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HEALTH ETHICS Modern healthcare requires decisions that consider scientific facts and personal values.

Scientific facts are objective, personal values are subjective and it is the effect of the latter on decision making that gives rise to conflict. Ethics studies, not what can be (science), but rather what ought to be (science and values). Ever healthcare provider is a moral agent who must judge the the effectiveness of the goodness or evil of his goals and actions. !e cannot depend on scientific knowledge that can judge onl means to achieve the desired goal. "oodness must be determined b considerations of man, his needs, his values and his ultimate ends, his economic, cultural, social and spiritual ramifications. #he healthcare provider must make his decisions responsibl through correct moral reasoning and well grounded judgement. !e must strive to learn what must be learnes and act courageousl . #o do all this, is a personal choice and commitment ever healthcare provider must make if he is to be true to his calling. $cases %&' Health is a state of complete ph sical, mental and social well&being and not merel the absence of disease or infirmit . !ealth is a fundamental right of ever registered nurse, individual. #he (ilipino

believing in the worth and dignit of each human being, recogni)es the primar responsibilit to preserve health at all cost. #his responsibilit encompasses promotion of health, prevention of illness, alleviation of suffering, and restoration of health. !owever, when the foregoing are not possible, assistance towards a peaceful death shall be his*her obligation. (Section % (ilipino +urses ,ode of Ethics) Ethics is defined as the practical science of the moralit of human conduct. -t is a. practical because it implies direction b. a science because it deals with a complete and s stematicall arranged bod of data and presents the

reasons which show this data to be true c. moral because it is related to the dictates of reason, how it should be d. of human conduce because it deals with deliberate and free human activit and how one should act. - traces its roots from the "reek word ethikos which means moral dut . - -s the stud of human actions or conduct from a moral of human reasoning in tackling the perspective as to whether the are good or bad. - Emplo s the facult important question of what makes an upright life

- -s therefore, a noble and important science. Ethics is commonl associated with. Customs / long established practices common to a particular communit , class or race. -t implies a more or less permanent wa of acting as reinforce attitudes. Habit / is applied to an individual and implies the repetition of the same action as perform it. Practice / applies to a regularl followed procedure or pattern in conducting activities. Etiquette / observance of social norms as required b good breeding. Parts of Ethics %. General ethics deals with basic principles which are the moralit of human acts. 0. Social Ethics tackles the basic principles affecting man as a member of societ . Morality is the qualit of rightness or wrongness in human acts. Human acts are acts done with knowledge and consent. Health Ethics is the division of Ethics that relates to human health. -t is also considered as Ethics for the health professions. -t confines itself to the moral behavior in relation to health. to develop a natural, spontaneous or rooted tendenc or inclination to b traditions and social

$cases 1&%2 Objecti es of Ethics %. make clear to us wh one act is better than the other 0. enable us to live and have an orderl social wa of life 3. appraise, critici)e and evaluate intelligentl conduct and ethical s stem 4. e5plore and aspire the true value of life. the moral

Professional Ethics is the division of Ethics that relates to professional behavior. -s a branch of moral science concerned with the obligations which a member of a profession owes to the public, to his profession, and to his clients. #he ethical medical professional e5presses responsibilit medical codes and ethical treatises. 6ll sociall in authori)ed

professional power requires public accountabilit , and this is especiall true of medical and communit health professionals.

!ioethics is the division of Ethics that relate to human life sciences and healthcare, both deliver and research. 7an 8eusselaer 9otter, a cancer researcher, claims to have invented the word and published the book entitled Bioethics: Bridge to the Future

7ioethics is coined from the terms bios which means life and ethics which is the practical science of the moralit of human conduct . #erm used to describe the application of ethics to biological sciences, medicine and related fields. 7ioethics is the division of ethics that relate to life primaril human life. -t describes what :ought; to be done among the possibilities of what :can; be done to man. Since health is a component of life, health and healthcare are part of 7ioethics. -t is a s stematic stud of human behavior, especiall in the fields of life sciences and healthcare, as e5amined in the light of moral values and principles. (M.#. 8eich) -n philosoph , 7ioethics is a branch of ethics that is concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. Sco"e of !ioethics -n its initial stages, bioethics was concerned with ethical problems associated with medical practice. <ater on, the subject matter was broadened to include all biosciences. -t does not deal solel with health team and patients and their relationship from moral standpoint. -t has e5panded to include social issues related to health, animal welfare, and environmental concerns. !owever, biomedical ethics remains central to this paradigmatic discipline. #he problem of bioethics has something to do with the challenges posed b biotechnological advances and their increasing control over issues of life and death.

