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nWRODUCTION PSYCHOLOGY TO BY JAMES Head ROWLAND of Psychology ANGELL in the University of the Department of Chicago NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 1918 i .
N.COFTRISHT. 1918. . BY HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY THE OUINN A BODEN CO. PRESS RAMW. J.Y.
The prompt was welcome accorded the earlier work presumably due to the novelty of certain of its features. gressive of the topics to exhibit the proIt presented.this position being reflected in part in the arrangement stages of adjustment. a students who definite and teachable system. think psychologically for themselves and not least important afforded them a terminology and a point of view which rendered the litera" " enabled them 1 Fourth edition. provisionally to be sure. iii . the distinction between in psychology. more to set forth simply important upon ciples printhe of general comment relation of the two books to one another may be of interest. so far as other authors. The present book accordingly represents an entirely fresh survey of the field. SHORTLY that despite the seems continued popularity of the older work. mastered it a sense of control to observe and which over gave the material. structural and tional func- methods utilized an It adopted and consistently terpret essentially biological point of view in its inof mental life.PREFACE Psychology in after the appearance of my 1904 x I began to receive requests from teachers to prepare a briefer volume on the same general lines. am I aware. 1908.and attempts and concisely the Some psychology. This I finally agreed to do. but fulfilment has lagged so far behind promise. which have since been adopted in greater or less degree by It emphasized for the first time. it a no longer appropriate to attempt mere digest of it.
This I hold to be as true as direct of reflectiv thought The of the more overt control of our muscles.I have adopted. with its gospel of objective against introspection. text will be found to reflect something conof this viction. of our adjustments in recent years to assign more importance in prurient nor our did to the function of subconscious processes behavior.iv PREFACE of the subjecteasily accessible.into the biological conception getically of mental activity. The motor organizing character of every level of our psychoactivitiesis more explicitly brought out than in the older book. which I have retained and ener- pressed. . to me The structure-function distinction still seems troversy of acute consignificant. of the Freudian have I been greatly influenced by any of its contentions. but on other grounds I have come to the belief a that there is control in many conscious large element of intrinsically intelligent neural processes which escape our observation. presents an interesting blend of solid seems contribution and adolescent exaggeration. Such changes as in the present text simply reflect alterations of appear emphasis and points of view which the development of the ture science has rendered necessary. ' Polemic behavioristic movement. I trust. But it is no longer a matter and is now so requires a less militant treatment. to the depth and vividness of impression left on the reader's mind regarding the real nature I have come than I formerly to environment. with advantage. ' itself readily to incorporation. the centered about methods and its crusade which. Whatever It lends to me to be sound in its position. I do not for a moment accept the implications of much doctrine.
. Ltd. T. pub"Physiology lishers of the Brain". publishers of Loeb's and Snodgrass. of Howell's "Text-Book of "The Physiology Scott. Putnam's W. publishers of Donaldson's Brain. My views on critics. ter and Walof Physiology". of a number of illustrationsacknowledgments : due to the following authors and publishers Nervous ton " Co. John Murray. B.. P. After extended conferences with teachers I have decided to omit any practical exercises. but they need not be made an on use rounded dependent For the are the teachings of any particular text. publisher by McKendrick of the Sense Organs" Sons. publishers of Barker's "The D. Saunders " Co.but I trust that the present text be found less open to misapprehension. Ginn " Co.PREFACE v the function of imagerj' have been a good This is hardly the place in which deal misunderstood. Hough and W. and in the second place there are now a number of admirable I consider manuals written to supply this precise need. Apple- System". In the first place I find instructors prefer to prepare that many their own.." "Growth of the . in distinction from its pretense their sensuous texture. publishers of "The" Elements of Physiology" by T. Sedgwick .. With the may recently developed doctrine of 'imageless thought' I am warmly sympathetic so far as it has served to direct attention to confront my to the meaning aspect mere of our mental operations. on Much of to novelty I think is based the misconstruction of earlier doctrine. G. Its postulate of the existence of states of consciousness wholly devoid of sensorial or imaginal factors I regard as altogether unsubstantiated. such exercises essentially indispensable part of a wellintroductory course.
vi PREFACE former students obligations to my and to my colleagues at the University of Chicago for suggestions and criticism. R. A. May 1. CHICAGO. . am I under many J. 1918. My wife has aided me greatly in the preparation of my manuscript.
. . ... . DREAMS. VI VII VIII IX SENSATION SENSE MEMORY 76 114 PERCEPTION " 137 . MULTIPLE 249 PERSONALITY XVII THE SELF 263 273 BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX 279 . CHARACTER . .CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I II III PROBLEMS INHERITED THE AND AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY . J . 49 58 . 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM AND 18 IV V CONSCIOUSNESS ATTENTION HABIT FORMATION .. 226 237 WILL. 1 ACQUIRED BEHAVIOR .. IMAGINATION REASONING FEELING EMOTION INSTINCT 152 170 189 204 215 X XI * XII XIII XIV XV XVI ELEMENTS OF VOLUNTARY AND ACTION ... AND HYPNOSIS. . INSTINCT. SLEEP.
which is the youngest however. sciences. Then followed described as 'the science of a period when psychology was In its turn the word mind in this definition was mind. The older definitions of psychology spoke of it as 'the ' long ployed emscience of the soul. because he cannot intelligently interpret its real meaning in advance of a knowledge of the facts with which the no serious shall therefore make effort science deals. of the biological sciences. clear the field beginner. Young on the other hand. and this designation was at last because of the many and only abandoned implications of the word soul." established sciences generally feel it unnecessary themselves for the benefit of the beginner.AN INTRODUCTION CHAPTER TO I PSYCHOLOGY PROBLEMS The AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY Old and well to define Subject Matter of Psychology.' confusing abandoned case a more in favor of the term 'consciousness. possible to give rough indications of a helpful at this point to construct a kind regarding the general character of the problems to be confronted. any be somewhat vague and formal.' term general and less compromising one In each was a substituted group for about which 1 there had gathered . commonly seek to make To the which they propose a to occupy. It is. We definition of science must precise definition of psychology.
as psychology is defined. organizes. Broadly matter concernns speaking.2 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of irrelevant or misleading associations.and acting. then. It is quite impossible to " and understand human nature. Much less can one pretend to scientificknowledge to physiological materials. devoting their ' study of motor activity.' or are urged to use 'intelligence/ such terms as 'behavior/ to secure a At this junctureit is far less important verbally precise and accurate definition than it is to gain idea of the general range of facts with a fruitful working which psychology deals. even in a common-sense way. all life is built upon physical physiological foundations. it is to be understood that the term behavior includes tfese three processes. and interprets these facts. without a knowledge of the bodily structure of the human being.what the purposes for in which conwhich it is employed. and in its place we 'conduct.1 We shall try in this book to point out what are the materials of which intelligence is composed. We without recourse shall therefore find it frequently necessary 1 to employ * * informa- A few advocates a would wholly entire attention to ism* or of psychology pure behaviorobjective disregard thinking and feeling. feeling. The attempt to unravel all the strands which are twisted together in this skein of life will take into the study of many facts seemingly remote from us those which we thus set out to explore. and the technique by which it gathers. . Consciousness fallen victim to the same itselfhas now movement. the science of behavior. Physiological and Social Conditions of Human perience ExIn the firstplace. When as often occurs today. the psychologist's subject thinking. and what the manner duct is controlled. what the conditions under which it arises.
PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY 3 tion about the body. and particularly about the brain and nervous system. especially human It is idle to atlife.i-*" Facts in Psychology. and to understand any piece of behavior intaking into account to some extent influences which to this illimitable racial past point backward . some all life to extent. The traditional which all the early accomplishments of psychology introspection. I in which try to discern and describe the particular manner process occurrences are systematic the example. and immediately recall what I was after bringing into mind the events in question. is lived among tempt social surroundings. iJKre conduct of today reflectsthe race- each of these volves directions. us Our modern science has conditions in the light These social conditions of their evolution from the past. for portrayed in my thought. quite as truly as those of a physiological kind are today interpreted from the point of view of development. It consists in the direct as rest is known of self-observation. Evidently anyone is at the disposal of method it. 'mind's eye' see myself walking to my such a office. Life the organism food on has always the been a process of adapting to on physical one conditions of climatex and and man supply the hand. It is purely observational.and to see all contemporary adjustment. human behavior without constant to understand Again. Methods Gathering There of " long history of struggle and adjustmentin is to one in progress the upon correct at present a very vigorous controversy as method in psychology. I ask myself to doing yesterday at this hour. who chooses to employ differing from the usual forms of external observe . and regard taught to these social relations. in my I may. to social organization the other.
is a commonplace of everyday life^ and that. Suffice it to say that direct observation of the kind described. of mental experiences justpast. As applied to to use the psychology. and the biological sciences in based entirely upon this method.opportunity than one and events by more observer. A good deal of mystery has at times been this introspective process^ and been directed at it. which objective or is is essentially that employed in all the physical sciences. affording for verification of alleged facts unequivocal . facial havior.4 AN INTRODUCTION one's own TO PSYCHOLOGY operations as tion in having rather object. carried out individuals. The defenders of the latter urge that it is the only really scientific method. geology. gestures. Needless to say. words.g... internal mental events its than the facts and of the outside world. movements.e. ranging unmeasured from all the way attached to criticism has a denial of its possibility on the ground that a mental state cannot ing observe itselfwhile it is going on. etc. down to the less sweep- but to many more control. it has carefully and systematically by many of a very respectable body resulted in the accumulation of knowledge entirely worthy of the term scientific^ Over the against introspection general method of observation. that the method is prone forms of error which are extremely difficultto hardly be The merits of this controversy can entered upon here. pertinent criticism. it necessarily involves the attempt general are because it is the only one bodily expressions (e. physics..)as a basis for the understanding of beand its advocates maintain that one can accurately external describe and activity measure the significant facts one justin the degree in which can of mental determine its . i. subjective observation. chemistry.
but it is only the first. because of their tangible objective character. " the case in many life. let us rely upon It should be clearly understood that both of these methods to which reference has justbeen made have to do with the gathering of data. as is at present regions of mental trained scientific introspection. practicable. such for example be reflected immediately may embarrassment. ordescribe. to be to avoid the extremism of of the partisans in possible. Scientific Organization of Data. fact that mental states do ultimately secure expression in conduct need not be questioned. process is the first step in any science. There then remains the task of analyzing izing the facts. But there is also to call in question the fact that at present. Let us recognize that wherever it is highly desirable to make use of the bodily expressions of mental states. This the collecting of the facts of intelligent behavior. and make will tellig them inthis is wherever and modern science. external I am thinking about Napoleon or appearance whether far behind Julius common Caesar? sense It seems. and incapable of scientifictreatment. they say. is elusive. purely The and subjective All else. . of classifying them 'in ways exhibit their relations to one in their entirety. attempts to explain. but wherever this is impossible. analyze a and organr which another Moreover.PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY 5 external manifestations. and unequivocally in facial expression. therefore. the part this controversy. in addition to trying thus to Analysis. our of ability to detect accurately the great our majority of our the external expressions states lags mental ability introspectively to describe and Who can say from observing my analyze them. at reason no as anger or least. nor is anyone likely to doubt that many states of mind.
in Psychology. and to permit the reinstatement time after time conditions. Quitethe most " important modern advance in psychology is to be connected with the development. by repeating of substantially the same After-images thus be of color may mental studied case the stimulus again and again. directly in proportion to their An development technique^ of experimental experiment is an observation made under conditions of control. than excluded supposed that mind was attack because the necessary While some mental processes are more resistant any others to experimental of approach. and thus makes possible facts are reverification by many observers of whatever ported exact It had from always been experimental control could not be secured^ Thanks largely to the work the possibility of psychoof Weber.' It sciences has been rapid gains its crucial importance an from the fact that it permits repetition of conditions. and Wundt. In the . of the experimen in the other natural Progress movement. has shown and itself fruitful both in the range observation. logical has been forever put beyond the pale experiment of doubt. there is hardly has been operations which mental found entirely obdurate. in that of In to the experimental situation is devised as assist introspective analysis. in the middle of the last century.6 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY cause ganization. the ability to predict events beof the knowledge of the relations of cause and effect in a given group of every of phenomena " these are the characteristics Experiment established natural science. By far the greater portion of our extent explored by mental life has been already to some significant group experimental Experiment methods. objective so of introspection the one case. explanation. Fechner.
and to an analysis of the mental facin social organizations and institutions. the study of mental abnormalities constitutes another spoken division sub- generally Despite of as the fact that all mental abnormal psychology. the experiment is designed of behavior which can be observed and The promptness the experimenter. other important ogy designated which secure shall invade from time to time in order to useful material. sometimes genetic psychology. can Although time-measuring apparatus. typical forms of behavior characterizing the normal adult. The text we Fields of Psychology. of a movement modes elicit recorded by to in response by sound. and constitutes a reasonably distinct branch of investigation. sometimes called Similarly child psychology. however. it has been found profitable to social psychology. possibl and that it is quite imhuman to understand behavior without regard to influences which arise from these relations. The mental life of children has we been rather extensively studied. for example. type is tendit is probably fair to say that the objective ing on the whole Different to displace the other.PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY 7 of direct observation. to a made thus be determined both types of observation are thus involved in experimental procedure. beings is life of human lived annd_sojeial_surroiindings. divisions of psycholThere are. directed to a study as special division known In this field attention is particularly create a of the explicitly social instincts and tors attributes of the mind. " In the present shall be chiefly concerned in ordinary human behavior* with the facts involved This field is commonly It has to do with the general psychology. Race psychology is attempt devoted to the older division of the subject. to ascertain and describe those peculiarities of an .
To this field is generally of the most applied the term term animal psychology. We shall have relatively littleto do with this division of psychological inquiry.. or sometimes the comparative psychology. In advance of any detailed knowledge of psychology. or individual itselfwith the study of those personal taste. Strictly speaking. interesting and significant addition to our has in recent years come from psychological knowledge the study of animal behavior. and Other Sciences. intellectualcapacity. though it were as physiological up side by side as a of as it consists as be classified. particularly those of the brain and a matter nervous use " system. which mark off one human psychology. is concerned with the attempt to measure mental processes. it has historicallydeveloped out of philosophy. it is hardly profitable to dwell upon its relations to other natural sciences. and made incessant use of experimental procedure. idiosyncrasies of temperament. concerns different behavior which ostensibly characterize Variational psychology. There is a branch of psychology which known has historically grown with experiment. name has led to the development which of quantitative psychology. Suffice " Psychology it to say that like them. We shall have frequent occasion to make of its materials. with which it stillretains rather more .8 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY temperament and races. it ought perhaps to be regarded psychology special psychological field. being from another. Psychophysics is a applied to a branch of psychology developed by the German It scientist. It is often spoken However it may a definite method. y of fact simply in the attempt systematically to study mental life in connection with bodily processes.Fechner. Much etc.
it stands closely related applied aspect. physics and separated themselves from the parent at an (philosophical) stem psychology group. It is fair to add that themselves making genuine and portant im- contributions to this pure science.PROBLEMS AND METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY 9 intimate relations than chemistry. . to education. interesting and valuable. Like other sciences. may As earlier time. fairly claim a place in the matter subject a science biological because its The expressions. and. measure intimacy is life in certain of its of the relationship is in a ceives attested by the extent to which psychology conof its problems in evolutionary terms and in terms of the adjustmentof the organism to physical and social environment. which do those sciences. e. to jurisprudence.. must prealthough sumably extremely to completeness a upon wait for any approach many far higher development they are of the pure science.g. and to of the professional and practical interests of life. to medicine. psychology has both a pure and an In its applications. These applications are still in their early infancy.
before detailed study of behavior. work or writing. Walking. speaking. and informs of behavior from those which are acquired.g. classify behavior in many ful. " For practical We speak of it as different ways. of action are such as the nest-building activities of birds and insects. the homing pigeons Instinctive forms and certain marine 10 birds. are all modes which might be thus distinguished. good or bad. inherited. havior of beskating. or clever. of the path analysis. as kind or cruel. and certain mammals. proceeding to pass rapidly in review some us a a This will give we are rough working more idea exact which to follow in our Classification of the purposes we Forms of Behavior. classify volved of action inmay present one purposes we the most should keep stinct will be that which distinguishes innate. playing the piano. we think of attaching to it. the seasonal migrations of habits of fishes.birds. golfing. For our of the special kind play. and we may profitably proceed to a brief description of these two types. Evidently or to mark we certain moral as signed such divisions are deintellectual qualities which Again.. and the which useful classification constantly in view. All these forms of . of its chief forms.CHAPTER II INHERITED AND ACQUIRED us we BEHAVIOR It will perhaps assist if. as thought- stupid. from the point of view e.
and not learned. The trembling of the limbs. However much be influenced by the example set by others animal may of its kind. popular conception does not always recognize himself possesses this fact. the blanching of the face.INHERITED AND common ACQUIRED BEHAVIOR 11 behavior have in this native inborn character and to the preservation their fitnessto achieve certain ends necessary an of the animal or the species. are all indigenous modes of behavior. the contraction of the iris in the presence muscular movement of strong light is a relatively simple made in response to the single stimulus. There is a very large group sensing of . some animal behavior. it is quite capable of executing these instinctive acts wholly without tuition. In this sense they are entirely native. in rage. in embarrass It involves the mere an entire situation. it is nevertheless true that man many Although of these innate forms of behavior. like those cited from activities. and faintness of terror. the flushing of the or the shedding of tears in sorrow skin in embarrassment. The simple muscular the incentive of coughing is similarly a rather dently response to irritation in the throat. every human being. natural to every child and regard to either precept or the clenching of the fistin anger. the dryness of the the nausea mouth. inborn in quite without carried out larly Simiexample. are instinctive modes of behavior. act light. simple For example. are all designed to secure tial end essento the welfare of the individual or the race. Evito the instinctive response more is somewhat apprehension of a complex. These Some acts are of the expressions of this character called reflex very simple and are called forth by relatively situations. instead of the single stimulation like light or irritation of the membranes of the throat.
The maintenance of life is from the very first dependent the proper upon operation of these inherited activities. The beating of for the most the heart goes on part entirely without attracting our notice. itself upon attention. All the life-sustaining bodily operations are of this character. then. are of this acquired character. to be fore but both require an extended period of learning bePractically all they are at all perfect or complete. but they Speech sure. that already the human being comes into the world with an amazing number of muscular disposal. and set our habits. suggested in the last senstincti the acquired forms of behavior rest upon the in" quite a nevertheless represent is born with the ability different order of affairs. Both achievements require long practice and painstaking effort. The normal processes of digestion are similarly unconscious. . types. Acquired Behavior. As was tence.our social deportmentoff of our expressive of the conventional " etiquette of our our own time. the manipulation utensils of daily life. Nobody forthwith to play the violin or to use the typewriter. these instinctive traits constitute the foundation upon provided capacities at his which are erected all the acquired modes of behavior which we shall presently study. Even our breathing trudes rarely in- It is clear. even in large measure enunciation. The on putting the common and of clothing. our professional moral tices and religious prac- and beliefs.12 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of these innate forms are of behavior of which great ordinarily we wholly unconscious. As we shall discover at a later point with more detail. our and walking both have an instinctive basis. dexterities and acts of skill are of this character. civilization. As we shall later see. upon the most cursory observation.
habitual kind. however. become and take care of themselves. have accorded them. As a child. day working how little This is but another way of saying that we are creatures of routine. it requires a long time and tedious course table etiquette. Similarly the behavior mastered. essentially automatic that is to say. it this is thoroughly for itself. and the same thing is true of all the other acquired types to find how of behavior. but they do not which so we their peculiar form any thought us. that many acts which require in their after a early stages alert conscious supervision. explicit emphasis upon the fact often . and of it involves immediate. Obviously the social forms tutelage As they born in the they appear. we established has played the mind the Of these latter owe may indeed be to were awaue. tially different from the instinctive modes of behavior. i. " All these illustrations truth later to be more what is a fundamental fully explored. of a The gestures to the greeting are lady by learned a man gentle- in Western Europe not to be without studious the to appropriate participant in a ritualistic service involves a prolonged before it can be successfully apprenticeship effort. It is surprising one's large a part of the behavior of is of this automatized. execution of peculiar to every and a distinct conscious proper elaborate conventional civilization involves careful effort of acquirement. they tend to simulate the instinctive and innate forms of behavior.INHERITED AND acts ACQUIRED all become BEHAVIOR as 13 these acquired have result of processes in which cidedly dea In this regard they are essenconspicuous part.. Acquired suggest Acts Become Automatic. thoughtful supervision.e. practically cares the niceties of of training to master But once learned. It involves.
" mands de- As we have already intimated. This littleorganism secures its food by gradually envelop- . too. The individual tries out for himself a new line of action. we find increasing opportunities for individualistictypes of ment. to consist of a Under the microscope it can be nucleus surrounded by fluid protoplasm. and while this stances is no doubt an overstatement of the truth. as of the species. however. that well-established routine very littleactive mental control. there are inparticularly in insect forms. evolutionary individual. are broadly preservative in character. which may prove a success or a failure. Many of these. to-wit. adjustit is in behavior this that and region of adaptive we the group encounter of actions which we have called acquired.14 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY unappreciated. the modern conception teaches that those types of reaction which are effective in maintaining the life of the species inevitably tend to become fixed and Nature. The simplest type of the known animals is represented by amoeba. it is said. Instinctive Behavior in Animals. But as we pass upward the animal forms from the lower to the higher. then. that no mode of behavior hope for survival which stands opposed to the can successful maintenance of the species. but they represent the region of unstable and incomplete adjustment. sacrifices its life in the act which creates the new It is certainly true. The great body. of instinctive forms of behavior represents types of reaction which have been found useful in the past for the preservation of the case. in the nature dividu must make for the safeguarding of the inin our survey of well. The amoeba is an almost structureless speck of seen jelly-like protoplasm. They. where the individual generation. but everything for the species. cares nothing for the to be perpetuated.
. fishes. we find again that the main forms of adaptive behavior have to do (1) with the securing including of food. display designed to the most amazing afford them several stages of their life cycle. and end of North some annually over considerable ranges of of them journey from the northern America to the extreme southern end of " South To America. such as is represented by the fishes. too salt. In the and amoeba. and unfavorable physical surroundings. the more adjusting intelligent mammals (to say nothing of the fishes and types birds) add many of gregarious instincts. with the assimilation of food and the rejection of waste products. If it be attacked by strong tends to flow acids. simple Its reactions are fore there- activities of approach and retreat.. migratory adjustments. activitiesof the kinds described. activitiesfor confined to these adjustive such a creature to a is extremely much limited. e. (2) with the escape from harmful Passing objects. water which is too cold. (3) with the propagation of the species. and particularly functions which we birds. or similar stimuli.INHERITED AND ACQUIRED BEHAVIOR 15'" ing it with its liquid surfaces.g. In addition to the commoner of instinctive expression in connection with the modes have listed. etc. higher order of animal life. all functions of this one simple cell-like Evidently the scope of structure. this latter function is brought about by a mere both animal enemies division of the parent cell. favorable surroundings for the Practically all our mon com- birds migrate territory. the protoplasm away from the source of attack. the In members some of the cases group from their action this community has an aggressive rather than a merely protective char- . which often common safeguard enemies.
but man shelters. and the characteristics of physical nature.16 acter. to some cattle live by preference in herds whose numbers from the assaults of their enemies. in the animals is primarily instinctive. In other words. and do some of the stronger Modification and more intelligent members " of Instinct in Man. and the skill with he has learned to adapt himself to the demands social circumstance. Against kinds of acquired adjustments to a degree quite surpassing the rigors of the winter the cave. The animal in his search for a livelihood may be carried by conditions of degrees of latitude. More striking still than his mastery himself adequate of those forms of adjustmentwhich general to which relate to climate. by his control climate over many creates his own over agriculture and husbandry. If one evolved to meet social intelligence which of his own of of the disregard appetites . extent protect them In such group association they benefit by the leadership other forms in packs. assures food at his very door the year around. There of the herd. hunt domestic of wild animals. AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Wolves.is in But modified through and often various the animal perfected form. he artisummer ficially and warm elaborate from one preferred climate. as Buffalo. is the extent his instincts have been conditions. deer. which man in almost every case a form of behavior. man in winter. is perhaps no single which of these protective forms of animal behavior does not find a substantial counterpart in the behavior one of man. Where of artificial the bird migrates end of the continent to the other in search of equable be cool in devises his house that it may so climate. food supply. Man. for example. the squirrel to his nest bear retires to his den in a builds for himself the most in the tree.
and how manifold are the forms with which it clothes itself. sorrow.e. i. a large part of it is the result of the play of thought and feeling flowing out into acts of will. hate. love. has evolved those great social institutions which we designate religion. study in this book will be devoted to both these factors in behavior. fear. custom. but with modifications instincts " man introduced at various points by reflectiveintelligence. but more particularly to the last named portion of them. law. in their import. sympathy list may be drawn out almost indefinitely all point "the to social forms of adjustment. one human say that practically all the remaining either dominantly or exclusively social Anger. serve ment adjust- These range and illustrations may and to suggest how in animal human life over which wide is the is distributed the process of adjustment. instinctive and acquired characteristics. Arising primarily out of the great group of instinctive impulses.INHERITED AND ACQUIRED BEHAVIOR 17 hunger and thirst and may are the instincts connected with their satisfaction. government Even commerce the family and the church. and industry. represent concretely the has developed his processes of man to his fellow-man. in which to nature in all its forms. . It remains only to point out that while much of this adaptive process is carried out by instinctive and often unconscious inherited activities. and modes agriculture and the state. constituting in their Our commonly entirety what we call the life of mind..
Pursuant to gain a to this tendency we undertake rough working conception than any other part of system. Without it. We shall make no pretense of entering 18 . To be even a superficial survey evident that the mind knowledge through the use in turn it makes of the situation it must into possession of its comes of the bodily senses. are as a however. the types are adjustmentwhich of most significanc mind. which more of the nervous bodily frame is responsible for the peculiarities of our mental behavior. which stimulate our ingenuity and test our perseverance.would obviously be rather helpless. the great In the animal kingdom are of majority no these acts involve little or direct mental of whole probably reflex in character and In man. supervision. as we know psychology has therefore been disposed to learn all it could regarding tant those portions of our physical structure which are imporfor shall now our mental life. attention was directed to certain to of the broad typical forms of organic adjustment environment.CHAPTER III THE NERVOUS SYSTEM In the preceding chapter. Modern its control of the the body the mind. the things which provoke our or strong feeling. which challenge our courage intelligence. or not to do . which those which involve the definite use of the interest is naturally centered in the things Human we choose to do. and that itselfeffectivethrough bodily muscles.
a contractile vacuole. to others respiratory tions. There is no definite specialization of function. " There are . that process which with the beginnings of in the higher animals has resulted in the we early meet differentiationof functions among are tissues. so the anatomy shall.1) to which reference was made in a previous chapter. will be accurate and constant assistance in the course of study.THE NERVOUS upon SYSTEM or 19 in any the detailed way system. while to the from excitement These nerves one falls the function of transmitting part to another. of our a far kind to render us they go. of the . To some funcassigned digestive functions. and which expands The irregularly and its nucleus. is shown with N. as physiology to of nervous We attempt secure impressions. Figures 2 and 3 exhibit of the Nervous System. 1. systems. presumably possible structure. The marine biologiststell us plants that the earliest forms of life were of the simplest and animals. But as we part pass to higher forms. " Diagram of an amoeba of protoplasm shaped mass CV. greatly magnified. capable of moving.organism last mentioned tissues have appropriated to themselves for their the functions of control which accounts special claim upon our simple forms of nervous Main Subdivisions attention. In animals of this type. which. every to be sensitive to of the body appears Every part appears stimulation. however. contracts. FIG. like the amoeba (Fig.
of an u. c. suboesophageal 8. 6. Dorsal Loeb. a.20 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY two subdivisions of the nerves which share between One. pharynx. JL FIG. 2. ganglion of the ventral cord.) -C. Loeb. of a starfish. G. for the of the called 'central' system cares great adjustment FIG. the sothem the important duties to be performed. ganglion. view of the central system earthworm. supraoesophageal ganglion. (After " 3. " Nervous surrounds system the mouth. o. commissure.) . peripheral central nerve ring that nerves (After of the arms. s.
the number of the frayed out into a (See Fig. and in general assures tions condiof physical life and health. which a which corresponds roughly to the seed out of plant develops. enables the organism fully about successin search of food and shelter and in avoidance of danger. more oversees many particularly the processes of assimilation and excretion. nerve resembles roughly a one end of it.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 21 The other. the autonomic system as the housekeeper. to the autonomic in many but it is also related important particulars. great Although the them nervous the differences in these two system are divisions of to make sufficient are it wise to consider separately. * as the sympathetic system. the autonomic system keeps the digestion. as we shall presently system see. The central system may be thought of as the provider. . It is the vital center of the nerve. respiration. both known as neurones Neurone. and of the reflexes and circulation in order. " fully developed nerve end slender thread with a knot near beyond the knot being frequently of brush-like endings. System. Mental immediately connected with the activity of the cenmore tral system. organs the eyes and the and through second set with to move the muscles. and neither one could life is in some ways get on without the other. for the two are Of course their functions somewhat overlap. more often known autonomic functioning of the bodily system. The central system the various connected sense a through such set of terminals with ears. 4. Meantime. provides for the proper organism to the outside physical ' organs one as themselves. the world. made up The The very which we the Element of the Nervous neurone or tures strucof elementary must briefly describe.) The part knot is the corresponding to the so-called cell body. intimately connected.
axones. B. nerve. E. cross-section of such shows H fibers of the symof the unmedullated exhibits segments pathetic from (Modified Cajal and Toldt. the remainder of the nerve die. of axis cylinder. The nerves . 4. m. p. ax. both the sheaths protective and probably G.) system. a cell from pyramidal the granular the cortex of the cerebrum.22 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY will and if it be destroyed. a nerve -a nutritive. which gives off certain fibers that develop into the root and others which become the FIG. D of a young represent successive stages in the development fully developed E represents neurone. d. C. or of the periphery. primitive sheath. and and jP of fiber nerve exhibits the typical structure of a fully developed true the the ac. Like the plant seed. E both the differences the character cell and show of in the appearance dendrites. These shown usually possess as gives off two a rule certain differences in appearance in Fig. the thick pulpy medullary axone. the thin membranous sheath. and nuclear showing D body. trunk. A. the forms cell body of minute of the nerve filaments. 4D. stalk.
the central system be called These may effectors. and a cross-section of any short or long would of them ordinarily require a The to be clearly seen. Some are of them may the fibers which extend from the base of the spinal cord into the sole of in the brain) are only the foot. nated Effectors entering muscles are frequently designerves. such as one may often see upon our Classification of the nerves Nerves. Others (examplesoccur be two more Such a millimeter in length. a the result of an injury or in reality great bundles of these little together like the wires of a telephone to view as cable. motor (3) Those which connect the first group with or the second. connectors. " For our purposes the great may conveniently those be divided into three groups: (1) central system. so far which they come. These may Although seen be called central adjuster the forms of the nerves the microscope. is known in the higher organisms as at least.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 23 vary enormously or in their dimensions. normal when differ somewhat under nervous one impulses always flow over them a a in one and which only direction. ing accordto the particular portion of the nervous from system they are alike in the fact that. brought circuit in streets. (2) which to the muscles glands. which carry impulses in toward These are called sensory or nerves receive sensory carry impulses from or the receptors because The out nerves they stimulations. feet in length. are nerves which microscope fraction of a sometimes an exposed are operation fibrils. conveys This means that from an neurone sense customarily impulses never organ to the from brain or cord can conduct impulse backward .because they produce specific effects of adjustment.
e. Thus the optic fibers terminate in of the retina. the nerves to an distributed to the skin come end in the dermis. or to heat. nerves.which terminate excitation to the brain. about the known as bases of minute thrown into structures hair cells. Its currents flow one direction. of which we with the rods and cones in a later chapter. which in contact with minute structures sensitive to contact. can never impulse back from the muscle to the center. an convey We may express the situation in magnetic terms by saying that the only in Each nervous system is polarized. The effectors or system motor nerves leading out from surfaces one the central terminate impulse in the of the muscles. PSYCHOLOGY the cord which brain to the sense Similarly the effector. carries impulses out toward the muscles.. or to cold. of the and this in turn brings about a movement When the part of the body in which the muscle is found. structures are sensitive to light.which are the ear. One form has not i. receptor sensory terminates at the surface of the body in contact as with some kind a organized or to be sensitive to of specialized tissue so particular form of physical chemical stimulus. These microscopic shall learn more they are stimulated. causes .24 AN or INTRODUCTION TO organ. When it a nervous travels down of these the muscle with which it is connected to contract. When in them (probably of electro-chemical charchanges occur contact acter) then that set up transmit the nerves nervous impulses in the nerve fibers. the so-called "pain nerve" nerve. sounds fall upon vibration when Again. The auditory similarly in the internal ear. are But this is an exception to which we shall return in another chapter. of cutaneous thus far been found to have any special terminal organ.
dendritic terminals the a with skin. 4. " to illustrate synapsis of arborization of axone of from SK. sensory receptor 1. The central nerves adjuster located within the great . certain of the glands are excited activity by the more powerful are emotions. effector Diagram are similarly shown. 3. the a nervous impulse that from nerves and arm. a be sent out into gland. of motor of central system in terminating M. As we shall see in more detail at to great a later point.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 25 reader raises his hand to turn the page is brought about by justsuch movement originating in the brain and passing through muscles the spinal cord of the hand of this book. an impulse FIG. whether of secretion or excretion. axones. The synapses neurones. A cinder in the eye will thus occasion a flow of tears. over motor point into the may and Similarly. which is then thrown into activity. 5. 2. with dendrites of an a muscle.
) In the of the former. (4) a stimulation of any of any lower types one ment of the latter may occasion a move(See Fig. C. would be illustrated by the reflex withdrawal In such of the hand when it is cut or bruised or burned. with which the have already we (1) a system of effectors. (2) a system nerves of of interconnecting are by of which with the various muscles the various one sense brought so into communicatio that organs.6 A. diagrammatically in the accompanying use of such an arc. are fixed and innervated are lying in the of organism. Like the so nerve fibers are one seemingly polarized. and shall give brief description of them presently. 5. and in the first instance by impulses which relatively muscles the same is represented sketch.26 masses a AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY we of the spinal cord and the brain. organs arise from sense This arrangement region of the body. " The nervous in accordance is built up involves. as pattern receptors. as it is called. are Such great junction tance impor- points called synapses and of very in the operation of the themselves. Pattern The Sensory-Motor fundamental system of the Nervous System. impulse passes up the receptors into the a case the nervous the spinal cord. At all very close to one another. where it is turned about and sent over effectors into the muscles of the hand and arm. or circuit. Whether events they actually touch they are are not is unknown. 6B. (Fig. they can nerves. these connections rigid. The brain and the cord in their entirety represent very elaborate complications of this basic pattern.) The of such a . and (3) a system means indicated. that impulses pass in only direction. into connection Neurones come with points one the terminal of their fibers or as shown at another in Fig.
In some directly l_mav_be very simple reflexes conjoined with 3. all diagrammatic.that the contraction of M sets up kinvery important sesthetic sensory impulses which pass into the nervous centers. perhaps. r. The Th the dotted line a diagrarn alsosuggests fact. a pattern of simplest sensory-motor where pheral periexhibits immediately the a stimulus movement elicits region of 1 is the receptor. eliciting other a new opening circuit. the arc. "omitting ". other association parietal and See the later part of this chapter. pattern can be elaborated to include all the senses It is purely the and muscles. but also in response to s-timu- kind as to permit almost every A FIG. the cortex..THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 27 conceivable combination of The hand organs and muscles. and 3 the effector. developed . p. three levels of circuits in the nervous system. medulla. B illustrates how two sets of muscles may be innervated from either two The sense same sets of of organs. is purely reflex and does not necessarily involve It is typified by the conditions in the spinal consciousness. frontal. lower These brain neurone cord. represents learning. presumably represented The ideational circuits are scious represented by i and involve conference. and rational inreflective thought this circuit In addition to the sensory-motor zones. highly use regions of the cerebral makes of the most i. The involve more actual paths would many neurones.. imagination. sensory-motor regions of the cerebrum in these are circuits.e. 6. and movements. and centers. circuits The are the level of congenitally open. areas. C illustrates rudely The lowest.e. i. memory. 2 the connector stimulated. second. in turn. relations between sense be moved not only in response to stimulations from may the skin of its own surfaces. mere reactions and crude perceptual sensory-motor The as such most animals exhibit.
that is. in man " conditions found in many animals " arrangements exist for as the control of the muscles from sensorial. are in The flexible acquired. attempt of the Main nervous Divisions system great Central System. ideational. which to describe in a littlemore detail. Moreover. or some moved seen. and the two groups of receptor and effector nerves. the are upon stimulation. and are. sound object As we have muscular appropriate The movements of these already observed. 7 and masses 8. the spinal cord. cr to use the typewriter. which upon other body to a Similarly. and them or the acts of most part wholly psychological interest. If the hand. it will be found made light upon now may the general anatomical situation. (See Figs.28 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as lations from other cutaneous remove regions.. could not be controlled by stimulations from the eye but only by those from the skin. it may is heard.g. crying). it would be extremely difficultto receptor with any learn to write. Many called reflexes others. nerves organization of the central adjuster learning possible. coughing. as well in mind up from If the reader will bear constantly of the central nervous this notion system as of sensory to throw we and motor of elaborate combination elements. or to perform any diof the other acts of skill in which the hand is largely rected in contrast to the by vision. learned. because it permits the renders such any of conjoining effector. centers. among sneezing. however. executed without simplest of such acts are previous training. or an in response etc.) The of nerves cord are nothing but gathered together and held in place partly and brain . some objectpressing surface. (e. " The central comprises the brain. for example. when one liftsthe the left be right hand to hand. many inherited.
7 at the left shows the general relations to the bones nervous of the skull and system of the spine. " Fig. FIGS.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 29 Cer. 7 and central 8. .
partly of motor neighboring regions.t (76. spinal nerves. and strong. the auditory IX. the pons 0. to fibers tongue. The inner regions. /. made coming up part of sensory face and fibers supplying scalp. receiving impulses from sense organs. In the case are of the brain. the facial nerve. XI. nerve. very complex the vagus nerve. the olfactory centers. in part made fibers. the medulla Sp.. the muscles and with of the eye. The the centers great from which of the two functions cord are at once suggested by its anatomical appearance. VII. distribuand other viscera. and immediately sending them out again into muscles and glands. spinal chiefly to heart. firm membranes enclosing though connective supporting partly by a series of these great masses as a within the walls of an irregularly shaped bag. tion. VIII. oblongata. glossopharyngeal nerve. which. The as seen system great ganglionated cord of the sympathetic is shown to one system attached side of the Cer.30 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY by the veins and arteries. the olfactory nerve. the abducens nerve. and sensory and motor giving both sensory and motor.. P. both fibers X. partly by tissue called neuroglia. the the other side has been cut away. these containing membranes attached to the bones of the skull. the trochlear nerve connected VI. fibers spring. nerve. 8 at the right displays the general contours of the central from in front. tongue up of motor and neck. sympathetic system. the cerebellum. If the sole of the foot be tickled or Fig. the optic nerve. hemispheres. cerebral Varolii. V} in fibers from the trigeminus. the nerve earlier learned. It is first a great reflex center. and in the case of the cord are supported within the central canal of the spinal the essential features The outer vertebrae. the other hand. to throat tongue. ///. are of the spinal cord. //. M. stomach XII. as we largely are composed of cell bodies. the oculo-motor like IV. C. the spinal cord. hypoconnected with accessory. motor glossal . similarly in part giving sensory fibers to the face. nerve. Figure 9 illustratesin in the structure the cord near a rude way fibers which on regions of its surfaces are exclusively occupied by nerve carry impulses to and fro.
those principally engaged The central regions contain the arrangements reflexes are brought about. there is at once a reflex jerkof the foot for which the spinal cord is responsible . In the second place. it is the great channel through which impulses from many receptors flow upward into the brain. will show how the combined their sensory-motor exit between strands make the vertebrae. 9. i. nerves Schematic and through which these impulses are returned from the brain to the muscles. " representation of sensory and of the connection the motor with spinal cord. and this is typical of other of reflex action under the control of the cord.'' Ascending and descending branch fiber sensory of Motor nerve in muscle ending Sensory Sensory collateral fiber " Cell and fiber of lateral column Peripheral sensory ending nerve " " Bipolar cell of spinal ganglion FIG. and their synapses with one inside the gray matter The cross another section of the cord. The outer regions of the cord are in this conductive function.the contact whereby the of terminals . forms Anterior root" - Central Motor motor pathway cell .e. at the top of the diagram exhibits clearly the difference between the white marginal fibrous material center and the H-shaped 9 Reference to Figure of gray cellular matter._ . -" Posterior root ganglion .THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 31 pricked..
" brain seen from below. pons Varolii. left and right peduncles.32 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY from are the receptors with terminals of the effectors. or bridge. EG.) The discharge over neurones which jointhem in the gray matter of the spinal eord. the frontal lobes of the TL. hippocampal I/PC. temOB. optic gyms. FL. no doubt. MO. great masses RFC. necting of fibers. (Modified from Edinger. bulb of olfactory nerve. P. be understood that the upper regions . poral cerebral hemispheres. There similar synapses with effectors. ON. great band of fibers conthe two sides of the cerebellum. SC. nerves from the cerebrum OB OB RFC SC FIG. medulla oblongata. cerebellum. occipital lobes. spinal cord. or legs. nerve. of the brain. 10. Thus of central the motor or adjusters. OL. connectors. C. It will. lobes.
