By K.

Eugine Raj Assistant Professor/ECE SCAD Engg College

SOURCES AND DETECTORS
OPTICAL SOURCES  Principle light sources are, (i) Hetero junction structured semiconductor LASER diode[injection laser diodes(ILD’s)] (ii) Light Emitting Diodes -Hetero junction consists of two adjoining semiconductor materials with different band gap energies.

 They have high efficiency.  The dimensional characteristics are compatible with those are compatible with those of the optical fiber. .These devices are suitable for the fiber transmission system for the following reason.  They have adequate output power for a wide range of application  Their optical power output can be directly modulated by varying the input current to the device.

. directional.Difference between LED & LASEER LED LASER  Optical output power  Coherent is incoherent  Has a broad spectral  Highly monochromatic width  Has large beam  Output beam is very divergence.

.Direct & Indirect Band Gap Material  Semiconductor are classified as either direct band gap or indirect band gap as a function of the momentum.

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.Light Emitting Diode(LED’s)  LED is the best choice for the optical communication system requiring bit rate less than 100 to 200Mbps together with multimode fiber coupled optical power in tens of μ watts.  Requires less complex drive circuitry  Fabricated less expensively.

-Emission response time is the time delay between the application of current pulse and the onset of optical. -Quantum efficiency is related to the fraction of injected electron hole pair that recombine radiatively.a)LED Structure  To be useful in fiber transmission application an LED must have High radiance output ii) A fast emission response time iii) A high quantum efficiency -Radiation shows the brightness of the optical radiation. i) .

a)LED Structure  To achieve a high radiance and a high quantum efficiency the LED structure must provide a means of configuring the charged carrier and the stimulated optical emission in the active region of the PN junction.  This can be attained by i) Carrier Confinement ii) Optical Confinement .

. Optical Confinement  To achieve a high radiance for preventing absorption of the radiation by the material surrounding the PN-Junction.Carrier Confinement  To achieve a high level of radiation recombination which yields a high quantum efficiency.  To achieve these confinement LED configuration such as double hetero structure (or) hetero junction configuration is used.

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Surface Emitters(front emitters) ii) Edge Emitters i) . (A) Two basic LED structure are. Band gap difference of adjacent layer  confines the charge carrier  Difference in refractive indices of adjacent layer   confines the optical field to the central active layer.

Surface Emitters .

 A well is etched through the substrate into which a fiber is cemented.  Circular active area . .Surface Emitters  In surface emitters the plane of active light emitting region is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the fiber as shown in figure.5μm thick  Emission pattern Isotropic with a 1200 half power beam width.50μm in diameter and 2.

Surface Emitters  In this pattern the source is equally bright when viewed from any direction but power dimnished as cosѲ. where Ѳ is the angle between viewing direction and the normal to the surface. .

.Edge Emitter  It consists of active junction region and two guiding layers.

beam is lambertian. half power width of Ѳ11=1200 . half power beam width Ѳ=25-300 .Edge Emitter  The guiding layer both have a refractive index which is lower than that of active region but higher than the surrounding material.  Contact strip50-70μm wide  Length of active region 100-150μm  Emission pattern More directional than surface emitters  In plane parallel to junction. .  In the plane perpendicular to the junction .

b)Light Source Material  Semiconductor material used for active layer of an optical source must have a direct band gap material radiative recombination is sufficiently high. . but many binary compounds are direct bandgap material.  Normal single element semiconductor are not direct bndgap material.  That means in a direct bandgap semiconductor eand holes can recombine directly across the bandgap without needing a third particle to conserve momentum.

Ga & Tn) & a group V element eg(P.  Where. corresponding the wavelength of the peak emitted radiation.  For operation in 800 to 900nm spectrum. . principle material is  ternary alloy Ga1-x Alx As.As & Sb).b)Light Source Material  Most important of these are so called as III-V group material made from compound of a group III element(Al. x  ratio Gallium Arsenide. of Aluminum Arsenic to Determines the bandgap.

b)Light Source Material .

b)Light Source Material x=0.08 is given by  The emission spectrum of a Ga1-x Alx As LED with .

 At alonger wavelength primary material is Quaternary alloy. . In1-xGaxAsy P1-y .b)Light Source Material  Peak output power at 810nm.  FWHM spectral width of the spectral path at its half power point is known as full width half maximum(FWHM) spectral width.

35-.266x+.12y2 . λ(μm)=1. the quick efficient wavelength λ in μm can be expressed as a function of the bandgap energy Eg in electron volts by the equation λ in μm as.424+1. Eg=1.72y+.266x2  For quaternary alloy In1-x Gax Asy P1-y the bandgap energy in eV is given by Eg=1.240/(Eg(eV))  For ternary alloy Ga1-x Alx As the bandgap energy in eV is.b)Light Source Material  By varying mole fraction x & y output peak power at wavelength between energy E and frequency υ is. E=hυ=hc/λ.

b)Light Source Material  FWHM spectral width  in 800nm region is 35nm in 1300nm to 1600nm region is 70 to 180nm.  The output spectral width of the surface emitting LED’s tend to be broader than those of edge emitting LED’s because of different internal absorption effect of the emitted light in the two device structure. .

 The excess densities of electrons & holes are equal.c)Quantum efficiency & LED Power  An excess of electrons and holes in p & n type material respectively(refered as minority carriers) iscreated in a semiconductor light source by carrier injection at the device contacts. .  The excess carrier can recombine either radiatively or non radiatively.

. In radiative recombination a photon of energy hυ which is approximately equal to bandgap energy which is emitted and thee non rdiative recombination effects include optical absorption in the active region etc. .e. the excess density of e.  When there is a constant current flow into a LED an equilibrium is established i.s ‘n’ & holes ‘p’ is equal since the injection carrier are created & recombined in pair such that charge nutrality is maintained within the device.

. The total rate at which carrier are generated is the sum of externally supplied & the internally generated rates. carrier life time.  The externally supplied rate is J/qd. j Current density in A/cm2 q Electron charhe d thickness of the recombination ragion  Thermally generated rate is n/τ n Excess carrier density τ Time constant.

Internal quantum efficiency.e.. When a constant current is flowing through it. i. . => This relation gives the steady state electron density in the active region. Hence the rate equation for carrier recombination in      an LED is The equilibrium condition is frmed by setting above equation to zero.