-n our stud , we will deal to the questions about human life in 3 different points. %. #he beginning of life ( ,ontraception and (amil 9lanning ) 0. -n the midst of life ( "enetic Engineering and 6bortion ) 3. 6t the end of life ( =eath 9enalt and Euthanasia ). Im"ortance or Si#nificance of !ioethics %. #o provide awareness to the health team and workers of the :do>s and don>t>s; of medical practice 0. #o enrich one>s competence b understanding that the patient is a person and a holistic individual $ee% for !ioethics #he following changes gave rise to the need of 7ioethics %. Scientific advances 0. -nequalities in socio&economic, educational and political positions 3. (initude of resources 4. 9luralistic communities ?. ,hanges in the doctor&patient relationships '. 8ampant unethical behavior

Goal of !ioethics %. 6ims to help one recogni)e the ethical component and implications of ever action in order to arrive at a justifiable decision. 0. 6ims to have one committed to 7ioethics, and integrate it into one>s dail living 3. 6ims to correct the disequilibrium between technological possibilit and moral energ . $ursin# Ethics is the e5amination of all kinds of ethical and bioethical issues from the perspective of nursing theor and practice ( @ohnstone %AAA) THE IC$ CO&E #he ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses has four principal elements that outline the standards of ethical conduct. ELEME$TS O' THE CO&E () $*+SES A$& PEOPLE #he nurse>s primar professional responsibilit is to people requiring nursing care. -n providing care, the nurse promotes an environment in which the human rights, values, customs and spiritual beliefs of the individual, famil and communit are respected. #he nurse ensures that the individual receives sufficient information on which to base consent for care and related treatment. #he nurse holds in confidence personal information and uses judgement in sharing this information. #he nurse shares with societ the responsibilit for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public, in

particular those of vulnerable populations. #he nurse also shares responsibilit to sustain and protect the natural environment from depletion, pollution, degradation and destruction. ,) $*+SES A$& P+ACTICE #he nurse carries personal responsibilit and accountabilit for nursing practice, and for maintaining competence b continual learning. #he nurse maintains a standard of personal health such that the abilit to provide care is not compromised. #he nurse uses judgement regarding individual competence when accepting and delegating responsibilit . #he nurse at all times maintains standards of personal conduct which reflect well on the profession and enhance public confidence. #he nurse, in providing care, ensures that use of technolog and scientific advances are compatible with the safet , dignit and rights of people. -) $*+SES A$& THE P+O'ESSIO$ #he nurse assumes the major role in determining and implementing acceptable standards of clinical nursing practice, management, research and education. #he nurse is active in developing a core of research&based professional knowledge. #he nurse, acting through the professional organisation, participates in creating and maintaining safe, equitable social and economic working conditions in nursing. .) $*+SES A$& CO/0O+1E+S #he nurse sustains a co&operative relationship with co&workers in nursing and other fields. #he nurse takes appropriate action to safeguard individuals, families and communities when their health is endangered b a coworker or an other person. .







() +EGISTE+E& $*+SES A$& PEOPLE Ethical Princi"les %. Balues, customs, and spiritual beliefs held b individuals shall be respected. 0. -ndividual freedom to make rational and unconstrained decisions shall be respected. 3. 9ersonal information acquired in the process of giving nursing care shall be held in strict confidence. ,) +EGISTE+E& $*+SES A$& P+ACTICE Ethical Princi"les %. !uman life is inviolable. 0. Cualit and e5cellence in the care of the patients are the goals of nursing practice. 3. 6ccurate documentation of actions and outcomes of delivered care is the hallmark of nursing accountabilit . 4. 8egistered +urses are the advocates of the patients. the shall take appropriate steps to safeguard their rights and privileges. ?. 8egistered +urses are aware that their actions have professional, ethical, moral, and legal dimensions. #he strive to perform their work in the best interest of all concerned -) +EGISTE+E& $*+SES A$& CO/0O+1E+S Ethical Princi"les %. #he 8egistered +urse is in solidarit with other members of the healthcare team in working for the patient>s best interest.

0. #he 8egistered +urse maintains collegial and collaborative working relationship with colleagues and other health care providers. .) +EGISTE+E& $*+SES2 SOCIET32 A$& E$4I+O$ME$T Ethical Princi"les %. #he preservation of life, respect for human rights, and promotion of health environment shall be a commitment of a 8egistered +urse. 0. #he establishment of linkages with the public in promoting local, national, and international efforts to meet health and social needs of the people as a contributing member of societ is a noble concern of a 8egistered +urse. 5) +EGISTE+E& $*+SES A$& THE P+O'ESSIO$ Ethical Princi"les6 %. Maintainance of lo alt to the nursing profession and preservation of its integrit are ideal. 0. ,ompliance with the b &laws of the accredited professional organi)ation (9+6), and other professional organi)ations of which the 8egistered +urse is a member is a loft dut . 3. ,ommitment to continual learning and active participation in the development and growth of the profession are commendable obligations. 4. ,ontribution to the improvement of the socio&economic conditions and general welfare of nurses through appropriate legislation is a practice and a visionar mission.