. pons quadrigemina The sketch indiON. cerebral hemispheres. For example. These are both gathered up into bundles which are given off from the cord in pairs between the vertebrae. P. optic thalamus. the sensory or receptors receptor group enters the posterior lateral part of the cord. " the motor or effector group is given off on the anterior lateral surface. spinal cord. of extremely here are located . corpora and cord. cerebellum. the Cb. cates from a few of the neurone Edinger. T.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 33 of the cord are connected with the upper portions of the body. As shown in Fig. Diagrammatic sketch of a vertical section from front to the central regions of the hemispheres. and the lower portions with the lower parts of the trunk and with the legs. back through CH. cerebellum. optic nerve. SC. it broadens out to form the medulla oUongata. 9. brain stem CQ.) (Modified paths. This is true both as" regards the and the effectors. OJV sc FIG. important This structure contains a number reflex centers. Varolii. 11. At the point where the cord leaves the spinal vertebrae to enter the skull.
oblongata.) The functions of many profitabl of these organs are stillobscure. and it will be unfor us to give them consideration. cerebellum.g. 12. by impulses from GB M SC FIG. A thalami. the corpora or the optic pons quadrigemina. e.34 AN nerve INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY centers primarily responsible for the control of breathing. as between the skin and the viscera. 11. the distribuof the blood in the body.. with one or . Figure 11 should be compared with this. (After Edinger. geniculate bodies. GB. 12.) As we pass upward. the bridge. SC. and all but a portion of the right side of the cerebellum. (See Figs. we encounter a number of other conspicuous parts of the brain. a segment of M. P. The rate of the heart beat may also be altered the tion the medulla. is controlled from this region. " location of the optic been The entirely removed T. etc. such as the cerebellum. 10. corpora quadrigemina . sketch indicate the general cerebral hemispheres have to spinal cord. medulla the pons Varolii. optic thalami. C. Furthermore. CQ. . thalami.
The acquired acts depend more definitely upon the cerebrum. from those lower down in the scale. whose great size. and hip should contract at justthe right time and to justthe Were the muscles controlling the knee to right extent. the cerebral hemispheres. that each of the muscles controlling the foot. is quite certainly responsible for the orderly control of muscular our our particularly such as are involved in maintenance ample.to-wit. as may happen in certain animals without causing death. The Cerebral some Hemispheres. of bodily balance. and the requirements. whatever other medulla. In man. distinguishes the nervous system and of man the higher animals like the apes. orders the motor discharges to meet In general those parts of the central system lying below have to do with our the cerebral hemispheres reflex and instinctive behavior. a one's balance obviously be disturbed. a fact which is shown by the are the hemispheres exaggeration of their activitieswhen destroyed. They operate under the general supervision of the cerebrum. on " Omitting for a few moments us brief comments the thalami. too. if our gait is to be effective. the association regions. In every however. part it may play. for exit is clearly essential. this brings intimately then to that part with mental the organ of the brain most connected This is life. As we walk.THE two NERVOUS case. relative to the other parts of the brain. and impossible. to be . The cerebellum sensory well-ordered pace receives from moment would would be to moment reports of the bodily position. SYSTEM 35 exceptions. knee. movements. that they consist of masses similar to those in the spinal cord and it is to be stood underof cell bodies and fibers The cerebellum. contract too soon or too violently.
the A. of subordinate R. e. destruction of the region on both sides is said to be followed by total 0. another cortical which show association surfaces just above the fissure of Sylvius have been lifted up.. complex of the function. O.T. Complete inability to understand when words aphasia. Rolando.g. ability people) is likely to produce is to articulate correctly. which Flechsig has divided into a number districts. The sensory areas.. The e.A. alcallosum though above the limbic lobe of the corpus O. the muscles of the legs are controlled from centers lying just under the letter M in Figure 13. Figure Injury here may produce various Total its to location blindness depending on extent. inability to read or understand seen. O. The speech muscles are the lower edge controlled from regions near in this figure. the from B.. with occipitocontinuous parietal association /. The areas less heavily dotted are those which less uniformly are in the employed function. and simply suggests to the region The confinement and somsesthetic areas of motor is also tentative. These controls up relations are all suggested 19. .B. auditory center. the olfactory investigators.. area.. the or derangement exercise of whose affects the secondary more' or use For example.G. Injury to the left side (in of the motor convolution inright-handed motor aphasia. C. association association the to area Island of Reil. area.F. for impulses from the periphery. the motor-somsesthetic area body the are specific parts of controlled by special regions of the cortex..P. right half of the body is in general controlled by the left side of the cerebral cortex as regards both sensory and motor In processes. by competent asserted FIG. a great band of fibers connecting of the hemispheres. temperature. the olfactory center which deafness.g. are indicated by stations sensory black dots. both sensory and motor. the right hemisphere being removed. The regions most heavily dotted.g.. whence originate neurone's There are some of voluntary muscles.. from dots are the association regions. frontal temporal area. exends in a great loop up is quite uncertain The extent of the area the corpus callosum. and effects is half the field of view. over facts drawing the the at present generally recognized. touch. The but not paralyzed. patient his words A center higher cannot somewhat pronounce correctly. bodily sense kinaesthetic. are all found as symptoms In right-handed lobe injuries. what of occipital without actually being blind.. 13 and 14. visual center. in the motor elsewhere occipital region some the receiving connected with vision. Surfaces covered by colored dots are the so-called motor in control regions. A. e. the principal motor regions. the olfactory tract.. The latter section is made through the corpus callosum. V. small and relatively portant unimareas in the cortex. the two sides the corpus callosum. 13 the bulb. visual images be disturbed by injuries in the visual areas and ideas may which do not seriously impair The areas free crude sensations of sight. occipito-temporal association the area. deep fissure separating the convolutions a of M.T. in hand-writing. somaesthetic sensory regions for impressions. i.H.. those most indispensable are for the given function. lateral shows surfaces of the right hemisphere of the figure inner the 14 cerebrum. persons injury in this region is likely to result in sensory to the left hemisphere heard. mesial surface of the left hemisphere.36 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FIGS.e.
AP__ FIG. 13 AP --AF --OB or \o FIG. 14 .
18) and which crossed tract is shown in the gray matter terminating somewhere of the anterior horn it the neurone of communicates with another spinal cord. As is indicated in Figs. which with a cell in the communicates from thus the cerebral cortex. The next neurone and another in the medulla located in the one communicates with and turn thalamic in region. an end-organ in the skin. first. man intelligence more to the organization of his brain than to its size. to muscles No doubt the cortex organs are more actual pathways generally complex. relatively much larger than in his superior apparently owes animals. such obtains in the case of certain of the muscles " FIG. However. 8. constitute a highly important their use. Taking the skin nerves as an we example of the sensory pathways find. then a cell in the ganglion fiber out to the end-organ a outside the spinal cord sending has its cell-body to the cord. 15. which similar arrangement sends out of the head.THE NERVOUS are SYSTEM 37 explained in most a moment. skin to cerechain completing brum. should student figures and diagrams part of the text. Passing downward find a long from we motor centers fiber extending the so-called pyramidal through (of pathway the principal in Fig. be mastered which cannot without should that be . Diagram to illustrate from and the 1 These figures and the legends accompanying them The the understand very carefully studied. 13 and 14.1 the hemi3 4 ROMG '"SOC Ml from sense shortest pathways to cortex. where fiber A to a a muscle.
of the cortical structure is composed which join the several regions are another. where. 5. sending down to H. a motor motor cell of the Rolandic region. AC. that effector tracts leading to muscles and that the remainder of nerves originate similarly in other zones. but from the brain With this explanation the legend stem. . which I. To be sure. different region. cell in the auditory cortex of the upper in the tract. 8C. HC. cell in the -olfactory cortex of the hippocampal tract. (1) sensory. a muscle. cell. it is common the surfaces of the hemispheres. issue from the neurones not controlling spinal cord. rods and cones. and Co. the auditory tract. as they are not in the cord. TC. for example. region. bipolar retinal large TC. however. RMC. the 'white' fibrous matter 'gray' cellular matter the is all on the outer surfaces. posterior to the Rolandic in character from OC. RG. sensory cell in the cortex 4. retinal ganglion. cell-body in the thalamic in the VC. CS. in the visual tract. BC. an olfactory tract. in the cord. MC. the cell of nasal part cavity. the visual tract. MC and TC as before. hair cell of the cochlea. that of the cord. as 1 Figure and the number exhibits certain interesting facts regarding important in the location the neurones sensory and of 15 motor paths. Ro. end-organ temporal region. CC. This that to fke nervous pathways the sensory receptors in surface certain definite zones. means come and (3) association from regions. the a procmotor cell of ess region. 3.. (2) motor. cell visual cortex 2. ganglion cell in the medulla oblongata . although very much commore plex than. the diagram will be easily understood. the SG.38 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY spheres constitute by far the larger part of the human brain. spinal cord. known as the cortex. olfactory other sensory sensory paths.1 Except that all the senses with one represented in the cerebral cortex. cell upper olfactory bulb. the on skin. as cell of the cochlea . and follows. a cutaneous ES. in in BC. and the is wholly surrounded by this fibrous diately the immeocular muscles. cell of spinal ganglion posterior root of the cord. Although the nerves them belong to which compose our to distinguish on third adjuster group. of the occipital region. this general distribution is similar to. COl.
" Diagrammatic section of the cerebral cortex taken at right illustrates to the angles surface. 16.THE cover. 16. NERVOUS SYSTEM 39 are whereas in the cortex But the conditions (See Fig. The right side of the drawing illustrates The the left the fiber system primarily alone.) exactly reversed the great outstanding differ- FIQ. side .
way which Our knowledge of the facts which are now to be briefly stated rests in part upon the teachings of anatomy. with its discoveries of the effect upon human mental life of injury to particular regions of the brain. however. But memory of visual need objects injury occurs not be impaired. if not permanently. in part upon evidence gained by experimental upon physiology as a animals. 1. to terminate the outer neurone molecular entering (Modified from Morat. Injuriesto the association irregular have more regions ambiguous and is so complex that it is difficult The structure cellular layers. molecu^r to display both sets of facts in a single sketch. regions sensory exercises a corresponding effect upon the memories appropriate to the region affected. layer next the surface of the brain . Cortex. blindness is the inevitable result. extensive in that part of the cortex in which is obliterated the visual pathways terminate. 2 and 3.40 ence AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY processes a are connected seems is found in the fact that mental with the action of the cortex in not to be true of the cord. fiber of a sensory cells. 8. result of tions observathe findings upon While general not in every detail harmonious the indications of sources are evidence consistent.) . On the other hand. control over are particular muscles temporarily. which has by dissection worked out the topographical connections of the different portions of the brain. if the tissues of the so-called motor zone is lost. or If the retinae are destroyed by accident disease.. and finally in part of pathology.F. If. 4. destroyed. the these gained from and various Consciousness memory remarkably uniform. layer of polymorphous in layer. the Cerebral and dependent upon " Conscious is apparently the integrity of the cerebral cortex. visual memory or Injury to other of the so-called sensory gravely invaded. layers of pyramidal cells.
thus said to correspond sensation. and the reasoning processes. suggest Interesting experiments with these our upon monkeys whose quite definitely that closely animals.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 41 consequences. serves far as this formulation roughly to emphasize certain physiological activitiesessential to each of these great But if modes of mental expression. for sensation. the cerebral cortex be precise fashion. For instance. In the disease called dementia. with the disintegration disappears all mental organization. Many must observations human beings had led to the frequent on conclusion that these frontal regions were actively involved in the use of attention. The significance of tEe other association is at present somewhat less clear. but brain zones diseases indicate quite definitely that coherent connection at these of ideas is materially impaired by derangement points. and The The receptors the fundamental are are forms of action. the tissues of the brain disintegrate and ordinarily put. and memory. are the central adjusters set over against In so imagination. The attempt has sometimes been made to establish a corresponde between the three great divisions of the nerves which mental to we have described. brain organization resembles zone injuries acquired in the frontal association tend to destroy habits. effectors alleged to correspond to the will. a patient suffering from a disorder Fig. own. of this type in the parietal association region (see might find it quite impossible to recognize the meaning a 13) of are knife or fork. or to remember the uses to which they there would be although in such a case no question of failure to see the object. which then be re-learned. it is unobjectionable. understood in any literal and seriously misleading. it may pensable indisAlthough the receptors are is also indis- .
. supply . e. If with closed eyes one recalls the appearance of some have every reason familiar to believe that the we object. what are we hear. at least. no doubt. are brought in part. while the requisite to motor cortex secure actual expression as is quite necessary. and similarly. originate in the cerebral zones. the securing and maintaining of a bodily attitude we carrying out this undertaking. arily. to give our attention to we and primarily as distance are faint sound whose direction attempting to determine involves a the auditory we put now regions of the cortex.. the These considerations the real truth about the connection of mental with that while certain elements in physiological processes. involves the action of the association areas. the entire occurrences.42 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY pensable. but. Morerecalled. closing the eyes. our favorable to Again. suggest mental life depend in a measure upon specific nervous structures. it is perfectly obvious we that the movements us of the head which the source employ to assist in determining about by impulses which motor of the sound. secondthat upon this interpretation and now association regions Moreover. while holding the large muscles of the body firm and quiet. for believing that the very process by which attend to these visual pictures of the object over.e. i. visual regions of the cerebral cortex are active and that indispensable for this particular kind of more they are mental action than any have also many reasons But we other part of the system. nervous system is really involved in all mental serve A few illustrations will perhaps to make the matter clear. involves the cooperation of the motor regions of the cortex and the innervation of many of the muscles. The reader can.g. are effector nerves for acts of will. the of the cerebrum certainly involved.
FIG.) another. and on the same side of the and and of the two sides of the cortex with one another with the lower brain centers is indicated in Figs. cord coming impulses the ear. in coordinated motor The responses.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 43 same abundant other instances to support the general conclusion. from the from and of the issue these highest engage forms of coordination occur when we in a pro- . that the entire cortex is in greater or lesser degree involved in every mental act. to-wit. 17. 17 18. Impulses spinal with other combine like the eye and organs of special sense. The complex interconnection of different regions cortex. it by which 'integrating' action of the cortex brings into a unified organized whole the processes going forward in various of its parts extends also to its supervision This over the lower here centers. " Diagram front to back section from of a vertical cross through the central region of the cerebral cortex to illustrate the system the cortical centers with one of fibers connecting (James after Starr.
19 illustrates some act the muscles controlling simple excoordinations ecuted by the brain in response to sensory stimulations. " the Rolandic brain through transverse section of the human fibers in the to the motor region show crossing of In the the right side of the medulla.) Schematic of will. passing out in the region of the pons. . an FlG. of Sylvius. corpus callosum.C. 18. neighborhood of general brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa..44 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY longed and abstruse thought process. T. P. (After James. given effect through speech. of the brain. optic thalamus. peduncles. or legs. involving presumably large demands the frontal and parietal association upon areas.. Fig. the pons. sure 8. facial from VII. their nerves the nucleus oblongata. Such a process may then issue in a decision. medulla (7. fisC.. 0. M.
11. visual. or to seen writes response what for E." Recent clinical studies have given ground to believe that certain regions at least of the great group of nervous elements known as the optic thalami (seeFigs. The evidence hardly be called conclusive.e. that V.. the W. and center. but it is certainly very can . involved when one to show the cortical pathways is A the in is heard. 12) are per- FIG. the agreeableness of or our dis- agreeableness of our sensations and ideas. the writing. 19. " Diagram or speaks auditory speech.) haps mental the centers upon experiences which the affective parts depend. (After James.THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 45 Possible Functions of the Optic Thalami. i. 10.
" While our sensations. and particularly upon system autonomic mental plays a very the cerebral cortex. The beating of the and circulation are carried forward.) Other groups of these autonomic on the viscera and at various points throughout the skull cavity. and the operations of the sympathetic system that all the great vital processes of digestion. and in many the most important ways are The group. one placed they are fibers. proper in nervous a system. these conspicuous suggestive and the reader The Autonomic our System. in appearance from the nerves differ somewhat of the central autonomic system. ture. system. true and acts of will are. heart is brought about by nervous impulses which originate It is through . For example.46 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY will have observed that no region of the cerebral cortex has been made responsible for factors in mental life. 8. muscles is connected with the walls of the Still others control certain of the glands of the eye. the important in our part comment. nerves either side of the spinal cord. reasonings. is composed These nerves. consists of the so-called sympathetic system. which is made up of two great strands of fibers and cell bodies. nevertheless of essentially similar struclargest. with which connected by very complicated arrangements of (See Fig.and like the central system. another stomach. of groups although they of nerves. The it was to be essentially self-controlling. further experience and deserves some This division of the nervous system got its name because self- supposed directing. highly important group is located in the muscular walls one are found distributed through of the heart. and our dependent upon the central sense. respiration. our memories.
one though the autonomic more much is self-evident. system can were it might seem as readily understand that only on the basis of reasonably healthful organic conditions may one expect to live a normal mental life.THE NERVOUS in its own SYSTEM 47 in the autonomic walls. The contractions of the muscle fibers of the stomach and nerves muscle intestines. products are carried out by the nerves as these vital functions. these and the assimilation of foodstuffs and the excretion of waste asmuch Inof this system.and in so far the dependence of our conscious processes upon a unimportant this part of the nervous for mental life.or the become suddenly painful notice. whether they apprehension and thrilling anticipation. The most found exciting parts of in our emotions. But hardly ever their mental way acter. But there issignificant set of facts to be taken into system account. In fear. including respiration and the circulation of the blood. although the rate of the contractions is influenced by the medulla. This misbehavior system. we may of in that many ourselves with the general statement the characteristic features of emotion are to be found . Of course. we cognizant of a group tions of factors which under other condiemappear to be wholly lacking. char- the moment cause us they become in any exciting. the secretion of the various the digestive process. are fluids required by all the other features of ordinarily unconscious. and even barrass to atthe heart misbehaves itself in a way tract our delights of solicitude. is occasioned pating antici- by the nerves of the autonomic more and without at this point the shall have content occasion to make detailed analyses which we in a later chapter. we our experience are undoubtedly So long as our affairs run remark along smoothly.
48 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY is very bodily reactions for which. the adrenals. . that the central system are most intimately related to are and the autonomic one another. Kecent investigations have shown that in emotions like anger and fear. and that both fundamentally significantfor the activities of the mind. play a very important part. The activity of the salivary glands and the tear-producing glands in certain emotions will suggest other instances of the glandular accompaniments of states of excitement. the autonomic system largely responsible. the secretions of certain internal glands. The facts presented in the last few paragraphs will serve to give point to the statement made early in this system chapter.
and certainly It no available explanation of it on evolutionary grounds. justwhat is meant by this idea. there would be wholly for the appearance of the life of the no particular fication justi- of consciousness. So far conception as concerns seems the history of the individual. are of the organism adequately met in the early life of infancy. and writing The pass over into non-conscious now We may and walking. such as fully explain more conception of consciousness as a part of the of the organism has prepared the tary reader to appreciate the fact that if the reflex and heredito its environment were responses of the organism equipment adjusting satisfactory for the maintenance individual and the race. " of Consciousness to Instinctive and matic Auto- One fundamental conception runs through be conveniently introduced at once. which may This is the theory that conscious acts arise amid the hereditary reflex and instinctive acts. this In so far as the needs sound enough. sleeping. like swallowing. crying. is a natural consequence of this view to look for the of conscious processes at those points both in individual and racial development tary where reflex and herediautomatic acts are inadequate to meet environmental appearance demands. this book. consciousness is present in only a fleeting and 49 .CHAPTER IV CONSCIOUSNESS AND HABIT FORMATION Relation Acts. general habits.
is obviously ill-adapted to steer its possessor and his offspring through the vicissitudes of life. the mode of grasping the pen. the hereditary variety of conditions in is hopelessly inadequate Similarly which the in the history of the are race. the is exposed equipment to cope with the situation.t times a considerable degree of freedom from conscious supervision. system and itselfgoes forward to new Attention has been called in a previous chapter to the use fact that group the human organism possesses of motor and which serve life. by Consciousness New While one " in the most the hand. TO as a PSYCHOLOGY interrupted organism which But to development large takes place. then. such as walking. habits. and the like. talking. respiration. stereotyped response of the ordinary hereditary kind. writing. circulation. At such points consciousness is always to be found. is that once neuro-conscious process has contributed to the establishment of needed coordinations. and in those digestion. the model to be . in Learning Part Played. consciousness is involved The position of alert and intense manner. Acts. and All of these when perfected exhibit a. automatic acts by which the other life-sustaining bodily functions are carried Over against these forms of action are the acquired on. These acts are activitieswhich are immediate the more are considerable supplied it by nature purposes a of supporting which illustrated in the various reflexes for the most part unconscious. the points at are evidences of mind a most unequivocal those in which mechanical. it leaves its accomplishments The behind for by the non-conscious devices of the nervous tasks. purely general doctrine of this chapter.50 AN INTRODUCTION way. is learning to write.
An acquirement of this kind is spoken of as a habit. but in this larger habit are included becomes mastered. gradually gained of now one another step in the process. with the acquirement of complete control over the coordination. in homely serve a way to exhibit by the doctrine formulated always to find its appropriate above. or to the construction of groups find a may of habits in which these smaller components place. conscious superand now vision " becomes more and more indirect and incidental. one is able to give almost exclusive attention to the thoughts retaining only the most general oversight of the writing act itself. the movement letter all these things. soon a fairly fixed routine for his daily work. and once which are to be put upon paper. change Our social and physical us enough to prevent generally surroundings from reducing our actions are wholly to the habitual type. are When over passed system. is always mind itself.CONSCIOUSNESS AND HABIT FORMATION 51 to form each part of the necessary copied. is always literally seeking worlds to conquer. they with habits. until finally. Mental process place in connection the upbuilding of just such these have become sufficientlyperfect. to make new on We constantly challenged adjustments. subtracting. almost entirely to the automatic control of the nervous to the itself free to go forward leaving the mind creation of other habits. are the objects As is mastery of vivid attention. such a habit is thoroughly of Thus a up into the formation a a member. This at least is true in a bona . it can be taken larger habit in which it then bank clerk is likely to establish such less automatized acts multiplying and dividing. adding. This illustration may what is meant seems as writing. which becomes habitual. one after the other.The to new moving new conquests. then.
life.52 AN as INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY fide way natural we long as we continue to grow mentally. details of which we are intelligence steps in and organizes these miscellaneous and into effective coordinated somewhat accidental movements acts. must are subjectto the qualifications There acquiring certain interesting aspects automatic habits or of this process of coordinations which it will be profitable to pass in brief review. then. constitute the later controlled movements are some composed. During their waking moments the muscles of the face. or fashion Certain general features of the process we can describe. and feet of the youngest These spontaneous often in active motion. " In the firstplace. All statements mental therefore be made implied in this situation. control in a of the first expressions of voluntary baby is found in the process by which it learns to extend There seems its hand and grasp which are seen. objects One to be a general disposition for all strong sensory stimula- . a In the course of any human to grow. own adult performances and partly by analysis of our when learning a new act of skill. hands. as children or are random they are material largely of which the In sometimes called. partly on the basis of our observation of children during the process of their growth in muscular control. it should be understood to the strictly reflex acts. Origin and Utility of Spontaneous Movements. with the frankly but imperfectly acquainted.there comes a period when our literally cease followed by period when about mentality growth begins to decay. there are movements that in addition innumerable of the muscles of the limbs and body made by little babies long before they are really able to control their actions. other. movements.
It so that in early infancy there is an essentially reflex tendency to close the hand upon which stimulate objects putting happens where objects they So strong is this reflex the skin of the fingers and/palms. it is almost certain sooner or later to that some the objectseen are will result in bringing of these movements into contact with the hand. question that in the early stages of the a habit there is often a condition of Such conditions great excitement and keen pleasure. and the final of the There can be no skilful control possessed by adults. As occur a consequence. a proceed from do not know. all the movements of hands and arms which one may observe in immediately sense present of them may we a The stronger the impulse. favorable to the rapid stamping in upon the nervous seem development of such . " There is a as good deal of diversity of opinion among psychologists to the processes which intervene between this initial of experience achievement grasping an object seen. in view of the tendency enough of impulses more sensory nerves carry forward into muscles. should elicit among other responses vigorous movements of the arms and hands. Indeed. parents to expedite sure and can facilitate this outcome by be readily seized. the young child are or occasioned by some stimulations.CONSCIOUSNESS AND HABIT FORMATION 53 tions to drain into off to fact seems natural This widespread bodily movements. whether sort of internal nervous all events explosion At it is intelligible that bright and shining objects. widely we may reasonably find its expect to results distributed in the muscle Whether groups. Establishment of Successful a Coordinations. such as are first to catch and hold a baby's visual attention. that newly born infants can weight by sustain their own grasping small rod.
It is as though Nature called out from .' In certain forms of adult learning. the progress from the initial stage to the perfected habit is slow and irregular. there is ing. In one the point to be carefully and all these cases. and great in the case accomplishments to psychologists children is brought about by a process known as trial and error. Certain it which the presence of painful stage of the process. almost all of these have been eliminated. whereas may after the act is substantially mastered there be only the most indirect and casual conscious supervision. of which progress.54 system AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of those impressions quickly to the securing of an is that either lack of interest. of which majority of the motor of the of little we shall have something to say at a later point. borne in mind is that during the learning stage there is these a very vivid consciousness of what is going on step by step . obvious attempt to make use of reflection and reasonto see how and why a particular movement ought to be made and then to go about the making of it. necessarily implies equal success In general. try again. Elimination of Useless " One ture Striking fea- distinguishing the earlier from the later stages in these learning processes is found in the presence at the some outset of large numbers of superfluous movements. as 'try. are merely useless. in It must that success not be supposed one attempt in all succeeding attempts. while others actually hinder In the perfected habit. the first primitive forms of acquiring method is chiefly in evidence. or sensations at any most will conduce automatic habit. But in an control. and in ordinary parlance. Movements. tends to discourage and disintegrate the growing coordination.
In learning to ride groups bicycle. of perfectly needless Slowly shoulders. as we have already suggested. as sations reported by senfrom various parts of the body. are considerabl of muscular movements necessarily combined. Habit and the Sensory-Motor Circuit. It underlies all the attempts to secure efficiency in industrial occupations. and body. Abundant firmatio be found in observing may child while he is acquiring control over almost any motor dexterity. tongue. Writing. which may indispensable for the haply be found the little group specific purpose in hand. are mass these such fall away. particularly from push downward the knees and ankles and soles of the feet. for example. then. Everyone who has gone one will probably recall that to consisted in remembering the ence experiof the early difficulties through with one foot at justthe appropriate moment. of only true this definition. and second. One quickly .it certainly upon the use However be adopted as a just description of economic maximal efficiency. " The mechanism of many short seems of these habitual coordinations which stop just of becoming entirely automatic and non-conscious. may left substantially only Gracefulness has really required. in the gradual elimination of those which are of these statements a conneedless. to depend the linking together of sensations upon in a and movements manner which a may well be briefly described. The process of establishing the tion coordination consists. is apt at the outset to involve a great movements of head. first in the selection and fixamoveamong elements from of the essential motor ments actually occurring. until there motions as are been declared to depend sometimes essential movements.CONSCIOUSNESS AND HABIT FORMATION 55 a surplus the organism among of movements.
however. 20. and if the properly directed. but also sensations of sound. diagram (Fig. as soon this interconnection of sensations and movements is firmly established. M2. we are When a movement is made. M. ideational stimulus. many takes beginners The pedalling with feet in the air or 'backto the entire defeat of their forward progress. there may be a visual report of . turbance a S1? a sensory dismotor response. and the entire attention may be given to learning to balance. Until this point is reached.20) may serve rudely accompanying find themselves FIG. other sense to a In playing the signal for the next movement. such signing each of be different from the others. the movements may " Diagram to illustrate this situation. sations musical instrument there are thus aroused not only senin the skin of the hand and in the muscles of the serve as hand eyes and are arm. become aware of it partly through the sensations which of the member aroused in the muscles and joints moved. 81. a sensory or H. to respond downward the corresponding As to these signals and thrust with the proper foot.56 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY to make learned. In an act like skating consequent upon the stimulation two be repeated movements sets of alternating general may In an as one's* name act again and again. a motor discharge occasioned by the movement Slf etc. to illustrate a series of motor discharges in response to sensory or ideational stimulations. and partly by means of sensory effects impressed upon Either type of sensation may be used organs. the process of pedalling largely care of itself.
.CONSCIOUSNESS AND or HABIT FORMATION 57 serve all of these sensations may habits have Where as signals for the series of movements. less definitely conscious of the are much mechanism process. Any type some so of sensory-motor manner that we is employed. but that in it short-circuits the higher cerebral regions. become highly automatized. it seems probable that this same the movement.
may thought to certain of its rect profitably diimportant characteristi We seem to be so organized that. indeed. and have explained the dependence upon now of the mental parts of the process adjusting We the organization of the nervous must system. character. Such a assault upon the brain results in our becoming aware acting object as and into the displace the dominant nervous the receptors nervous of the stimulus. is. may stimulus of sufficient violence force its way cerebral cortex. responses. an acid. movements are obviously of an adaptive under similar conditions of stimulation. " an animal organism physical stimulus. for example. the most we more general attitude of our and adjustment. extreme the like. where it may activities and itself take possession. regardless of any sense over our momentary occupation. as we from personal all know adaptive which we loud sounds. produces 58 what we call attention .CHAPTER V ATTENTION The previous chapters have brought to the reader's notice the conception of life as adjustment. temperatures. experience. generally a strong of retreat. Attention to subjected as Adjustment. by strong lights. it instantly displays protective movements. also manifests adjustive however. intensive and detailed analysis of this turn to a more When is process. these state reactions are accompanied Attention by the mental call attention. and In this case. Such Man.
to it. Now process
interesting fact that, the action
as a consequence evokes certain muscular of adjustments, definitely and distinctly aware which we become more of the
light strike the eyes
the side, there is a rotation of the eyeballs and often a turning of the head, as a result of which the eyes are distinct vision. put in the position of clearest and most At the beginning only of the vague of the process,
As the eyes turn and we afe able to an impression of the luminous
of light and color. distinctly,we secure is both vivid and
erful affords us, as the original powbut indistinct impression did not, information as to
the character of the object, and we are forthwith to determine intelligently our next movement. Any
Figuratively, at least, is in the nature of a Certainly it
which we in a fair
called upon to solve. difficulty which we a
firststep in the process
volve to in-
distinct and complete perception of the situation. Attention Activity. Our ordinary Organizing as an
somewhat misleading impression concerning attention, because it suggests that attention i" force or entity which may a separate suddenly step in and
tends to create
that it was
stood such phrases
perfectly correct. attention
mental and motor adjustment. It is an act, not an agent. It is the process in which is mentally organized whatever is
at the moment
This fact is made
clear by observing
physical object attend to one and the same of different ways, depending upon the manner
in which mentally Fig. 21 may
be attended to
truncated pyramid, with the apex toward the observer, as a square tunnel into which one is looking. So far as is concerned, object
the stimulation of in the be wholly unchanged the retina the situation may three instances. But our mode of attending is in each case
quite distinct,because we organize and interpret the lines from three different mental points of view., The Field of Attention. Psychologists have been ticularl par"
few words must
aspect of attention about which
be said. When
is reading, at any
stands out with
the rest of the words
be dimly conwhile outside the page altogether, one may scious in the outer part of the fieldof view. Moreover, of objects as one or less disconnected with the reads, ideas more
is dominantly This
situation has been
by saying that the fieldof attention has a focus and The focus is comprised of whatever may be at a margin. distinct in consciousness. the moment clearest and most
Outside this focal region there is
of materials which from the focus. passes away
decreasingly clear Observers differ as to
of discernible zones regions,
report only two
the central region of maximal portion
clearness, the other the entire remaining
field. Others maintain that three or four or even more tinct disbe distinguished, differing in clearness all areas may
the central focus through
and less distinct regions to a margin Fig. 22 will suggest the sort of thing here unconscious. described.
mer progressively dimwhich is essentially
of Attention. of
to pect ex-
should at any
instant be able to attend only ideas. It has often been urged
attend to only one thing at a time, and there in which this is true, but it involves a sense
recognizing the fact that this 'thing' may be quite complex, and may involve what under ordinary conditions we should A few illustrationswill perhaps regard as a number of
to be attending
may printed score different things at
eyes take in several groups
quickly turned to glance In looking at the music, a considerable number keyboard. be taken in at a glance, each of of separate notes may
and then at the hands and
f-/**\\\\ ( ) !
1, the focal region of attention; 2 and 3, zones FIG. 22. of less 4, the region of subconscious distinct awareness; processes.
ger, together with the time value and the stress with which
Such a situation appears the key is to be pressed down. to a large group to involve attending simultaneously of
of the actual
situation to suppose
that in any
to take in groups
training the eye has been taught
of notes of letters
it takes in the groups The
short word. the eye sees is in the
of the fingers
the result of long
and painstaking practice, and the proficient performer
require to give separate attention to each movement. Obviously there is a very real difference between attend-
ing at any doing
instant limit of
ability to perform
of different things.
as a result of practice complicated simultaneous movements would be hard to set. Certainly the least skilful of us can
attend, apparently the process of attention to bring together into a sort of mental unit serves many such parts can actually all the different parts. How be united is only to be determined by experiment. Four or
five dots placed close together on a piece of paper can be in a single glance. If they be gradually spread someseen what further apart, it will soon be difficultor impossible
without breaking Similarly, six or seven,
succeeding sounds may be heard as a unit. If the sounds be given more slowly, they will begin to break up into
serious difficultyin determining
the facts about
this so-called range
difficultto speak with certainty 's one about our ability to attend to groups of ideas. When mind is engaged upon the solution of a problem, ideas may flow through it with amazing rapidity, and we often speak
attention It is much
while thinking about certain parts of a problem, kept the rest of it constantly before us. Suffice it to
is substantially identical with the
that the situation in that already examined
of attention to
be, attention at any
given instant is probably its immediate
This discussion leads very
attend to any one thought or thing ? Common opinion would lead one to pose supthat we may attend almost indefinitely. Certainly we speak of having had this, that or the other thought in we way say, "I have mind for a long time. In the same been watching
that that period.
another issue which long can psychologists, i.e.,how
that bird for ten
through all attention has been unchanged In a practical sense, no doubt both types of But brief a very sufficiently accurate. will give
scrutiny of the actual facts in such cases it is that a different impression of what
Careful observation will show
enough speak of
attending the bird.
that what we might justly ' ' attending to a bird involves in reality ever changing series of facts about
the color of his wings,
the movement of his head, and now shape of his tail,now If we his change of position from one branch to another. to focus our any attempt single attention rigidly upon feature, such as the shape of his beak, suddenly and without
intending it, we
noting find that in
other feature; or, to totally disconnected and taken
some particular riveted upon idea, we shall discover that in actual fact a great series of ideas has passed through our minds, each of which
related to the thought with which we were ostensibly occupied, but each of which is quite certainly In other words, our attention moves a separate thought.
sensory a an stimulus localized reaction. air in your automobile tires involves attending not to the tires in general. . In the higher adjustments which every must many animals. in one place. but to each one separately. the reaction. adjustmentimplies an immediate to a present situation. find their crucial significance in of these future reactions each in delayed responses. would indicate that a few seconds is ordinarily the outside limit. etc. also discern a reason brief in its duration. and have situation which is a unit in the sense To attend to putting requires a particular kind of response. danger. whether immediate it must and delayed. How long Attention and Organized Reaction. and to a series of particular out acts in each case on " unscrewing pump the valve cap. and particularly in man. why attention should be relatively In primitive animal conditions.ATTENTION 65 it remains it is very difficultto Experiments say. relation that it be organized to a to be effective.we shall see very good reason why a the attentive act should tend to bring together into single mental to elements as many as possible of the separate object We can which adjustment must be made. and generally response localized stimulus demands a a situation in which some localized response. " If we now turn back and a recall the assertion that attention is essentially process of adjustment. you case You make a decision today In or cannot execute until tomorrow. the ordinary requires adjustiveactivity upon A blow the hand demands adjustment which of response hand a from the remove will promptly sight of food similarly requires localized type designed to secure it. The in the life of demanding an Even man. screwing pipe. blowing dust.
adjustive a profitably make For much single organized reason. also be tried by attempting minute one An structi in- to fixate on of the shorter words An interesting this page. adjustthe and elements to which its work a is done soon as it has stamped of a situation with that kind of organized unity It is. a thing ought readily to be retained in the focus of the field of attention. attention represents the first step in should expect to find it grouping together all those elements in a situation to which we can act. It is itself the preliminary stage of psycho-motor as ment. Motor Aspects of Attention. then. what actually occurs can a The reader can easily convince himself for not variant less than by making the experiment. the so same can one dwells briefly on any atunderstand why tention feature of a situation. we hold Our to animal ancestors turn the external assist their hearing. quite be made. and breath. listening we tend to turn the head so as to are when we converge catch the sound more our distinctly. can response move inevitable that attention should rapidity. we response. therefore. Similarly. The eyes must be and the muscles controlling the lenses must innervated in order that we may see distinctly.66 AN so INTRODUCTION as we TO PSYCHOLOGY In the far. . That we are its behavior in this respect can forward wholly with considerabl unable to control be readily shown by a simple type of test. " confirmatio is found of the conception of attention we are presenting in a consideration of certain of the motor accompaniments ent dependof attention. Put a pencil dot on a blank sheet of So simple paper and try to attend to it uninterruptedly. ear in the case of faint commonly an sounds. Clear vision is normally an upon elaborate set of muscular acts.
In all these maximum tinctne of dis- Less clearness is gained by motor activities. of and the reader must expect to be left with less of certainty regarding them. how- will show to adopt that each of when thinking hard. but not less real. obvious. and partly by supplyhim with a group but reasonably of self -controlled serve perhaps vigorous sensory stimulations which may to overwhelm any purely outside sensory disturbances. or To pass tect dethe surfaces of an cases we object. Odor cannot be detected up into the nosunless the odorous substances are drawn trils. others wish to be seated with fundamentally They may they are probably much more than well represent the thinker against protective devices to guard interruption. The facts are access. us. A a into be regarded as occasioned of these reactions may energy. Most of these habits. are performances attributed merely to bad nervous But that. and probably not less and significant. a finger tips it.ATTENTION art which we 67 have largely lost. tends are more or certain bodily attitudes which in some characteristic and which seem thinking. others walk less way to aid the Some up people frown under these conditions. partly by putting him ing position of physical comfort. Still others bite their fingeror tap with a pencil upon the table. little observation. are are the motor expressions in cases where we attending to ideas and thoughts rather than to physically here more difficult present objects. we press object it with the tongue the contours over against the roof of the mouth. A ever. by a vigorous and this is ordinarily accomplished inhalation. portion . their feet up nails. To get the taste of an clearly. in the air. and down. which simply by the overflow of unused nervous There can be little might possibly be saved to advantage.
closed eyes a For many of some to think with objectto right or to the left will occasion movement of the eyeballs in the corresponding direction. In the lower and motor reflex exhausts of reaction. Clearly this type into ideational of motor expression is simply a carrying over havior forms of beprocesses. them as in a genuine sense merely the external expression a attenwithin. however. is precisely and exactly embodied in these preliminary motor of the agency adjusting which. fort discomtheir absence or suppression is a source of marked and disturbance to the thinker. 'The stretching out to meet' which is the original linguistic meaning of the term attention. if it does not. is tion. to think fixedly of a sound as coming from a point behind and to side will produce in some the muscles of the head and one persons a strong tension in neck. while in a true enough sense. In point of fact. this immediate response .68 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY question. felt from whereby to which types we we organize and hav* to in a sense adjustments determine the object more adjust. It is rather the usual custom as for psychologists to speak. that whatever the individual history activities have been taken on. motor which have an evident value adjustive in the case of sensory attention. of these motor reactions as already once 'accompaniments' of attention. occasion an actual turning of the head. it would they are accompaniments we have be to an mistake to think of them simply as companions It is a truer view to regard entirely different process. done. by which such muscular There of these motor to ideational processes which has group more is another longing reactions bea different and people the the somewhat attempt obvious explanation. indeed. as a matter of habit. Similarly.
been distinguishes sensory classification/ ideational attention? the former illustrated/ by any (1) An old from case of attending to sensations of color. cation significant points in this classifiimproved upon in the preserved and somewhat division of attention into three classes (a) spontaneous. contact. When we ary secondattend because of some To attend to consideration. or its capacity to excite. in the of objects attention. classificationsof the forms of attention have a few of which deserve. (2) Another distinction marks off immediate from derived because a thing attracts the mind attention." to be brought about. In the higher and more conscious types of behavior. and the like. When of its intrinsic interest. the latter exemplified by attention to a train of Obviously this division is based on differences thought.brief mention. sound. by . Classification of the Forms of Various proposed. will illustrate immediate derived (3) A are distinction is often drawn The between active and passive attention. is interested in high marks study because one an one's affords to a illustration of thrilling narrative Attention attention. attention is immediate. rather than on differences inside the attentive process itself. attention.ATTENTION 69 and completes the adjustment. (b) involuntary or forced and (c) voluntary is substantially synonymous Spontaneous attention v with immediate given tion attention and is illustrated in the attenby babies to bright lights and loud sounds. it simply sets the stage and determines what is the or the situation to which in object a larger way immediate or delayed adjustment is Attention. attention is derived.
such for It is undoubtedly the primitive form as example music. and to innate tastes. of attention. al- . or sociatio dis- and attention in a (2) synthesis. Involuntary. Morbid ideas sometimes intrude themselves Voluntary in the same in the compulsion way. Every act of involves both of these processes. Fortunately for our of mind. Anyone a attention (closely resembling derived) is by attention given as the result of definite who succeeds in holding himself in to distasteful task meaning exercises voluntary This is a form of the term.70 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY adults to hunger. sense association. One must be for the of conduct. forced. " Attention serves subcommonly functions which psychologists have or designated (1) analysis. discrimination. many attend at first experiences to which we soil. to crowds. or passive attention is illustrated exercised over the mind by very intense be absorbed in a good book sensory stimulation. taneous Spontime at least put aside and the other encouraged. The effort to suppress only with effort and discomfort become after a littletime intrinsically interesting and agreeable. One may (spontaneous and suddenly be shocked into a attention) forced attention by a clap of thunder. represented effort. in Attention. whenever attention this of attention that mature develops the mind appreciate and entertain two Choice must be made. whereupon we give them essentially spontaneous and great Analysis two Synthesis attention. attention early provides these competitive bidders for attention. and voluntary attention springs from such a to enough conflicting interests or lines becomes disturbing appeals to forced ment attention obviously offers another field for the developpeace of voluntary attention. out of which the others have grown.
kinds. contacts of various ear. is a consequence of the fact that out of all the very words at all instead of to the shape the possible before his vision objects special parts which correspond turn given his attention to them than in isolation. and of only trifling fragment of all these stimuli. the color of the paper. range The organism selects from out this great attention those which shall at any heeded. One cannot adjust to a make movement visual things in general. and neglects the rest. and has in in their context rather of any given moment. neously simultayet we impressed are aware upon a eye. in to be dominant. colors. discrimination. the various vast numbers sense are stimulations attacking organs. the reader will readily comprehend an that are certain objects chosen for attention and others neglected is to be found in The for the demands process can the clue to understanding of why adjustment.is simply lating the iso- an particular portion of the environment to which organized motor reaction can be brought to pass. this element hardly be carried out in response requires that now to adjustive in general. The primitive form of or analysis.ATTENTION 71 one though seems at any given moment or the other generally he will. As the reader's eye act passes across this page of reading. of the page. of a dissociation. necessarily separate the printed letters into words to which he attends either singly or That his attention is given to the separate in groups. Sounds. objects It that shall be given in the situation and now consideration. and skin. From the descriptions which of objects have of possible be moment preceded. the details of the background against which the book is seen. but of the hand designed to grasp one may some par- . At are he has selected those to the words.
