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Chapter 1 General Principles

Objectives: ! An intro to basic quantities & idealizations ! Statement of Newtons Law of Motion and Gravitation ! Review SI System of Units ! Examine procedures for Numerical Analysis ! A general guide for problem solving

1.1 Mechanics
! Branch of physical sciences concerned with the state of rest or motion of bodies subjected to forces

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

Mechanics R. B. Mechanics Fluid Mechanics

Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

R.B. Mechanics
! required for other types of mechanics ! Useful for design/analysis of:
! Structural members ! Mechanical components ! Electrical devices

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

R. B. Mechanics Statics Dynamics

Statics
! Equilibrium of bodies at rest of moving with constant velocity a=0

Dynamics
! Accelerated motion of bodies

a !0

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

History
! Long history ! Derived from measurements of:
! Geometry ! Force

History
! Archimedes (287-212 BC)
! Levers, pulley, inclined plane, wrench ! Building construction

! Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)


! Pendulums, falling bodies ! Dynamics: accurate measurement of time

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

History
! Issac Newton (1642-1727)
! 3 fundamentals laws of motion ! Universal gravitational attraction

! Applications of Newtons Laws:


! Euler ! DAlembert ! Lagrane ! etc

1.2 Fundamental Concepts


! Basic Quantities
! Length
! Locate position of point in space ! Describe size of physical system ! Define standard unit of length

! Time
! A succession of events ! Not important in Statics ! Important for Dynamics

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

! Basic Quantities
! Mass
! A measure of a quantity of matter ! Effects gravitational attraction between 2 bodies ! A measure of resistance to change () in velocity

! Basic Quantities
! Force
! A push or pull exerted by one body on another ! Direct contact, or ! Acting over a distance
! e.g. gravitational, magnetic, electrical forces

! Characterized by:
! Magnitude ! Directions ! Point of Application

VECTOR!

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

! Idealizations
! Particle
! Has mass, but we neglect size/shape ! Problem becomes much simpler

! Rigid Body (R.B.)


! A collection of many particles, fixed relative to one anther ! Do not need to consider material properties ! Deformations from applied forces sufficiently small to consider rigid

! Idealizations
! Concentrated Force
! Effect of loads assumed to act on a point ! Good idealization if area of application is small compared to body

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

! Newtons Three Laws of Motion


! Apply to motion of a particle measured from a nonaccelerating (Newtonian) reference frame ! 1st Law a particle at rest or moving in a straight line with constant velocity tends to remain in this state if not subjected to an unbalanced force

F1 F3

F2

!F=0

! Newtons Three Laws of Motion


! 2nd Law a particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an acceleration a in the same direction as F and proportional to the magnitude of F - |F|

a F
Accelerated motion!

!F=ma

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

! Newtons Three Laws of Motion


! 3rd Law the mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles are equal, opposite and collinear

F
A

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

B Action-reaction

! Newtons Law of Gravitational Attraction


! Gravitation attraction between any 2 particles

m1

F
r

m2

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

! Weight consider m1 = m as a particle relative to the Earth m2 = Me Set


g is the acceleration due to gravity

! g depends on elevation ! For most problems we assume sea level

1.3 Units
! Given length, time, mass and force we consider how they are related
! Remember Newtons 2nd Law F=ma ! Three are selected as base units ! The fourth is derived from F=ma

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

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SI Units International system (metric)


Length meter m Time second s Mass kilogram kg Force Newton N

1 N = force required to give 1 kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2 Weight in N, W=mg (g=9.81 m/s2)

SI Units US Customary (FPS)


Length foot ft Time second s Mass slug slug Force pound lb

1 slug= amount of matter accelerated 1 ft/s2 when acted upon by a force of 1 lb Mass m = W/g , (g=32.2 ft/s2)

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

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Conversion of Units (SI !" FPS)


Force 1 lb = 4.448 N Mass 1 slug = 14.59 kg Length 1 ft = 0.3048 m

1.4 SI System - Prefixes


103 106 109 kilo k Mega M Giga G 10-3 10-6 10-9 milli m micro nano n

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Rules for use


! Use dot (#) for compound units ! Exponential on unit w/ prefix refers to both ! Avoid prefix in denominator (except for kg)

Rules for use


! Represent numbers in base or derived units converting all prefixes to powers of 10

or

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1.5 Numerical Calculations


! Dimensional Homogeneity
! an equation must be dimensionally consistent

! Significant Figures
4981 --- 4 significant digits What about 23400 ?
3, 4, or 5?

We use engineering notation (multiples of 103 and 10-3) 5 sig digits 23.400 X 103 3 sig digits 23.4 X 103

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

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! Rounding
3.5587 rounded to 3 digits 3.56 > 5 round up; < 5 round as is; = 5 round up if odd / not rounded if even

! Calculations ! Do not round off until final result ! In text generally round to 3 sig digits

1.6 General Procedure Problem Solving


! YOU LEARN BY SOLVING PROBLEMS!! ! Show your Work!
! Clear, logical, orderly

! Read problem carefully; correlate to actual physical situation ! Document problem date; draw necessary diagrams ! Apply relevant principles (in mathematical form)

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

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1.6 General Procedure Problem Solving


! Check dimensional consistency/ homogeneity ! Solve equations; answer with no more than 3 sig digits ! Check answer does it make sense???

READING QUIZ 1. The subject of mechanics deals with what happens to a body when ______ is / are applied to it. A) magnetic field D) neutrons B) heat E) lasers C) forces

2. ________________ still remains the basis of most of todays engineering sciences. A) Newtonian Mechanics C) Greek Mechanics B) Relativistic Mechanics C) Euclidean Mechanics

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CONCEPT QUIZ 1. Evaluate the situation, in which mass (kg), force (N), and length (m) are the base units and recommend a solution. A) A new system of units will have to be formulated. B) Only the unit of time have to be changed from second to something else. C) No changes are required. D) The above situation is not feasible.

CONCEPT QUIZ (continued) 2. Give the most appropriate reason for using three significant figures in reporting results of typical engineering calculations. A) Historically slide rules could not handle more than three significant figures. B) Three significant figures gives better than one-percent accuracy. C) Telephone systems designed by engineers have area codes consisting of three figures. D) Most of the original data used in engineering calculations do not have accuracy better than one percent.

Statics:The Next Generation (2nd Ed.) Mehta, Danielson, & Berg Lecture Notes for Sections 1.1-1.6

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PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY: IPE, A 3 Step Approach 1. Interpret: Read carefully and determine what is given and what is to be found/ delivered. Ask, if not clear. If necessary, make assumptions and indicate them. 2. Plan: Think about major steps (or a road map) that you will take to solve a given problem. Think of alternative/ creative solutions and choose the best one.

3. Execute: Carry out your steps. Use appropriate diagrams and equations. Estimate your answers. Avoid simple calculation mistakes. Reflect on / revise your work.

ATTENTION QUIZ 1. For a statics problem your calculations show the final answer as 12345.6 N. What will you write as your final answer? A) 12345.6 N D) 12.3 kN B) 12.3456 kN E) 123 kN C) 12 kN

2. In three step IPE approach to problem solving, what does P stand for? A) Position D) Practical B) Plan E) Possible C) Problem

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