0 0.9 0.5 I. 3 .336 500.0 LIMITS MAXIMUM 2 2 2 3 3 i00 3 6 200 999 0 .0029105

DEFAULT 0.785398 0. 886227 1.0 1.128 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.2 340.294 1.225 0.0

DELTAT CA RHOA STIME REAL USER AE RS AFAN DIAM MD RSS MDOT MA N DELTAT CA RHOA STIME INTEGER/LOGICAL/ALPHA PARAMETER METHOD DIS IGV IOUT IPRINT NB NBANDS NENG NV SCRNNN INRS INCT INDIS IDBB

PARAMETER

MINIMUM

DEFAULT 8. 454 2.908 1.0 i. 128 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.2 1116.45 0. 0023769 0.0

DEFAULT 1 1 1 3 3 20 0 1 50 001 .TRUE TRUE .TRUE .TRUE .TRUE TRUE 3HXXX 2HSI

IDRS INBB SCRXXX IUNITS

155

DATA

BASE

UNIT

MEMBERS (DESCRIBED SFIELD ( FREQ SFIELD SFIELD (PHI) UNDER ) DATA BASE STRUCTURES)

(THETA)

OUTPUT USER RS SYSTEM NERR PARAMETERS DISTANCE PARAMETERS .TRUE., DURING .FALSE., DATA BASE UNIT MEMBERS SEE NOTE FROM OUTPUT BY DATA BASE STRUCTURES 1 RECORD MEMBER IN *RS FORMAT OCTAVE BAND CONTAINING VALUES CENTER FREQUENCIES SFIELD(THETA) " 1 RECORD CONTAINING DIRECTIVITY SFIELD(PHI) 1 RECORD CONTAINING DIRECTIVITY HDNFAN(XXXNNN) - TYPE 1 ACOUSTIC (i) AND ERRORS NONi. 2. FATAL REMARKS REFERENCES HEIDMAN, AND JUNE HOUGH, M. F., INTERIM SOURCE D., PREDICTION NOISE, ANOPP FAN METHOD NASA NOISE ENGINES TM FOR FAN COMPRESSOR 1975. J. AND WEIR, ENGINES, 1995. X-71763, PREDICTION REPORT FOR 21-8700, FATAL INSUFFICIENT MEMBER MEMBER. NONE MANAGER LOCAL ERROR DYNAMIC OCCURRED STORAGE. ON SPECIFIED UNIT (3) OF 1/3 IN HZ USER FORMAT MEMBER USER OF UNDER NAME PARAMETERS THIS TABLE PARAMETER DATA BASE XXXNNN IS SCRXXX IS IOUT. STRUCTURES. FORMED AND SCRNNN. IMPLIES MODULE NO ERROR AN ERROR WAS ENCOUNTERED EXECUTION ENCOUNTERED FROM SOURCE TO OBSERVER

HDNFAN(XXXNNN)
e

CONTROLLED

SFIELD(FREQ)
e

MEMBER IN *RS FORMAT VALUES OF THE POLAR ANGLE MEMBER VALUES ANGLE IN IN OF IN DEG FORMAT AZIMUTHAL THE DEG MEAN SQUARE FUNCTION OF ANGLE *RS

TABLE CONTAINING PRESSURE AS A (2) AZIMUTHAL ANGLE

FREQUENCY,

DIRECTIVITY

SMALL JANUARY LDS REQUIREMENTS "

ALLIEDSIGNAL

LENGTH

(NFREQ + + NFREQ NTHETA -

* NTHETA + NTHETA

* +

NPHI) NPHI

+ +

(NTHETA 3 *

NPHI) * NTHETA )

( NFREQ

WHERE NFREQ NTHETA NPHI GDS


**e

NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER

OF OF OF

FREQUENCY DIRECTIVITY AZIMUTHAL

VALUES ANGLES ANGLES

REQUIREMENTS SUFFICIENT ALLOCATION FOR TABLE HDNFAN(XXXNNN)