The . like colors and adult appear clearly separate and transition from the conditions of infancy to intellectual dependent upon the execumaturity is in large measure to the sounds. necessitates such a selective analytical process as have described. that effective guidance of an organism amid we we of a physical and social world such as live. back to avoid by the screech of an It should be fairly obvious from these illustrations and the dozens of others which will readily suggest themselves. or is that the consciousness that of the simpler presumably is characterized by a somewhat blending vague child. to the formerly accepted mental views. which distinct. smell. when nized. This fact is peculiarly evident in cases where we difficult are thinking intently in the attempt to solve some process is to be discerned in problem. touch. Every act of attention. the prevalent of opinion of psychologists today the new-born organisms. and their various appeal to hearing. taste. scrutiwill easily be seen the tudes vicissithat in which to involve this same type crimina of dis- this complex same breaking up into parts of the great world of with objects. sight. present analysis of the thoughts which The more intimate description of these ideational processes will be taken up later after a study of some of the simpler phases of our Contrary organization.Similarly one cannot adjustsuccesscan miscellaneous jumble of sounds. the In such a case.72 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY ticular visual to step a fully object. and fusion of many elements. but the same our attention to ideas of all kinds. but one the annihilation foreshadowed automobile horn. Our illustrations have all been sensory instances of chosen from adjustment to dissociative or analytical situations. our thinking is often directed to themselves.
to of the organs comes stimuli affecting them. of a cold or by artificialstoppage is prevented from getting any odor sensations. apples.hat components of many there an thus undistinguished. and of both with sensations of movement tendons. Other one their more instances o2 fusions which persist even in adult life may with one readily be found pressure in the combinations another of and temperature sensations from the skin. great at firstdistinguished from one another " We know or not at all. certainty that colors are by babies imperfectly with. lose almost all Coffee. and joints. We have already mentioned sensations separate as are musoriginating in the cles. For sense example. are Apparently those sensations separate forced to do owing so by the exigencies of the proximity adjustment. and fuse in general sounds is good reason to suppose that at the outset may of life indefinite together.ATTENTION 73 tion of these acts of discrimination and analysis scribed just de- Conditions of Discrimination. of fact due to sensations of smell and not to taste at all. if by reason of the nostrils. number of sensations fusions persist in the most only obstinate which manner. such forced to do but the conditions about under which such dissociation may be brought . and asparagus agreeable and individualistic features. tea. provided only that the stimulations occasioning them fall simultaneously Even in adult life certain of these upon the sense organs. There is similar evidence for believing are the |. onions. the belief that only so. it and the character of the tion about that a large propor- of the food substances taste stimulate The both the organs of and those tastes of many supposedly characteristic familiar beverages and foods are as a matter of smell.
and green were always experienced together. for example. stimulation by its control over about thus possible.and the conditio preanother is that of their dissociation from one they shall be experienced singly or in other combinations. In the that if red. principle sensations. at least. circuits involved are differthe changing conditions in the physical world must speedily bring about the necessary variety in the combination of sense stimulations required by this differences when Obviously nervous theory actual of analysis in order satisfactorily to explain It need hardly in discrimination. they be differentiated. by pinching the nostrils. shall that it the means only discriminate ent. for example. success our be pointed out that at an early stage of its development the human to bring the power organism. and z.to cut mentally off the larger part of our odor sensations and thus experito split up the smell-taste fusion to which we have referred. Reciprocal " Relations of Association and Dissociation. If a sensation or group of sensations is to be separated out from a larger matrix so that we may adjustto it independently. We by supposing that three The together. such as xrs. it is apparently necessary that it shall be experienced alone or in a different group. this would mean blue.74 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY remain to be stated. of colors. Every process of analysis may from one point of view be . occur formulated would require that if x is to be successfully it shall be either experienced analyzed out of the compound may express this in a symbolic way alone case or in some other group. x. y. would presumably never If we we translate this formula see into terms that we can of nervous activity. secures artificially many of these conditions of changed It is its own movements.
act of attention. his act unites into a single mental whole. association and dissociation. adjustment.are thus. Analysis synthesis every conjointprocesses and involved in story. But in either case our actual mental procedure depends. Both are invariably involved in every attentive act. as it were. and synthesis. associated with therefore. by the very nature of are the case. Nor another. the employment upon of both. one does this tell the whole When mental gives his attention to a word on this page.It will be found that this conception is applicable to all types of organic letters which it up. each of the goes to make The process of dissociating the word from the rest of the field of vision is one the components of the word are also integrated whereby into a single object. The mental distinguishes the black and white in which. sometimes in synthesis. Analysis Sometimes we are more interested from the practical point of view in analysis . the two qualities thus distinguished one brought together and are. the two blades of the scissors which we call attention. .ATTENTION 75 or thought of as an act of synthesis one process by which this page colors on is one association.
g. are entirely insensitive.we of find the rudimentary vestiges of the specialized organs later become the eye. the most rudimentary we of our mental processes. sound. are example of such a force. are stimulations. The eye. our more and exact it is therefore natural that should begin analytical study of the mind at this point. light. evolutionary history. Magnetism action to which we is an capable of responding to various kinds of Light. but any less sensitive to the various forms of beings. the ear.. are more or simpler organisms. temperature. The If we Development to turn of Sense Organs. we find that our equipment of sensory " organs presents a most interesting picture of the development senses of highly general specialized The out of a very sensitivity. stimulation which contact. e. affect human there pass up are no specific sense organs kind. are we use have no appropriate sense of these organs. for which Connected with the receptor. crude like the amoeba. for example. heat. which makes 76 . contact. As we the scale in animal life. and the otner senses.CHAPTER VI SENSATION In the account of processes adjustive man we have constantly sensitive referred to the fact that organs is supplied with which physical is able illustrations of the stimuli to which the organism forms of physical No doubt there are many to react. present which These the most of devices for accomvaried assortment plishing their purposes.
have developed from their primitive forms than have others. Homogeneous equal light is made up of of approximately length. in rate from approximately 435 to 769 billions a second. as will a violent geneous blow. An electrical current passed through the head will also produce sensations of light. and is represented Mixed light finds its most such as red. A complete knowledge of vision implies a detailed acquaintance with " processes the anatomy the present and physiology conditions. The Organ of Vision and Its Stimuli. we of the eye. The light stimulations are classifiedas either homoor waves mixed.the birds. further away similar evolutionary like the ear. . The stimulus the vary to vision consists normally of light waves constituting These waves sunlight spectrum from red to violet.SENSATION 77 its irst appearance as a littlepigmented through on a speck great on the surface of of the organism. a like the fishes. and The other sense display organs some history. green. and content ourselves with relatively be secured in the time at rough impressions such as can our disposal. We may conveniently begin our study of the sensory with vision. moreover. of of There is. frequent exemplification in the ordinary white light of the vibration rate and equal by the pure colors of the spectrum. very in the forms structure of the eye considerable variation in different vertebrate the mammals. passes number different forms before it takes the character of the highest vertebrate eye. although very much of them. must Evidently. blue. under any forego exhaustive study of the subject. such as those of contact and temperature. like that of man. with its system lenses for bringing light to a focus upon the surface the retina.
The the lens is suspended may " left letter the seen at the of the sketch just under p. thin mucous membrane.. (After James. Conj. Scler. surfaces into the transparent blood dark Ret. 23. the anterior chamber.. both filled with aqueous Corpus humour the the the vitreum. " the cilary muscle control the convexity of the processes which ligament in which be lens. the posterior chamber behind the iris and marks humour. the The cones contains retina only its on anterior sclerotic coat. the point of most acute vision in the retina on which is looking.) . the choroid cornea. Opt. Fov. c. fovea ceneyeball to spread over are tralis. transformed Chor. oil.78 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FIG. tough and opaque. ant. heavy the a vessels carrying and pigment. fibers of the optic nerve entering the back of the its inner surfaces..." which Cam. the a very conjunctiva. of main cavity of eyeball. coat.. the a terminating at retina. little from lens. distance Pr.... light from one at which centered rays of any object in this region.
to form appears on well-defined image. In the eye. the various distinguish- hues of the spectrum (each one corresponding to a length or vibration particular wave rate). dark many pigment ed coat blood vessels. The rays of light are surface of the cornea come lens. gelatinous structure of spherical . so that they refracted by the spherical and again by the surfaces of the together upon the retina. the retina. homogeneous lights able then. Unless this image is clear and sharp. lying just or a bent inside the choroid. adjusted as plate toward.SENSATION sun. 79 As a matter of fact. an ordinary of mixed light To the colors.. be required. the tough outer covering of the eye. or away from. known as on the which is transparent Inside it is the choroid. In the by moving the the focus is photographic camera.e. there is always under conditions of vision even when we are appreciable amount looking at the simple we owe.and to mixed light the series of colors from to gray white through black. plate of a such as the photographic camera when the lens is properly its focused upon object. is fixed and unchangeable. the lens. all the more represents a Figure 23 The eye is a roughly spherical camera. vision will be blurred. with through the center of the human eye. a absorbing light rays and carrying cornea. The focusing is in this case brought about by an extremely ingenious device. The general form of the eye is preserved by the sclerotic coat. reasonable clearness. The amplitude of the light vibration determines the intensity of the resulting sensation. its front surfaces. important structures. the distance between the lens and the plate. into which light is a at the center of the small aperture admitted through front surface. i. may The lens is an elastic. vertical section front to back It reveals.
and is the region " of clearest vision in the eye. C. the anterior chamber. the to illustrate the mechanism A. if the image the retina. its for a near anterior accommodated surface object. supporting D. and suspended by. It is characterized by a slight . the lens is made more less spherical in shape.) and " Sketch lens on the retina. The more convex the lens. accommodated advanced. the cornea. By muscular form. c.. the ciliary muscles controlling the ligament. the to and fro. these images The central part of the retina. 24. or passing them will understand convexity permits the securing that this changing of clearly focused images FIG. just as readily as is the case in the photographic plate is moved more come where.) The remain sharply focused upon (See Retina.80 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY parent enclosed in. As a manner of tension. and the more focus. the lens of the must become and convex. the are sharply the rays to a bent. the lens remaining stationary. McKendrick humour the the (After main of eyeball. cavity of Snodgrass. the contraction or relaxation more or of these muscles the membrane is rendered change more or less taut. object. the vitreous 6. 24. of accommodation. for a distant B. L. the lens. upon*which fall. . the lens at rest. a very thin transis attached to This bag-like membrane membrane. Anyone familiar with the in which lenses bend or refract the rays of light through result of this less convex. is to object Fig. more As an approaches object more quickly they the eye. tissue on the inner surface of the eye-ball. camera. is known as the fovea.
and the eye-ball from FIG. no retina. 8. Ch. of which Figure 26 gives a cross-section. 7?. and terminate in the very complex strucconstituting the retina. optic nerve.SENSATION 81 depression and the presence of a slightly yellowish pigment. on (James " Scheme after Kuss. blind P. ture outside of the eye. 25). its the rear fibers of the surface. Nop.) there spread themselves in cup-shape. fovea. sclerotic. As the optic nerve sketch enter indicates (Fig. From the fovea toward the lens. retinal structure choroid. 25. all over the surfaces The fibers turn toward the of the inner part of the eye. the fibers it through before optic reaches passes optic the rods and cones the inner surfaces of the retina. spot. light coming choroid. distinct vision. the back layer of the to meet are turning shown pigment in through lens and The the cornea. humours. point of clearest vision. F. of retinal fibers. the retina becomes progressively less capable of affording clear. The vertical actual sensitive organs which the light stimulates after passing through the optic fibers and the inner parts of the retina are the so-called rods . The retinal fibers present.
the retina of the brain. In the fovea. whose shapes explain the names given them. both rods and found. are In the intermediate regions. layer of large ganglion cells. G. and in no consequence ence vision. " of the region where the optic nerve enters the eye-ball there is no retinal structure. a centrifugal nerve fiber permitting impulses to reach the retina from the brain. 26. cones.82 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY and cones. cones In the forward realone are found. fixating . This is the blind spot. E. gions of the retina near the lens. whose prescenter can In the very be easily verified by closing the left eye. H. the rods are practically cones alone. 6. The layers of the retina. is Unlike other sense itself really a portion organs. pushed out to the periphery of the body. A. s. layer of large bipolar nerve cells. FlO. a. layer of optic nerve fibers over impulses travel toward the brain after nervous which light has stimulated the rods and cones. layer of rods and cones next the choroid. rods.
We " in charge. Under ordinary individuals the regions lying thirty or from the fovea are incapable pf arc away These two sensations of red and green. gray. must say a normally under have conditions see we single vision. vision is we a two eyes. cones often be parts which are are of the invisible by direct foveal vision. When 83 or twelve a moves from from a the the moment point fixated. about three or four inches away pencil. are though al- these peripheral parts deficient in color vision.SENSATION a ten the other upon pencil point held some inches directly in front of the face while one like a coin. retina is sensitive to colors in curiously irregular daylight conditions. word this of The . the objectwill suddenly again. Stars in * indirect vision' by these peripheral seen retina. a disappear. or not seen Meantime. Each eye is controlled by six muscles. Although we objectsdouble. black. bluish. finally there is a narrow of the retina where or together and blue. and with white. Then there zone in which yellow compounds. are seen as anterior part white. are band in the extreme all colors at all. comes a grayish. slowly to the right away small object. where the rods predominate. only the central parts of the retina in and immediately about the fovea are In capable of reporting all the colors to us. and their black. when they as fall upon the outer or margins as yellowish. of the retina. most more degrees us of giving colors. and up and down. they of the retina are relatively very sensitive to white can light and to movement of any kind. and some binocular process. seen. are seen the case may be. where the have Binocular Vision. and gray. later to appear The way. by means which it is mo^ed right and left. and about the conditions which produce result.
the blind spot eyes the nerve the divided where optic enters eye. but they may their axes are beyond the position at which parallel. B. The the movements practical upshot of these limitations upon the gaze is fixed upon a given of the eyes is that when FIG. of two two as seen The located The points whose produces stimulation single vision are in geometrically similar quadrants. F is the fovea. the upper part of the diagram represents the eyes fixated on F images fall foveal two the on ff point whose regions and Rays 0 is the optic nerve. The retinae are into four quadrants. produce single vision. which nasal number. Each to its geoquadrant corresponds metricall in the other (not anatomically) similar quadrant bears the The half of one same eye. the eyes may always They converge. not diverge in.turn adjustedthat together. " lower circles represent the retinal surfaces of the from behind. at the same time. to half the Corthe respondin temporal retina corresponds other.84 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY controlling muscles are so move or downward upward that is. 27. of light from such points as E and D fall on the corresponding points .
of disappear the nearer the same screen when side as will object ' ' The image. the left eye only EX. and dd and also produce single vision. Ordinarily to both eyes as in looking at a sphere.' the latter produce ously. is fixated. Single Figure vision 27 results wherever statement this occurs.SENSATION 85 point. quadrant LN. and these together normally of other points points which single vision.' doubled images. ee or ' . and object at which a one is looking of is distributed the image each retina in such are way regions stimulated apparently by that geometrically similar from rays any given point. all of whose as seen points are single. disappear farther the will when object form the illustrates in an extreme Such a figure as the prism EXD facts of binocular The sees right eye only stereoscopic vision. homonomous This is the case of a heteronomous image ) on the side opposite to the screen (i. No doubt the fact that approximately one half of the fibers of the optic nerve of each eye cross over and joinfiber tracts from the corresponding region of the Such a line as EFD. will illustrate the were just made. is fixated. them are seen rays proceeding will of in non-corresponding the be found of retinae at 66 quadrants The rays from B fall at 6 and 6 which both inside are and cc.. When the eyes are as a on lie respectively behind and in front points like B and C. these both the foveal points. by The figure as seen the surface XD. whereas e are e and points. it may be a surface. across. If in the experiment 86 an on assistant pass a page suggested in front of one image the double on the the screen eyes. If the retina of the right eye lifted. outside ' heteronomformer The homonomously. moved without rotation superposed upon and the retina of the left eye. horopter. is known fixated F. the rays of light proceeding a focus upon the fovea of the two the entire over from it are brought to eyes. etc. which F. The from double. stimulated produce produces lation stimuor either double vision blurred vision. field mon comboth eyes appears there is a as a sol'id.e. quadrant UN LT any over quadrant would be over quadrant UT. A pin put through any part of then mark are quadrant would what are known when The as correspondi points.
the optic chiasma. one and the other fifteen or by fixating the further pencil. to the retinae proceeding similarly left side of the cerebral occipital cortex.e. ing in the geniculate LOG. the right eye.) (Modified each retina. of the retina. median eyes plane of the face.86 AN on INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY other eye their way on to the occipital cortex of the brain (Fig. the Diagram of the optic pathway. left. to about four inches from the twenty. . L. by the the seen temporal nasal fieldof view of right eye side OFR. to RO. left halves of the two LO. through the lower visual centers bodies and the corpora quadrigemina. " RO R. Ti. will produce anywhere above field of view in half of destroying by one (hemianopsia) vision from Seguin. of eye.28) bears this matter If one points. left by the that the seen the half of nasal eye. 28. NFR. C. TFL. Obviously tion destrucof one side of the visual cortex. optic fibers from the left nasal) passright half of each retina (i.. the occipital cortex the fibers from the half the OFL. right temporal. T. or of the optic pathway half of the blindness to one (7. of right of cerebrum. of single vision from correspond holds up two pencils in the LO FIG. it will be very easy see the other one double. NI the temporal and nasal halves respectively the temporal fieldof view of the left and right retinae. N.
will similarly produce doubling In this case. those of the achromatic. light to mixed series. of the two Classification of Color more we " Turning now to a immediate remark great analysis of the color qualities of vision. on in certain pigments. It somewhat a regarding was the number early observed of so-called that by taking few primary mixture. that our at once optical sensations fall into groups. made sometimes in the is found When the basis difference of a classification ' between twilight spectrum sunlight. been very subdued of the the yellow. corresponding Psychologists and painters have varied waves. dark the retina has is viewed in full however. remaining the brightest for a time region in the is in the yellow. geneous homoto pure colors. the images of the doubled one dissimilar regions Sensations. to one group of colors in selecting these 'primes.1 waves. by When..e. they produce gray. i. produce green. and if the light is progressively made be discerned can after the red end spectrum lights. colors. if mixed if they are mixed by reflection or by rotating whereas disks. but one is by no means and Common 1 language phenomenon recognizes seven distinct shades in the the A curious ' of visual processes and daylight vision. end green and the blue appear dimmer. object are falling upon retinae. the in a to adapted brighter than the blue has disappeared Seen a faint light. in their view elementary colors.' Moredepend very largely secures the results which one Yellow the methods chosen for making the mixtures. blue. from red to violet. corresponding the spectral and those of the chromatic series. of gray brightest as appears spectrum region in the green- . therefore.SENSATION 87 Fixation of the nearer of the further one. the with the series of bands blue zone. two or natural black-white-gray to-wit. all the others could be produced through rigidly confined over.
The line WB to the corresponds color pyramid. Bl. indigo blue.) (After 29. each of these spectral hues FIG. one procures a shade of purple. red. Psychologists have generally sunlight spectrum. or by adding red and can and more white produce amounts series increasing series of deepening exhibits these relations. compound red. blue. too. The most red. and if the process be and we continued.88 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY i. . light blue.. Ebbinghaus.' We can thus start with a by adding more of pinks. green.e.g.red. and blue. orange. yellow.g.RYG represents the plane white-black series of colors. that produce a of black. Violet is held to be similarly an obvious colors in the spectral group. Orange is alleged to be an obvious compound of red and yellow. " The may be more or less 'saturated. It will be recognized. represent all the transitional tints from blue through through all the shades pale blue to white. maintained that there are only four genuinely different to-wit. yellow. the Bl... adds a littlemore red. we Figure 29 browns. and violet. spectral colors. and the dark blues to black. saturated lines joining W and B with the letters representing the several spectral colors. green. e. one of blue and When get back to red. Moreover. the blue is finally altogether overcome. green. e.
has a complementary. effects of light absorption and can of course Pigment the . 1 The reason for this will be on ex- produce different results. produces rotated on a a whitish wheel are when as pigmented the source papers of the colors. which when combined produce gray. also serve color blue- " There are other color phenomena which these. and to which " Color Mixtures. gray Yellow. Red and green similarly produce gray. For orange. new with definite principles which can produced in accordance be formulated.. except green. They depend mixtures be formulated.e. as well in saturation and Whatever elementary view be taken regarding the number some spectral qualities. the intimate relations of these complementary Color contrast is one of another. are When definitely affect our which brief reference may be made. colors to one If a patch of yellow be placed beside or upon a field to show of blue. or violet.SENSATION 89 as colors vary chroma or in brightness hue. colored lights (not are pigments)1 colors mixed together. in the spectrum also in the spectrum. but green must be combined red and with colors from the two ends of the spectrum. red and yellow will produce blue and red will produce violet or purple. if combined with blue. and the eye be focused upon a point where the two it will presently be noticed that along the margin of join. Color Contrast. there them are of the esting very inter- relations among color vision. and all the combinations be readily ascertained. example. brilliant and of the two colors are very much more junction deeper hue than elsewhere. 30 exhibits these relationships blue. i. One of the most interesting can of these mixtures is that of the so-called complementary Every color colors. Figure used graphically.
The visual quality of the latter is to be affected by the preceding retinal stimulation.. on to sure another. be psychologically they not suggest pure and elementary. shaded segments composite contrast is sometimes one spoken of as' eye passing from color.90 AN a INTRODUCTION moment TO PSYCHOLOGY plained in in connection with. Colors at opposite ends of any diameter of the circle produce is if Purple. for a color phenomenon Simultaneous contrast is a name . the has been fixated. gray. in this case red and yellow. Meantime. be selected. in immediate contact with blue.e. a brief account of if instead of placing the yellow after-images. e. the one which mixed another. a different and less intense result is The maximal effect of this kind is produced produced. which successive contrast. color complementary green. this are of character. or green.. distinctly suggest Some other colors. 30. FIG.g. with in is the found to not spectrum. This type of by complementary colors upon one another. colors like orange Colors opposite other hues. Colors are alleged to red and violet. opposite blank segments do i. some other color. " but is produced by a mixture of the end-colors of the spectrum. like red.
which ought. If the eye be closed for a with the organ. in which and color are as in the the relations after the removal of the stimulus. much another. an instant upon there will be seen intensity only image of the light. it will be quite impossible to convince any uninforme observer that the patches are less thart they really match of a actually pure one a gray. the positive and the negative. If the eye be fixated upon . rather to be called 'after-sensations. from the photographic opened and fixated for an electric light. If a thin both colored piece of white tissue paper be spread over surfaces. This is an slightly less than that of the objective It takes its name example of the positive after-image. and at first with an sensation. This tendency colored surface to induce small colorless area complementary shade upon any within its boundaries gives striking evidence complementary colors. The involves a reversal of these light and negative image a point in the color relations. " again of the interdependence of After-images.SENSATION 91 less often ways observed more in ordinary experience. for some littletime thereafter a distinct and then of light and shade objectitself. paper be placed the one upon a a blue field and take on a the other upon yellow a yellowish. that which a It is true exercises an in the case of all the senses stimulus somewhat effect upon the sense organ outlasts its actual contact Vision affords the most conspicuous in the so-called after-images.' These are of two main kinds. The positive image is due simply to the continuation of the retinal excitement positive plate.the first will bluish tinge. perhaps. instance of this fact few moments. and the other field. but in some much striking when same patches of the gray If two small encountered. and at once closed again.
Attention was called at an earlier portions point in the chapter of the normal to the fact that the peripheral less color-blind. pathological color-blindness suggests that the color pairs spectiv red and green. which enjoys universal the theory acceptance. bluish-green image a cor-1 emerge originally fixated. what was light in the will be dark in the after-image. neutral colored field. of Mrs. cases are often seen half yellowish and The region of the green itself is in these Persons belonging to this group as gray. beit presents fewer conflictswith recognized facts. Color-Blindness. In genresponding to the red object eral it will be found that in the negative image all colors of the colors in the stimulus. or retina are more Some persons suffer from a form of color-blindness which affects the entire retina. the is writer's opinion. " Many different theories but there is In as of the color yet none have been propounded. This is a difficultywhich seems much more common in men than in women. and then turned upon there will presently or closed.92 AN a INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY or center of small red field for fifteen some twenty seconds. and the relations of light and shade will be inverted. Suffice it to say that in one of the comtypes the spectrum half greenish. It . together as more or less distinct parts Theory of Color sense Phenomena. seen as is said to be red-green blind. and are complementaries object " vice versa. and black and white. It is hardly tail practicable to describe pathological color-blindness in demoner at this point. In general. rebelong of color vision. blue and yellow. Ladd-Franklin cause preferable to any of the others at present available. it may be added that like the peripheral color-blindness of the normal eye.
for example. the result. . which seen over a relatively circumscribed process central region. a a purple. indeed. corresponds to red-green process and splitting off of the red part of the similar splitting off of the blue The gray of complementary of the yellow-blue process. It will well out be recalled that these colors are seen pretty toward the anterior regions of the retina. that vision now was conoriginally fined to the qualities extreme call gray. the chemical substance in the retina which ferenti originally occasioned our sensations of gray has been dif- retina still represent this primitive so that it now is stimulated which by spectral colors. Color mixture is brought about by the disintegration of one or another part of the chemical substance in the retina formulate some whose For action directly stimulates the rods and cones.e. just as occurs when white light itselfis seen. as This red and out green she thinks of having veloped de- The explanations of the older yellow process. If. that all the theories are simply attempts to formulate the several varieties of facts in a consistent way.. Franklin assumes we mutually Mrs. The corresponds produces a first differentiation which and the various integra partial dis- to the sensations of yellow occurred blue. We of them very briefly. outer regions of the evolucondition. when red and blue are combined. each of of it. resemble in many of the several forms of color phenomena may particulars those proposed by other theorists. i. yellow and blue are mixed. The with white at one and black at the other.SENSATION may 93 be said. As tion proceeded. example. colors is brought about by the entire disintegration of the original visual substance. The ferentia last dif- corresponds are to the colors red and green.
sense " Psychologists have been wont great groups as " to divide auditory noises and tones. In the secondary part of the process represents yellow. It so happens that the sounds which we . Auditory Sensations. Negative after-images are explained by that after the eye has been stimulated for a assuming considerable time by a color like blue. experiences into two This is to be regarded working division. probably assisted by the capillary circulation. and one portion of has been shattered. the continuation of the original effects of the stimulus. Consequently the after-image for blue is yellow. because there is a combination blue. as in all theories. because the molecules which the circulation down the retinal region corresponding to the gray are already disintegrated as regards yellow and are undergoing the process of disintegration which is seen as carries across blue. blue with a negative of actual objective after-image ing Contrast phenomena are assigned to the progressive breakof the chemical substances.94 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY each color disintegrates a part of the original color substance. After-images of the positive kind simply represent. for the rest of the molecular this particular process to go to pieces in its turn. and case is then turned to look at blue. rather than as implying distinction.iast call tones arise from regular. The two together effect a complete disintegration of it. while noises arise from convenient any hard and a . Successive contrast is of course image simply an aftereffect. the color molecules in consequence there is a tendency. The gray patch in a yellow field is seen as bluish. periodic vibrations of the non-periodic vibrations. after the blue is removed. If the eye has been fatigued for yellow. air. the blue is seen more as deeper and vivid than otherwise.
writers. Most a of our experiences brief compass. and exceed forty musical cease to discern them tones when they fifty thousand are to the second. Pitch. but the striking of the hammers the wires produces alupon most inevitably a noise which is heard with the tone. as determined by the number. running four in the second to some While comprised from about or within relatively sixty-four vibrations five thousand. English writers sometimes speak of pure and mixed tones. as designed to apply to the same that a tone set of facts. i. may arise from a vibration of a single rate. character.SENSATION 95 some a Nevertheless. as tone when to the at the rate of about we or sixteen as or twenty second. in particular. The The sounds rumble of cart wheels in the street is a noise. Intensity. The tone quality corresponds to the form of the sound wave. and Quality of our Tones. Certainly one notices the change in pitch as such a noisy vehicle disappears in the distance. and relative intensity of the partial tones which German are present. or simple and complex All these terms are tones. as in the case of vibrations made up of a tuning fork. " There is a relatively simple and relation between experiences of tone them. or from a group . of pitch corresponds to the rate or frequency tude vibration. and distinguish between simple and complex clangs. noise.e. but at a littledistance there is often a definite impression of tone. speak of tones clangs.. Thus the physical stimulations occasioning the pitch of a tone corresponds to the frequency begin to hear these vibrations We they occur of the vibrations. and most tones have many noises present of a accompaniments of distinctly tonal acter. char- piano are primarily tones. the intensity of a tone corresponds to the ampliof the vibration.
e. or the flute. but also to segments of one-half. The upon enter ability to analyze complex into tones. etc. each is in relation to the others. most and spoken The vowels are are a consonants essentially tonal elements intrinsically noises.96 AN a INTRODUCTION tone TO a PSYCHOLOGY of the fundamental case or a of a In series of partial tones. there are vibrations corresponding to the entire length of the string. quality of different instruments. one-third. and the quality mass of the entire of sound or or will depend over-tones. Each of these segments occasions a separate tone which blends with the others. for example. and how The peculiar tone upon given off. 31) . Auditory Sense Organ. Each precise way. ear of any The consists of three main divisions (seeFig. " Although the main facts and the general of the principles involved ear are in the anatomy and physiology tion. The human of tones and noises depends on this same up of both noises and voice is made illustrates this fact in the language tones. individual voice of represents peculiar and characteristic combination these two The elements. not only violin string. . like a piano with wire. of these complex and the ability to differentiate and identify familiar combinations trait. quite capable of simple formulais extremely the minute anatomy complicated and difficultto follow. depends which the capacity to pick out the constituent tones one tonal masses. is entirely dependent this composition of the sound waves or another. not with one upon the number are of these partial tones. The of speech. stretched string. one-quarter..g. chords. whether they harmonize strong which present. the piano as contrasted with the cornet. of the length of the string.. We can accordingly make no pretense such detailed exposition.
At the point where the external opens into the middle ear a large membrane meatus . E. the external from the middle separating C. the sharp edge below. the spiral of the cochlea. as 35. Sedgwick. the end of the stirrup bone is known as F. ear throat. one internal the the ear. upon adjacent the vestibular branch saccule. Eustachian to the tube leading from the middle ear. tympanic membrane " auditory canal of the external ear. Diagram of ear. (2) the middle ear. or passage cavity with the broad edge of the wedge ear. fibers from of the eighth nerve The are terminating. above. and the long axis roughly FIG. canals of of semicircular the as arising out of the utricle upon which. 31. D. From this a tube parallel with the sides of the head. region shown of the internal ear posite opthe vestibule. Or. B. the main trunk (After Hough and of the eighth nerve. through the central pillar of which the is shown the auditory nerve entering to spread out toward 32 in Figures the indicated hair cells of and cochlear canal. ) A. leads down into the throat.SENSATION 97 (1) the a external so-called meatus wedge-shaped of which the conch and part of the is visible.
ternal cavities. canal. 32. scala (After Gray. g. R. with connected scale middle opening Cunningham. SC. en. with an extremely irregular membranous ear. c. exC. lined sac. cochlea. SV. into which window oval window stirrup bone fits. to show the internal In B part of the bones are cut away side. ampulla of canal. a This last is very . (After " the internal tunnels or throughout elaborate system of cavities in the solid bone of the skull. cochlea of the nerve. PC. superior semicircular 0. connected with 0. round into 8T.) canal. ganglion. 33. st. posterior canal. cochlear scala vestibuli. containing the cochlea. the ear. scala vestibuli. "SC PC EC B PC FIG. To the center FIG.) R. canal. EC. tympani. which opens into (3) the passage. " Vertical section through trunk the bones the main tympani.98 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY fillsup is of this membrane attached the firstof a chain of three bones extending from in it across the cavity of the middle ear to an aperture the inner surface of the chamber. A Sketch of left bony labyrinth viewed from outer and B. AM. sv.
hair cells. inside the membranous ternal sac) of the in- vibrations are set up which stimulate the tiny hairs of the hair cells. 35. saccule. traveling back up the auditory nerve. out of which canals. ear. finally reach the auditory cortex of the cerebrum (see is heard. C. Diagram labyrinth [supported within the of membranous bony labyrinth shown in Figure 33]. with U. whose bases are in connection with the minute filled with terminations of the sensory When a nerve. and thence by the impact of the latter upon the liquid (found both outside and ear. The the nerve connection with the end organs of is in indicated Figure 31. Fig. (After Cunmembranous " ) brane is the first of the chain of bones.whereupon a sound Semicircular The The vestibular portions of Canals. S. filled with lymph and surrounded by it. 31. labyrinth ningham. spring the semicircular in the SC. 34. See Figs. the utricle. " the internal ear (seeFigs. 32. 34. vibration from the middle sound wave the drum ear. united by a small duct. 33. 34) may possibly have to do .SENSATION 99 fluids and supported upon bony appropriate Inside the sac are mounted innumerable little structures. 13). whose motion is in turn transmitted to the other two bones in the chain. reaches the it first throws into membrane Attached separating to the center the external mem- of this S U sc FIG. At this point originate the nervous impulses which. cochlea.
Reissner's from the scala vestibuli and by B. FIG.. when is moved or jarred.... inner and outer rows of hair cells respectively.H. a channel leading from ear.N..C.C.C. though are this is very doubtful. on and O.. " section of one of the whorls of the tympani. scala vestibuli. membrane.T. In man into two " the one the cochlear structure we have described.100 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY with the perception of noise. lymph-filled a leading passage in the wall of the closed by a membrane. the tectorial memthe scala tympani. R. the and S. cross . supporting cells. 8.M.c.T.V. and middle in the wall of the middle the oval window into which ear the base of the stirrup bone is inserted. Most and thus sets up nervous that basilar think the tion functhis serves authorities membrane its vibrations directly to the hair cells restand transmits ing it. Diagram of a S. are when set vibrations in through by the air waves the external up in them coming 8. brane by some thought to be the ' body reauthorities sponds which by sympathetic in the to the waves vibrations produced by external sounds. LH.M.. (Modified from Stewart.C. join one at the top of the cochlea.. the basilar membrane. 35. strike against the sensitive walls of the sac and so give a sensory warning ferenti and the higher animals this organ has difsignal. The theory assumes endolymph of the ear that the membrane th"3 tips of the hair cells strikes against impulses in the auditory nerve. but the semicircular canals bodily movement and for They have ear we no organs the for the detection of preservation of balance.. separated by R.) auditory nerve. another lymph-filled canal of the cochlea.C.M. sensitive primarily to air vibrations outside . These two S.V. A. cochlea. In the primitive find a rude sac with littlepebble-like otoliths the organism which. real auditory function at all. from T. to and some middle movement permits fro of the liquids of the internal ear. This membrane ear. rods of Corti... passages. scala from a round window. C..
It is doubtful whether semicircular are as under normal produce any sensations of which we directly conscious. as well impulse. eleonly four. that there are good deal of psychologists have come a to agree four. they lag somewhat with the hair cell terminals as behind found a in the cochlea. The sensitive to gross movements of the entire three canals have approximately to the three at right angles to each other and main planes of the body. they cause dizziness. This sets up into contact and come in these regions. to movement Each in corresponding is presumably one most tive sensiLike of the body of these planes. and salt.. sensory instead of passing to the auditory cortex and so occasioning a sensation over quite a different of sound. mentary sweet. As Sensations. .SENSATION 101 ves- the organism . the head. body. and trunk and other centers " movements are released tending to preserve conditions the bodily equilibrium. qualities of taste. rather and movement. sour. canals we are in rapid whirling. " general ance disturb- of motor Gustatory the result of discussion and generally experimentation. is no question of their practical importance. which.e. But if they be violently stimulated. vice. and coordination. There than directly by a conscious quality of their own. We thus learn contact of their action through the sensations of vision and which they reflexly stimulate. they retain the old otolith deThese otoliths are suspended in the liquids of the sac the head or body is moved membranous and when quickly. and bitter. for if diseased. made dizzy. the vestibular arrangement. is conveyed pathway to cerebellar and muscle compensatory groups " tain and thence to cerof the eyes. the other the semicircular canals and the developed tibular apparatus. loss of balance. i.
and sensations of temperature. in its ordinary contact. capable of analysis. As a . taste sensations It is commonly may supposed on that the various any part be experienced of the tongue. If the and reduced stimuli are all made of uniform temperature. have By means of such combinations we movement. Lemonade sweet. ages of characteristic tastes of foods and beverhowever. and congestion of the membranes Everybody has observed point of fact it is much more largely due to the suppression and of sensations of smell. sweet.102 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY observers would add to this list metallic and soapy They are tastes. that when suffering from a cold in the head the tastes of foods are apt to be dulled. and even for them there is often great uncertainty. By blindfolding the eyes age stopping the nostrils. forms cold. There are several kinds the really elementary of evidence tending to confirm character of these four tastes. to fluid form with the elimination of smell. a very large number which constituents. and presenting them it will be found that only the four qualities already mentioned can as a rule be detected. One in the of them is indicated suggestion above. smell. with one another and often combined Some with contact. and obviously Coffee involves to a Both involve odor bitter. This tion is commonly attributed to the direct effect of inflammaIn of the mouth. heat. involves sour. These four seem to every observer adequate. it will be found that the aver- individual is quite at common a loss to identify many food substances. into these are. there is almost to mention never a tendency any other kind of taste quality. and contact. and taken of reducing them to fluid form at the of the if the further precaution be temperature of the mouth. degree that the uninformed person is utterly unaware of.
FIG. saccharine is extremely very are some intimate kind there are tween be- the elementary qualities. . the sides to sour. at the base it tastes bitter. the center taste.) to sweet of sensitivity possessed. and papillae. Thus drugs which if applied to the surface of the tongue sweet will paralyze the sensitivity for bitter and without affecting the other tastes. (After Schafer. " Surface the which of 1 and from The taste buds in seen of tongue above.SENSATION matter to 103 of fact. suggesting and the base to the existence of sense special receptors for the different kinds of qualities. the tip of the tongue is peculiarly sensitive the marginal in the kind regions littlesensitive differ decidedly and a bitter. fungiform 2. 36. the circumvallate the papillae. sweet. and of the tongue P is very from one another Thus (Fig. curious fact. lie terminate in the walls nerves mainly gustatory 3.36. There indications also of interrelations of an different taste upon At the tip. It is salt.) that some substances produce a different parts of the tongue.
pain. nerves being taste borhood occasionally found in the cheeks and in the neighof the palate. The reason to understand In order that a substance be presented in liquid form. of smell. supplies in primitive animal conthis intimate connection. as we noticed. temperature. 39. these papillae. 37. " Sensations of smell are. tip.104 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY The may Gustatory Sense Organ. and Olfactory have This Sensations. movement. the center of the tongue There are some substantially destitute of them. very ancient and represents connection is undoubtedly importance as the fundamental of these two senses of the food Despite guardians ditions.if taken into the mouth. " can be tasted unless it for this seems easy it is remembered that the receptors for taste stimuli terminate at the base of very minute cell in structures shown in Figs. it must and no solid. whose form differs considerably in different regions of the tongue. which roughly at best be grouped separable classes. temperature. intimately connected with those of taste. which lie imbedded when deep crevices in the walls of certain papillae. The taste qualities appear . Attention has already been called designate taste is in to the fact that what we commonly point of fact a fusion and with movement. inneris very richly vated The tongue for contact. few and relatively easy an to isolate. taste. Direct contact cept with these organs is thus rendered quite impossible exfluid. 38. is soluble by the saliva. be tasted at all. presents can almost endless complexity certogether in tain of qualities. receptors contact. Smell. smell presents to taste. As has been pointed out in the preceding paragraph. and base. some are on very striking contrasts The taste qualities in number the other hand. are distributed over for a the sides.
Diagram of the cells found in a taste bud.SENSATION to be connected 105 regions. " with Vertical section through taste a hair-like terminals.) " a. supporting bud. tinct general way with anatomically disSmell. 2. (After Cunningham. 38. 1. so far as can be detected. Af fibrils terminating nerve in and papilla.) (After about 37. gustatory cells (After Cunningham.) FIG. the taste Engelmann. cells. supporting cells. section of circumvallate papilla of a calf. cells. gustatory . 6. 39. offers no a in FIG. buds. M. " Vertical the FIG. the gustatory T.
The stimulus to smell must be a gas. e.) from taste.) Unlike apparently sensory true nal terminerv- these cells are themselves . camphor. chlorine.. burnt smells. e. e. smells. Alliaceous smells. 1 2 3 older table proposed " " " Ethereal Aromatic Fragrant peas.40. Nauseous smells. e.g. Virulent smells. flowers as smells. organs (Fig. from objects odor of roses. (e. grouping them as agreeable or disagreeable. opium. smells. It is generally employed by modification made of an as working the Dutch by physiologist Zwaardemaker the botanist Linnaeus..g. e.106 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY topographical differentiation.g. characterizing them when we by sweet borrowed adjectives as odor or a sour odor. e. e.g. etc. The accompanying qualities which is now table contains the grouping most a of smell a division.. including fruit odors.g. 7 8 9 " " " animal or matter. musk.g. or finally. spice.. garlic.g. Empyreumatic tobacco. speak of a " about the bases of littlehair-like or bedded thread-like cells importion in the mucous membrane of the upper most of the nasal cavity.g... a or at all events.g.. e. such violets and sweet 4 5 6 " " " Ambrosiac smells. cheese. burning Hircine smells.. The to a difficulty of grouping odors small number the a of elementary of reducing them types is suggested by the of designating fact that ordinary method them volves in- either which or reference to the names of the the they come lemon odor. as finely divided particles suspended in gas such the air. Receptors for smell terminate Olfactory Sense Organ.. decaying toast. The stimulus to taste must be a fluid.
may how location of this olfactory membrane be seen in Figure 41. numbered 1. according to some ties. short. supporting cells. In vigorous inhalation. (McSnodgrass Kendrick and after Stohr. the we and when of the air currents into the the of right nostril olfacolfactory membrane which tory black The down through the bone nerve comes above. r. on the other hand. indicates the the course air in usual of The breathing.) " Isolated cells from s. 41. FIG. the currents of air are through . r. to show the location of the olfactory end-organs breathe. indicates the natural inhale strongly. st. olfactory cells. or. course we (Modified from of the air when Zwaardemaker.SENSATION ous 107 tissue. authoricones of mucus resembling cilia. line. This figure shows graphically in gentle breathing the air currents may pass The general FIG. 0. lighter line. stiff cilia. olfactory region of the rabbit. 40. numbered 2. ) " Diagram the course up the nostrils and into the lungs without coming into violent contact with this olfactory region.
and with adjacentpoints insensitive to all kinds of stimuli. I of temperature. 42. but to uncertainty a less degree. sensations simultaneously of heat and pain. Cutaneous the skin true that were we Sensations. together more of these aroused by the usual there are from hand of stimulation. (See Fig. But in strictness. the statement any region rewill spond. " It is usual to speak as though course itself a sensitive organ. if I reach out my movement. and as a matter of fact generally added the kinaesthetic sensations arising Thus.108 AN up INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY drawn sharply against the membrane and we secure vivid and distinct sensations. opposite page 36. secure and of movement.) If then a blunt metal point. be cooled and be gently passed over the skin of the back of the . myself. cold. there is regarding the exact cortical terminations of but the best modern is emknowledge the smell nerves. As in the case of taste. The one distributed evenly a over the entire bodily points skin presents sort of mosaic. Contrary to the usual impression. muscular grasp and the book lying upon the table. pressure. Of course if a stimulus be made sufficiently intense. I obtain sensations If I burn of contact. and Ordinarily two forms mediated are by skin sensations. these various not forms of sensitivity are surface. and it is of in contact protective receptors feel the various kinds of stimuli which come with it. almost Nevertheless. bodied in Figure 14. with sensitive to kind of stimulation interspersed between points sensitive to other forms. even a pencil point. By common are consent. the skin is simply a deeper layers the real covering within whose imbedded. just made is essentially true. pain or are heat.
The spots sensitive to will be encountered if the point pressure are more numerous than those More sensitive to numerous warmth and either cold of moderate are degree. cold spots. like the pain are some of the eye. sensations regions be aroused. "". the back of on Similar to pain the wrist. sensitivity differs very is illustrated. Oddly there quite insensitive to pain from puncture. hot spots from an area FIG.V. A similar result be slightly heated. Warmth will be clearly sensed now and then. The as surfaces.SENSATION 109 a hand.v:. there will be spots where perfectly distinct flash on of cold will be felt. 42. (McKendrick and Snodgrass respectively have after Goldscheider. differences much The more first two minute surfaces than are those simple be sensed demonstration by A the last mentioned region. by lightly touching be made may . in the case widely on various by the tip of the tongue. and spots sensitive to pressure been charted.. and alone or other spots which coneither tact nothing at all will be sensed. */*/ """" :.:V"V** * C " ff C. and justabove sensitive to which can the elbow. can practically only enough. the skin sure. but will be found quite lacking at other points. H. ) like that of cornea a needle. than the spots sensitive to painful pressure. which seem There is a region of this kind on the inner surface of the cheek. on There which are some regions. of contact or presthe tip of the fingers.
The cortical receiving stations for these various sensations [withthe possible exception of pain. gists PsycholoThere has been littlesuccessful effort to analyze them. as in Figure 13. and isolation is particularly difficult because they occur almost without exception in conjunction with other kinds of sensation. of these combined kinaesthetic and cutaneous When one moves the hand. in considerable measure to stimulations adjustment in type. The close proximity to the great motor zone (an must arrangement not one of that in the spinal cord) be overlooked. there is strong believe that the receptors mentioned Figure organ. Various illustrations have been given from time to time sensations. characterizes the distribution of sensitivity in the case of senses. which is perhaps represented in the thalamus] are pretty well localized. " Although the evidence reason is to yet absolutely conclusive. generally refer to these as kinaesthetic.110 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY three such points set a regions with a pair of compass A similar type of disparity quarter of an inch apart. and will not be thought strange suggestive when remembers the most that these cutaneous experiences are probably Behavior simply primitive and in its earliest forms was motor ancient of organic life. " We have frequently had refer to sensations of movement. there is almost inevitably a . have for the different kinds of sensation each a different type of terminal 43 exhibits the different terminals now ent plausibly regarded as the receiving devices for the differkinds of cutaneous stimulations. the other skin Cutaneous not as Sense Organs. in the region posterior to the fissure shown of Rolando. response of the cutaneous Kinaesthetic occasion to Sensations.
terminals. The free nerve pain endings.L. nective sensations. the hair. C. naked fibers. C.. so-called touch cells. Retzius and Toldt. the papillary layer. H. forming the outer border of the dermis.T. the axonic processes wrapping puscle. N.. nerve layer.O... terminations connective at with axis cylinder F.. or blunt end.. to mediate tissue.L. Pacinian tissue of the skin... (Modified from Cunningham.T... its base. T. terminal axones. Ruffini's nerve tissue.. and stop. conAX.) " A. P. axone concerned puscle entering the corsensations. warmth endings. horny T.. axones entering the bulb.L.. thought thin out terminal the fibers simply sensations. A X. AX.L.L. about the tissue of the corKrause.F. with mediating C. horny . connective corpuscle. about the base of the hair.. axis cylinders.... 43. A. naked D. and of the nerve a hair and winding about section of the skin showing 2V. end-bulb of possibly organ of sensations of cold..T. the H. C.L. a tactile corpuscle of Meissner. have no organ. A. the mucous granular N. axone E. diagrammatic cross section of the skin showing layer or epidermis. N. probably in contact AX. FIG. endings. possibly mediating C. C. the clear layer.C. the layer. T..T. to a point. C.E. G. H..SENSATION 111 H. layer of the epidermis. organs. AX.. H. B.L.. trunks diagrammatic the the cross nerves.. nerve contact sensations. trunk.
of sensory nerve T. FIG. Organic Sensations. tends to fuse with or the kinaesthetic motor sensations. this group considered should be assigned the kinaesthetic sensations.112 AN INTRODUCTION so as TO PSYCHOLOGY a stretching of the skin which to produce pressure or sensation. the at least obscuring. axone. or in the insertions of tendons and ligaments. cortex central station in the is by with clinicians the cutaneous located in the post-Rolandic group region along of sensations. Obviously. from Morris. tendon.O. But of this more be said at a later point. . thus confusing. These To experiences designated in a strictly organic sensations.. characteristic quality of the motor It is the general view today that these kinaesthetic sensations due to the stimulation of receptors which terminate in the muscle surfaces. Termination 44. Kinaesthetic type will Sense Organs.f terminal organs. " Figure 44 illustrates the The of terminal organ receiving for the kinaesthetic receptors. there can be no doubt that the part sensations of this group play an extremely important in our control over our movements. tendon. " AX.. under from these three they practically always ordinary sources occur tions conditions the sensawould tend to fuse because difficult together. However A X. somewhat sensation itself. T. or in the cartilaginous surfaces of are joints. " One group of are sensory remains general way to be described.) (Modified a in of isolation and analysis.
for Organic Sensations. Illustrations of these organic sensations are such experienc as arise from respiration and circulation. taste. and nausea. are " The receptors for in of these experiences they no not well identified. stifledwhen The the air is congestion example. vision. . The consciousness of feeling choked or close is an instance of this kind. they caused by changes occurring inside of the organism. doubtless supply Receptors some many other illustrations. Dizziness tions mentioned in connection with the semicircular canal funcis sometimes included. and aroused by objects outside the body. despite this origin. except cortical receiving stations are in. to distinguish the kinaesthetic group from the others. smell. It is convenient.so far as the sensations are identifiable with those of kinaesthesis and the cutaneous sensation group. but general doubt belong to the cutaneous and kin- In many of them pain is represented. however. and aesthetic type. The reader can and need not be given in detail here. head when one is ill affords another are of the Hunger. thirst. still other instances. in these cases the receptor is similar to that presumably The experiences. common property of intra-organic Ordinarily hearing are sensations of touch.SENSATION 113 because are like the general class of organic sensations. already described for painful cutaneous also problematical. The list is a rather long one.
eyes is the mere color quality green. supposed to combine We which now pass to another phase of these sensory psychologists as commonly activities. defined by James present "the sense. call perception. consciousness " to While of particular material it is true that these objects seem objects sense in a certain sense to be simple combinations of nevertheless not what we see when we open our qualities. justas do oxygen are and the other chemical elements. " previous processes arouse have discussed the sensory adjustive regard to the different kinds of stimuli which them.CHAPTER VII SENSE Sensation chapter. green when we car. or of a class bell. the different qualities of sensation which are forth.Similarly. Each peculiar sensation quality as noise or sounds has its own hearing any one tone. but the immediate^ reaction upon locomotive . with we PERCEPTION Throughout the and Perception. elements called simple feelings. because they are apparently qualities which resist further analysis. sations Sen- tal with other kinds of menlater. a our immediate street of of these whistle. but green leaves. and other green objects. often speak of sensations simple mental elements. perception is of a hear or sounds. and nerves called the peculiar structure upon which as they organs of the sense and Psychologists depend. of them involves our identification of the sound 114 in the . to be mentioned to produce mental compounds shall deal with such as we from this point on. grass.
the very one of sensory To be sure.. process by which more perceive less all other objectinvolves our objects.Even here. It is. We perceive a violet by its odor. direction. abstracting it from The color the general complex in which it is imbedded. But from point of view sense perception gives us the real of daily life. then. However we see the sensory cannot meager which an data with tend to perceive we are object we supplied. cats objects and dogs. there is a certain sort of abstraction and isolation. from of a ribbon may thus be considered apart the special texture of the fabric in which it appears and apart from the other colors surrounding it. to an analysis of certain features of these perceptual operations that we must next proceed. sticks and stones of every-day experience. disregardi then. It involves our The perception of apprehension to meaning at least of the to other e. PERCEPTION 115 conveys some mentioned. its relations sustained by the object objects. in the psychologist's ing meanas the consciousness of the term real and perception is relatively more get at a sensation of color involves our of more sensory quality.SENSE manner us.g. As contrasted with sensation. in each case less definite or with a more fringe of relations. We perceive a book in part by pressio the im- of contact hand even as we though from the and temperature which come grasp it. discussing attention. etc. distance. The other senses will all illustrate the same thing. out we or pointed when the ribbon. common-sense the . we accompanying mental In perception a we have a state in which as an apprehend this case group qualities as was in object.the tables and chairs. We can only direct tion attento the color itself by thus disregarding all the other circumstances. it. To concrete.
Vision. with four right as angles and equal sides is on projected his retinae a . guides of smell. room no he perceives when he looks across the square-topped table is simply that which As a matter of fact what he perceives is in that which more sense a merely much is physically present to his retinae. As an ad- justive process. as a mere practical motor responses to them. take but a single feature of the situation : if he be standing across the which room. that is. and probably to their larger bodily reactions. however. and a taste. new same a motor principle learned. compared with animals. appeals no to touch. as assumed as " in the illustration. matter of sensation. sight. in Perception by Previous Played in an " We earlier chapter that constant modification is taking place in our reactions by virtue of our ability to from one moment to the next that which we carry over saw have obvious in all the instances of gross general behavior.116 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY " Organization of Sensations in Perception. hearing. Part foci of human perceptions. the table " top he sees square. human perception to which by beings undoubtedly much make far less as use less of taste. smell. but complex and object one which in certain particulars To differs essentially from that presented to his eyes. and contact afford the predominant Experience. to perception man as fact is perfectly to all other conscious To the plain it seems obvious that what and sees a is before his eyes. As all these qualities are centered in the object can an make extending the hand we effective and satisfactory As response. processes. This applies. such as the learning of The habit like skating. very distinctly an perception represents organization of sensations into units such that we can make An apple. to mention other possibilities.
and not a square at truth of this statement tries to draw a all. the a upon may strike upon they do at The fashion in which in absolutely the same later period after the language has been mastered. like the table top. he would perceive a figure of the rhomboid type. and this is true in a accustomed intimate and thorough-going more than is ordiway narily We tend to interpret every sensory appreciated. entirely missing What . The one becomes as apparent the moment a position. A perception qualities belonging to other thus involve sensory than organs that directly stimulated at the moment. If one uses actual right angles in the sketch.SENSE PERCEPTION 117 figure with two saw obtuse and two acute angles. what much to see. In the firstinstance we hear simply a melange of meaningless a experience which furnishes are whole sound. It is sometimes or said that we see what we expect to see. we are stimulus. Language particularl our striking instance of the effects of experience The words of a strange language perceiving. in terms of similar assume of our previous most part experienc and objects. the drawing will be a failure. as in a case like that of our illusone table seen from such gets coolness. all of which are tactual qualities fuse with the visual impression. wood or metal surface. If he really simply what is optically before him. hardness. host of interpretative meanings in the first case. and that somehow may sense something of the feelings of smoothness. for the which we consistent that that sort of perception is most with all our its 'true' presents experiences or of the objectin question is a 'real' form. in the second. when one looks at a polished tration. but the percepbe to all intents and purposes tions are radically different. Moreover. ear cases sensations elicited in the two may really identical.
fear burglars and distinctly are as a the sounds matter which of fact simply of the creaking of boards caused by wind or change of temperature. like that on FIG. arising (2) from expectancy. hear (2) " of such We waken a In the present case it may be sound. furnish additional evidence of the dependence of perception upon on The figure (45) sketched ence. . " Certain illusions. may organs or of insanity in the case be They of the are common in certain forms and cerebral cortex. in the night. involve any may senses.118 we AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as our is quite perceive at any given moment by our interests." 1 (After Gordon. 45.1 preceding experithis page. (3) Figure 47. (1) We distant train because a that is a noise as perceive a rumbling common source thunder. which are simply erroneous perceptions. as by the particular object physically present to our senses.) Illusions may be roughly grouped as (1 ) from habits. page 127. but in this They stimulus is present. and (3) from sense organ structure. Perception and Illusion. exhibits illusions which belong at least in footsteps part to this group. hallucinations are no apparently external physical due to derangements in the sense false perceptions. by momentary much past termine de- experienc and the modifications which it has impressed upon the nervous system. Like illusions.
reactions acquire it clear should make to which these perceptual meaning from previous experience that the organization of sensation which is represented.SENSE PERCEPTION 119 page 60. is To in the cortical neurones. things go together. Pacific Ocaan The extent ' less accidental. flected sensations exhibited in perception is recornice experience. and not in the phrase Thus the error what is really before him. reader will note that in each case the retinal stimulus is absolutely identical. and yet three quite distinct objectsare Clearly this perceived. organization Both we are The of motor to subject response. The result can only be explained by the fact that one 's previous experience affords the three different contexts for one and the same set of lines. Typographical errors are ' will by many readers be entirely unnoticed. as a The figure may be perceived or as " uppermost. may be seen in at least three different ways. of our in a corresponding The two organization. which Chapter IV. white. more or finally an though " than instant as a this is difficult to observe flat mosaic of black. and gray diamonds. Which particular group shall be brought into action at any one moment is evidently more or by -overlooked cause the ordinary reader unless they are very serious. the general principle of habit. and and volves of cubes insystematic fashion it is evident that of large groups the type of cerebral of motor pyramid required reaction appropriate to dealing with the experience would be decidedly different from that by the therefore. surpile of cubes with black faces is looking at cornice which one a from for below. discussed rather fully in . behe sees what he is in the habit of seeing. in large measure embodied perceive a couple of dozen lines an as a pyramid the arousal in organized nerves.
our make intelligent allowance for these Space Perception controversy senses are and the Several Senses. It is sometimes said that in time and imbedded to us perceptions come all our most of that them we in space. that certain sounds are tained massive. gives us our we but it is also the channel through gain our which knowledge of space and time. and reactions is largely conditioned by ability to factors.Philosophy and has from just as the earliest times the ultimate must try to busied itself with the attempt to understand We nature of these two forms of experience. Taste is hardly a profitable source by its connection with conbecause it is compromised tact The precise meaning versy of the controand temperature. Perception not only contact with the physical world of objects. Our time common phrases space gest sugwe perceive both perceive objects. have been the chief centers of discussion. and others thin and fragile. slight study of the of the processes. touch. as " There has been some our among psychologists to whether all of capable of mediating experiences of Vision. steer clear of the but psychology we can metaphysical hardly forego some more aspects of the problem. was wont to maintain that all sensory experience The other senses.120 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY " Perception of Time and Space.' He held sion. in a medium occur our Our to adjustments our surrounding the effectiveness of of both time and space. for example. he mainthat some odors are big and expansive as compared is 'voluminous. Similarly. can perhaps be better understood after we have . of discuswith others. William James. and the kinaesthetic sensations have space. of space generally been accepted as self-evident sources perception. and particularly hearing.
of our we can hardly deny spacial character we not if we turn sensations. and is fairly clear that vision. touch. round odor? . movement.SENSE PERCEPTION 121 analyzed some of the conspicuous features in the perception of space. If we ability to estimate distances at consider first the capacity to detect direction. and perceive they are these the one quite objectspossessing and the same. who a shape truly and as a we size. obviously involves a form of spacial The perception size are adjustment. are all serve us with the detection of direction our criterion. Another important capacity. find ourselves we to the other factors mentioned to any a led to quite Visual qualities we different conclusion. The creature needs to go in the general direction of its food supply and needs to retreat from locations where its enemies are found. have as objectsclearly perceive them. and space particularly in its lower stages. from which the sense of direction has perhaps developed. lifts one Behavior of this type. at least But when permit the cooperation of movement. the adjustmentto relations hinges very largely upon the factor of direction. would in ever sense But think or a of the possibility of perceiving square sound. In animal life. L hearing. of shape of distance and presumably of the the perception later seem and somewhat lower acquirements. and that possibly taste would also be found in this group If we to make if it could be separated from touch. to although many animals have near a relatively accurate hand. Indeed. as when a frog of its legs to wipe off an injurious substance from its body. smell may varying degrees of accuracy. is the ability to localize stimulations upon the Bodily surfaces.
and the odors of garlic. more to estimate measures and often venture of such sounds. no one would factors undertake estimate to describe the shape of such sounds. more than the odors of violets. is alleged to be bigger than the shrill whistle of a fife. inbe louder than another. Associated with this is often* an ment knowledge proportions of the instruof the majestic from which the noise proceeds. onions. space-occupying and lemons. deny to them can certainly lacking. which are so clearly fea- space experiences.sandalwood. including size and list of spacial characteristics. One or both of these or are of the sound. then. whatever of space character belongs to the ability to dis- . already implied. tense. less general bodily tensity there is to be mentioned the inof its results a which has as one jarringwhich likely to affect our impressions of the volume of the sound. and are illuminating gas thought of as more pervasive. and we certainly localize them more But the complete one less accurately. tures shape.122 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY to Certain psychologists maintain. are of the visual-touch-movement We hardly. There are certain obvious sources of possible confusion In in such supposed evidence as has justbeen advanced. or spacial qualities. more our veys naturally conimpression of bigness. be urged kind of consideration may Exactly the same find them Undoubtedly we suggestive of about odors. But even admitting the strong suggestion of spacial character which the sound brings us. that is. or to their exact may we One sound size with reference to other sounds. that some sounds larger than drum Thus the sound of a bass odors more voluminous. some be are sure. but never the tensity relative in- of their size and shape undertakes. as we have others. /^ the case of the bass drum.
to be described. In even Space Perception. sounds except those in the median vertical plane of the In this body at right angles to the line joiningthe ears. they make use of this sense. the . Perception Space suggestion Smell. or behind. Within certain limits. to which we have already referred human beings secure through smell only very crude impressions of direction. plane localization is extremely inaccurate. hearing conveys suggestions of many kinds of space relations. it is almost essential should turn the head in this direction and that have determined at what point the odor is most which an Whether or the human sense of smell has suffered our not in the evolution from animal ancestry. " Apart from its vague of space relations. be excel no us animals question that at the present time many hopelessly in the accuracy and delicacy with which Auditory perhaps. we can localize sound promptly accuracy. the come This capacity fact that we have two to us and with a measure is dependent in largest part ears as of on and that sounds one ear often more in such a way to stimulate This is obviously true of all other. but its only unequivocal spacial function is the determination of direction. but we certainly not attribute to them the full quota of space turn We must now properties. in which it is distinctly superior. If we wish to identify the direction from that we until we intense. atrophy there can odor is coming. than smell. " greater degree. and with closed strongly than the eyes an inexperienced whether person are determine sounds is generally quite unable to in front of.SENSE cern PERCEPTION can 123 direction. back to examine in more detail the as important space peculiarities of the several from senses media of perception.
While with normal ing individuals there is never any difficultyin determinThe ease or the accuracy of the which side a sound comes. are not cannot be so distinguished. sounds and and originating a from side of this plane few degrees either outside of it are points localized instantly side from which with great confidence as to the cult. In practical daily life we thus affected and therefore of sounds as well as faculty which is very unreliable except familiar with the sounds. being devoid of overtones. for example. localization as regards the more exact position is far higher with noises and with complex tones than it is with for simple tones. Pure tones. But this is a are where we are to demonstrate that with the eyes closed a very faint sound near at hand is readily confused with a stronger sound further away. diffithey come . like those of a tuning fork. the line joining the without ears. It is easy enough tance able to estimate the distheir direction. and everybody must at one . and whether they high low down. at a point somewhat to when the left and in front of the face and when heard at the left but toward the back of the head.124 AN INTRODUCTION TO are PSYCHOLOGY up or head. Gently sounding tuning forks afford the most convincing and ready proof of this fact. The reason from this tones seems are to be that the overtones so of noises and of the ear complex affected by the conch (some being ently dampened) that they sound differreinforced and some heard. but it is often extremely the assistance of vision. difficultyof these localizations is related in part to the character of the sound itself. to determine whether the sound is somewhat in front of. on On the other hand. or somewhat behind. or without movement of the head.
The of such of course varies . accuracy estimate estimates size of the object. The size and distinctness of the retinal image the larger the also gives us a clue. can If we know we object. we estimate the we distance. objects. like the hissing of a steam radiator. off steam. to-wit. the clearness of the air and the curvature of the earth's It detects direction instantly and accurately. the latter on the ciliary muscles controlling the lens. can the size of the and conversely if the know the distance. The and vice versa. It enables us to judge with great precision both the size and Thanks to the binocular nature shape of of the surface. as a for the right eye pencil. the former depending the movements cles of the external mus- of the eye. in this case perhaps a locomotive distant object. stereoscope takes advantage of this fact and presents photographs this feeling of depth because they which exaggerate the are from left eye.SENSE PERCEPTION 125 time or another have been deceived into thinking was some some faint sound. we sense orgaVi get a direct visual experience a of solidity. blowing Visual Space Perception. hidden sees part of a solid such object. taken from repositions further to the right and left spectiv than those normally occupied by the eyes in looking at the Although object. detecting distance changes. alterations in the muscular sensations visual distance are by factors involving experiential for the eye has its own mechanism judgments of of convergence on and accommodation. of our most probably touch influenced and movement. The nearer object and more distinct the image. " In point of range and cacy deli- of spacial perception vision easily surpasses any of Its range in distance is limited only by the other senses.
at ment earlier point. but only when we relations tant of a dis- have learned how to interpret what on we see. " Touch sense. it is nevertheless FIG.as seen in the contours roof. tend to take bluish and Accurate and sensitive as vision is. has from figured which an historically the fundamental are spacial all the others in a way derivatives. and aerial perspective. too. Distant mountains. It is a fact that while under ordinary conditions vision is much purveying we are more important in cases to us as or a space sense. nevertheless to of doubt tion hesitaas wont accept the verdict of touch the final index however. Perception as are Space from Touch. of reality. to subject shown certain striking illusions of which a few in Figure 47. In the spacial world one of daily life. indicated the limits within which this stateis true. with no attempt to explain them. touch is simply of a group of factors which . Color aids us. purplish hues. Figure relations involved. Unless LM the nearer our at much and object for to knowledge make allowance enabled us about the objects their the different distances. the " The same relative size. for example. 46 illustrates the essential We also learn very readily to judge of distance by light and shade effects. we should be at a loss to know 46. We have. is of evidently retinal image ab of the objectAB XY farther tant disimages the the as much of size object hand.126 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY with different conditions.
In B the line which a really continues does not appear to do so. although lower are upper exactly equal and In D the parallel lines no In E the longer appear parallel. filled spaces. 06. " .SENSE PERCEPTION 127 / a FIG. 47. be. they The horizontal lines in A are of equal length. appear longer than the equal unfilled spaces. In C the lower figure appears clearly in area. larger. although do not so appear.
passing with one point justabove and the other just . In the human being the power on skin varies enormously On the finger was suggested in the preceding chapter.128 AN INTRODUCTION one TO to PSYCHOLOGY cooperate with another give us our actual space world. This mechanism to enable the immediate movement arranged immediately that the receptors from the skin region. touch is the great medium through which we locate stimuli upon our bodily surfaces. It will be remembered that in our system study of the nervous we found it are so surfaces with same connected in the central system effectors leading out into muscles controlling these is obviously designed cutaneous regions. In the firstinstance. Genetically there can be no of a stimulated doubt that the protective has been very value of tkese localizing movements great. a are closed. seen the spots previously kind of thing is to take a pair of dividers. a and immediately one's own thereafter trying with skin on similar point to touch The differences stimulated. separate the points by about an inch. and on of localization on the the different body surfaces. on on the back of the arms. to lightly with point the skin of the hand and the back of the forearm. tips and the palms of the hand. the back of the trunk. as large parts of the legs the localization is crude The and coarse. in the sensitiveness of the surfaces for localization wrillbe Another interesting immediately to be very great. it is relatively delicate. touch the skin of the cheek with the two points just in front of the ear and then draw them lightly across the method of demonstrating the same face. truth by of these allowing touch statements can be promptly while pen one's strated demoneyes another person.
the same object an to make such it frequently happens Of with. below points the lips. is likely to be judged larger if thermally indifferent. an pressed upon " affects object which the spacial judgments. a fact explicable by the tions variain the areas richness of the nerve supply In addition to the power also the capacity accuracy. practically all touch elements temperature experiences have attached to them. and in some our this substantially instance. in connection with movement at least.g. with distance. be spreading and coming together again in the most amazing fashion. different. of localization. understood As a some cases matter of fact. does give us tri-dimensional experiences. experiment a that in passing from . original knowledge fare it may However this particular view. This is because the sensitivity of the regions explored is so very in the traversed. no one is disposed to question that touch. one been are a favorite doctrine at to touch time our and another that we indebted alone for all or of the third dimension. if " and heavier A coin may course than serve skin.SENSE PERCEPTION across 129 ear. it has golf ball in the hand. In speaking of touch in this way that temperature it is generally are sensations included. when we three-dimensioned and object. and a so to the other a With may the be littlecloser together similar experiment by starting with the points on the tip of the inner side of the middle finger.. For is distinctly hot or cold. touch possesses size and the only to a to report shape sense It arises from of conforming grasp a with reasonable organ which is itself capable e. thence passing up over the finger the palm across to the and up the wrist and forearm made In both experiments the points will be felt to shoulder.
we make littleor no use of thermal sensations as sources of space experience save for purposes seldom think of it as of very general orientation. encounters considerable temperature touch sensations without any accompanying In these cases we get a general massive temperature experience. which has a certain vague spacial character. one when a one goes out mass of of doors cold day. Cutaneous pain is significant as a factor in space perception. impression. of touch impresa If the eye vague. there is again group of of the retinal changes which also set up visual sensations. as when we approach from a source away of heat. of experience in which we In those types gain control .130 warmer AN to on a a INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as colder temperature. the other crude space perceptions. through changes tin skin tension group produces sions. to say doubt movement responsible for the widely is largely employed as a recognized measure fact that of the other forms of spacial sensation. it is of in the exact use of practically all In the first place. as a matter remarked of fact. Practically. therefore. " Although it immediately through vague. If one moves and particularly with the cutaneous group. all but invariably connected with other sensations.one be moved. but unless it be combined with contact. the sensations which evokes only the utmost importance spacial senses. the thus occasioning sensations of movement simultaneously a from muscles and joints. Motor movement or move even les" Sensations gives us in Space Perception. The bring about this anatomical conditions which conjoint excitation of kinaesthetic with other sense stimulations are nothing no but real contact sensations. we possessing shape or definite size. the hand. it is to be that kinaesthetic sensations are.
that one precise content to the basis of all such a distance as the mile. the amount what of the other sensory data. visual. These serve to punctuate. system that always remain outstanding For so example. which is ultimately translated into terms of dis- Upon the product placed the conventional of these several factors is finally label in terms of feet or yards or miles. It is interesting to remark commentary on in connection the organization into from eral with this gena of there our space perceptions working different senses. can. effort required to pass from one point to learns to give some another.SENSE over PERCEPTION 131 the larger space sensations play moverelations it is fairly clear that ment some such part as that justintimated. In one sense these spacial experiences is resident in the contact sensations of the coming from the soles of the feet. and in the visual changing point of sensations arising from the momentarily from But the sensations which come joint and view. " The organic sensations. muscle are quite as fundamental. a the child learns the real distance from room to side of terms only by creeping or walking. as it were. paritie certain unreconciled disthe cavity in the tooth which feels a huge to the tongue is poor thing when the by the eye. and Space. examined Doubtless they represent similar instances could be mentioned. tactual or tance. Organic other Sensations than those case. of the kinaesthetic group us in our the nature of the give only space perceptions of . side It is in For example. with each rhythmic movement of the limbs. discrepancies in the reports of the several senses tip or finger explored by Many other which have too littlepractical importance to occasion their reconciliation. not.
visceral sensations from the in character. for example. direc- shape. general or have The fairly to be something longer intervals of time means called in are kind are judged indirectly by Under contact of symbols of one another. long to forget the accustomed changes bodily rhythms elapsed. we watches a in constant with measure mere who live in any clocks. and all of us routine life are frequently reminded and by the of time which progress has similar purpose. indebted for our more accurate estimates of distance. such we the week.132 own AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY part the spacial inner bodily conditions. they play no important part in our general spacial orientation. one " have senses seen that although literally every of our may a contribute to selected few. at least for the briefer inter- for which we direct perception. touch. the The reflex functions of semicircular canals while and so highly significant for the preservation give adjustments. measures. no for space ordinarily littleor not direct conscious report. contribute to our of the passage But it is especially to hearing and movement that we owe vals our more accurate estimates. For the most impressions thus aroused. In the same way all the senses may appreciation of time. The taken our need We consider them in Perception of Time.. so we us of balance. tion. it is to are that we particularly vision. and size. The sun's of light and give us temperature mark the daily course other indications of time. and the year.g. this connection. and movement. does not periods for which our of The our work of the amount serve a allow us meals. the two rely upon various indirect although . as For the longer periods. Certainly are vague extremely abdomen. civilized conditions of life. Hunger. appreciation of space relations. the month. e.
the climatic changes incident to the rotating in ordinary circumstances Though have we nor neither opportuni need we for judging brief if we intervals directly. " Perception of Accent Rhythm. Whatever treat it the actual length of such a moment.. it would be quite impossible to over-estimate the . by the shifting phases of the moon. for example. we directly one a as time interval unit. that is to say. a we break These time are series of geometrical 'moments/ moments like the points.places are real durations. permitted to measure sensations of hearing and movement off the time. intervals is closely related in which evidently both Here again hearing seems duration movement and accent are involved. They from a fraction of a second to several seconds in length.e. series of rapidly succeeding sounds can be judged accurately than a series of flashes of light. All such direct time up a judgments are interval into not periodic. and dancing. interval bounded by two loud sounds seems shorter to us than For an to believe that vision. the other by seasons. and in comparing with another is longer or more or we judge whether units in and a or not or one of these units are shorter than another. Our judgment of these immediately to our sensed of are time perception rhythm. certain of the arts. and may extend without size. too. Our estimate of the duration of one interval in comparison An with another is much affected by this fact of accent. less of such there whether total interval. poetry. although and son rea- paramount. i.SENSE PERCEPTION are 133 more or latter named the one intervals marked less definitely. music. there good contribute something. we conditions to use we can find that when set up experimental are judge Thus more a most accurately. may equal interval bounded by weak sounds.
waiting One dimensions. In an childhood the year interminable prospect. for never one a justhow trial it is to be bored. but even on more so. the month and the week may take impressive dimensions. it is fairly clear that while we always more or of time. Not only when we look backward. Conditions Affecting Apparent has often been drawn. Only when of a situation. of the absolutely essential thing. as contrasted . some tedious lives. and more affording only grudging opportunity for osities of the schoolroom. especially those which are lived under the accomplishment the shadow of ill-health. less conscious mass of its passing. especially that part of it dedicated to the strenuIn later life the perspective is wholly altered. until encounters such an experience. To be sure. Even month the week is The big with possibilities. outlook. and the day itselfis not to be taken lightly. The same vividly indices. do we overcome by the tediousaware tend to become interval spent train. the year becomes more when a trifle. spreading out in the affords in its turn a dim distance majestic ahead. the soul of rhythm In a sense these arts are simply embodied in different kinds of sensory the apprehension are But so far as concerns media. takes knows on in a dingy railway fairly portentous serious a station. of attitude which commoner we Length of Intervals. reason. Five minutes spent in interthe mere work passes literallybefore one knows it. The in shorter intervals tend to get wholly lost. " Attention the change toward and with good to the time appears undergo as we grow older intervals of daily life.134 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY significance of rhythm. our we judgments about tend to make it indirectly and we are the great of by means ficial of arti- ness of esting fact of time itself. but even turn our we gaze forward.
of Time which has phenomenon often attracted attention consists in " Judgment. Another It is a common despite the tedium memory no that experience'. for example. A curious . to make long in retrospect. intervals out like absorbingly This inversion of the memory as flash when we are keenly interested and long. can read back into it few Peculiar Forms many events.SENSE PERCEPTION 135 with the conditions in childhood. and to the execution of the of our attention in the mere monopolizing daily obligations of life. often whetted. But in retrospect it all shrinks completely its original dreary which pass length. this phenomenon of routine seems to our be due to the increasing domination in lives. in memory loom as very preoccupied a estimate of a time interval appreciation of it when in progress. our it more frequently in of uncertain deestimates of time which serves memory mention relates to our of the length of intervals.we carry away in such vivid recollection. of prolonged illness. as a rule. In childhood the world is fresher. depending in which they were the manner upon peculiarity of passed. uncertain. preoccupation All these factors make for a more ing vivid sense of the pass- of time the mood and tend to interrupt prospecting. On of resemblance to the other hand. all these intervals tend to shrink. obviously relates itself to the fact that in retrospect an interval is likely to seem long or short depending upon compared with our whether we can give it much or or littlecontent. the future is more anticipation is more is less intense and prolonged. intervals seem We well remember that bored to the verge of distraction. and that it often we were seemed as though the morrow would never come. In general.
to which the organism is sensitive to . etc. his If the another. etc. by one individual and some of which are employed be wakened in the night.. the on But for some gifted individuals judgment is direct and immediate any and not dependent simply impressive such data.136 AN INTRODUCTION some TO PSYCHOLOGY the ability which with individuals possess to tell the time accuracy without appealing to quite extraordinary do this watch or clock. We are at by present rather in the dark as to the exact mechanism which these results a are achieved. it serves Reference to is made in a to the matter because suggest somewhat fashion the extent temporal changes. It is often combined with the ability to awaken from sleep automatically at any hour desired. Recent experiments cate indi- some by of factors may be involved. subject that considerable group judgment fatigue or of the hour may or be based the number on the feelings of of dreams since freshness. on falling asleep. The most skilful individuals can even out of sound sleep in the middle of when awakened the night.
analysis of the perception of those
of time leads naturally to
able to transcend
of time, to bring back into
ourselves minds events which are past, and to project in fancy into the future. We shall therefore turn to a
discussion of memory
imagination, by first let
of which examine
achieve these two
characteristics of memory.
observed how past Instincts reflect experience.
the successful struggles of thousands of former generations, ing and while it is not usual to think of them as involvin any usual sense, be regarded as they may memory Similarly we have disclosing a form of racial memory. already
unconsciously, of past experience. But neither of these instances comprises the special kind of This is best to examine. conscious memory which we mean represented whereabouts in acts such
those in which
said and Memory
is the knowledge
have thought, or consciousness that we is generally before." The term 'memory'
the additional it experienced
loosely than this in It
experiences, without much point emphasized in the last two
and recall regard to the important tion. clauses of James' definiretain
of this sort that miraculous
quite insensitive to their altogether But a miracle it surely is that we
after an event into the focus of the mind's
should thus be able has passed to bring it
to the most
inspection that memory
be absent for years and of the mind, it may it still at any time be within the range of recall. When is actually recalled, it lives again, not precisely as it did passed
out at first,but may
lead to practical consequences quite like those which flowed from it on its first appearance. If one asks where is when one is not thinking about it, the quesa thought tion
strike the average
in the nature
In point of fact it is not only a conundrum. perfectly fair question, but one whose answer carries with it highly significant consequences for one's general conception
of the nature
of the mind.
discuss the matter
practicable within the limitations set by the present book. Sufficeit to say that in the judgment
of the author
this phenomenon the most
irfdetail is hardly
convenient way of thinking about of retention is in physiological terms. have previously seen, the brain tissues
them modifications impressed upon by sensorial stimulations. When the stimulus is removed,
the modifications persist, some of them long periods of time, others in a
tenaciously and for fleeting and more the process we have designated
that in through
set in activity by
again conscious of the situation earlier experienced. shall presently discuss certain features of memory
training and point out some of the qualifications of a good Obviously, retention and recall will play an memory. important first, turn part in any such discussion. We
to certain other facts about
but one must choose with of effective remembering, intelligence that which is to be discarded. Obviously, if
trivial details of daily life
of fact, when we recall any ordinary episode, we highly schematic and abbreviated recollection in important aspects present as a rule only the more
All the rest has disappeared, and unless it be it will not ordinarily be essential for the purposes in hanc^ The kind of forgetting which naturally attracts revived.
is that which
at the appropriate
required information. of the phenomena
the great body
of forgetting, these
trifling in amount. Many
interesting studies have something of the
been made forgetting proceeds,
48 illustrates graphically the rate at If one a process of forgetting goes forward. which memorizes a list of numbers so that they can justbe successfull most repeated, the process of forgetting
rapidly in the first few hours after the act of learning. Then, as the curve shows, the process tends to slow up until finally a point is reached, after which it becomes practically
the further loss. Most
FIG. 48. Curve of forgetting based on Ebbinhaus' study of memory for nonsense to the point where they could syllables memorized The be correctly repeated once. the vertical line represents
recalled after lapse of increasing of the material percentage intervals of time indicated on the horizontal line, to wit, 1, 9, 24, 48, 144, 720 hours The for material curve respectively. learned be quite conveying verbatim meaning and not would different. Under kinds such conditions association of various far more the permanency than enters to modify of the memory in the case it there nonsense even can material, although of in increasing to exercise some be shown duration the effect of (Modified from Pillsbury. ) retention.
pose that there is very
will disabuse the mind of this conviction. Clearly this of Effort in Memorizing.
are students who that call for verbatim subjects
dealing with other aspects
that the distribution of
of time and
but also in the securing experiments
only to the mastery
of intellectual materials, such
college studies, but also to the
of acts of skill,involving muscular dexterities have thus been made dealing of various kinds. Experiments with the acquirement of a language, as an illustration
of skill in the throwing in the mastery shooting of arrows, of the typewriter, and Although so on. the precise time relations naturally vary
the attainment with the special task, all the experiments
dealt with of balls, in the
clear that there is
the various methods to learn. All students
familiar with the process
able successfully to survive the rigors of an examination. There can be no doubt that for practically all persons, and for some favored souls in high degree, it is possible, by
the devotion of
closely sustained effort of memory
(if it be
of the type
chiefly testing accuracy
of facts in mind
for the vestige of credit. Meantime, great majorityof persons there is equally no question that ordeal
under these conditions is lost almost as memorized rapidly as it is gained. Exceptions must be made for the occasional individual who can under these conditions not
rapidly, but retain the facts acquired with be mentioned at this tenacity. Indeed, it may moderate be divided into four fairly distinct point that people may
tive and on the whole a generally effectype; (2) those who learn slowly and forget quickly (exceptin pathological cases not a very frequent type);
quickly and forget quickly, American type; and (4) those who
quickly and retain well, fortunate type.
it is impracticable at the present time to lay down hard and fast rules, valid for all kinds of work, it is
quite possible to indicate the general principles which ously, Obvishould be observed to secure effective memorizing. if the process of forgetting goes on most rapidly
after the completion
be well to repeat so far as to require
the original labor.
effort at learning, it will the process before the forgetting has proceeded of
disproportionate repetition of the other hand, a too long continued
will effort but also because
not only defeat itselfbecause of fatigue,
amount of recognized time is required for the modifications impressed upon
judge the import facts)a certain
at sink in and set. If the attempts learning be so distributed as to coincide closely with these beneficial periods of 'setting' in the nerves, we sumably shall presystem
get the best results in terms
time and energy
In the preparation
one's academic work. frequent master. Certainly a littleconscious experimentation situation.MEMORY 143 one. the principles under to him considerati cannot be made to apply very obviously. leave alone any a question of repeating that to urge the ground advantageous true as that seems a distribution of effort on repetition at interrupted intervals is beside the mark. repetition of the material is attempting The problem confronting the ordinary college student rather than to relates to the arrangement of daily work a the organization case of the tasks covering same series of days. to distribute relatively long in contrast study with to over a period of weeks one or months. the peculiarities of play a real part in such this matter will be found of unequivocal benefit by any serious student. different forms a Needless to say. on matter of subject Languages. these considerations would lead to the cramming method. and he will find the permanency of his such a repetition retention decidedly enhanced by making from or review at a time separated by a few hours perhaps his first encounter. so once. and history are likely each to present certain idiosyncrasies not common to the others. It is cersomewhat tainly so that if the student cannot arrange his work to cover it more than once. mathematics. but the seem foregoing illustrations may relevant. go But over in practically all cases industrious student can an his assignment twice. the second time by way in this case of review. In this exactly the doctrine holds true. Many students. and are among them generally the most peculiarly conscientio apt to suppose themselves vir- . perhaps ately to be less immedigets over The average student hardly the daily assignments the exercise.
it occurs : mind. doubt inherent in the course described is unfortunately intelligent organization a of their is it simply is also a matter which of efficiency. and substitutes present themselves others quite of the experimenter. genuine fatigue sets in. easily verified by attempting ten digits. Fallacious memory. altogether. work an of recreation. usually takes one of three facts may be recalled in an order different from they originally occurred.144 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as tuous if they devote themselves work as for many cover hours of consecutive a they find necessary a to particular a assignment. this often results in 's waste of time because the student at anything dull and tired and fails to work level. grotesque As matter of fact. to get the air and some moderate form labor itselfat which is no largely negatived by the psychological viciousness Our schools and colleges are as yet very of the process. It would be much more work to some mind becomes like its normal the sensible to interrupt at that point where other or subject. Certain diseases of memory give us an interesting insight into the principles of its organization. it involves fundamentally the joy and matter one's " satisfaction of a proper use of Typical Defects of Memory. as in normal forms (1 ) individuals. to turn better yet. In recall some to memorize lists of eight occur of the digits will in changed order. some will drop out and without will be omitted altogether. largely oblivious to the increased efficiency possible in the of stude'nts by Nor periods of work. with a return to the mental The moral virtue a later period in the day. or that in which may (2) certain facts never be forgotten (3) facts which of memory may occurred will be inserted in the memory These errors of those which all be or actually did happen. In the disease the knowledge .