156

APPENDIX

INTERIM FAN ARD

PREDICTION METHOD CXJMPRESSOR SOURCE (FIGURES}

FOR 1 NOISE-

AI_

NOISE PREDICTION_PROGRAM THEORETICAL lu_nJ_L(TABLES)

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TABLE

IV.-

SPECTRUM

FUNCTIONS

FOR

FAN

NOISE

Source

Spectrum

function

Inlet broadband noise S(D) = 0.116 exp -0.DE in 2.2

Inlet rotor-stator interaction tones S(n) =

nu _ n=n S (n,i,j)

where

-o.499
S(l,i, j) = 0.799

0.136
0.387

10.250 S(n,i,j) = 0.101


m

0.432 x 0.307 i0 -0"3 (n-2) (n > I)

iInlet

flow S (n) = 9

nu _ n=n i0 -n

distortion tones

1/8

fundaS(_) = ! 0"405(8n)5 0.405(8n) -3

(TI -< 0.125)

mental combination tone noise (_ > 0.125)

176

TABLE

IV.-

Concluded

Source

Spectrum

function

1/4

funda-

0. 520

(4q)

(q

-< 0.25)

mental combination tone noise

s(q)

=
0.52O (4n) -5 (rl > 0.25)

1/2

funda-

(n -< o.5) s(n)


= I 0"332(2n)3 O. 332 (2n)-3

mental combination tone noise

(n > 0.5)

Discharge broadband noise S(q) = 0.116

C
exp S(n,i,j)

-0.5_

in

2.2

Discharge rotor-stator interaction tones

nu s(n) =
n=n

where

-0.499 S(l,i, j) = 0.799


m

0.136-

0.387

-0.250 S (n,i, j) = 0.i01

0.432 x 0.307 I0 -0" 3 (n-2) (n > i)

177

REPORT

DOCUMENTATION

PAGE

FormApproved OMBNo. 0704-0188

1. AGENCY USEONLY(LNm blank) 4. TITLE ANDSUBITTLE

2. REPORT DATE Apd11996

3. REPORT TYPE ANDDATES COVERED Contractor Report 5. FUNDING NUMBERS NAS1-20102, 53803-11-01 Task 6

Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Engines 6. AUTHOR(S) Joe W. Hough and Donald S. Weir 7. PERFORMING ORATION

Fan Noise Prediction for Small

NAME(S) ANDADORESS(ES) (SubconlTactor) AlliedSignal Engines P.O. Box 52181 Phoenix, AZ 85072

8. PERFORMING ORGAWZATION REPORT NUMBER 21-8700

Lockheed AeronauUcal Systems Company 86 South Cobb Drive Marietta, GA 30063

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) ANDADDRE$S(ES) National Aeronaubcs and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681-0001 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Langley Technical Monitor: Robert A. Golub Final Report 12a.DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILJTY STATEMENT Unclassified-Unlimited Subject Category 71

10. SPONSORING I MoNrrORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NASA CR-198300

12b. DISTRIBUTION COOE

13. ABSTRACT I'Mwxknum 200words) The Fan Noise Module of ANOPP is used to predict the broadband noise and pure tones for axial flow compressors or fans. The module, based on the method developed by M. F. Heidmann, uses empirical functions to predict fan noise spectra as a function of frequency and polar directivity. Previous studies have determined the need to modify the module to better correlate measurements of fan noise from engines in the 3000- to 6000-pound thrust class. Additional measurements made by AlliedSignal have confirmed the need to revise the ANOPP fan noise method for smaller engines. This report descdbes the revisions to the fan noise method which have been verified with measured data from three separate AlliedSignal fan engines. Comparisons of the revised prediction show a significant improvement in overall and spectral noise predictions.

14. SUBJECT TERMS Jet Engine Noise, Fan Noise, ANOPP Noise Prediction, Fan Noise Spectra, Heidmann Fan Noise Code

15. NUMBER OFPAGES 180 16. PfllCECOOE A09

17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION :18.SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 11. SECURrrY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OFABSTRACT OFTHISPAGE OFABSTRACT OFREPORT Unclassified Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 29e (Rev.2-1))) Pm_cnl_d byANSI Sial. Z3e-18
_.lrn