After an intervals of time thereafter. connected with several peraccident.These which hold suggest the various kinds of bonds memories together. Aged in time to suffer from much the same people come complete destruction of memory. sons often unable to recall anything which occurred for hours preceding the event and for appreciable particular sense. caused railway of shock collision. is no entirely to may an special interval of time. Even by the pected unex- severe emotional for example may receipt of bad news. more is that of proper seem Odd as to be tenaciously retained In any event. This may mean use to designate such in advance we use that and of adjectives the latter oftener and . Partial cases or destruction of memory may be illustrated by of time. we this is ideas. produce this result. just described. The same an there is practically thing is met complete case loss of with in the a the result of accident. question of for a foreign language. than concrete character.MEMORY 145 a known memory. like shock. of the words which Nouns tend to disappear verbs. there matter. so that facts cannot recall the appearance of objects. Quite different or a from the p'eriod of time this is the loss of memory Here there for music. as as dementia. In this information of every kind covered by case the loss affects involved. the defect relates interconnected Again. subject or be one a more less complete loss of visual images. the imagery which affect either special group a (1) of a special segment (2) some are or (3) subjects. disappear abstract ideas those of true a_more One of the first groups names. The disintegration of memory is a familiar phenomenon in old age already mentioned closely related to the facts to of memories it may appear.
Conditions would seem of a Good Memory. recollection are original impression our of under immediate control. and promptly (3) the ability to recall information wanted. once brain tissues. Elderly people also often great forgetful of very recent events. it is in is to be accurate essential. The process a stimulation is given. These and accurately when act act results clearly involve of impression. we Whatever the explanation. Perhaps it that we can conveniently other kinds of memory material for the consequence our we designated objects by nouns. while recalling with This fact is no vividness the experiences of childhood. So far as concerns the highest degree the original act of impression. doubt due to the loss of plasticity in the brain for new impressions. if memory centrati and tenacious. (b) the The process (a) the original of retention. There can be no reasonable questhat the variations in the efficiency of the memories of ent different individuals are largely occasioned by their differpowers or habits of concentrated attention naturally attending^ which We give concentrated to things interest . Thus means recall the appearance of a table by the of are a as visual image. that there shall be the greatest possible contion of attention.146 AN more INTRODUCTION TO so PSYCHOLOGY in varied connections. upon " "A good memory rapidity of to depend (1) ease and acquirement. The . (2) permanency of retention. and is not that in so verbal memory can for them well drilled. upon that we have a larger reservoir of experiences means which use to draw. whose condition we improve only indirectly can by giving ourselves healthful habits and hygienic ' ' surroundings. . . depends the upon of retention. are facts have stated. and (c) the and the act of recollection.
be augmented as by for appealing example. becomes part of an of organized system ideas and is not likely to. association of one A date in history which is in this way knit up with a great sequent of antecedent circumstances and a similar set of subevents. anything which serves from disturbing Freedom distraction will be helpful. unless the entire group group to which it belongs disappears. On the negative It is of course evident that while the points touched upon . vastly easier to attend where reason it is obviously interest is sincerely enlisted. from noises. than when.MEMORY us 147 and to things which are emotionally degree the power through also to some and resolution to focalize our exciting. draughts. from uncomfortable chairs. always bring success. word a Chinese secure is spelled out loud and also written. from is of signal importance. unduly interesting scenes. a but and pedagogical as it is for this theory to appeal has littleof modern insisted that education be so organized that not stage to the natural at each interests of the average The boy and girl. attention given to student V work or considerable part of the ordinary is likely to have in it something of this more of one's our less heroic mastery mind. Impressions can obviously be made must much deeper by repetition. The form of intensified attention by reading their lessons aloud. can one original impression to a more sometimes sense avenue. to minimize side. Much more important in retaining an impression is the fact with other logically related facts. We have sheer effort of will attention for a time even upon nor which subjects The are per se a neither interesting exciting.be lost. and for materials which be mastered verbatim continued repetition will practically however tedious the process.
was introduced us in the opening exactly mental chapters of the book would a lead we to expect our such result as this. An interesting question is gested Transfer of Training. it should be put into immediate demongeometry. It may have to do with stration If so. In this connection it will be remembered that. Does training the memory ject improve the memory ? Until a process for all " subjects . than that it use The conception which get prompt application somewhere. sugin one subat this point. in the it should be embodied actual manipulation of the tools. and it is therefore natural to we expect that the best results will be obtained wherever realize the translation of sensory and ideational processes into effective motor activities. the significan for retention of recency of stimulation was is be readily commanded likely to be more sions serviceable in securing tenacious impresthan the immediate practical application of any item pointed out.. in discussing the process of learning and the connected process of forgetting. use of tools. is made of it. in which case If of a more with models or drawings. because saw that all processes take their rise out of conditions of motor control. it may at least be discussed or embodied abstract in some It is of much less consequence what special written form. No single procedure which can of information which has been memorized. character. the practical consequences for the memory process are to be found at the moment of recall. earlier in the chapter.148 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in the last few paragraphs all relate to the matter of securing desirable original impressions. Obviously the special kind of application will depend upon the character It may be something relating to the of the information. although this is important.
without other matter. however. but that some effect is traceable in practically The same thing holds any other task undertaken. a trying recall experience of be directed to some tries. In general. foreign language may a skill. muscular sometimes learned more encounters to speak one negative transfer. seem careful and exhaustive experiments to show training secured is greatest for in any closely that the general value of memory special field. More Some equally positive denial. to an however. similar subjectmatter.e. often in the due blockage to temporary are cases synaptic conprobably 1 A . any seems systematic. the less one If the mind one succeeds. principle." It has already that retention is primarily a matter of system. have.g. e. What effective original impressions is to be said about recall itself.MEMORY 149 few years question ago almost a everyone would have answered this with vigorous experiments. language study. that it diminishes rapidly for subject more rematter mote and more in character.where A man who even one has find it to learn difficult than he would second of very different structure.. controlled discipline of attention likely to leave behind some positive benefit for of intellectual work. had he not learned the first.1 If baffled at any point. These more back the name comes ado.g.. of the first initiated to investigate the facts led affirmative. it usually requires conditions of high concentration of attention. for other kinds of training. To be most effective. it must comprises most of what common curious exception to the general rule is found in the not unThe more forgotten to name. other forms and memory is no exception to the general Improvement of Retention been pointed out the brain and nervous and Recall.as over which we our have only a such indirect control measure is represented by ability in to gain and maintain securing has been said about conditions of health.
on a A of which list of forty or fifty words virtue thus be memorized them so as single reading by of arranging to exploit such associa- nections in the brain. Effort of attention only aggravates the inhibitions. we shall find memory memories which has never commonly serving been subjected well. that which is needed and in often presenting fictitiousmaterial as fact. of passing fatigue. Mnemonic Systems. Certain readers will have seen " training. both in fail- wholly be remarked In this general connection it may that hypnosis gives us evidence that normal recall has access to less memory very much material than is actually preserved in the brain. when the nervous and violent muscular systems are often forced to a far more discharge of energy than usual. and will advertisements of systems of memory wish to know something of their value. but a to persistent discipline us is always to supply likely to prove ing treacherous. which generally time. In hypnotic sleep it is found are possible to tap reservoirs of memory A rough analogy the supernormal some ordinarily closely sealed. themselves a pass away after of . and If we success. of the character. have built up our our material on well organized lines. to this situation is perhaps afforded by power muscular evinced in mania and nervous which other forms of disease. as Sufficeit to say that in have addition to such the most considerations been already rehearsed successful systems exploit the creation of means great varieties of arbitrary association. It is impossible to enter fully upon the matter here. by one may pass from may one fact to another. to neglect quickly those which to follow relentlessly those which promise unfruitful.150 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY show itself flexible and alert to utilize every are trail of suggestion. perhaps.
Four House " or five words chimney " will " serve to " illustrate the cigar " smoke tobacco Cuba user " Spain " King. has they of memory have described the methods we of time and energy in the process " a occasion to remember great many unrelated like the street addresses large a One numbers. which then by means to serves the rack upon are which of these arbitrary associations It may all specific facts to be remembered. Smith tall in the Smith's number for 122. shall proper order.MEMORY 151 tions.1 be said in general of systems of this kind hung that for but are some as very limited purposes thorough they may be of real value. is tall.the 1 with t. of group of people. facilitate feat first by "form. etc. in by the person whose suggested number Mr. The word is 122.. point. bases for any development distinctly less useful than an assuming equal investment of training." a a may greatly such memorising in which each digit is connected with a consonant. 3 with d. form the are means vowels neglected.g. 2 with 1. a Other systems memorize as very begin by obliging the elaborate framework." number Suppose one . e. in For letters these occur which example. is to The next step a make word easily is to be remembered. Mr.
and then closing the eyes and it mentally as it was before. experience on that is to say. certain useful adjustments time in the remote ancestors acquired at some which our has relatively littleof past. intimate kind regarding the psychological material employed in the memory This undertaking will be process. Conscious memory is very of imagery. which for many of them possesses considerable fidelity of detail. of Recall. a moment in ing produca mental visual picture of the book. although people succeed with reasonable promptness vaguer and less distinct than the original. both as regards color and form. 152 . Looking book lying to attempting most see the table. we Now we must turn to a discussion of a more of memory. Much of this type of memory now the psychological largely made up in it. and which for others. We commented remarkable capacity to look either forward or far beyond the limits of the present moment of then described certain important general aspects chapter.CHAPTER IX IMAGINATION At upon the man's outset of the previous backward time. found mental to lead naturally we to a study of imagination. of memory " Imagery we us Medium We have seen that for possess as organic form which preserves reflex and instinctive acts. the device by which the an anticipate the future. is stillunequivocally have Interesting experiments visual in character. of the reinstatement of sensory at a in ideational form.
vision. richly repre- The cutaneous group. together with certain organic sensations. slight though kinaesthetic sensation. many ' hear the thereafter to able immediately the head. ' running through The tonal quality of this persons perfectly experience is for many as unmistakable. In all cases we with smell and taste competing of detailed revival of past make use experience in memory. although there is very great variety among viduals indiwould form. thus arousing them corresponding . of the in the contraction.IMAGINATION 153 shown images that out some persons are able to these project them may visual into space to and hold them comparing before the attention with actually convince fixedly enough present permit physical objects. hearing. because they believe that results Some kinaesthetic to secure every attempt it may be. images thus differ from the objects actually projected Similarly. or two or or one another regards their ability to command Certain persons have a marked preference for one be quite lacking in varieties of images. and it involves what psychologists know It is quite likely to be combined with auditory imagery. in what not he can achieve this manner the seen. if individuals tune are a melody be played upon the piano. probably comes for last place. and may as some all of the others. Practically every in this way be repeated in the form of sensation may imagery. secondary mental more or less definite throat and lip movements. by trial whether and if so. muscles. The reader or readily himself projection. such as be used in singing or whistling. 1 of one or another variety of these images are ever psychologists doubt whether experienced. senses l and are most sented. next. the kinaesthetic Generally speaking.
When reasoning processes. with most persons regularly conjoined. Again. that is bring back in the form of words. that we necessarily recall events in sense quality to the nature sensory reinstate mentally the which we fact to be recalled. substitute imagery is linguistic.154 AN as INTRODUCTION means TO PSYCHOLOGY images the particular event or however. in the form of nascent spoken words. This does not mean. experience. the memory although this is often the For back in come may of a street scene the form of visual images. by by images correspondi of the original case. facts and to say. It should also be added that some psychologists believe that they recall events by 'pure thoughts' having no imagery and no elements about them. We 'talk to set up as of revival. In this case the words are apt to be embodied in the commonest auditory movements two are imagery. the memory may consist almost wholly in assuming the motor attitudes to discuss we come of the remembered experience. one may events which may originally have teen visually experienced. of motor images of the The and lips in speaking. much inaswhen we an as speak. ably Probother type of imaginal material may example. or in the form of the throat. tongue. we necessarily hear our own voices and the occurs so intimate association between the motor and Sometimes the recall auditory linguistic elements.This conjuncti is a natural expression of the law of habit. but this is not inevitable and for persons who have but little control over visual images. some be employed. The present writer thinks the evidence for these imageless memories unconvinc especially where any attempt is made to recall sensory or motor . we shall have occasion to describe in ourselves' the method greater we use detail one some of these substitute devices by which kind of mental material to represent another.
It must our not be forgotten. if confronted with the necessity of deciding between conflicting lines of conduct. Relation of Imagery to Anticipation and Imagination All that has been said about the use in General. has recourse to a sort of mental debate in which auditory form of mental organization and motor language imagery is drawn upon and first one so a This often goes side and then the other is defended. Many people " and the reader true a can readily own assure himself " as to whether an this be in his experience in formulating drawing upon itinerary for find journey.IMAGINATION 155 precise details. tkemselves their visual imagery. In waking to be sure unequivocal individual instance of imagery with in contact is found comes persons life many have any find it difficult at all. we we pose employ for the purmental imagery of one kind or another. however. Again. the scenes by means of which they portray to to themselves which l^eyexpect behold it is a several stages of their progress. When which we make of it for purposes look forward in making a plan. for any purpose that volves whatever inour apprehension of its meaning. of imagery for the purposes of recall is equally true of the use which " imagery of anticipation. . Perhaps the most far pressed and^Pbomessup- which the ordinary in the dream. and it is generally form of the the meaning and not the particular sensuous practical use of imagery is significant and important. and the familiar which. to be purely imaginal that it ceases but actual enunciation. whether they images But in the dream and most everybody persons acknowledges the presence of imagery can readily describe it. In the more seems exciting dreams to the vividness of the experience quently fre- exceed that of ordinary waking perceptions.
to suggest to many Of course. or in an address to which that we a we book are listening. Ideas and Images. The chief means conjure to some in no way lessens its essential importance. is obviously one of the basic realitiesof our by which we remember the past and anticipate the future could be nothing else. Imagination. therefore. or of castles in Spain. like the connected persons terms unreal fancy and fantasy. turn to his recollection of dreams. ' by saying that certain ideas have been running in our the meaning of apprehend Similarly. forms of experience.156 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY reader who finds it difficult quickly to identify his images. The fact that we also use it occasionally to up fiction mental life. when we have spoken. or of having ideas about the future. it will be the term idea and its upon with the term image. Nevertheless is entirely justithe psychological usage fiable. of imaginary this is a very small part of the psychological story. our a " on Beforeggoing of the details regarding well to dwell for connection methods moment of using imagery. while we say nothing at all about images. But ailments. that any The term imagination is apt. we imply that which is written or been thinking about a we tion often describe the situasubject. a brief explanation will make the matter When which we we are speak the ideas in of understanding reading. and clear. . which is simply a general term to cover our use of imagery. which this implication of the term is speak wholly a sense there is in we as when justified. We suggest. One of the difficulties which the beginning student psychology encounters arises from the fact that in common language we of speak of recalling ideas.
often with of sensations arising from be used as carriers of may when our appreciable admixture motor attitudes. the attitude of expectancy thinking about an approaching event. states.IMAGINATION 157 In neither of these cases do we have any occasion less to emphasize. which is sometimes thought distinction between memory substantially equivalent to the itself and imagination. of images or percepimmediate context the is unimportant. common and of fundamental as distinction. we we may are always understand that when of ideas referring to the meaning that but imagery A very in the particular tions. we shall less degree we have been making or another form of imagery. are. is that . the and wish If we to emphasize fact of sensuous auditory. whether the term image . not two ferent and same. closer scrutiny a find that to constant an greater one or use of of the actual situation. described texture now from now the point of view of particular sensory from that of organization and meaning.g. which " our meaning e. visual. and consequently we tend to overlook its actual basis in sense perception or in imagery.' following But upon or a developing the particular meaning involved. idea. but one and the idea somewhat diftherefore. the special imagery to remark. Image like sensation and mental perception. or whatever. For ordinary purposes. if the matter and the we use the may special sensory texture is unimportant. and much minds have been filled in the process of with which our minds. we use is the important meaning of the imagery composition. the latter is nearly term always the significant matter. comes point of view.. But when we take the psychological quite essential to note and in which the idea or meaning is embodied. it bedescribe the special form With we this in speak mind.
probably no image is ever in any of our so images many should find closely resembling the sensory originals from which with our past experience. The involves some such direct and unmodifie usual notion of memory recurrence of an original experience. it represents. . we All may in any materials which would not vicarious memory It is thus quite be called reproductive. " In so far as an image cedent other antesubstantially copies previous sensation or some image. into the mind were Imagery used in this way themselves of not evidently can- be said in any proper sense to copy the original experience as visual imagery perhaps might do. many bination originals. of fact. the medium word imof.1 Reproductive Imagination.to mention only a single point. or stands for. As a matter absolutely literal a mere sense copy of a previous experience. it would be designated as reproductive. largely through agery. while in the case of still of two or more find it practically impossible to trace their others we spring. are almost invariably Nevertheless. were to compare total the sum we present. usual sense use possible to recall an event. It is rather symbolic in character. such as an automobile trip. an experience 1 which in its sensory texture on was quite different See James' definition of memory page 137. we they as should naturally regard them images are clearly comcopies. auditory-motor impressive events despite the fact that the most which now come back visual character. but as has been intimated earlier in the chapter.158 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY between the productive and the reproductive forms of imagination. clearly involves reproductive memory verbatim imagery. that we sources. Differences of detail. On the other hand.
object It is a mere symbol and will the French serve word. The sudden flashes of . come bears no more resemblance to the actual animal so named. invariably symbolic events to which so far acts. auditory and motor for music. but nevertheless equally true. like great works great scientific the powers of constructive may of art. Productive " well.g. whether it or into the mind as a sensorial or an imaginal process. is that all constructive thinking. the purpose quite bears the remotest Productive resemblance Imagination. This only involves the utilization of productive imagination. e.. Words. Hund. but not the process about. Thus the word it be seen 'dog. The actual kind whatever. than it does to any other whatsoever. inventions. they refer. imagination is obviously the form which we employ for anticipating the future and for freeing ourselves from a merely slavish It goes without saying that adherence to past experience. are.IMAGINATION 159 from the imagery imaginal almost or employed channel in its recall.' whether heard or spoken. as or the German word. objects. through whatever in the nature as concerns of the the case. are forms obviously clear. rest upon imagination. in the mental results. from the most practical to the most theoretical. appear by which they are brought field. although imagery certain employed be of any more significant than others for particular arts. chien. visual images for painting and is not so What sculpture. The in a later chapter. matter will be touched upon qualification which to the generally needs to be imposed at this point relates accepted fact that practical results of occasionally arise as crucial consequence the outcome of brain processes represented The in the cerebrum which are not necessarily in the field of conscious imagination at all. recalled. although neither to the English word.
upon that retention is primarily a the view a tion. has attracted again the attention of even superficial observers. organ ment exciteof one by a stimulus or another nervous kind.160 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY insight. The dominant tendency today is to seek for an tation interpre- and of association in terms of the activity of the brain We have already commented nervous system. of the principles determining the sequence of the successive links in a chain of thoughts images. Psychologist! have tried on the one hand to analyze and describe all the actual principles which thus unite ideas. are illustrations of the sort of thing referred to. and on the other to ascertain if possible the causes bringing these results to We briefly on both aspects of the pass. shall comment situation. That Aristotle down to the time. with that if one one ideas which have for another in the past presents itselfto the the others tend to again with it. stimulus upon the skin of the . it is passed forward through the central in the system until finally it makes its appearance movement. the solution of problems temporarily given up and forgotten. comes at the synaptic junctions where Thus a neurone with another. This is a problem which has interested every or It remains to examine some generation present of psychologists. nervous field of muscular by such a upon The precise pathway will of course traversed impulse depend especially in contact the permeability of the chains of one neurones. physiological funcAs nervous of the nervous is generated in the sense property system. from of Ideas. Association been " The any reason connected so tend to hang mind and together. In come like fashion the tendencies of ideas to suggest others which resemble them has repeatedly been noticed.
and this we may at once proceed to do. or the impulse may be converted movement Which the quences of these conse- follows will depend synapses. other things has equal. upon in the spinal cord into the hand . It is quite certain that where will tend to flow in the direction the synaptic resistance is lowest.IMAGINATION 161 hand a may be immediately reflex impulse up transmitted in a moving into the cerebral cortex. as stated above. Let it not be forgotten. the resistance in is likely to be lower than in an inactive such a system Again. principles through which the determine centers the to of a sensory impulse nervous muscle. control the action of the cerebral cortex when thinking of any the nervous kind is in progress. present day tendencies. previously established habits will be influential in determining Presumably course a what the shall same occur. All these considerations and some others can be translated into psychological terms of imagery and ideas. the evidence system^ is entirely conclusive excited. recently certain amount and of direct neurological evidence has been gathered. if repeatedly reflex character. if an extensive system of neuis already in an excited condition. thence to reappear of the entire body. that these principles were first worked More out by a a study of the strictly mental processes. Clearly a considerable enter in to determine these number of factors may currents rones resistances^ For instance. there is good reason to believe that a chain dition of neurones which has been recently excited presents a conof lowered resistance relatively to other chains which have been more remotely stimulated. Again. In other words. favor a rec- . tends to take that on an such a almost chain. however. resistance at the and this resistance. will be low if the pathway been frequently used before.
that the idea succeeds a a time vividly conremote and at some nected Synaptic conditions would therefore permit c.if they ences the only influto at work.162 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as ognition of the neural principles basic for an understanding of the temporal order taken by thoughts. rather frequent. The date 1492 an of less frequently connected is in this way associated with experience may elements The serve Columbus. permanently Intensity in together never to bind psychological one that otherwise would suggest another. which have it is clear enough of determining.g. even position to state in a given case justwhat they are. Again. e. Frequency connection is the most obvious instance of the principle. because it might well occur that a particular idea have been frequently connected with h. Which one actually will depend we the momentary means condition the brain. upon no or d. Mean- if we are not in by perfectly definite causes. " be considered as in one way or another of expressions of the general law of habit. recently a should connected with with d. should lead to b. thoughts of the several moments escape of a very terrifying experience. Undoubtedly among the most important determining . mined that the sequence of ideas is detera of time. of may conjunction bring it about that the train of ideas reflectsthis connection. All the principles Association and the Law of Habit. and even than others which have been more some which may have been more intense. may the recency permanently fused. Ideas which have been frequently united tend to recall of association may one another at the expense thoughts. were Evidently these three factors.. thus become a from a sinking ship. c. might case make what it substantially impossible associations should predict in a given actually dominate.
at all. For that idea " follows idea a is probably never could be example. contrast. Similarly if we in the clutch of any strong are emotion. and effect. . groups of neurones belonging to connected of association would that the. similarity. cause. reach the field of consciousness On of an emotion or the side of the brain the presence of an active interest involves the activity of considerable systems. or attention. Certainly in instances the appearance entire context amid which a appears. it is practically impossible for ideas connected with wholly different topics to arise.IMAGINATION 163 or factors are our interests. " Few forms attracted significant for resemblance. The have already some in substance extent dealt with cause the case of contiguity and to with that of and effect. and thought perhaps of association is more none than human processes. and with our emotional exciting or mood. The reader will readily recognize that we similarity. the fact completely to be accounted all ordinary for by the presence of a alone. The have nection with the search for fuel and in conwith an examination of furniture. only such ideas get a as can are relevant to its course can hearing.temporary permanent. or indeed. that of ogy older writers on psycholused to group the various forms of association under the headings contiguity in space and time. brings up an entirely different group occurs of " is due to the Thus the idea wood of associates when it words thing. If our minds are preoccupied some entertaining train of thought.succession of ideas one No account be correct which upon implied another explained in terms of single ideas. The memory of instances of the same kind of affords innumerable in connection Association more of Similars.
and probably with much truth.164 AN our INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY original comments upon association were cited instances in which ideas which had previously occurred together. When whom we we are walking to be a on the street. seem to to our seem of It has often been said. black-white. as (3) we thought have of the suggested justremarked. that it is our wide and subtle use of this kind of associative nexus which marks Ideas which from the animals. resemblance. In Associations involving contrast. The third step is. In such circumstances the order of events is of follows: or (1) perception of stranger. It is in this type of associative sequence that we break most completely with past experience and achieve freshness and originality in the order thought. . even way us off most unequivocally recall one are similar may never a before been in any process. etc. but the association of similars at firstsight to violate this principle absolutely. but in be quite at a loss thus to place the other instances we may resemblance. An or instance two of the type of thing involved may profitably be cited. immediately conjoinedin have thought The resuscitation of ideas which experience been contiguous in previous seems affords an obvious illustration of the operation of the law of habit.. e. or in immediate succession.. we may pass a person at once know stranger. though they have another.g. large-small. tended to recall one another. (2) feeling some- familiarity person. feel resembles that of an are we able to recall and identify the suggested individual. to but a few further words be devoted associations involving similarity. as but whose face we Sometimes acquaintance. are closely related to the cases tiguity of conand we shall not pause must to discuss them.
Consequently. especially those of the scientificand . and the memory of another suddenly comes at case once we remark their similarity to one another.IMAGINATION 165 times wanting. on Some always connection to pletely altogether and comin previous experience is this theory be discerned in associations of ideas. The neural explanation which is now generally accepted for associations of the similarity type that thoughts which at resemble some involves the supposition one another involve have ments. instead of as a preliminary step in the process. if indeed. when such a into action when the thought active. suddenly process seems stir up the other. but it clearly frees that ever. may occur Just the an same or an sort of sequence of events a when idea image. rather than perceived initiates the object. identical ele- brain processes which point This one means we that if two individuals really resemble them. to involve a departure from the usual activity. Another is represented by having idea succeed one we then notice a similarity another in the mind. from the neural point of view. All the great minds. employ to some another shall. in perceiving nervous extent identical one pathways. In this the appreciation of similarity occurs pletion afterthe comof the association. us habitual type of nervous from the thoughts of admitting is frequently. necessity the succession of novel. There will thus be the possibility. Strictlyspeaking. experienced. the same when the idea of processes of them is again in the brain as involved will be part those brought of the second comes into the mind. type of ease train of associations. while looking at a painting. whereupon For example. that one of these brain systems may. between them. into the mind.
has The at an Training of Imagery. as little breeze when to creep between yet his eyelids bids Zephyr the fans Of careless butterflies:" Certain it is that the great constructive achievements of drastic demands the most make science and philosophy upon the mind for a large use of this type a of association. " Widened A a little. the pun the great as perhaps the lowest form. latter cases the associations are devoid of fundamental significan It is also not without interest that certain variety lead to littleor no practical and in consequence depend largely on similarity assoresult. is of poets. the witchery of whose verse due to the subtle delicacy of measure the use of resemblance. but a nice those forms of it which are and those which " futile. of association of similars characterizes the thinking of little In these children and persons with disordered minds. in forms resting upon foreign to the prosaic mind.166 AN INTRODUCTION are TO PSYCHOLOGY artistickind. Wit and humor ciations. Attention earlier point vary as in the chapter called viduals to the fact that indiover been regards their control as different kinds of imagery use of one recognized regards their native preferences in the It will be or another in their thinking. apparently marked by a very ment high developThis is of the capacity particularly true often in large metaphors wholly of -association of similars. that within limits there may well be considerable and kind in the advantage ability to use special kinds of . In accomplishments sense are require not simply the use for the distinction between really pregnant intelligence of human of similarity. with other words.
for example. geometrical problems has as yet hit upon any reliable method for eliciting compelling substantially lacking. Owing to our ability to substitute one form for another. When " hears words . The first relating to imagery may as synaesthesia might just as properly have been with perception. and stillmake little use learn most or one may of auditory imagery. for example. One may. interest in connection with this general to note that the forms of question of training imagery imagery which are preferred do not necessarily correspond It is not without to the sensory processes which are preferred. imagery by simple can thus by very one's of it available to start little effort develop visual Nobody imagery to solve self. and if so. they shall be flexible and reliable. whether train imagery. the ordinary person mentioned in connection Synaesthesias. it is found very difficultto create conditions which in any which is at the outset complete way compel us to use a particular type. learn most easily by the ear. therefore. the great point is that whatever forms of imagery one employs. by means of such images. one can question naturally arises. road which one can travel to secure In concluding known this chapter two curious groups of phenomena be mentioned. Practice is the only these ends. how to go about it. readily through the eye and yet rely but littleupon visual imagery for recall. The very to show best experimental that a evidence seems of specific imagery may be considerable development to make use achieved by the voluntary attempt there be a reasonable body of it. provided One with.IMAGINATION 167 sorts imagery The in the solution of particular of problems. After all.
and are native. the perception sense is domi- auditory. Moreblend with the sounds. no one of them is in any But for certain persons the so vivid as the auditory. always occurring with the same are tones or auditory-visual other senses are synaesthesias the most The words. More often they But they come instantly and resemble imagery in texture. over. the same shades 10 FIG.168 AN or INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY spoken. particularly taste. The sometimes of sensory vividness. not acquired.' but is illustrated by the so-called 'number name sometimes " Sir Francis account Galton gives a most entertaining and tive instruc- of them Inquiries into Human graphic mental and of the synaesthesias in his Faculty. frequent. way sounds produce forthwith a consciousness of color. colors are they are substantially constant. but involved. nantly may hears musical sounds. form is a The number picture (seeFig. 49. and while various other experiences be suggested by the sound. 49) used by its possessor The to exhibit numerical relations. The second peculiarity has no single forms. Number Forms. numbers and are are mentally in projected a sort of visual frame always thought .
perhaps involve form.IMAGINATION 169 are of in this way. . by their amazing variety. something effort to render concrete abstract not to be otherwise in visual so easily memorized. although of quite different shape. however. and many tendency might be cited. The months of the year often placed in such forms. while most of the others suggest artificialinven- for amusement. in childhood present the appearance and early appearance not invented or consciously of being natural phenomena. The other instances of the same number forms. tion adopted. or the adoption an of forms actually seen. intricacy.
and then inquire what are the us connect/ usual varieties of conscious procedure such difficulties. which. must examine the concrete are processes which all of these merely involved. thanks to parental supervision. however.conception of conception and it with the process1 of thinking. e.. In earliest and the most infancy the gratification of hunger and thirst are cared for almost wholly by reflex activities. in Practical thinking is never or one processes or imaginings of memory perceivings taken singly.CHAPTER X REASONING in Having analyzed separately and some detail several processes. A little later. now memory. It implicates all of them in comprised way or another^ as Adjustment chapters Problem we Solving. make practically no tax upon the child's own intelligence^. which is for problem solving. We shall turn first to another name a scrutiny of certain typical forms of problems front which conin ordinary life.g. dwelt length a the of organic life/ and intelligence as We must now return to that same adjustment. perception. at some " In the opening upon process of the book.. we of the main divisions of mental adjustive and sensation. of actual thinking. in meeting masand tering The are persistent kinds of problems connected with the immediate maintenance of life. imagination. there present themselves great groups of problems no connected with the control .
He his physical surroundings and to has to learn by actual experience the size and the weight of objects . over sort The earliest forms are undoubtedly those which involve the child's other human adjustmentto beings. With human beings. certain again. The as they have in the past. He is an incorrigible generalizer. call for any Problems very of these kinds do not at the outset elaborate processes of reflection. and he is thrown back upon an actual test. and must of particular establish a nice discrimination for the prejudices individuals in a position to punish or reward him master the for success or failure in complying with their demands. He cannot predict what will occur. teach and only the bitter fruits of experience an him after a time to cultivate of both man edge attitude of skepticism. to test his strength and endurance in terms of the resistance afforded by them. These are mastered try by a slow process of 'trial and of which our we error' (or 'try.REASONING 171 of the bodily muscles. Life is cast in a decidedly experimental mold for the child at this stage. at once account over of the development we of voluntary may come Passing to the these achievements. for the making of which he has abundant instinctive incentive. he must intricacies of deportment.') a details shall have occasion to discuss littlelater in control. striking characteristic of the mental reaction of the child in this experimental process is his deeply rooted disposition to expect tnat both people and things will behave in the future " The Primitive Tendency to Generalize. which confronts the child after he has of problem learned to walk and talk and exercise a reasonable control his movements. until his knowland beast can be relied upon for purposes . to learn their relations to one another.
Another and process is striking feature of the early types of adjustive 'trial their strong tendency toward the relatively random * Trial " and error' procedure! which will not open littlechild confronted by is very likely to react. such as a cake to be secured. in turn a childhood present as relatively simple. but often it is not.172 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY he is not unlike primitive of prediction. There may be littleor no attempt to weigh success an or the probable advance of failure of any of the suggestions in actual test. of the firstsolution that comes to hand. The result of this type of thinking is apt to be the tance. at conclusions. and out a about an that in carrying definite reaction. the may the problem for it but to try suggest be given almost instantly after the nature of is recognized.The solution is apt to be " the trick is to answer relatively simple concrete act. same be much error method of arriving trial and random In any event. with violent assaults upon the impeding barrier and with littleor no attempt to discover and relieve the precise difficulty. concrete issues. In other cases' there is nothing now that solution which may this and now itself. quate training to breed out this disposition to generalize on inade- data. the child. much as A a a gate dog might. when more themselves there may the problems which definitely intellectual in character. more This may by accident be the best thus it comes solution. and discover it. In this matter It will cost generations of scientific man when full grown. a particular door to be problems to be particular parent some cajoled. accepas a permanent mode of procedure. of early of this practically all the themselves particular opened. Even present at a are later stage. like . Error ' Method in Thinking. In familiar situations.
" In all thus problem which upon him by the circumstances of the situation. at what point the difficulty is located. in it becomes necessary firstto determine with exactness of the problem which is to be solved. effectivenessof Conception the cases and the Analysis of the Problem. for some reason things are not going welL undefined Before the cure can be applied. for example. contributin at all to the elegance or nothing their chirography. and whether physical or mental. discussing. we have assumed that the the child has to face is more or less imposed their essential nature. to proceed to its solution. In many types situation is encountered. purely intellectual problems this description . quite which a different set of circumstances is encountered.REASONING 173 animal. Social life is full the real character and thereupon One becomes aware that of experiences of this kind. usually is a type of process and therefore under have been those we quite carried out under favorable than more conditions much which instruction. In learning to write. one must first make the trouble. if possible. the same of scientificproblem toward and before one can move sure of the real nature of identification of the character of the difficulty previous and plainly consists in connecting it with some familiar experience. Such problems are caused by the appearance of any obstacles in the path which he is following. a solution. Psychologists speak of this process as This 'conceiving' case the of many In the situation in a particular way. one must analyze the situation and determine. A littlelater. they disclose at once far mentioned. may incorporate and maintain in it many quite useless elements. children maintain indefinitely needless contortions of face and limb.
triflefrom complex the guard. of the process may is at bottom as and we neglect such differences the wholly ideational and in Problem arise between the partly perceptual forms.then. throw instance.and (b) the securing. the first essential step toward a solution. to a survey of one another of the ideas which are suggested as possible solutions. To simple types almost immediately. as in the inspection of a primarily one of sense disabled machine where one wishes to discover the defect not seem and repair it. in which away as many ideas offer themselves and are turned This process of selection and fective. of an idea which will meet us the difficulty. the solution may in a preas has been intimated ceding a new paragraph. whereupon it instantly In more problems more represented of may in almost all the these would be serious reflective forms (and the thinking). " conceive aright the difficultywith which one is confronted is. Nevertheless essentially the the same. but in so naturally character to the justify term conceiving. psychologists have generally . to us door key fails to the lock. The thought has commonly process. In certain very come Stages Solving.174 AN INTRODUCTION TO cases PSYCHOLOGY where the situation is perception. in a thinking process. For of problem. involves as its first two stages (a) the correct concept of the problem or difficulty. then. inefupon rests rejection a psychological activity which designated judgment. Evidently come the thought a which gives the solution may only after long process. which the process by been called reasoning. of the difficulty(which itselfbe secured only after much leads at once effort) correct conception after of association. by means of association. a It occurs that possibly it should be withdrawn works. the location of the difficulty may is appropriate enough.
though and not partly suppressed.REASONING 175 A final step which is involved in an entirely complete consists in the as process of reasoning of one's is known as proof. Such motor. as the Material of Thought. visual or and the apparently for employed be tory may audiforms motor tions. It can be used to cover which of particular instances without to prejudice its accuracy. If we stop a thought confronted and examine that part with a concept. Words the word. persons If. the " In the first place. matter moment to every a certain phases of this littlelater in the chapter. and organization the evidence in such fashion of the solution upon upon to establish one correctness which has pitched. of images. has occasion to the concept triangle. which serves in the thought to the relations peculiar that special geometrical form. in use a ' of it in which we are shall find that commonly or this group one geometrical ' problem. enuncia- may in fact be actual. all. But undoubtfar the most thought or frequent type of imagery images processes is linguistic. The real images at special sensorial form is entirely indifferent. as a moment's considerati material is by no means will clearly disclose. is relatively free from the limitations of any one of dozens particularity. we consists in some significant image for instance. Other kinds of or relations may also be conceptually objects edly symbolized by other forms of visual imagery. many a arises in the mind a more or will find that there less distinct visual image of process to represent triangle. . Let us return for a shall comment to consider the first two We stages which are peculiar ~bona Nature fidethinking of the process* " The process Concept. the relation to in distinction from or object it refers.but the use of words as thought indifferent.
for example. By using guage lan- this purpose. When we remark the overwhelming preponderance of social interests and social relations in lives. as general the advantages A of the linguistic form over others are dent. There is no a or objects difficulty linguistic image " by of other modifying adverbs. to represent the essential features moment's common to all the or objects. constant use We of two back and forth from one should be obliged. therefore. sequently Conto the dog seen today as to the one seen a year ago. of a class in a way which no relations could so in attaching any desired particularity to single instance of either the conveniently give. our Were this not the case we should have medium to make to translate thought to the other. as it were. are also employed for animals. or particular times and a If may one which wishes. evi- reflection will also make clear that just this kind of generality in a concept is of the utmost value It serves in thinking. the use word-forms between important adjectives. the most highly developed as of which spoken words form. all the relations. the advantage of the use our of a single medium . one for thinking and one for communicating. and the like. to have be used with great freedom thought a symbol term.176 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY foundland applicable to the Newas to the poodle. as they are among the material of thought we carry on our individual thinking in the same medium which we use to communicate our ideas to others. men the fact that communication chiefly in the form of words has an the matter. The word dog. Again. are goes on on bearing To be sure gestures. to the terrier as to the hound. languages. is as the word image 'dog' (whatever sensorial form free from any disturbing it appears in) is measurably limitations of particular animals places.
Peculiarities of this kind any trate to illusabout the difficultyof making sweeping statement . example.. find themselves tending perhaps to make the movements to trace the triangle. instead of employing either visual or verbal material. not cast in such terms. that form of imagery (visual.g.. for type for problems of a different sort. constructing in his mind justsuch figures as he would at hand. auditory. Experiments an have shown use sential with esone conclusiveness that individual may type for one kind of problem. would be a of auditory-motor sort of mental debate will serve carried on. the Indeed. To persons whose thinking is it is hard to make goes forward. the point at which modern best be introduced into the school curriculum. in trying to solve a geometrical problem without inevitably falls back upon of pencil and paper visual imagery. In motor.REASONING 177 for both of these purposes is obvious. " Many people apparently large of motor these conceptual attitudes and images for handling situations. Other make Materials use of Thought.) to the individual his method of thought. and quite another of imagery The writer. clear in justwhat to the materials such thought But to revert illustration of the triangle. may problem tend to take the form There a involving his thinking would language imagery. tends to dominate natural etc. actually draw if the materials were the use But some in dealing with consideration of guages lanacademic issue. persons type of the motor would. any case. or simiof the hand necessary larly tending to follow with nascent movements of the head or eyes the outlines of the form. e. process not some psychologists out maintain that thought arises of social situations and would otherwise appear.
but it is measurably true of them To illustrate. but physiological. This applies perhaps next more to the stage of the mental operations all. It may Solving. or a mere one . But a littleintrospective practice will readily identify them. to be mentioned. probgroup of ideas satisfactorily meeting appropriate the difficulty for which one then seeks thinkexpression. This kind of non-conscious ing has probably led certain psychologists to the belief in There is no what they call 'imageless thought. provided objection meaning which is it be not interpreted awareness as that we have a form of of meanings entirely devoid either of imaginal or of sensory bases. ideas are apt to move forward In actual thinking. far as concerns process. our what forms rapidly that it is often difficultto be sure material are so being used. and may even say that so those of profound tion. especially if on" is dealing one processes in which select for examination of thought with very difficultissues where the progress is slow.' to this phrase. abstrac' is thinking hard. and one the brow is wrinkled. in Problem Elements Non-Conscious " perhaps be mentioned at this point that no a highly important proper sense conscious part of many thinking processes is in is cerebralistic. the breathing are one is checked. or at all. and yet at the expiration of to come a moment two may give utterance or there may perfectly sane into the mind a solution of the lem.' During -any strictly conscious a the whole process. all the external symptoms one is suddenly says: "Let me confronted think a by a difficult upon where- moment". one problem. the mind vacuum may have been essentially a blank. The present writer does not believe that there is any convincing .178 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY the predominance in a given mind of any one kind of imagery.
whereas the subconscious brain process is frequently responsible for the solution of difficulties. of the assuming has by that satisfactory concept we problems mechanism been means formed..e. in Thinking. subject thought on in unconscious But not a ablest psychologists are disposed to urge not only that some of our thinking is unconscious. but also that practically all of it which is fundamentally significant goes of our on few in this way. Thanks to the use of similarity.that large parts of our so-called thought processes are in no proper sense phenomena definitelyconscious. The " Use of Relations. which If of similarity is encountered. we were confined to the use merely of ideas suggested by contiguity in previous time and place. The extent to which form is a is really carried of wide disagreement. as between either .so that the reexcitement of the previously as a associated ideas might serve solution in the present instance. It is easy for anyone who speaks readily to gain convincing evidence that the particular words used to express a thought were often in no sense mentally anticipat The field of just prior to their actual use. Such solutions are reached both when asleep and when awake. revert to the associative imagery the conceptual of which brings before us ideas to be scrutinized and tested as solutions This is the point at of the problem confronting us. in our Arrived and at the second reflective operations. i. Especially stage a Similarity. pathological is full of instances tending to suggest the same general conclusion. the solution of any the supreme value given our problem past would depend had solely upon whether or not own experience chanced to anticipate this special difficulty.REASONING 179 evidence of this type of thing.
Practice within a given field undoubtedly produces a certain experience furnishes the requisite skill. in the solution of our difficulties. a idea and the combining the complete in many significant whole. profuse. need in complicated reasoning process for subtle associations. for successful thinking there certain dextrous control of the processes of are . where a relations of factors and their mutual In other words.but unless one's ideas. there can be no solution of the problem. enabled to transcend these limitations of particular time and place and to draw upon the entire to any resources of our special space and life. there be kept in mind. for example. as the mere carry appearance of the crucial idea may This would with it a satisfactory solution. larity previous of link (covering many forms enables relations) by us by one an essentially creative process to bring into context with another even portions of experiences separated us months them and years one of time. no ready- rules which be learned and applied forthwith. and There is no made royal road to can success in this matter. such as be true. we are. a is not ready. has been mentioned. but a continuous is also indispensable until process of selection and rejection the finally successful combination is achieved. in any that of certain puzzles.180 or objects AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY relations. mathematical group another must only and political issues. in other problems. where a the solution But consists in the discovery of particular word. problem.without regard This simitime sequences. comprising type of thing is represented economic and in many considerable to one This problems. and even if the ideas must be a available. however. and thus permits another to make supplement In simple problems. and then there is often need another for the selection of first one of these into solution.
can food upon it. As a matter of fact. The concept may form of a psychological tends in its turn The type to be regarded reaction. write upon it. " Thus suggest far.Otherwise ineffective. e. concept table serves cue generalized an of motor adjustment. It we represents for objectin whose presence. upon in the processes of the simple organism. and definite form as a as as the generalized such it lead to a of motor to a us response. our analysis has been couched in terms which the solving of particular problems without regard to their bearing further problematic situations.g. as well as in the more complicated thought of human beings. to which adjustive directed in the opening chapters the reader 's attention was of the book. peculiarities. both stand kinds of motor adjustment. thing is true of the concepts of the more and the same The familiar relations.. there is also no doubt that this is are no the usual rule. The concepts render objects us of all common similar service. and while there doubt exceptions. provided this reaction had been satisfactory. In the thought process this fact of habit is reflected partly in the concept and partly in certain 'general principles' of which we make use. serve classes of vidual regardless of any trifling indido certain standard things. Element the thought will be and Habit in Thought. such as those of time and space. the concept below. the formation of habits of response is constantly in process. Attention was called at an earlier point to the intrinsic organic a tendency to repeat on on the second presentation of stimulus the reaction made its first appearance. The concept earlier or the .REASONING 181 choosing cumbrous The and rejecting. for certain concept above. This was spoken of as resulting in a generalizing tendency. etc.
taking them science or of practical life. behavior. we may venture Thinking. tion general principle which formulates the observed rotaof planetary bodies in elliptical orbits is again an the conception could be called a concept almost as well as a general principle. Without attempting to enter with any detail upon the problems thus presented. concepts bona habits fide and tend to express themselves eventually in motor forms. in a process of multiplication. Similarly the principle of gravity formulates the behavior of bodies in their mass relations to one another in a fashion which expression of a mode of procedure which could as appropriately be designated a concept as a general principle. more rise above its source. the example set by writers on Following have reasoning logic.. the general a men are stronger than expanded Thus. a few brief comments. is obviously a rule of procedure which than concept principle is really little into a by verbal means toward rests upon The of the process of multiplying. one carries forthe left all but the right-hand digit in each partial product. etc. In general it may of our although primarily in which psychological so far are as concerns the medium they exist. water will not women.g. general Many instances might principles. " Inductive Induction is a name for the .but in each the same be cited of the use either from the range case we of of should find thing true. Indeed. ward with which. psychologists their analyses been wont to give as in connection with of some attention to the two processes known respectively induction and deduction. e. the principle in accordance formula for conduct. The same thing is true of general principles.182 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY ment concept later similarly stand for a certain temporal arrangebe said that.
which we take for refer to gravity. in motor then able to or much as we do at less automatic way. evidently or our has the value are a more of a 'habit' of thought use behavior. (2) Others we come gradually to acquire for ourselves in well represented any way a sort of rough-and-tumble mental process in the harsher will cut. of physical and we objects. when just mentioned. which we habits. The whole process involves the printo formulate and justify ciples purpose specific much more involved. we granted whenever occasion demands. ones apt to translate them principles to be used when needed in our thinking. and least without the behavior to serious reflection. (1) Many plied of them are supto us by our elders. This pended masses habit of theirs. These ones are and that smooth agreeable to the touch.REASONING process 183 by which we we arrive at such those which have general principles as The result. Darwin's . into genless promptly or more convert eralized experiences we have previously indicated. or by books. Thus. Withlearn in this we 'the subject. motor reactions as we are time we very and at the same directly into intellectual terms as special reflection on that hot objects will burn. These are based upon upon a more elaborate trains of thought and much subtler inferences. in the process of our formal education. (3) Differing from both these methods is another peculiar to the more abstract generalizations of the sciences. attained. that sharp out experiences of life. There are various ways in which we come into possession of these general principles. than methods by which we is the case achieve in either of the first two generalizations. in thinking about do not find it necessary of unsus- stop speculate upon the tendency to fall to the surface of the earth.
stands deduction. is this type in the case with than frequently met more of procedure of moral issues. considerations It would take us too far into logical grounds on which the validity of scientificinductive inferences has been based and we must pass on to other matters. follow almost automatically. After and demonstrated gravity.184 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY in regard to establishment of the evolutionary hypothesis illustration of this higher form as an organic life may serve of generalization. Deduction. of process in somewhat of general ones intimate We make use principles course and we set about the forming of new all in the of the . to suppose misapprehension is either exclusively inductive^ or exclusively In actual fact. perhaps. perfectly clear that it is to be put under such a heading for our as 'lying' or the practical consequences 'stealing/ it difficultto classify thinking are or our conduct immediately follow. " to attempt to explain the various Over against of habit induction which represents broadly the process formationin represents we the region of thinking. classification until we thought is held But in suspense. our certain what to apply. which the application have as of habits already established. Combination Thinking. practical thinking commonly involves both types admixture. Here we often find a be Once we can particular act. A very specificset of masses ing large part of our practical thinking is directed to determinparticular principle or specific instance is to be brought. Nowhere. that our " of Induction a common and Deduction in Practical It is thinking deductive. the consequences the concept When a which under this is determined. any we can lated formuthat of such a general principle at once infer deductively the behavior of under specificconditions.
sion appreciated to some extent of a new at a later time employ Reasoning more capacity. parts of thinking by way of applying concepts and general principles. made reason. esses of proc- extent. of animal behavior who but all animals tion the domina- chiefly controlled by motives of a however. evince at times all but superhuman intelligence. which. where in making it to deal with a employ acquired habit like writing. in point of fact. a few words upon of brutes may be of interest. Always. and other parts of it in such a fashion as to create the beginning of a new general principle.REASONING attempt to solve are a 185 that we This does not mean overtly conscious of the intention to apply particular problem. This fact will be readily enough if it is compared with the ing corresponduse motor of an already situation. To be sure. which we can in turn or less in the habitual way. there have been portrayers insisted that wild animals to some in particular. be believed. passes into a and . may but their conduct is accepted more soon or neighborhood myth less uncritically at its face value. The writers of a generation ago disposed to contrast instinct with reasoning as two were radically distinct and Sometimes they urged characteristics. essentially opposed that brutes were guided solely by although at times under instinct. we In so far as we solve this. was rational kind.whereas man. use essentially like those of human are wholly free of dogs or owners Few neighborhoods if their cats. one. or a new conception. " In concluding the reasoning powers this chapter. of instinct. of The Powers Animals. we gain possesfresh problem. these Nietszchean super-brutes have rarely been caught in the act by critical outsiders. or a general principle to create a new we in dealing carry on with practical issues our but simply that do.
at least the rank and file of those lower in observation under type than the apes solve their problems are in no sense identical with which those of reflective human by methods thought. from the very them. but the odor of which could readily reach Animals of all degrees of complexity. it becomes quite certain that whatever may be true of the occasional genius among animals. have been to experimental subjected investigation. up to the higher quadrupeds and the anthropoid apes. This problem is generally so arranged as to have the securing of food for example. A wholly unexpected wealth of new information has been accumulated as the result of studies of this kind. This would mean. simple marine animals. But at no upon point have we come mals conclusive evidence that anican in any definite way in a problem and abstract the essential point then bring to bear upon it in the mind .186 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY It has been the ungracious observation the anecdotal duty of contemporary to strip from the brute world the previous mental experimost laurels which generation of had accorded. its solution. hinge upon and closely as that rats a and mice through tortuous be obliged to find their way set of paths to their food which they would could not see. method to place the animal in some The common simple problem as such experiments is a situation which requires it to solve appropriate to its supposed capacities of conducting possible simulating the conditions with which it has to cope in its natural habitat. When subjectedto thorough-going scientific controlled conditions. including on the way both reptiles and birds. like amphioxus. and our features of knowledge of animal instinct and of many animal behavior has been immeasurably enlarged.
and to generalize. essentially mean different from in a Of course does not statement of this kind to urge any radical discon- . that of the reptilian and cretaceous But after making ences forms. yon. the animal gives the relation between really comprehending other reached and the several steps necessary It would never In the end of to be to attain it. Indeed. The time almost immediately. runs made . man so far excels the animals important particulars one as to render his behavior in many theirs. saying that the adaptive and of some is far higher than intelligence of the higher like the elephant. or it may be longer. it is any doubt dangerous to make sweeping statement without one distinguishing the For it goes different genera without apes and species from another. are and error. and and finally. there. to say no be too broad a statement that animals perceive relations. the animal attacks the apparatus here. it still remains true that in his ability to analyze. the chances shorter. of the other mammals. second trial may be somewhat In either case the ability to reach a solution with certainty requires many repetitions and a considerable no period evidence of time. due allowance for these differinside the brute kingdom. and to use language as an accessory to especially in his power all these processes. to abstract. that the solution could be repeated a second But not so with the animal. as the result merely of its exuberant upon muscular the solution. were are activities. experimental a as can human being.REASONING 187 a the fruits of experience. Under conditions at least the animal method of ing solvpractical difficultyis substantially that of blind trial All kinds of violent movements hither and elsewhere.it succeeds in stumbling In a human being. even though the in some problem solved the first time such manner. words.
the evolutionary and the animals is far greater a would be suggested by To anatomical organization.188 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY child gives abundant its earlier years of behavior which is substantially identical with that of the animals. differs in important particulars from casual observation of their brain be sure. the human even the most are highly developed animal as such ligence. But the differences . considering behavior as an tinuity of development because the human man. would ever have suggested the gross disparities in intelwhich the study of behavior clearly discloses. not brain. between the higher animals and evidence in expression man break between than of intelligence. But one can allege that.
But it is apt occasion other consequences besides those thus described. If it be are a sations. Secondarily. as A sound or as thus striking upon may be sensed agreeable to which disagreeable. a disagreeable. Thus it . the movement a it gives rise may be followed by in their turn. and although to the term. or a burr.agreeable visual stimulates object it. stimulus falls upon a sense organ. and must now return. be employed. and at least. or is extended the retina. we of which we come emphasized sensations by means and world of physical objects into contact with the to repthe ideas which serve resent the originals a these sensorial experiences when present. subsequent group of senThus. it is perhaps may convenient as any other. to produce It is likely immediately either pleasurable the ear or painful results. Psychologists often refer to these there as are some simple serious objections feelings. it normally into muscular nervous nervous excitation which system. and the hand to grasp thistle. the disagreeable consequences likely to be 189 extremely vivid.CHAPTER XI FEELING Simple Feelings. are not This procedure group has involved temporary was neglect of another of factors of which to which we as mention made at the outset. When sets up a a for the time being. is then transmitted it issues again to as a the central whence movement. " In our descriptions thus have far of the the processes adjustive of intelligence.
is undoubtedly a may it is The sensation). on the other hand. Among of Simple " recent to the writers there has been number some divergence of opinion as The and character of these psychological elements/ great majorityhave recognized only pleasantness and unpleasan (physical pain. and in the experience apparently must of the human play an child. although only one member of . but already are come freighted with favorable prejudices. These he thinks of as combining with one German another in various ways.190 comes AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY stimulaabout that from the very beginning sensory tions for the most part not indifferent. types or unfavorable.they become complicated with many other influso that the immediacy of their operation is screened littlechild the or or lost. In the life of the lower of animals. The Varieties Feeling. as was pointed out in Chapter VI. He has also learned that the endurance of forms of painful stimulation may be the price of many more lasting or more words. experience satisfying future pleasures. which he designates strain-relaxation and excitement-calm. In other the implications complicates enormously of the pleasure-pain experiences of primitive life. and they extremely therefore human In adult be examined care. though disagreeable. which commonly itself be at times agreeable. stimulus. to their repetition. and will similarly shrink from the painful being. eminent recognizes two other psychologist Wundt groups of elements. The the animal seek to repeat pleasurable will unhesitatingly stimulation as long as it agreeable. life. these psychological factors important part. with some ences. The adult human has learned that it is the part of wisdom to curtail the remains repetition of pleasurable experiences before satiety has been reached.
Even if established. even not a few modern writers are now urging. that vague. these forms of experience themselves this last doctrine diffused. this conception. thought sense arising not from particular organ from with its connected chain of in which the nervous the way but as as system a arising whole is The alleged fact stimulation. disposed to adhere to the older view. be felt as so that the stimulus and on pleasurable another they a unpleas- urable. would Among present other reasons. would . each ever be present in a single moment and of American philosopher psychologist. and of as (2) physiologically. and to treat pleasantness and unpleasantness different from sensation.FEELING 191 pair would The experience. they must depend be capable some through must which reflexly excited from of the central system. a as substantially Indeed. organs activities in the The possibility in other parts or cerebrum. it should finally become discussion still be convenient to accord a separate to these factors in our mental make-up. and may on as are may one independently. for reasons groups. is which he feels it unnecessary Josiah Royce. other two Wundtian to discuss in detail. the view generally prevalent at distinguishes from feeling the sensations these two forms may vary occasion of simple (1) psychologically. affected by any momentary do not localize them as we do sensations is urged that we in support of this view. the central that the thalami are not be irreconcilable with responsible for them See page 45. in his judgment there is as the only elements good deal of evidence are to suggest. organic sensations. excludes strain-relaxation but accepts the The present writer. because the stimulation of neurones. because they to any attach themselves sensation same or idea.1 1 Of course if they prove special sensory nerves physiological device of being upon finally to be sensations.
and disobstructed in their immediately Obviously cases this conception is most mind applicable to in is engaged processes of problem-solving of a rather definite kind. whereas unpleasant experiences involve excessive drain or at one point another upon the resources of the system. pleasure with mental an Another widely held view connects progress as are activitieswhich smoothly toward or with such course. The second is substantially a modification ences of the first. act On of studying. In of differences in such instances. provided the thought processes involved go forward smoothly and effectively. impeded pleasure end. In connection with the physiological conception. In such situation the theory mentioned would find an explanation for the appearance of agreeableness or disagreeableness in' the absence or presence of material interruption to the a the other hand. and urges that pleasurable experiare system such as involve activitiesof the nervous well within the limits of its physical powers.192 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY " Explanatory Theories of Feeling. two have been advanced. to give a satisdifficult factory of theory finds it more forms of sensory for the appearance reason of some If one strikes a discord pleasantness and unpleasantness. we become readily aware in which the the and directness with which our thought attains its For example. whereas are organically beneficial tend to elicit those which are physiologically harmful tend to occasion pain. the very thinking. interruption of a neighboring piano extremely disagreeable. ease even though the music itselfbe intrinsically pleasant. is likely to be found agreeably stimulating. This type . The general types esis of hypoththat first maintains all experiences which pleasure. a student trying to study finds the goal.
the the moment other going endorsing forward. or positive) sense in terms system of the capacity of the to respond. pain and displeasure with conappropriative movements. which cases always disagreeabl to occasion embarrassment cussing distheories couched in the form of the one we are now Facts of this variety evidently lend themselves more much readily to description either in terms of the biological utility (negative or of the stimulus. and tones. This notion falls in very disbiological hypothesis of agreeableness and general ing indicatindices. may the piano. the one as protective agreeableness a need of instant fresh adjustment. Similarly there are is disagreeable. while one may refuse to formulation of the kind under consideration as a complete theory of the conditions affording in any sense of feeling. the other degrees of pressure. In both cases one's pose purhave been to detect the qualities of the tones. degrees Clearly such of noise. the effectmay be markedly and in this sense both processes one go forward more or less successfully . when one suddenly shifts to a group of harmonious the result is forthwith pleasing. One of the early formulations one essentially similar to the pain and whatever ness unpleasant- we are now a examining tendency pleasure connected to with change a conditions such obtained. whatever process is at A variant of this view identifiespleasure with expansive. degrees are of illumination. and with tendency to continue readily with the conditions. . a organ and the nervous accept Nevertheless.FEELING on 193 disagreeable. nevertheless the agreeable. one must frankly recognize that a very large part important of our human rectly experiences are corof the more characterized by it.
is hardly to be supposed that any species of animals could survive. which sought. rather than shunned. and and species would pleasure in competition viduals indi- almost certainly be out-distanced. can hardly have failed to play an important modes 1 their lower levels. toothache. other for the circulation corresponding psychologists unpleasantness. are simply the conscious side of physiologically disastrous conditions. Clearly. because in general such experiences painful experiences. therefore. Any creature which of gratuitously sought out the circumstances productive scarcely headache. pressed very far without breaking down.194 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY lation of retreat. and pain have.they certainly represent of guiding the organism in advance of the On Wundt alleges in the that there are certain definite and have constant to his changes simple changes respiration and Some feelings. it is at all events clear that they part. creature which wholly expect oblivious to secure to could hardly physical Whether pleasurable experiences the best conditions for its with other well-being.1 tractive movements It must are be frankly admitted that all these conceptions speculative and that while they correspond to certain broad features of common experience. . The six reported such author pleasantness and present these views rest as open to grave regards evidence upon which strate have been unable to demondoubt. Many experimenters competent in the connection states of the affective mental any constancy with the alleged physiological reactions. The formuand movements is roughly correct in its application to simple sensory but cannot be pleasantness and unpleasantness. they are none none of them free from difficulties. of them affords a measure in It wholly conclusive explanations of observed phenomena. and earache a could be expected was to thrive. been prime factors in the development of animal behavior. too.
an agreeable memory. scientifically analysis of any particular experience. for an idea. or us possible for It is perfectly agreeable perception. (See Fig. but logically should have mentioned more readily understood if postponed to this point in the chapter. affection. feeling- used to designate the special part of the ness. but in which other mental factors or are also present.FEELING 195 lessons of experience and in advance critical intelligence. of the development of Complex which which Feelings. " A distinction may been now be drawn earlier. are The then terms simple feeling. to isolate the agreeableness in our retrospective an Indeed. unpleasantand the like. or the * affection. abstracWe never experience pure agreeableness devoid of other literature modern feelings which involve not only the in What we conscious accompaniments.'and the complex these elements but sensations and ideas beside. tone.) Strictly speaking into-such rudimentary our own one can hardly as groups are classify feelings except already represented in acceptance of agreeableness and disagreeableness . or obviously be perception may experienced either with an opposite feeling. is clearly gotten only by tion. process which is represented in its pleasantness. Thus use it has come about that psychologists who term the word feeling as a technical disposed to apply it to the entire concrete expeare rience in which agreeableness or disagreeableness is a conspicuous element. it is quite essential that we should do this. or to all intents and purposes with no feeling at all. memory. emotion. or an agreeable emotion. This has to do with the difference between the simple elements of feeling. sometimes ' seemed likely to be somewhat designated affection. experience is always an agreeable idea. The simple ' feeling. 50.
and of the same general character of human .196 as AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY primordial distinctions. For has some purposes a justification and and distinction of this kind undoubtedly value. but it may well be questioned misleading. Despite this assertion. 50. or state of feeling. a good classificationshave.g. because it may latter have a more for society and the direct importance which connected relations. like 8F. sensory. so-called. for example. In the application of this distinction many it appears that the lower feelings. or /. The FIG. ideational. higher from lower feelings. with combined may which pleasantness. been proposed One of the older of these distinguishes and adopted. illustrate the relation of simple feeling to total feeling feeling. or affection. agreeable to those connected and disagreeable tastes and the odors) and and with physical appetites passions. and aesthetic experiences. may a represent simple states. smell. The and whether pleasures those it is not psychologically somewhat pains of taste and are and with the relief of hunger be thought of as lower than the pleasure and thirst. as a matter of fact. intellectual.as we believe instance is tively to be the case. may seem that the pains of moral experience. use are chiefly those connected with the immediate most of the senses closely related to the nutritional processes (e. be Se.. elements to constitute a total complex imaginal. " To higher feelings are on this showing such as have to do with moral. But if. the pleasure in the one qualitakind with the pleasure in the other.
or have of and that as another we required so of the philosophical sciences. or by the play of beautiful colors the we especially if upon retina. but in point of fact working many sensuous out to a result in particulars similar. The basis of this distinction is too obvious to require discussion. They are classiis appropriate. in their We do not of essentially the same order. We do mean. urge strongly that intensity and duration apart. it clearly involves a division not based upon upon or the feeling-tone or the 'affection' as such. and all refer encounters to groups of sensation Again. recognizes a distinction between and ideational or intellectual feelings. to ethical and aesthetic feelings. frequently of experiences which one the exigencies of practical life. we begin to call in question not only the psychologic but intrinsic truth of a distinction value. But to each and all. to assert for a moment that there are not in such differences in the sensory and ideational abundant essence. one idea.FEELING 197 find ourselves obliged to admit a peculiarly rare and fine type of pleasure elicited by the fragrance of spring flowers. Another classificationostensibly different from that just described. All these divisions are perfectly legitimate. however. but simply its cognitive accompaniment in the form reference to personal feelings. should recognize. fications which certain sorts either of the conditions under of complex feelings arise. to settings of these simple feelings. to social feelings. also the may over which inner mean cases sets against one another facts that are. and like the one just examined. or they are of the classifications . in far same they are the comment classificaoffered as psychological tions. the agree- ableness and the disagreeableness of one group of experiences is quite of a piece with that of the other.
So much this the case that it is commonly agreed by psychologists that we cannot in any proper sense attend to a feeling-tone. keenly aware of their presence. They are always. " It is exactly the and the undifferentiated character of feeling so is which sets it off from sensation and idea. and we are. They seem always a to function or as or adverbs. Sensation. the margin of consciousness. themselves in the most and while they connect varied fashion with all other psychological materials. rather than fications classiThis entire of the feeling elements themselves. but to them the of attention is apparently of mental objects which destroy them forthwith. which may now mental profitably mentioned. of experience. They are apparently homogeneous. if in the midst of an agreeable experience one attempts to fix attention upon the pleasantness as such. they never in themselves become focal. Feeling. our by a sort moment to make in the indirect vision.198 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY concomitants of our feeling-tones. forthwith finds that the whole experience has been one transformed process. verb of some This hostility of feeling-tone to attention has led some authorities to the interesting suggestion that attention and feeling-tone are really the two opposite sides of one and the . as it were. adjectives demand substantive a kind to which they may attach. There we may observe them experience. Certain it is that. of the problem presented by classificationexhibits one be essential characteristics of pure feeling. vagueness and Attention. the agreeableness has evaporated in the In order that we should be able to attend to any and item of should This is exactly what we cannot do in the case of these elements of feeling-tone. it is apparently essential that it be possible to discriminate differences within it.
We indicated at the outset of Feeling and Conduct. is the personal attitude toward all these ideas and their meaning. represents purely individualistic This share experience. that feeling represents in a very real and general way vidual. i. previous paragraph. the personal mental attitude of the indipeculiar sense distinctions those In what one one feels much more truly than in what actual character and about. get this by a process of attending. elements objective of stating a ideas give us we can. Before may leaving properly the specialized discussion of feeling. it is the purely makes of the experience. the way part in which we can react. is in any way a thought matter of indifference in the thinks formation and more of his character. is revealed one's 's This is not equivalent to saying that a man temperament. of knowlsignificant than the items in one deeper than the particular content of one's and even thought. Feeling.FEELING same 199 process. By looking at the both get what is practically the same may and we same sense object. subjectively no of our experience in immediate sense with others. which vidual unique indiit mine rather than yours. Feeling and Personal Attitude.e. It means simply that deeper 's body edge. share with others. as " Whatever the final validity of such in the mentioned it is unquestionably true in a broad.. part In any event. This is perhaps another way much the we we that sensations and older doctrine. our we on the other hand. perception. we to a consideration of devote a few moments certain of its relations to the control of conduct. of our experience which if will. to the the chapter that one important view is committed " doctrine that feeling represents the primitive guide by .
foresight. directly or indirectly. Fishes. and whose seem activities relatively stereotyped. one instantly comes upon a that of the ethical hedonist. it is Behavior immediately on this level. rather strongly are a that whether are made because they general are parallelism apparently between beneficial reactions agreeable. Taken doctrine stantial subin its crudest this view maintains that our conduct is always controlled. form. with a corresponding parallelism between the disagreeable and the injurious. it is likely to enough. then. the former. there is at least those types of behavior or not which satisfying and those which are logicall bio- useful. If one adopts the implications of this general point of view and applies them forthwith to the higher ranges of human conduct. rejecting and unhesitatingly accepting that which is appetizing. for example. seem about often to wander food is offensive whatever somewhat aimlessly. suggests accepted. it has a endure be recognized that we often present pain for the sake of a future pleasure. and in the meantime evincing littleor no evidence of behavior controlled by ideas or any other kind of process involving If agreeable but poisonous food be offered.200 means AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of which conduct is steered away from harmful and trine toward beneficial types of reaction. but to . plausible Certain it is that the observation of animals low in the scale of intelligence distinctly suggests reactions of kind in terms of the agreeableness a reasonably immediate or disagreeableness of the stimulus and the ensuing response. by a regard for pleasure and pain such that we tend always to avoid the latter and seek in facing the actual complexities of Of course. So long as this docis confined to the behavior of the simpler organisms whose are environment is relatively simple. human behavior.
on Ethicists and psychologists alike one have criticized it the ground that if is to describe the situation in terms present sciously of the actual motives that are conbeings. the other regarding be found to is perhaps of no consequence. pleasure ever and pain such are hardly in the horizon. pleasure will the momentary It is possible so to formulate successful nature as contradiction this position as to make its decidedly difficult. if not the sole motives least the voluntary at dominant ones. a keener really based upon merely it remains any true that this view has never secursucceeded in ing large following. except perhaps tiently to be impa- banished. but they concerns are none the less voluntary. Between to urge the two extremes that pleasure. sitting up through the long hours of the night with to have her the pleasure which a. the real truth.and behavior. or whether it is insight into the actual facts. and in part no doubt they are may such. the conviction that the expected either in intensity or permanency. be called instinctive. It would surely be idle to main- . sick child.FEELING 201 only under outweigh. can for a moment be supposed thought Nor conduct controlled by any of she is getting from it be fair to her actual mental would processes to say that she is the act. an explicit control by to human tainly Cerconsiderations of pleasure and pain is relatively rare. them are as tending of doctrine. pain. the one in pain. But human to accept is generally very unwilling accurate such a tion descrip- to the facts. and so far as as their conscious motive. no tired mother. controlled by the pleasure which she hopes to experience Such acts as a result of her care when the child recovers. Whether this unwillingness reflects a universal moral vanity.
Indeed. For one we objects deliberating about our thing. But so closely knit is the fabric we of our entire thought process that very special effort divorce from our of feeling. We may not formulate the decision to ourselves in terms that stress the consequences in feeling. On the other hand. untrue or thus to summon from affective equally disembodied it would be But on the other hand. It has been " without thinking all influence could not a common doctrine and is one for which so eminent a psychologist as Wundt stands sponsor. that voluntary actions always grow . Feeling and Voluntary Action. imply a conviction that widespread pleasurable conduct in experiences some serve or to energize and motivate fashion other.202 AN INTRODUCTION TO no PSYCHOLOGY part in the early stages we a tain that pleasure and pain play of our acquaintance live. That with the physical world in which the burned child dreads the fire has become designed to exploit the moral consequences of sin. it is generally agreed by are psychologists that we have no power imagination these pure or memory elements. to the facts to say that the expected agreeableness disagreeableness of a line of conduct has no weight whatever in determining a decision. the adage which teaches that to spare the rod is to spoil the child postulates of sermons text for hundreds the value of pain as an element kind. The entire modern in education of the formal doctrine of interest as essential in education and the abundant experiments exhibiting the dynamic effectsupon children of approval and other pleasurable incentives. when lines of conduct. we may be more or less oblivious at the time to such consequences. that agreeableness the direct ever or It is of course absurd to suppose disagreeableness merely as such are of reflective choice.
that no to feeling. rather than prejudices subjective another of in. or. except in response which Wundt volitional The particular acts formulation offers connects of will with emotion. out of which he teaches that they always familiar form of the doctrine implies The more spring. While there our upon toward the other a be decisions which lectualistic. but feeling regarding the alternatives. in such a case.and while may are entirely cold-blooded and intelof our many acts are essentially habitual and carried out without any particular reflection. ever occurs act expressed otherwise. in that the psychologically factor which determines us to choose one rather course than our of action is to be stated in terms and feelings. . but for the one we feel a strong predilection and may powerful aversion. Our choice rests. not upon the sheer rationality of the act. terms of pure reason.FEELING out 203 of feelings. that choice is determined to our analysis go back lines of conduct in the last motives which feelings. Either of two possible by be perfectly rational and entirely defensible. there can be no doubt that in great ranges of our conduct such a moving description is correct.
it is what we feel when we certain kinds of instinctive acts. coarser James used to designate as the Emotion and Instinct. which mark is their intimate connection outstanding characterizes these grosser emotions with reflex and instinctive modes of behavior. perform William have James and the Danish psychologist Lange formulations to this view. Despite the fact tend to shade off into tions condiof a relatively neutral kind. " Most of feelings are the emotions. may serve hate. embarrassment. They given the most extreme 204 . love. it is nevertheless profitable to devote to the more some eration considcertain overt emotions which possess definite peculiarities tending to set them distinctness from other mental off with reasonable conditions. Anger.CHAPTER XII EMOTION Feeling and Emotion. Some writers have gone so far as to say that emotion is simply the psychological side of an instinct. more vivid and constant forms shall now to suggest the direct our of emotion to which we This group Professor attention. so that there is no sharp between line to be drawn emotional and non-emotional that these states of excitement states. loosely used in ordinary parlance. is naturally somewhat by some it applies in general to states of mind marked by the noticeable presdegree of excitement and commonly ence of pleasantness or familiar of all the forms Although this term 'emotion' unpleasantness. fear. The " emotions. grief.
differ. to be in some in our consciousness brought about through movecertain ments made reflexly or instinctively. but the main contention which each makes is that in an emotional experience the characteristic features are contributed by changes sure. has generally The common the results of the previously we are now existing emotion. important muscular like rage movements. such as many of the most are those of the heart and diaphragm. characteristic of the The actual disappears." " James-Lange view held that the of emotional expression clenching of the fistand the distortion of the face in anger are of Emotion. control. James puts the which are case by saying we that "we feel sorry because we we cry. in the tonicity of the blood vessels. but that the emotion of a situation as one justifying is only feltwhen of anger " some all of the instinctive muscular in These comprise among others or " the case muscles. changes violent tension of most particularly those of the hands. is this suggests which of the violent kind. Def enders_ of this doctrine not under voluntary lucid apprehension maintain that one may have an entirely anger. afraid because Theory tremble. of course. angry because The strike. and chest. and profound alterations . and anger. in a perfectly real are that sense of the emotions. changes in the power which the face often in the and rate of the heart-beat. The theory to which these muscular expressions movements referring admits. of the voluntary arms. by virtue of becomes scarlet. To bring the doctrine out in the most dramatic way. but it maintains other motor that if these are and all the and glandular expressions specific eliminated everything which feeling of anger at is most once of the experiment performance because in emotions obviously difficult.EMOTION 205 essential details.
and the effect enter memories of previous similar situations may . of anger. But the same bear. a to subjected number naturally learns what to expect. particular group of motor reactions which are thus are called out by emotional objects native and inherited. that individual experience reactions. in the of emotion. and of them accompanied total of these disturbances constitutes the peculthe sum iarly If one looks at a of the experience. our about by activities. has been an entirely unique the emotion experience. be wholly lacking in any particular the experience may emotional part emotional color. elicitsa great group of these instinctive reactions.206 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY breathing. many of these movements by changes in the feeling-tone. but after of times. or when power The shows of these commoner himself from the beginning of any emotions. fusing with the perception of the animal. bear behind the bars of its cage in the zoological garden. when afraid. fairly to be regarded our Thesejerformances as instinctive. but sets up sensory changes. therefore. inspected at the same distance without the intervening bars. which. No one has to be taught how to behave when not acquired. for example. constitute the emotion of fear. muscular Many other consequences and glandular system these illustrations will suffice. and it is the modification of these untaught consciousness view mark and unlearned motor doctrine constitutes the essential of the James-Lange The reader will readily infer. in the nature many will tend to emphasize of these native The original expression of fear or of anger is. of one's one one of the case. a Every passed master child in the expressions are. which in the brought light of previous analysis of memory. Each might affecting both the be mentioned. in the angry. when embarrassed.
251. therefore. any in the Psychological Review.. sensory. the essence of emotion as distinguished from non-emotional states. Moreover. change in the emotions from the surfaces in detail. or these changes so elicited whether expressions.of it soon course. to suggest relatively little the behavior of the animals case seemed This is not the place to enter upon named. that thoughts call out emotional reactions as vividly and as readily as do sense comes perceptions. The called their is. something see. It is not the to consider these contributions attempt view of the writer that the criticisms are valid as against the main See an article by the author points of the theory under discussion. or touch. and Lange maintain. about. XXIII. p.EMOTION to give tone to a 207 situation which way does not itself call out of natural in any complete the full catalogue responses No one doubts motor that these grosser accompaniments emotions commonly possess characteristi debate real point under whether the emotional feeling is entirely prior to and independent of changes in the field of consciousness occasioned by the movements. particularly line The of adrenals. of criticism is based upon other dogs. constitute. where the brain was on experiments prevented by operation impulses from from receiving incoming nearly all the viscera and fear-anger the type and those In this of the body lower than the head region. " The original emotional we stimulus But e. to Emotions.g. The racially hereditary or instinctive nature of the responses is not in question. as a result of the development of memory and the ideational processes. Vol. part inter-relation between emotion of of the certain glandular activities. quite as The thought a of an insulting remark may reaction of anger or shame as original experience. 1916. an emotional reaction may violent 1 elicit did the There on has the to been some disposition of certain intimate to attack the validity of this theory which ground show an tend physiological experiments. . as James Stimuli is.
208 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY readily be transposed from one sensory stimulus to another.1 But it is clear that however various the stimulations kinds specific produce emotions. Just how way far to we inherit a disposition to react in the emotional of stimuli is not altogether clear. instinctive and the motor aspects not be understood that we intend in any way to overlook the ideational parts of the process. Ideational Element in Emotion. the child's response is of the instinctive and fairly stereotyped form. it must " In the Mental disease apart. a child learns to associate the sight of his bottle as when with the satisfaction of his hunger and the taste of the milk. situaone is angry by a at a special individual group. Certain it is stimulus is encountered that calls forth fear. of bodily support. stimulus gentle stroking or tickling. It is sometimes alleged. " fear (3) affection . but one or evidence in the case to indicate that both are represented that when a of certain children. impersonal anger or in general. circum- together thoughts suggested in 1 Watson in an unpublished reactions paper and has their tentatively stimuli as primitive anger " emotional " reported follows three : (1 ) " stimulus " any stimulus removal feeling " (2) constriction of free movement. the motor and glandular reactions are relatively fixed. is embarrassed one's particular situation. and they become increasingly so as mental life evolves. which Neither there is of these reactions some seems to be at all universal. possibly loud sounds. One is afraid of a particular one embarrassment objector or tion. one does not have rected undi- fear in general. for example. that babies are naturally afraid of darkness and of fur. These are of the utmost moment. intellectual apprehension with the various In all these the stances in- of stances. emphasizing of emotion.
there can passed upon that all the more interruption stimulus to violent emotions are incidents of vigorous life. as one and the source same. ideas. may an is of object sheer matter he of visual sensation. At no point. and a " Interrupted experiences. can wholly of emotion. be no doubt this particular view. enter to determine the sum tional state. Only when is apprehended a an potential of great bodily suffering does he become to fear. and in general the onset of . where we cognitive element highly complex are with relatively more of intellectual pleasure. which case. an the be. is this Emotion is therefore a affections Emotion condition in which intricately combined. may Professor with the fact of interruption to on-going processes. To revert to an tration earlier illus- the bear. Mental as contrasted Activity. emotional stimulus The intellectual element as we in emotion the tends to become more conspicuous pass from coarser to the finer forms In the range of aesthetic appreof emotional experience. one as a amused interest in objectof horrified fear in the other. Phenomenon of sensations. properly lacking. there is likely to be distinctly less evidence of a purely bodily of the subtle forms however. speak resonance. Dewey has defended the thesis that emotions are primarily called out when two instinctive tendencies are in Whatever judgment may be competition for expression. for example. ciation. Even in the simplest instances this intellectual appreciation : is momentous. The be said of fear. The intensity of emotional perhaps be connected with other experiences. The flow of mental the ordinary calls forth our which thwarts anger is typically one same an which thing emotion blocks may or momentary activity.EMOTION 209 total of the emoeach instance.
peculiarly inept and disadvangoing into complete details. The so its appearance set of muscular the utility of the second because it represents most nearly much opposites to the contrasting emo- complete . like trembling when upon a high place. Over against these. A second doctrine so-called principle of 'antithesis/ The savage attitudes of an angry dog obviously have a certain utility. views may seem that many of the forms of useful at a previous period of racial history. bear in mind the fact that as a rule reader will. " with the presented. The stock illustration of this sort of thing is the elevation of the upper lip in scorn or in anger. Darwin's the question as to the utility of our present equipment of instinctive reactions. represent the survivals of the fittestin the struggle for existence of millions of This conception naturally raises generations of ancestors. but encountered were which in social conditions of a franker and less restrained character obviously may have been highly useful. some of which. at the moment In the joyfulemotions by a this momentary interruption may be succeeded torrential flow of delicious excitement. as well as the forms of behavior. Without of the Darwinian There is firstthe contention reaction now tageous. general view of emotion which we have views rest on the doctrine that bodily structures. as the expression of the involves affectionate moods. In connection Darwin's View of Emotion. a as an exactly opposite group. one or two be pientioned. a performance no which has now particular utility. it may be of interest to mention briefly certain theories of Charles The Darwin about the origin of our emotional responses.210 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY is marked processes by are the invasion and going dislocation of whatever on. of course. are theory here implies not group.
satisfy all essential needs. have our It cannot be said that the Darwinian tions explana- at all completely emotional solved the riddle of certain of reactions. " have been permanent most suggested.EMOTION 211 tioual state. classifications of has succeeded in which seems on That a fundamental involves division into those those which are historically primary. pity. and with the possible exception of remorse. Each of these last-named experiences has obvious elements of instinct in it. It seems safe to regard such emotions as anger and fear (offensive) sumably Pre- (defensive)as unequivocally primary. general sense. remorse. sense They therefore in reasonable extent to be regarded secondary and to some they involve one or another as derived. but general favor. it would presumably however. Presumably of the elements of the primary group. Classification emotion winning the whole which are or of Emotions. we use derived Were in it subjectto appreciable uncertainty regarding the dividing line which it attempts to employ. We are. and a position to apply this principle of classificationconfidently. corthere should be also recognized something respondi to love or affection in a broad. . obliged to secondary. first group content upon of the contrasted with the members it is fairly clear that they depend for their as But elements are which obviously grow a out of experience. each of them finds some mal representation in ani- behavior. Superposed upon these foundations are such emotions as in many and gratitude. sympathy of its forms. but they will at least serve to suggest the lines along which it may perhaps be found finally possible to render now intelligiblesome of the responses Many none which perplex us.
psychological certain ''The sanguine gross has no very mental funda- basis. which affecting memory. and stirred. This means is susceptible chiefly to mood endures. melancholic. the latter displaying a more feebler. Side by side with mood. any intellectual equipment.. there are all kinds lines of of individual differences in imagination. and emotion must put the facts of sentiment. the former evincing a strong and once aroused. the former a persistent but weak that there are It will naturally be understood considerable variations in individuals. be recognized in must general we estimate of temperamental commonly While peculiarities. Temperament. familiar division of temperaments into sanguine. for they emotion all inter-related phenomena.' ' even when they distinction. ent think of disposition as being depend- is upon the prevalent emotional attitude. The melancholic and phlegmatic types are slow in response. conform roughly Moreover. is somewhat loosely used to apply still more The emotional dispositions. one those emotions The term to some which are temperament closely related to the mood. but roughly to characterize differences in choleric types individual are make-up. interest. etc. One may thus be cheerful throughout a a while such that considerable period of time. so that one likely to be good-natured who temperamentally responds . to these general interest. a The term is usually applied to relatively brief experience whose beginning and end can be fairly marked is a term which we apply to a comparatively off. but with reference also to intellectual habits and motor traits. the latter manifesting vivid interest when a alert and easily intense. we Sentiment. Mood permanent emotional condition. attention. are temperament.212 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY " Mood. enduring and phlegmatic serves choleric.
" emotion. we mean designate particular individuals to imply an exaggeration of this in one permanent emotional an mood direction or another. tends to dwell upon the persistent underlying problems of social organization are human distress. unsympathetic of the finer things in life.EMOTION to most or 213 situations with emotions of the buoyant and more less humorous type. it is equally true that emotions are dominant likely to be affected by At trains of thought. The wholly of human unemotional person may meet occasional crises with great individual. is likely to be a cold-blooded. conduct arifl implies strong normal emotions. this point what we percall sentiment. but they are not naturally alert On the other hand. i. A well-balanced-. There ments essentially reciprocal relation between sentitions and emotions.a relatively manent disposition or attitude. a ment senti- is itself an Emotion and invitation to the corresponding Volition. when such They may are be entirely kindly character matters of an brought forcefully to their notice. for the cultivation of any set of emotends to foster a prevalent sentiment favorable to is such emotions. is of prime consequence.e. Persons whose thinking tends to dwell upon abstract and theoretical to are subjects likely to be lacking in sensitiveness social and personal situations. responding without exaggeration to the demand relations. When as apt to be emotionally we responsive to sentimental. persons whose thought to their appeal. entertain Whatever view " we cussed disregarding the relation of feeling to volition a matter we in the previous chapter must recognize that our important relation to our emotional life sustains a most " forceful character character.. On the other oblivious to many of some requirements distinction. whereas conversely and obviously. but in general he the .
.214 AN some INTRODUCTION persons suggest TO PSYCHOLOGY hand by their behavior we volcano and from or such can active emotional hardly look for wellan poised opinions shall discuss more consistent and efficientconduct. ^ We fully in a later chapter the relation of the will to instinct and emotion.
the difunconscious.however. We our now look somewhat equipment. and many in part by their being reflexes are are ordinarily conscious. In all young mammals the instinct of sucking appear is of this character. it may be said at " Instinct. later stages Others of the to perfection at come and they whenever animal's life. inherited forms of conduct no sense in learned or acquired like the voluntary are and forms of action. of instinct. are they involve innate. Without tense preonce that instincts. generally a the reflex involving to a simple muscular response single stimulus. and certain it is that the stages one over into the other by any through which are not separated sharp boundaries. like reflex acts. Some instincts are birth. they to be differentiated from reflex acts in part by their complexity. 215 . not so perhaps important passes as the similarities. In general. But appear.CHAPTER XIII INSTINCT Our region touched must analysis of emotion. Nature more closely into this part of human The of of precision any making in definition. carries upon at the very leading us us as it did into the back to matters which we beginning of our study. rest upon the nervous the presence in system (both the central native pathways for the discharge of and autonomic) of of impulses into the perfect at muscles. whereas ference After all.
Before entering upon practical grouping. it may perhaps clarify the reader's view of the situation instincts to as point compared of out certain peculiarities of human Comparison commonly with those of the animals. Our analysis of emotion will have naturally led the reader to anticipate that in discussing instinct we must repeat to some For we have considered already. there are possible classifications of emotions and instincts. human solely child begin his life career of these with a capital made they up hereditary as achievements. extent points which we have insisted that with our our intimate way As many we emotions instincts. or personal. be regarded of which merely rough is attempts as to classify phenomena to warrant knowledge yet too imperfect dogmatic this rough assertions. lower animals they comprise substantially the sum total of being they form the foundation its abilities. as defensive or aggressive.216 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY to give the These organism instinctive and capacity reflex activities serve many to meet of the more important and in certain of the situations to which it must adjust. and as our complex. they have been grouped as social. remain which he throughout his life dominating factors from derives the larger part of his more enduring motives. In the human upon rep-which is built all that individualistic adjustment Not only does the resented by his personal experience. At as egoistic or altruistic. For example. are knit up in the most pointed out in the preceding chapter. and that the higher " It is possess supposed animals . Human Animal Instinct. derived. present attempts the commonest is probably that which to bring together instincts which are primary and grouping as relatively simple over against those which All the divisions must are secondary.
James and others maintain. instinct is much more plasticity of human Indeed. contrary is nearer Undoubtedly any animals we have highly perfected instincts than which find in Certainly neither the child nor remarkably elaborate instinct it the adult displays any as such that shown by the young On the spider in the construction of itsfirstintricate web. variation from one animals.INSTINCT 217 appreciably more instincts than however. Even reflex acts are some of them susceptible to appreciable alteration. familiar. does that man. many an instinct may either because opportunity at the appropriate be stamped out and disappear. man so Neither in so blind nor in the animals. seems to be the fact that men have more rudimentary than any impulses of an essentially instinctive kind animal. however. the truth. are instincts invariable in their operation as is sometimes nor supposed. other hand. into by painful The tendency given some a to peck chick. a Professor statement more man. or is followed the young painful consequences. experiences. Any may may developed be temporarily.If those supplied be taste or strongly burning coated with be gravely acid substance. chick to follow moving with some by objects an disposition of is one which cultivated. the instinct may disagreeable be disarranged. and practically all exhibit marked In the higher individual to another. for its development is lacking because its first expression The time. the losses away Commonly promptness if it be not the maternal hen offers such and object a chick's instinct is forthwith last indefinitely. has a strong objects. again. because of its variability there is littleappreciation The . at small or habit which stincts inof the less fundamental inhibited even permanently.
Others express or their distress by movements of hands a face. and with This is simply to say that tiip tomorrow.cleanliness. observations abundant confirmation Notoriously. which in children and sions. pugnacity. angry. curiosity. The reactions are embarrassment yet they same may vary cause circumstances which essentially of the instinctive kind. instcompared with the animals. others tend to babble speechless when Tennyson's brook.218 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of the really instinctive character of many forms of human conduct. Some people. rarely or never embarrassing awkward situations. parental love. and to suggest the following Professor James gives working grouping. and widely in different individuals and in to the individual at different times. play. From the latter he evolves sympathy and indirectly moral indig- . acquisitiveness. sympathy. Still others are overwhelmed rush of words. shame.modesty. another one instinct is of a very general and ill-organized type. and hunting. self-assertion. list: vocalization. Some persons become on frightened. love. resentment. of marked embarrassment by blush. repulsion. emulation or fear. jealousy. rough " Let us return now to the attempt to list of the a more important human instincts. anger. rivalry. imitation. MacDougall recognizes instincts to flight.and the parental instinct. adolescents often tend to ill-mannered and rude expresbe made One of these reactions may today. constructiveness. but are rendered dumb however. secretiveness. and own the reader can no ci summon his of this statement. sociability and shyness. selfabasement. Human make a like Instincts.pugnacity. The common expression is blushing. probably all human are decidedly from more variable. some individuals flush grow when others pale. curiosity.
distinguishes more certain primitive tendencies. Under servativ instinct appears as anger. migration. (b) those which provide for the continuance of the race and for the family. . foundation of daily life. Watson. finding their most definite expression in sympathy and the so-called tender emotions in general. Some. which another grouping Pillsbury has recently recognizes (a) "those instincts which preserve accepted the life and provide for the welfare of the individual. to do more of the the purely physiological have The others. sleep. with the instincts which appear Still the general fruits of experience. play. of behavior. rest. Instincts of mimicry. These are are more properly the primary group. of a with maintenance psychological of the body. construction. and of defense and attack. . He under its defensive related to distinctly social and speaks thus of the instinct of conservatio form as involving fear and its aggressive form this conall its modifications. vocalization belong to less sharply marked Kibot which groups. upon which built the complex tendencies.INSTINCT 219 nation." overlap two or even three of the groups. are definitely racial situations. as the sex. in his recent study the obtaining of food and locomotion. appear plicated relatively late and are then comnot only but also with earlier. and the various forms of non-sexual personal affection.lists shelter. with its various derivatives. like the sex instincts. gregarious He regards habits. character. such as pity. and (c) those which make for the welfare of the tribe or Evidently some of the instincts will of the social unit. On the foundation represented by these three fundamental groups he would base all the other instinctive and emotional traits. to as minor instincts those leading toand to reproduction.
to uncover be satisfactorilycarried out. then a if it can classification like that of Ribot or MacDougall. If one wishes the distinctly genetic phases of instinct. the value of any of these proposed is really dependent upon the particular interest classifications or purpose which it is designed to meet. would be best. as in the life of the individual. and the anger-fear reactions. instinctive equipment to meet these demands is represented in hunger. Superposed the successful adjustmentto demands upon acter of this char- of situations calling for effective social relations and leading speedily into the group centering first in the family and then in the tribe or social unit. the sum we total representing a rude balance be. There is mentioned added advantage in this type of classificationin that it lends itselfrather readily to use in connection with the an modern Man evolutionary conceptions of mind. At one between those impulses which tend to foster on the one the purely personal interests of the individual. whatever is the group that may point or another in this series will for each of the instincts which be found the justification have noted. and tion The from the assaults of climate and animal enemies. forms. then such a grouping last is likely to be most convenient. the earliest protecexigencies are those which relate to food. has undoubtedly developed. If one desires into the foreground those considerations which to throw pertain most distinctly to the evolution of society and its as was relation to the individual.220 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY As has been suggested. thirst. Presumably life of the race. and hand on the . rest. In the process of evolution his mental as well as his physical organization has been developed in response to influences which are partly in the physiological and partly social. like out of simpler antecedent other living creatures.
on apart from rational control. and thus tend to survive when instinct their less fortunate companions disappear. The the to is helpless without cannot individual group. conceives built up out of the accidental conjunction in forms are sufficientlyuseful so that of reflex acts which in the are the animals possessing them at an advantage struggle for existence. the great function of voluntary action is to introduce a rational organization of these see a even in raw instinctive tendencies. really come individual. the one (1) English The theory. and it necessarily carries with it the further assumption that many of these accidents turn out unsuccessfully. so that neither they nor the animals . Of these we may mention three. but. which reflex with the name connected as is perhaps most often in of Herbert Spencer. " Theories of the Origin moment we shall first describe probably which enjoysthe largest following. At the present of Instinct. the doctrine provides for the possibility that many of the lower animal forms may be very meagerly supplied with mental powers. As shall later chapter. indeed. and his own without the the It will throw some light upon the general problem of instinct to survey for a important theories regarding moment certain of the more its origin. This view has to attribute the establishment of instincts essentially to accident.INSTINCT 221 to which other those of the social group we he belongs. On the basis of this view. always evolutionary an be approximate grounds balance there must between obviously those instincts which tend to exploit the individual tendency at the cost of society and those whose social group is in the opposite direction. intelligence plays no necessary part in the original establishment of the instinct .
222 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY as thus endowed are survive. this difficultyis perhaps grave. is then apparently obliged to that the entire series of steps in a complex instinct sprang into existence at once (forany single step taken alone may be useless). be relatively useless. that certain of these acts. The instincts in accordance with which wasps and bees construct their nests and lay up food supplies may reasonably be cited as instances one's it strains of the type of difficultymentioned. A more are serious extremely one concerns the fact that instincts elaborate and acts. Wundt the conspicuous that instincts voluntary arise out of acts originally intelligent and in character. The is that acquired other well habits may they are established that these assumptions are so gradually become transmitted by heredity. is that intelligence of the kind expressed in volunone tary action is an attribute of the lowest animal forms. next (2) Among The theory is that of lapsed intelligence. to Inasmuch occur accidental well known both in the structure variations and in not the behavior of animal very some forms. In any and this seems event credulity. These habits are then transmitted offspring innate. Both vigorously challenged by scien- . any consist of one a series of relatively complicated taken alone. being extremely and being oft repeated. most psychologists adherent is probably It assumes of this view. useful firmly to as and so appear in the younger generations Evidently this theory involves two fundamental assumptions The without which it can hardly be made plausible at all. may of which. highly improbable. If the preservative value of instincts is adopted one to explain assume their existence. get themselves established as ingrained habits.
Indeed. how- for assent to the doctrine of the transfer of acquired characteristics. intelligence may influence in the conceivably exercise some selection or elimination of certain phases theory makes no developing instincts. experiment The matter is stillunder active discussion and at the hands of zoologists. urging are ever that only spontaneous preserved and transmitted by variationsheredity. to very The severe second in particular has by the been subjected group arraignment great of biologists who doubt or disbelieve that any characteristics lifetime are acquired by an individual in his own ever passed on by heredity to his offspring.INSTINCT 223 tists of repute. Meantime. demand. But it . It rather aligns itself in this matter with the reflex theory. because it can make use of the selective of complex influence of intelligence in picking out groups of useful coordinations. M.e. It has one a great advantage over the latter theory in that it is in position to explain the slow building up instincts. be kept alive during the period when instincts are being slowly and more or less accidentally built up. theory of organic selection is represented amon^ It maintains psychologists by Professor J. by aiding in the in its attempt way that it is.in human which adjustments the organism to accommodate its life to the exigencies of its surroundings. The of the plastic ever. Baldwin. (3) The that consciousness is probably organisms. organisms may. By the assistance of these rudimentary forms of intelligence. in the view of this theory. and we shall have to await their final verdict. makes of value in justthe i. same present and in the very low and it may significant even be assumed to be beings. the theory of lapsed intelligence probably enrolls a much smaller number of defenders than the reflex theory..
224 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY obviously differs from the reflex theory of intelligence even possible presence animal life. On the basis of ligence the firsttheory. and although we any developed capacities of voluntary control. there may and violent refusal to accept it. consciousness present. relatively late point in animal individual. intelligent control comes in at an early age to modify these inherited forms of behavior. " In the general process of evolution any particular generation necessarily carries over from instinctive forms of beancestral conditions some .and in assigning such intelligence an active and indispensable part in keeping the species alive during the period when According in recognizing the in low forms of useful instincts to the last two are getting themselves lished. and is by most observers believed not to be the fact. we must look for the appearance of intelat a Clearly if we we evolution. then. So far as concerns ourselves. That inherit the acquired habits of their children ever of our parents be. we can only admit that in the primary while instincts and reflexes are dominant stages life history. In diately the normal child the act of nursing will occur almost immedislikes after birth . was remarked earlier in the chapter. There are many as evidences. that instincts may be definitely modified and controlled by voluntary action. never has competent Instinct and Intelligence. and stage the outcropping we evidences do not find we do find early encounter at a very of definitely volitional processes. but if the child for any reason be also overt the taste of the food supplied it. turn to the life history of the human the beginning find from unmistakable of reflex and instinctive acts. estab- of these theories intelligence is developed in parallel with the instincts.en proved.
value. as become so to threaten the life of the species manifesting organs On the other hand. the instinctive sympathy forms of suffering. . indeed. and in the measure temporary conditions fail to call out particular modes of instinctive behavior. but also because they furnish perand powerful motives to lines of conduct which are because both individually and tive racially indispensable. Undoubtedly tion the broad general functimes indicated. to mention group these traits is to whose removal name a of instinctive tendencies texture radically alter the whole of our would social fabric. there is always a chance that they may gradually disappear. are are them It is.. to disappear they only likely wholly when pernicious them. to- of instincts is that already many wit. the instinctive interest with many only in acquisition. such instincts at times positively harmful. of its environment As soon begins to arise about the effects of as knowledge the in objects can the environment upon the organism.INSTINCT 225 or kavior extant which are either partly entirely useless under circumstances. control may gence intellicome begin to act and voluntary or displace the unaided to supplement Many only human in guidance of instinct. The instinclove of the mother for the child. we know that disused in which contend to atrophy. probable that some of Clearly. the adaptation of the organism to the crucial features in advance of its individual experience. not instincts are still of the utmost of the direct service which they render in sistent advance of experience.
synthesis of all the preceding mental
is essentially a analyses and descriptions of
The prime purpose of all sensations, operations. imaginings, reasonings, and feelings is to acts of memory, enable us intelligently to control our conduct. This power
parlance generally called of intelligent control is in common will. It is not the view of the present writer that the mind has any special faculty properly to be designated 'will.'
is this term
to be understood
entire mind when considered as To think is in a very true sense
is to will. In a way,
applicable to the active directive force.
posely recall pur-
intentionally is to
analyzed and volitional processes, but it is
of distinct practical advantage of problems whereby
special group the
that still remain.
and maintain control over our muscular movements and thus become able at will to give expression to our thoughts, our wishes, and our decisions. There are
also certain large general aspects of volition and character intimate analysis and description than which merit more they have hitherto received.
movements obligation to explain the existence of the muscular involved in voluntary action. From the beginning
life these movements
the psychologist may
responsible for some in which these uncontrolled
tions, coordinaeffective IV, to which ing outstandcontrol,
the reader may
In Chapter sketched
features of this process and
observer watching the progress of a baby's mastery of his muscles (as in learning to grasp an object which he might well remark the following stages:
sees), (1) A
first period in which
all the muscles
of these being inside.1
outside the body,
of the larger muscles slowly emerge. is very imperfect and many useless movements included.
controlled The control
(3) A final period in which skillin making
is achieved and
the essential fall the superfluous movements
coordinations may be taken on at any time, so that the three stages inevitably overlap, but any given act
pathways pre-formed here referred to movements
system. the type. non-instinctive mainly of by the pressure of the stimuli coming
reflex paths, fixed
substantially these phases in Gaining omits
complete control. Factors Mental
ment. of developunanimous All events.
to the exact
of these psychic
of acquiring control, and to subside and busy itselfelsewhere, as the coordination is All are also agreed that sensations gradually mastered. but the quesand ideas are employed in gaining motor skill, tion
employed that it tends
disagreement. be most
it will perhaps
helpful to the reader if we sketch briefly one widely held view and indicate as we proceed some of the objections to it.
Let it be understood at the outset that the main points have to deal with are (1) the nature of the mental cue
is called forth when a particular movement which desired, (2) how this cue originally got its power to serve
which characterize "being learned and
is (a) the period when a new movement (b) the period afterit has become reasonably and (3) what forms of mental control
to supervise series of movements employed instance, as are used in piano playing.
Let it also be understood that we have no obligation to explain the fact that sensory and ideational states in general lead regularly to motor This follows consequences.
of the sensory-motor emphasized.
circuit, which has do have to explain
is the fact that
particular sensation rather than
idea is followed
also be remarked
there exists some into competition
idea fails to elicit a movement is that blockage in the neurones or that it comes
to the impossibility of ascertaining
in the child's mind
obliged to fall back
study. of the
behavior of adults when acquiring new motor coordinations. important differences Obviously the two conditions present many but we must make the best of the situation. Part Played by Sensations and Ideas of Movement.
of the voluntary muscles, however caused, produces kinaesthetic sensations and is apt to produce other is raised, we feel sensations too. For example, if the arm
likely also to
about the origin of voluntary action maintains that we are so organized that by calling into mind the images of the kinaesthetic sensations aroused by any or spontaneous
elicit the movement
control waits, then,
of movements recalling the
kinaesthetic sensations repeated. Movements
already easily when they produce changes in some object being attended to. A child looking at a red ball is fairly
to notice the movement
in by which his hand comes littleby littlethe various muscular
coordinations will be mastered.
This view maintains further, that as control grows, there is a speedy displacement of kinaesthetic images and sensations (called'resident' by James, because they arise in
moved) in favor of images and sensations (called results of the act, rather remote') reporting the objective
fact of movement.
thus serve wish to write may to guide the hand, the kinaesthetic imagery
entirely absent. Whether this general theory reader must
try to determine
with the facts the
Criticism has been principally directed at two points. It is said (a) that as every kinaesthetic sensation is caused
occurs a after,
it is irrational
to the general
that the sensation,
principle of habit to its image, can again bring
If effectiveat all, it should call and
succeeding movement caused its appearance.
It is further asserted
at all, are
kinaesthetic elements, if
to other kinds
of sensations and ideas, and that they probably enjoy but is imputed to them as any such primacy rarely, if ever, by the theory we have been considering. Any mental cue,
' ' Then backward. try eyes and write the word echo ' incomprehensibility.' long like See what a word sensory and to initiate imaginal the use and control movements. material you
similarly some relatively novel movement, done before. Men can easily experiment
cues mental you employ Be to make sure some
the necessary the with
be used to elicit a movement, it is alleged, may provided it has of circumstances combination only that by some It is become associated with the latter as its antecedent. generally added by defenders of this view that 'imageless thoughts'
as follows: certain general aspects of the subject rence. will an act is to foresee it and actively wish its occurimplies having some To foresee a movement representative
of it in the mind.
of it,until we know what it feels like, and this we cannot The learn until it has occurred in some accidental way. impulsive movements original spontaneous, afford justthis
information, and the memories of the movements their results afford the indispensable mental representatives wherewith
of wishing and willing their recurrence. Where interest is centered in the muscular movement its own sake, as in some gymnastic feats, we probably
kinaesthetic sensations and ideas as the chief medium of On the other hand when the interest is in the control.
of the act,
of the occupations
doubtless make predominant use of other indirect forms of control. Whether more children always begin their processes of motor learning with the kinaesthetic
of daily life,we
hardly fail to play
adult there figures in only Any
is gained, in any
cue (1) Any (2) The kinaesthetic cues first used movements are the memories of the accidental spontaneous cues stages of motor and their results. other forms speedily sharing this duty with them and after a time tending wholly to displace Ideas originally altogether disconnected with movethem. Kinaesthetic images may well operate the are same the cues called them at times in fashion. II. 1 For an interesting see hypothesis Principles to this fact.232 AN an a INTRODUCTION TO to a PSYCHOLOGY through may associative window nexus given movement. at the beginning our justas in motor Reverting to the three points mentioned may of this discussion. Probably in the early largely employed are more learning. Chapter XXVI. Two quite different ideas or in order to air out the room.1 tendency of all such mental is equally clear that in coordinated be the original and this may factors. one firstexplores a pocket a as when. one and the same open may obviously lead to very different reactions desiring to find a coin. Vol. One in order to look down on the street. The thinks the evidence quite clear that in some the kinaesthetic image of a movement actually serves author cases to reinstate the movement. and then desk drawer. the kinaesthetic sensations serve for movements quite different from those which forth. potent But other forms of sensations and ideas control. as like skating. James' of basis of explain the neural Psychology. we summarize follows : position as sensation or idea which has become associated as its antecedent may as the mental serve with a movement for its production. Moreover. On the other hand it series of movements. idea thus lead to the same act. .
may any or all serve the controls. when point catches and makes blot. only in the margin of the field and then becoming focal. If we result of tion studies of the process of habit formainteresting group of facts has been " of Motor Learning. when some on new a difficulty arises which the pen requires adjustment " e. and during and then seem there considerable periods no either to make accompanying made The advance or figure 51 represents a which we actually to go backward.ELEMENTS ments may OF VOLUNTARY serve ACTION as cues 233 thus come ultimately to for their production. hour by hour or day by day. The control may be. carried now of attention. an brought to light. or the activity will go adrift. word or as or the pen. and generally is. in graphic form the progress by person telegraphic many once messages. upward-pointing line making a straight of representing an angle of forty-five degrees . learning to send and receive Similar curves are available for It will be seen other types that the of accomplishment. the kinaesthetic sensations from the sound of the pen on the paper. ObjectiveStudies many experimental in adults.g. that even effort is substantially constant and when ostensibly the difficulty of the task is also approximately when our we uniform. instead at curve. As a arrange to measure. Writing affords an excellent illustration.. Sometimes now go very rapidly than at others. (3) A series of movements once initiated may go on with cases there must relatively little supervision. we do not progress much occur more at a constant rate. The sight of the the hand. the rate of progress we made in the mastery to a find. of a new impression. but in many be constant sensory direction. contrary common accomplishment.
51. The lower horizontal during training was which " number time. and before profitable advance made in the using of such paths. The vertical line the of words which could be sent and received per unit of from Bryan (Modified and Harter. Such a region is These are zones during which no spoken of as a plateau. of motor which pathways the as nervous definitely Apparently system comes point many new at has assimilated it is for the moment can capable of receiving. learner was as measured by no ment. then falling back again. line represents the number of weeks in progress. It would be a great mistake to suppose that no growth FIG.) in skillis going have. there seems to be no reasonable reflect a genuine part as of all familiar learning involve there the attainment a as especially such dexterity. to be sure. and at two or three points presenting roughly a level region.234 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY with the base line. sometimes shooting rapidly. plateaus. there must be an be appre- . achieveobjective more performing rapidly at the end of the period than at the beginning. under occasional ideal conditions they may question be minimized. advance was The being made. on during these days. Some experimenters But called in question the necessity for such whether or not. that they processes. is extremely up irregular.
muscular a 'different course be wise. Various opinions have been entertained regarding such matters as the length sons and frequency of practice periods most desirable for perlearning to play a musical many instrument. Effort in Learning. proficiency most quickly. it precept" . We have already had something with memory.ELEMENTS OF VOLUNTARY ACTION 235 ciable time for the sinking in and crystallizing of the new After these have become firmly established. but particularly in such as we are here considering. An interesting " tion corollary of these observations has to do with the distribuof effort and time in any process of learning. in which motor coordinations are being established. by practicing too long and too blunders in the opposite direction. conceived in a large lating way. When blunder to say about this matter in connection In general. but evidence is rapidly accumu- deep-seated among prejudice which strongly suggests that very much briefer for many are periods of practice than have been customary At the present moment no one purposes advantageous. a new set may then Distribution of be built upon these foundations. howmay is rapidly growing much that a in a direction which experimentation would to confirm effect recent psychological men the dozen often for one who it comes to a question of increasing mere power. The problem. connections. as will be indicated in a may later chapter. There is a music teachers that the length of a practice only limitation to the advantageous period is set by fatigue. how many sets of tennis really knows in any precise manner best be played each day in order to secure a maximal ever. it may be laid down as reasonably upon precept certain that while "line upon line and is morally wholesome doctrine. The judgment of experts. is stillin its infancy.
but these regions be of effort expended There of tangible outcome. .236 AN not INTRODUCTION as TO PSYCHOLOGY must be understood meaning that judged by objective will show are sure achievement an equal amount flat regions familiar conditions. in the learning curve under are each hour to almost all the themselves preconditions of subsequent rapid advance.
in the previous chapter. and the tary volunThere is another apparently built upon them. Volition thus establishes organi237 . which seem more mention. and Instinct. Attention.CHAPTER XV WILL. it AND CHARACTER urged that we find acquired voluntary acts coming in to help out the short-comings of The instinctive acts hereditary instinctive equipment. Choice. effectiveuntil we have control them our competition among and instincts. however. will. decision. Volition. can competitor hold attention firmly. by two or more arise were there not would impulses nature duct of the case one or other must give way. choice has occurred and the movements expressive of the decision will take place at the in accordance with the procedure sketched proper moment. seems and those impulses and ideas which succeed in gaining our into action. unless conis to be paralyzed. but the necessity for making not possible alternatives. deserves the relationship. and in the two or more stimuli. our was Early in this book appear earlier and thus are acts phase of primitive. " veloped Volition in its de- forms involves choice among These choices cannot be made of the muscles. persistent attention are forthwith translated Willing is therefore in the last analysis a psychologic When only one process of attending. Attention is simultaneously appealed to by instincts. INSTINCT. in the fullest sense to arise out of such circumstan of the word.
and relentless struggle to try and keep the expressions of it within reasonable its bounds. Instinctive one tions certain of these rela- Persistent in Chapter expression XIII. As was is undoubtedly anger. and Many individuals will instantly resent the implication deny the truth of this assertion. looking at the tion situafrom the other side. man and that the evolution of character in is essentially his a process nature. the result is a one-sided. it is desirable that we consider for a few moments of instinct to volition. should At all events. Neverof the social group. few probably frequently stimulated and which more larger part a in determining human conduct. to furnish the most serves Indeed. it is not too much to say that all the great persistent types of human purpose have their roots in instinct. few human emotions. of symmetrical some one development instinct or of instinctive Where group of instincts succeeds in dominating and it may all the others. as well random taneous spon- movements.238 AN INTRODUCTION TO as PSYCHOLOGY among our zation among instincts. and religion and ethics alike have condemned manifestations except in a qualified way in connection with issues involving there Civilization has carried long the welfare are instincts which are in the gross play theless. pointed out of the earliest of these instincts to find " Influences. flabby character. It appears or on the slightest provocation whenever appetites on a desires are thwarted. less to organize instinct. Or. and will then take names . But if one are that irritation. instinct no If volition serves imperious motives to volition. exasperation. annoyance remembers all for rudimentary forms of anger. character. the absence of a proper development of certain instinctive traits may produce a weak and be a vicious.
brief suffice to suggest statement to the reader a as they are. altogether at least.thanks to the conditions of civilized life. very has made the truth of . Fear. to mention na be seen that the other phases of the case. war The German this sentence method of conducting doubtful. Physical fear is. may be almost in which wholly abolished except as in that vicarious form.a far less frequent experience But if one takes a few centuries ago.WILL. These considerations. and in some normal the is this So much part.1 than it was emotional into account all the anxieties that connect precarious themselves with ill-health. and in keeping alive tant to the pursuit of a disthe vividness of interest necessary and difficultend. each of which plays an human life. envy and instinctive motives. INSTINCT. may perhaps that instincts play the essential truth of the dominant part in determining of voluntary conduct. the motives however. AND CHARACTER 239 the trouble to trace emotions. the human tions. 1 to be brought more definitely into the foreground. of personal affections. Turning a from these more egotistical instincts to those of more generous great group the come upon socialized type. is one of the earliest and most persistent of jealousy. again. we of so-called tender feelings. it will at once human lives in a most shadow of fear still hovers over course very genuine way. One other aspect of the case ought.with and with the social and economic prospects. it survives anxiety for the welfare of others. affec- and love and sympathy important part in every cases an case and pity. the plausibility of the assertion will be recognized. predominant that in certain highly organized individuals fear. such as the similar rudiments in many other and moral indignation.
illustrative of the general truth under discussion indifferently involve emotions which characterize somewhat
nitely defiall periods of life. Certain there are which are more periodic in character, belonging to particular stages
period is generally characterized by a much vivid interest of the sexes in one another than is met parat an ticulars earlier age, and of a character in some
quite unique as compared with that which has gone before. This type of interest, once developed, may extend
later life, but it is apt to be most
and clearly takes its rise from the radical changes in the bodily organization which occur at that time. As compared with either anger or fear, this
in its earlier stages
instinct is evidently periods and
definitely limited to particular to particular situations in life.
similar episodal character is the love of the mother for her child, an instinct which obviously -can have no full
in the earlier years of life and which may with Despite pass largely without expression. childless women incidental character of this impulse, there is the somewhat development
in the whole capable
of the human
of the life of
of instincts which
tory, particulars transia
periodic character. Intellectual and Aesthetic
instinctive basis, which
Thus certain of definitely intellectual ends. are said to have strong scientific interests,
be called the out of curiosity, or what may undoubtedly hunting instinct in its intellectual form, the play instinct, tist and the instinct of construction. Probably no great scienlived who did not feel an overweening inquisitiveever ness about the field in which he worked, who did not have
of the thrill of the hunter close upon his quarry, did not find the pursuit of his science presenting all
the thrill and
of with something instinct called out by the
lectual purely cold and intelwords, carry on his work, however it appears to the outsider, with much of the fervor and heat of the primitive animal impulse.
Similarly the artist responds in his professional work to frankly of the more group of motives which are even
listed in the catalogue
of beauty, nor would reference to the sense it be possible to include in any single term all that is involved in the constructive artistic impulse. It involves
the play instinct, it often involves something of imitation, it involves strongly the tendency to self-expression, it has in it much of constructiveness, and it is saturated with appreciation of beauty,
artistic production and
of nature, of that of others. But
individuals the impulse
for artistic constructio
predominates it is in
vestiges of these
other motives, and that native. No doubt all of us intellectualisticand artistic
impulses, but viewing
in the large, such motives
to control and
had in mind in speaking of of volition as involving organization and
instinctive propensities will perhaps
tive obvious than before. Certainly on the negaside it is clear that a life dominated by impulses of an or case anger antiof fear would create in the one
impossible character, and in the other a morbid individuality. Over against such one-sidedness and craven be set the extreme may sentimentalist whose entire life is soiial and
Such persons are tion. a deserving religious or the curse of many ethical instituUnder the cloak of a fine and pure altruism they
spineless and flabby tolerance for things is the intrinsically intolerable. Not unknown
render less distressing is the occasional person
inflated with vanity and self-esteem impossible all ordinary social relations. But
afflicted with self-
self-distrust,and timidity as again to render lessly normal participation in the business of society hopeimpossible. Even fine an instinct as that of so
pride and affection may
be exploited to
of ridicule to all
These instances will surely sufficeto exhibit that which is involved in a reasonable balance of our instinctive equipment.
describe with precision wherein such balance if not impossible. But consists would 110 doubt be difficult, on the other hand there is no particular difficultyin dis-
in any marked earning the lack of balance when it occurs degree, and it may obviously arise, as has been said, either of the exaggeration of one or more of the instinctive groups, or from the suppression, partial or complete, of The history of civilization exhibits the process others.
the ordinary individual has which, littleby little, to develop such an his instincts equilibrium among
organization of the social structure.
essential to the life of a will differ decidedly from the group
of primitive hunting
that the group
quite different demands
of life, and upon instinctive traits from
quisite of those rethat both will
those needed in a highly organized industrial community. In each form of life the great motive powers which move the individual are found in these instinctive springs, but the particular
cultural stage may
economic and well be quite different from that essential
best suited to
and the Sources of Our Controlling Interests. view has been presented in this chapter that to will "The is, psychologically, to attend, and that in the process of Volition
find the crucial features of volition. In connection with this doctrine it remains to add further consideration, to wit, that the direction of one
attention is largely determined
by interest. In
recognizes that the mind tends to dwell most topics of interest. This persistently upon fact, when that translated into terms of conduct, means
tend to choose those lines of thought and action most to we these interests. When attempt compatible .with interests, catalog and classify the general range of human
find that the predominant and most widely distributed varieties center in our racial instincts,upon which we have
Side by side with
which we share with all our fellows, e.g., interest in in power, and in social prestige, is to be food, in warmth, placed a group varying from individual to individual, but
derived from and
i.e., such tastes,
personal family heritage in
certain to be individuals
repute peculiar capacity which by common down by inheritance in the family of the person
This kind of thing is likely to escape attention unless the talents involved are of a somewhat unusual Nevertheless, the genuineness order. of the facts can hardly be called in question. Here is a child early manifesting concerned.
marked interest in music and decided ability in that it will be found that one direction. Often in such cases
frequently the quality can be traced back through a long inherited predispositions of this kind is Around ancestry.
likely to grow imperious
set of interests which
in their control
be quite as vidual of the indi-
of the more strictly racial tendencies. So far as the individual himself is concerned, interests of this character are quite as innate as any of the more purely
instinctive kind, but it is clear that they represent
unknown specialized group of traits which for some have developed in a particular stock and are in in general. degree common to men
striking than these
talent, with their accompanying
of inherited family intellectual and emotional
but well authenticated instances of the occasional outcropping in a given person of remarkable tastes and abilitiesin no wise to be discovered in any of
of thing represents in what is, no doubt, in lesser degree true of element of individual variation, carrying
with it peculiar abilitiesand interests in no literal sense to be found in any other individual. The genius is conspicuously of this type. Perhaps the commonest example is represented
by the appearance
of marked intellectual interests intellectual talent in the child of wholly
then, that the controlling interests of any individual may derive from one or more of three different
individual variations, representing in nervous and mental organization what the botanists and zoologists call a 'sport/ be that is to say, a variation which cannot at present explained in any ordinary terms of inheritance. As the individual grows and develops, these centers of interest are into relation with one another, and necessarily brought
sort of organization
is established. Certain interests,
of interests, gradually tend to attain mastery over the others. It must not be supposed that this statement implies the opposition of one to a whole as group The controlling system have in it another group. may
and it is often extremely from groups difficultto distinguish influences emanating
it Little by little,however, respectively, to pass that there is established a certain system which our daily life is passed.
The direction. and perhaps more. as if not all. whose rational justificatio sooner or is and one later urged upon us. many have been disposed to admit the essentially instinctive character of both. forms of imitation. and obstinate facts of the physical. they are born with. Some we to acquire. or as moral principles. the one highly na'ive. sant to the incesFrom earliest childhood on we are subjected pressure appear as of social customs. history of their origin. we seem some. attempts etiquette the individual is flout these usages outcast. barriers beyond financial world create rugged and which we cannot pass. however. essentially reflex and other more characteristic of early childhood. Although there are at least two. tive An interesting instance of the way in which our instinctraits are molded by social influences is exhibited in the facts of imitation.of the forms of social intercourse known rests upon imitative activities in which obligated by social pressure to follow the pattern set by The occasional social anarchist who to usage. or speedily finds himself an established in the unenviable category of the social freak.246 our AN INTRODUCTION as TO PSYCHOLOGY interests merely The such enjoy a free fling in their own cultivation. But in a sense. the whatever within us the eternal -well- springs of our energy and activity. Certain it is that our mastery of most. which on their higher levels law. which the development of our conduct and character takes is essentially determined are by this great nucleus of interests. social. In the thousand are eccentricities of local or national usage we our thrown upon a back for purely acceptance unrational of the established practices to the effect that "all mandate . the psychologists reflective and purposeful. and within which we are obliged as desires and ambito seek fulfilment for our best we may tions.
but as maturity is gained way they rapidly lapse into the background. more giving to other forms our of interests connected moral definitely with social and relations and with the growth . AND CHARACTER 247 well-bred people do it. that as soon of command as this motor control is established we proceed forthwith to make our muscles the tools for carrying out our aims. it will be seen that the early stages of development of voluntary control are necessarily directed to the gaining over the muscles. is determined those and of these purposes in the firstinstance by the urgencies instincts and appetites. From " Muscular to Intellectual and Control. In the early stages of life.WILL." To defy one of these mandates is to exclude one's self from the walks of polite society. Why should one lift his hat to a gentleman but only to a a lady in America the use ? of a of a fork in polite circles in the United States. INSTINCT. Looking back over the materials of the chapters. These questions be exactly reversed for men? but to violate the dictates of the have no rational answers. and neither in high nor low circlesin certain parts against prejudice of the Continent ? Why should gentlemen in Europe wear their hair short and in Asia long ? Why should ladies wear skirts in Europe and trousers in Manchuria ? Why should the usage should one entertain steel knife for the purposes Why . interests which immediately are most related to our The character bodily comfort and sustenance are in the foreground. in Germany. They never wholly lose their significance for us. for securing aims of our ends. several usages involved is to reap a form of social whirlwind enough which few persons are curious or courageous Development Moral last two to experiment with. while no such prejudiceis entertained in lower circles in this country.
Not the least important of the features of this later stage of our development is our The the process of thought itself. . the line of conduct selected is carried out by the muscles almost automatically.248 AN our INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY of general intellectual life. control over growing littlechild is quite incapable of sustained reflection. The for disciplined adult is able to give himself if necessary hours at a time to undiverted thought upon his own future This gain in power is primarily a gain in ability conduct. When to hold attention to a process of thought. a decision is reached.
Main Facts of About ingenious experimental among physiologists no the extended and investigations of sleep. and the pressure in the entire body is lowered. Cermay be mentioned. to autonomic are nothing activities of the system. whereby the vegetative processes show clearly that neural of the organism maintained. but the presence say periods. Despite The must. be quite ineffective. with which our dishitherto dealt. PERSONALITY AND MULTIPLE Over against have cussion experiences. of dreams of the and of certain of the reflexes. there is still as to its causes. general features of the phenomenon Although in sleep the central nervous system is clearly less excitable than during waking mistake to think of it as in any Sensory stimulations which in waking conditions would produce sensations may. kind is excitation of some in progress. DREAMS. A common view is that sleep is to be regarded as an instinc249 . it would be a sense completely inactive. During sleep the blood vessels of the brain are relaxed.CHAPTER XVI SLEEP. are properly to be mentioned our waking certain facts about our sleep which occupies the other part of lives and which is characterized by a peculiar form that we call the dream. HYPNOSIS. in sleep. complete agreement " Sleep. dogmatic statements which are often made about it as therefore. be understood expressing the opinion tain of individuals rather than the final verdict of science. consciousness of its own.
the course of air. too. Experiments have made conditions the depth an it quite certain.250 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY tive reaction. The sleep. which is favored by conditions of moderate fatigue. a sound. has recently urged that represent the expression of suppressed wishes all dreams . But once the dream is started. the chill of a draught the like. such as presides over our trains of waking thought. Freud. that under normal of sleep. of quiet. which it takes is apparently principles as with memory control from any commonly associacontrolled by much the same tive have previously described in connecwe tion and imagination. then falls very rapidly until between an the third and fourth hour. the - pressure or of the bed clothing. the Austrian psychologist. although no be able to induce it in a given one of these alone may instance. of habit. the waste There seems to be no doubt that during sleep of tissues which goes on during the waking period is repaired. and of expectancy. and there is good evidence that the cell bodies neurones of the are restore broken down certain of their substances which during waking. after which an extremely slight sound may " cause awakening. as measured to awaken by the power of auditory stimulus the sleeper. diate diversity of opinion regarding the immecauses of sleep is reflected in a similar divergence of ing opinion regarding the continuous presence of dreams durDreams. is attributed to the rapidity with which we forget them upon awakening. but under littleor no definite purpose or intention. Undoubtedly the commoner absolutely dreamless sleep probably frequent inability to recall dreams view today is that Our does not occur. There is littlequestion that the stimulus to the beginning is often a sensory of a dream excitation. increases for about three-quarters of hour to an hour.
indeed. definite physical changes under excessive cells undergo in which certain of the tissues contained within them are used up. as mentioned above. On the other hand. and the blood is invaded by poisonous elements thrown into it by the action . be thought of as essential to many of growth. Certainly no one can secure hard and well disciplined muscles who does not use them to the point of be a very fatigue. that the nerve use. which and given realization in the dream could otherwise gain no hearing. Thus the convictions might altogether prevent indulgence overtly in acts which in this more or less bolic symform are freely cultivated. and any type clear. Similarly it has been shown that the muscles under fatigue become clogged with waste material.SLEEP. " Whatever can dreams. DREAMS. Freud many symbolic and ately those immedibelieves desires and wishes are cherished imagination. Fatigue. not AND HYPNOSIS 251 which moments. Experiments have made extremely serious matter. because of their hostility to the one's ideals and moral of prejudices the waking mind. Fatigue is a perfectly normal phenomenon. over-fatigue may of experience which robs us of sleep for any considerable period of time is likely to be it fairly disastrous. one dares He frankly confront during also believes that the particular the dream waking ideas and images in which is embodied are often represent suggested that in this way situations quite other than by the images themselves. forms and may. there be no of sleep and question that sleep is essential for explanations the the repair of the physical and mental exhaustion coming from work. The dream thus dream offers a field for the fruition of a great group of impulses and desires which the inhibitions of society and of moral training exclude from waking experience.
with approximate correctness possible to ascertain the length of the intervals during which one can work intently to advantage. an severe physical activity is itself tiring. which may For the average person an of sedentary or as life.252 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY recuperaof the body tissues. if one It is often said that the only day. if one by disproportionately one's is to regain periods of original freshness. One can inperiod of time under pressure. Under normal conditions the tion from fatigue is prompt and complete. The resting interval should be occupied in a way to furnish a minimum diverting and Mild physical exercise is good. Conditions of Effective Work. Most a long individuals organize their daily lives in too haphazard manner to make this matter of work and rest of any great consequence. producing of mental exercise and this of a unfavorable operation. and also the length of the interval of rest best follow upon such occupation. Evidently the highest " efficiency implies such with a combination of periods of work accomplishment periods of rest as shall enable the maximum compatible with the maintenance of the organism 'spurt' for a considerable in robust condition. hour as two can labor is likely to be much is to work without respite. but such spurts are evitab followed rest. needed is a change to some best experimental evidence does not confirm this. of really concentrated be profitably indulged successfully day after rest which is then But the other form of work. but recreative character. engaged upon intellectual tasks. strongly effect upon The any immediately of succeeding mental quite best studies and fatigue indicate are that mental physical fatigue in the last . a This is another way very large part of saying that they waste It is quite of their time and energy.
Production " Hypnosis. and in the evening. which can by the expenditure of effort be changed. to be so brief as to leave one still feeling dull and tired. in the afternoon. DREAMS. Some . are It goes without extent a saying that these peculiarities to some subjectto training. can It does mean. This does not for the ordinary individual is incapacitated work altogether at any that some particular time. in the persons some accomplish their best work some morning. semblin particulars closely reword suggests. is a state in many sleep. the which.SLEEP. and on the other hand it ought not to be so long as to oblige us to start at the beginning in 'getting up steam/ for it is a common any observation that in undertaking It is serious task there is a period of 'warming up/ obviously period as in the interest of efficiency to abbreviate this much as Pillsbury and vary possible. normal the sleep to But ordinarily condition of hypnosis. has attracted wide scientific attention in Skilful operators can transfer a person in recent years. methods for producing hypnosis. condition is induced by special processes a hypnotic which result in throwing at first resembling the waking patient into a tion condi- There are many light slumber. The of sleep and dreams leads naturally to a subject few comments sciousne upon certain other variations of normal conwhich are of interest. other investigators have as shown viduals that indiof the day mean considerably regards the time when that they work to best advantage. AND HYPNOSIS 253 The length of the interval of rest ought not analysis one. and that what one a a appears to be preference for be only result of in point of fact of these periods may habit. however. as of Hypnosis.
" Perhaps the most striking condition is the patient's remarkable In susceptibilityto suggestions given by the operator. a if left alone. bright held object subject following the directions of the operator. and a very considerabl into the deeper forms of be drawn can number Whatever all have in the common detail of the procedure. methods some common be at least slightly affected. soothing stimulus. Others have pressed on the palm Once a has become accustomed to of the hand. of the fixation of the eyes wont to employ earlier operators were little above the bridge of the involve a fairly pronounced nose. in a certain degree to the waking life. the the fixing of attention upon monotonous. As in normal sleep. occasionally making gentle passes with Many over the hands down the arms and trunk. Practically all normal persons who desire to be hypnotized can by one method or another. From a deeper sleep lasting for an this sleep he may ordinarily be aroused by the command of the subjectmay operator. upon some a or the flashing of light used the ticking of a metronome. or up after Suggestion in Hypnosis. A and if possible. the him any simply become slightly drowsy and then arouse again. who assures from time to time that he is falling asleep. device is to 'talk sleep' while stroking gently the brows of the patient. almost signal will serve to bring on the hypnotic condition. or he may sink into indefinite period. if the attempt is repeated often enough. but fail with others.we are all feature of the hypnotic subject we effectsof suggestion.254 are AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY successful with given individuals. he will generally wake littlewhile of his own initiative. If are told that a speck high up . hypnosis. from rotating mirrors. so that to look at it would Other operators have at times strain of the eye muscles.
cult (1)(b) Similarly it is not diffihypersensitivity of sense produce perception. though our very a likely to what we are told. in Hypnosis. even thus stimulation be painful. as we have intimated. Indeed. But in hypnosis this in any literal sense as they really are. to may . (c) hallucination. loss of (3) motor. become increasingly susceptible under repeated hypnotizIn describing the more it conspicuous phenomena.SLEEP. or burned. even In not a flying machine. (b) hyperaesthesia. and they tend also to ing. (a) paralyses. i. (2) amnesia. so that it will not be moved even if cut. (a) anaesthesia and analgesia. post-hypnotic effects. (b) catalepsies. (4) memory. The back of the hand may be rendered insensitive.. AND HYPNOSIS 255 we in the sky is can see an aeroplane and that by looking sharply we are detect the wings of the machine. normal suggestibility is much exaggerated. may be understood then that we are which would not necessarily present individual in the earlier hypnotic experiences. as be illustrated either in visual or cutaneous stimulation. and is ordinarily confined to the words and acts of the operator. in the extent to which vary very much they are affected by hypnotic suggestion. DREAMS. the sleep is brought on by a process which People is essentially one of suggestion. easy (l)(a) It is ordinarily insensitiveness to contact to produce by suggestion though the with the skin.e. Symptoms We may roughly " describing conditions themselves in any one group the characteristic phenomena under the following headings: (1) sensorial. had occasion to remark which we see and hear are we the be object bird and discussion of sense perception that the larger part of the things perceived in accordance with the rather than suggestions given to us by the physical objects. pricked.
Again. but this is usually all. or whether he simply gives verbal a assent to the suggestion and his adjusts conduct to fit the circumstances as the operator describes them. he will ordinarily trace the outline of the fictitious suggested agree. (2) There is great subjects occurred. like calling cards.256 AN a INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY the skin of the forehead. and if a pencil be put in his hand. during the .however. the coin be pressed upon individual can normal generally perceive the objectas If circular in shape. he after the cards are shuffled.pick out the original with individual. but it is generally accepted that in the deeper hypnoses at least they may be encountered. if. and can. he may object. it is difficult good many whether in every such case the subject really he alleges. upon tree. be shown of fifty to the hypnotized if a pack individual. obviously subsequent hypnosis every detail of complete be recalled. there is usually almost The memory a preserved. the degree to variation regarding which upon being aroused from the hypnotic sleep different recall what has gone on. a precision far excelling that of the ordinary To make this test it is of course essential to have the critical card marked experimenter on side in to identify it. but after deep hypnosis. The hypnotized person may be quite able to give an approximately correct report of the design on the coin. he be asked to note one in particular. the reverse some way to permit the tions (l)(c) The evidence about the production of hallucinais somewhat ambiguous. If the be presented with a blank piece of subject paper a upon which he is assured there appears a sketch of being asked. plain cards. that he actually sees the tree. Moreover. because in the experience may forgetfulness of what has of the period is.Despite to be sees sure what forms of control.
(3)(a) One of the which is often used of genuine hypnosis most a as easily produced definite symptom move results and one of the presence the voluntary a is the inability to muscles. is often freed from the distress and suffering for a considerable length of time. A person suffering from morbid assured in hypnotic sleep that dreads on or anxieties. it be suggested that the upon will subject recall a particular circumstance awakening. a fashion the muscles. will remain for an astounding length of time (3)(b) In the same rigid and a tense. are (4) Amazing many of these peculiarities of hypnosis. if put into not given position. cannot you open your enough. The therapeutic value of hypnotism has generally been regarded as depending largely on this feature. At certain point in the oncoming of the hypnotic sleep the operator says: 1 'Now eyes". when these mental awakening disturbers will not be encountered. it is practically certain to be remembered. The most scientifictreatment of nervous and mental trou- . and sure struggle as he may. Under strain quite beyond these conditions they will sustain their normal capacity.SLEEP. AND HYPNOSIS 257 sleep. The stock exhibition of this phase of hypnotic phenomena consists in stretching the patient out with head and heels resting on This two chairs and the rest of the body unsupported. the patient finds that he cannot lifthis lids. achievement is quite beyond the muscular powers of most individuals. DREAMS. the suggestion being added that they canbe moved. the ability to carry over the effectsof suggestion into the subsequent waking life of the is even more subject striking. but under hypnosis considerable weight may be added to the body without destroying the own subject's as muscular resistance. especially those of the eyelids.
but the victim of the experiment is fairly certain to turn up provided ingenious with an account of the subject Moreover. in other ways. and often without any consciousness on the part of the patient that he is executing commands which have been previously given to him. if not all. We cannot enter this type into any detailed explanation of the reasons Suffice it to say that gotten for this change more of procedure. In general the until it comes seems to happen certain. out of ten the patient and the fish will be forthcoming at the time and place set. For experimental purposes a common tion type of demonstrawould be illustrated by an operator's instructing a ing patient to return at a certain hour three weeks later.258 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY upon here bles. Not only so. the of the phenomena encountered appear to hinge upon severing of the marginal portions of consciousness from the focus. formance may be carried out without suspicion on the part that he is serving the cause of an experimental demonstration. however. The psychological explanation of these post-hypnotic suggestions is not at all clear. The lasting results are point here is that suggestions ing given during hypnosis are often carried out after awakenin the most remarkable way. and this focus appears to be determined by the The operator. of is not today made dependent direct suggestion. the whole perof why he has come. bringlike a basket of quite improbable object. and all that can be said briefly is perhaps that most. with him some fish. although in many cases what is that the suggested idea begins to grow itself from the time it is first and develop and justify implanted to fruition. Odd as it may in nine cases seem. practical effect of the situation is to explanation of hypnotic behavior is far from .
Many physical powers. which have been and magicians who successfully repeated by stage jugglers lay no claim to anything but cleverness and prestidigitation. Such restrainmodify and control the subject's ing ideas being absent. which to normal under enter conditions would behavior. Meantime. AND HYPNOSIS 259 eliminate the ordinary inhibitive influences of opposingideas.1 Trance many Mediumship. there is no question at all that are certain individuals. . they have been found dependent clever tricks of one kind or another. that of the professional mediums fakes and charlatans.SLEEP. such as the ability without physical contact to lift a table. perhaps victims of hysteria. pass from a considerable proportion time to time into less oblivious to a or condition where they become more impressions and either ordinary sense verbally of some purport by writing express the thoughts and sentiments 'spirit control. the carries out by his subject actions the thoughts which are thus left in possession of the field. DREAMS. in the air. but it does not follow that the alleged clairvoyant and telepathic powers which these persons often claim have any basis in fact. " This condition of hypnosis sents pre- similarities to the so-called trances of the itualisti spirAlthough it seems to admit necessary mediums. It is 1 No inexperienced may person should attempt to hypnotize. the trance condition is undoubtedly real in a certain number of these cases. Serious harm be done. In practically every and hold it suspended these pretended case supernatural capacities have where been upon laid claim to supernatural carefully studied.' Under these conditions they information and advice regarding matto convey ters or of which of them have they are themselves entirely ignorant.
260 AN INTRODUCTION that not TO a PSYCHOLOGY fair to say. for the few comments He which can make upon distinguishes successive and simultaneous alterations of personality. few men standing. Few more of abnormal interesting phenomena have been studied in modern psychology though than the so-called 'multiple personalities. before he may have been a somewhat now lethargic person of of equable temperament. he is extremely active and . however. so certain conflicts within our essentially abnormal characters suggest in a very rudimentary way nings the begin- divisions of personality. that it refuses to appreciable body of well-established evidence calling for belief in telepathic or spiritualisticcommunications. whether as between living people or between the living and the dead. the patient may wake up some to find that he has entirely forgotten all his morning Whereas previous life. In the successive form. It is equally fair to say that the great opinion recognize any is quite of another scientific of competent kind. Multiple Personality. his name along with the rest. nor by the communication to mind through language or other physical mass signs.' Alin the last analysis the several varieties type and all reducible to a common of hysteria. have been quite convinced of high scientific Prothem the late fessor that some cannot of the knowledge possessed by the trance mediums be explained on the basis of our ordinary methods of sense of ideas from mind perception. " Just as the phenomena of experiences of every which are perfectly normal human being. and perhaps foremost among William James. the division suggested by are are ably probis all symptoms Alfred we Binet convenient the matter. dreams. lead us out gradually into phenomena of an kind.
but the reader may with history of great delight to himself follow the dramatic one they certain sense difficultto frame any another. memories of the secondary state disappear wholly or almost wholly. and throughout the introduction of two or three more similar personalities. whose another struggle of characters differ from one to secure constant in the most radical way. weeks months The he to his original character. In the case of the simultaneous multiplication it is as though these successive states perof sonaliti in were some fashion telescoped upon readily understood picture of how this kind of thing may go on. AND HYPNOSIS 261 irascible bent. control over the one speech and conduct comes person. Subconscious Processes. It is extremely one such case in Dr. His memory processes go back only to the beginning of his attack. of quite hidden from access the others. of the afflicted Sometimes out are of one ahead. Suddenly. but from accurate. at least.oftentimes disappearing entirely from his old haunts. and sometimes the other. " These cases of multiple personality of all varieties exhibit in the most the extent to which striking way They operate. The memories to some. reverts that point some on or they may be entirely later on. subconscious processes may all tend to suggest that the divisions underlying these . so that in a co-exist side by side. DREAMS. Morton case Prince's a Dissociation of a Personality. and often he succeeds after a time in getting back to his old home. He starts in to build up a new somewhat life. In each state he may find himself more or less completely cut off from memory of the other alternating states. This type of alteration may occur again and again it may be complicated by a long lifetime.SLEEP. In this there is the several personalities.
Obviously elements represented in the margin may in no true sense a be really lost to the organism as quite completely excluded from whole. example perfectly good of this type of thing. there may of the disturbances connected central from and off what as a the peripheral regions of our then may goes on in the margin consciousness. get itself split type which are of subconscious activity. the bell was notice the striking of the clock. "Who is there that has not become so preoccupied when on the home that he has gone far past the proper turning way point and been obliged to retrace his steps. more things under or absurd consciou of our habitual activities. we do the most may -attention less subthe guidance. but they may be by the focal parts access of the mind. only to find himself operations is a the result of carrying out the necessarily begun in the changing of his attire. cutting completely vent ordinarily preadrift from our actual surroundings. . be a severance becomes highly intense. represented reading that In normal when we we conditions this type of thing is become so absorbed in what we are and yet five or feel quite sure time. The stock instance of the man who goes upstairs in the early evening to an to put on evening dress preparatory in bed as invasion of society.262 AN INTRODUCTION are TO PSYCHOLOGY with the distinction between the If concentration focus and the margin of our awareness. These instances one and all tell the elements same story of the part played which by the marginal our in too our awareness. 'come later we may ten minutes to' and did not notice it at the that although we actually do not heard. In the same way if our is keenly preoccupied.
its established modes of social behavior. a Identity of the Self. as of character. There is deep-seated popular conviction. them I 263 is undoubtedly the fact of memory. In any event. that the self continues in some to moment from moment and from way unchanged year to year. with its rational principles of conduct. the developthroughout of life. its cherished ideals. materials in order to gain control over We have noted the part played by instinct and feeling and emotion in determining its fundamental attitudes toward this environment. resting perhaps as much on tradition as on any intuitive or reasoned certainty. recall today and again . although certain of their interconnections have been pointed out. We growth. Now it behooves us in conclusion to dwell for a littleupon the personal The whose self. contributing an to this conviction many of the persistence of and ranking high among identical self are in importance can factors. We have found the mind to be an use of sensory and ideational activity making adjustive its environment.CHAPTER XVII THE It has been necessary elements of human SELF thus far to deal with the several behavior to some extent independently of one another. and we have observed something of the way in which motor coordinations are built up out of the raw material are habits of uncontrolled movements. experiences " we have thus analyzed. until adequate finally established fitto cope with the exigencies have remarked one of its great all this process of ment practical results.
so play a velop naturally and without much reflection to dein myself. speculations have furnished doctrine concerning the perdurable which philosophical impressive an character ligiou and rebody of of the soul. like the derivation of the word knowledge (con-scious-ness involves a a over personal against " something). knows presumably the same instant at the to instant. may motor elicit the that I a come feelings and same reactions. My anticipations also sense of sameness the same part. claims its own More subtle though no interruption had occurred. for again and again there recur same desires for the which ends as yet unattained. a knower. tion convic- tends distinctly to confirm this widespread of a persistent identity in the self. Another fact doubtless contributes to the total result is my fairly dim and vague. . is the contention that the very notion of consciousness. awareness own constant. subject. form the basis of malign mental disease. its hold upon the interrupted any form out of the past and goes of events. on pleasure pain determined What we have and wills the action been describing in this of the mental book is this showing a simply the content states of such knower. and. which report the bodily the mind stream on as normally resumes of unconsciousness. who moment. occasion great uneasiness and distress. similar the on them may very and the memories of both occasions. Finally. if profound.264 tomorrow AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY the events appear same of last year. from agent. though of my The importance organism. of this consideration is suggested by organic the fact that any serious disturbances to us in the conditions. the particular idea present or feelsthe upon. Not may least striking among immediate forms of evidence the more is the fact that after sleep or sensations.
forty years of age is better informed than the self of four. the organic to the 'mind slowly to be but none likely also the less certainly. It has very different memories. Character viously at these different stages is apt to be widely different. Two should. and yet we speak of it unhesitatingly as the same tree year after year. however. therefore. however. certain facts which cannot be easily reconciled to this view. abilities.THE SELF 265 of Self Identity. and prejudices too. and it reports sure. be noted. There are. or even than that of fourteen. from is different in almost every particular from the acorn which it grew. the cases and plastic the self may All things considered. it is also true that we for- Objectionsto the Common Idea " much. ways as the physical go body to changes some in very extent are marked the years sensations by which to change " by. If we of the self on must be frankly identity going to rest the unchanging its retention of its own it past in memory. Ob- different tastes. a Continuity of the Self. While it is true that we remember get much of our former experience. we sesses must recognize that such identity as the self posby is probably not altogether of the type assumed and be. It has a continuous lifeand . cumstan additional cirpopular tradition. of dissociated multiple personality described in the previous chapter serve to show how flexible Furthermore. are for many admitted that the identity is only partial. despite the existence of a core of such desires Obviously the self at which may remain fairly constant. portions of one's experience fade out and cannot be revived. Desire and anticipation similarly change and develop." There is (1) undoubtedly respect continuity in the life of the self which is in one common-sense The oak tree like that possessed by all living organisms.
that he knows and feels this continuity as the plants and do not. one of the great outstanding is that they characteristics of normal mental phenomena tend to cohere into connected personal groups with systematic Intelligent processes of principles of organization. to but beyond of life man obviously enjoys. as stages in the evolutionary of a the adjustment of living mind to the shifting winds cumstan cir- Unifying very Tendency sense of the Self. We must precisely what is the actual content of the individual's idea of the self both in his own person and in others. As long as it conits boundaries and to grow. genuine despite the facts of dissociated personality and despite lapses in moral behavior. it is always expanding thoroughly its possessions. It rather renders such alterations intelligible. This continuity many of the animals presumably of experience change. Again " there is (2) a in which the self may be considered as an of our organized unity. indeed. While never at any one time then a completely the self perfectlyunifiedaffair.266 AN we INTRODUCTION TO our PSYCHOLOGY this fact however season recognize in manner may widely its appearance and from decade to decade. This will lead us of the problem . be impossible were adjustment case. unifying and possesses and intrinsically tinues organizing tendencies. as continuity this is the fact does not for more a moment preclude growth and rigid and staticconceptions of personal identity seem to do. Despite the fact that many experiences are lost from the mind through forgetfulness. of speech vary from This same about season it. organizing more Thus far we have dealt only with certain general aspects from popular of the self as this emerges inquire more now tradition. this not the would.
It may be alleged reasonable confidence that the consciousness of the self does not appear ready made. beings. but that it is a result of There seem to be fairly good a slow process of growth. On every side he is thus surrounded by influences which tend (1) to draw his attention to personality. also taught him and gradually he begins to read into them correct and adequate meanings. are in more some ways variable and vastly responsive to the child's appeals. as manner as soon wholly unique.THE SELF 267 to examine briefly the conditions under of self develops. perthe best and most interesting patterns afford much for imitation. Such imitation repeatedly brings agreeable and exhilarating results. and speak no which (2) as a of himself question There can accordingly be that the definite consciousness of self appears amid social relations . It is his by personal pronouns are The exclusive proprietorship. of the early distinctions remarked by the child is that between persons and things. while unreliable. and they minister to his comfort and the satisfaction of his desires in a Moreover. least significant in the use of language is the fact that the child is referred to by a name and no other person or of the And not thing shares it. Perhaps most important by persons to the emergence contributions made of the idea of the self is the gift of intelligent speech. Persons more on the other hand. in their modes Things are relatively stable and uniform by the child's desires. by of behavior. They are unmoved reasons for believing that one his gestures or his cries. as concretely embodied in other human strongly impel him to think and person. sufficient motor sons control is obtained to permit this indulgence. of the Idea " which the consciousne Social Origin with of Self.
of the face or figure as it appears in the mirror. The self-conscious person is likely . 'good fellow. as the case may It may occur attitudes of depression or elation these conreader that there are many ditions designated in terms of 'self experience to which descriptions are Self-conceit. Not surmise infrequently it is a concept of the esteem in which one this case it is likely to be closely identifiedwith descriptive 'cad. In the second or place so far as orts-qctually feels self-confident. a distinctly social phenomenon.. to the ness self-confidence. for some persons find quite a To think of the self is apparentl simply to get a visual image available.self-sacrifice.self-consciousOn these and many others will suggest themselves. rather than to specific mental experiSuch are self-confidence. " these instances two comments are to be made. In man/ by emotional accompanied be. self-distrust. Later the idea of self in life when on we introspective evidence is more variety of factors reported. In the first place several of the terms apply tribut ordinarily to general at- ences.' 'able built upon one's is held by others. quite inapplicable. of character. " What particular content is at this point employed to fillout it seems very hazardous to allege.' verbal ideas. one's directed to the idea of the self at all. One who feels selfbe contemplating an act to be performed confident may consist simply in the absence and his self-confidence may of anxiety and worry. thoughts are not necessarily self-conscious. self-sacrifice. e.g. Again it may involve the awareness of the organic and kinaesthetic sensations which indicate bodily attitude and condition. Content of the Idea It is from the first of the Self. self-conceit.268 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY and in response to social incentives.' 'fool.
There is one differentiation of the idea of the self which is based upon actual differences in behavior to which reference In the complexities of civilized life should be made. but there may and awkward only the most remote inconveniently reference to the idea of the self. The same man even may at home abrupt.THE to be afflictedwith an SELF 269 his own cheeks thought of vivid awareness organic discomfort. the mind is only incidentally and occasionally engaged with the idea of self and only now and then attentive to the 'I' complex attention of organic or to this complex other sensations. be considerate. A constant is one of the symptoms of a The to the a morbid temperament. severe. blushing be in his gestures. gentle and affectionate. The manager harsh.must accordingly the unacceptable doctrine that one as is always such. outsiders may well suggest very divergent types of charin the officeat the mill may be gruff. conscious of the self be called upon to build up very different habits of adjustment to different surroundings. It appears therefore that whatever may prove in a given individual to be the content of his 'self experiences. thoughts and feelings all belong more or less unified experience of neurotic and not fact that continuous one's and be confused with self. his trembling knees. His companions and encounter at the club may still a different person defini be multiplied quite inthese variations of conduct may himself For each of these 'selves' the man is likely to entertain a distinct 'self idea. although somewhat that in his own the chances are appreciation the several selves differ from one another far less than appears . and so it may as observed by come about that the deportment of the man a man may acter.
im- personalities. but all of them. his selfhood. emphasis There upon penitence compelling with a is. In morals as in law the individual finds himself treated as a responsible development and through agent and is here again projected therefore his personality. one's forms of is perhaps especially true of the estimates one the selves of other men. in other words. The get their in the course specific content of the individual's moral his reactions to the rewards and punishments meted out to him by society. In history and literature a few of these great here the mystics. types have been recognized. the seers. Types of Personality. Moral " upon and to religious ideas exhibit peculiarly significant relations ideas of right and wrong the self. Religious experience goes even than the usual moral Being dividu experience in that it compels the into think of himself as in relation with a Supreme become by may whose character is such as his own and struggle. But at present such descripbe more than rude impressions of individual cannot observers. others gentle ascetic souls. some the poets and of them pulsive fiery. peculiarly the idea of companionship of the most interesting tasks which the psychology of the future will have to face is that of delineating the various typical forms in which " perfect self. with a gift for vision as against the prosaic . We meet dreamers. into the foreground of his reflective in this respect further attention. Moral and Religious Influences the Self. very apt to be colored by regard for one's social position and attainments. and this possessions.270 AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY to his intimate of this type are Self ideas acquaintances to be the case. "One personality tions reveals itself.
. When these methods are thoroughly assimilated into our educational look for a vastly higher order may procedure. and with varying powers of adequate expression for their insight. and our psychologists are doing of methods of mental than their share in the perfecting for determining the special combination more abilitiespossessed by each individual. Sometimes to fervor and this trait is married emotional tension. ticularly of human important that society be in a position to identify and exploit the useful individual variations which are often hopelessly submerged and lost in the rough-and' tumble Once / get located in special jobs. to stand out boldly Meanwhile we are only justlearning how important it is for the ultimate welfare of society that each man shall be placed where his qualities fithim to serve best. sometimes it is embodied in cold calculating find the great leaders of men. man no doubt has in him something of the various elements represented by all these great types. methods by which men nuigo through life. the religious leaders who succeed in awakening temperament. Then we The average the spiritual devotion and confidence of men.a sance settled down. Then there are processes the scientists and scholars with a religious conviction of the worth of plodding care and the paramount value of facts. by aggressive capacity of hand or brain. but they exercise a less imperious sway over him and are conjoinedwith capacities too weak and commonplace " from the mass of humanity. we of human efficiencyand we may hope for a much higher average now It is parhappiness and contentment. the misfit may to himself and a dead loss to society. the military and industrial geniuses who compel by sheer force of personality.THE SELF 271 of tedious reasoning.
The whole book.272 AN " INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY doubtless prepared to reader is now different points of view the appreciate from how many be approached are the probself may and how numerous lems The Summary. . few this chapter we of the considerations bearing upon prevalent among it presents. which the reader will find most fruitful for both his practical and his theoretical interests. In have a examined the ideas of personality occidental peoples and we have familiar and tangible tried to outline some of the more of the elements to be discerned in the consciousness of self. however. is nothing but a sketch of the means and methods by which intelligence organizes conduct and develops character. The result of this process is the real living taken in its entirety at any given moment self.
Requiring for many more of the Experiments elaborate apparatus: E. Dewey. E. Titchener. L. Titchener. Psychological H. Elementary Experiments in Psychology. views presented supplement.) E. C. 273 . Introduction to Psychology. from Modern M. Briefer Course. Elementary Course in Psychology. Sanford. Experimental Psychology. M. Wundt. Textbook of Psychology* R. S. Manual of Laboratory H. C. Ogden. no apparatus : Seashore. Langfeld and F. (Requires few for a elaborate apparatus experiments.) MANUALS FOR EXPERIMENTAL EXERCISES Requiring C. W. Psychology. B. W. J. Angell. Manual of Psychology* E. A System of Psychology. H. Yerkes. G. Calkins. Chapters Psychology. Stout. (Requires some elaborate apparatus. Pillsbury. B. Outlines for Experimental C. 2 Vols. Laboratory Psychology. or tinctly dis(b) asterisk and selected because in this book. Principles William James. A Course in Experimental Psychology. Analytical Psychology. S. Fundamentals Psychology. Thorndike. H. W. John Psychology. 4 Vols. Allport. E. General Introduction. Breitweiser. Outlines of Psychology. R. G. Elements of Psychology.BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL The PYSCHOLOGY list contains (a) a few standard treatises marked with an texts they differ from. J. Outlines of Psychology. T. M.* of Psychology. B. Qualitative in different volumes. F. treated are and quantitative problems two being for use by students and two for teachers. Judd. V. Witmer. Psychology. Ladd. Introduction to General Psychology. Descriptive and Explanatory* R. Psychology. Requiring chiefly simple apparatus easily obtained r Experiments.* of Josiah Royce. Introduction to Psychology. (Trans. Psychology. Knight Dunlap. H. Hollingsworth.) L. Judd.
J. Psychology of Religion. Integrative Action of the Nervous Psychology. Psychology. Inter- F. B. James. Hall. C. Children Gordon. Donaldson. Outlines of Psychobiology. Mental Social and Ethical pretations. Ames. S. Nature C. Ziehen. H. Talks to Teachers.) Physiological Psychology to the Study T. of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY in the Child Mental Development J. Stratton. Judd. M. C. H. to Neurology. I. System. Adolescence. Comparative of the Brain and Psychology. W. Ladd and Physiology J. A. E. Sherrington. Baldwin. Kirkpatrick. D. (Trans. Ross.). Pratt. Source Book W. McDougall. Educational Psychology. N.) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Development. Fundamentals Child Study. Cooley. Wundt. Body and Mind. K. James. C.. McDougall. Boas. M. S. 2 Vols. Comparative Primer of Physiological Psychology. H. Elements Folk Psychology W. Loeb. Psychological Study of Religion. E. Varieties of Religious Experience. Leuba.274 BIBLIOGRAPHY PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND NEUROLOGY H. (Trans. Growth The of the Brain. M. I. Freeman. King. W. E. of PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE E. Colvin. The Psychology of Religious Belief. Psychology of the High School Subjects. Social Psychology. G. S. Common Branches. J. Thomas. J. Introduction Physiological Woodworth. to Social Psychology. of . Principles W. Baldwin. A. Introduction W. Dunlap. of Social Origins. Development of Religion. S. S. The Mind of Primitive Man. Process. of Physiological far thus one volume only published. Starbuck. Human and the Social Order. of the and the Race. The Psychology the Religious Life. Psychology of Religious Experience. Wundt. Herrick. How Learn. K. H. of (Trans. Introduction W. The Learning Psychology F. J.
Hypnotism. M. PERSONALITY HYSTERIA: MULTIPLE AND A. Psychology of Crime. Coover. Hypnotism A. Psychoanalysis. Development Intelligence of in Children (Trans. Mental Examination Methods. Alterations of Personality. Kitson. Hollingsworth. Experiments Psychology. ETC. A. Goddard. Sleep. Miinsterberg. in Business. Binet S. Interpretation (Trans. F. Thorndike. Fact and Fable in Psychology. and Psychotherapy. J.). D. Freud. Psychology (Trans. 275 (Trans. The Unconscious. A. of Sidis and Goodhart. E. VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Human W.BIBLIOGRAPHY E. Religion and Medicine. 3 Vols. H. Its Causes and Consequences. W. M. I. Meumann. DREAMS: SLEEP AND S. Therapeutics. TELEPATHY. The Major Symptoms of Hysteria. H. Vocational Psychology. Dissociation Personality. Prince. Educational Psychology. Starch.) of Dreams M. P. Experiments T. Hygiene and Psychology. Moll. Experimental Psychology and Pedagogy in Educational D. of Learning R. Bernheim. Its Physiology. and Laws. Suggestive : PSYCHOLOGY A. Prince. How to Use the Mind. Jastrow. de Manacelne. Spiritism and Psychology. Schulze. Psychical in Psychical Research. MeComb. D.). Business Psychology. Research. R. Worcester. L. Binet. Scott. F. L. Advertising and Its Mental Simon. AND H.: SPIRITISM. ABNORMAL PSYCHOTHERAPY HYPNOSIS AND H. Adams. Feeblemindedness. H. Forel. Psychotherapy. of . Jastrow.). and Coriat. Janet. Clinical Psychiatry. I. H. H. Tanner. Studies in Spiritism. Brill. Pathology. J. J. Miinsterberg. Flournoy. E. Increasing Efficiency Psychology Advertising. H. Diefendorf. Franz. Multiple Personality. THE UNCONSCIOUS SUBCONSCIOUS: AND THE The Subconscious. DISORDERS: MENTAL A. MENTAL APPLIED TESTS PSYCHOLOGY. Barrett.
B. M. An Introduction to Comparatiw HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY 2 Vols. 6. Physiology and of the Senses. Galton. Behavior. Psychology (Trans. of Animal H. T. Jennings. and Woodworth. M. of H. Rand. REASONING : Monographs. The Classical Psychologists. The Senses of Insects. Mind in Evolution. W. Holmes. ) of Reasoning Dewey. Whipple. B. Forel. Watson. Terman. E. L. E. B. E. M. S. Evolution Intelligence. The Measurement of Intelligence. B. extended No. Pillsbury. Social and G. L. Physiological Psychology. S. L. Mental Measurements. F. I. COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY A. Economy and Training IMAGERY M. Inquiries into Human Faculty. Has : R.276 BIBLIOGRAPHY L. Washburn. Miller. The Animal Mind. 5. of Memory. Diagnosis of Mental Imagery. Yerkes and Bridges. the of Comparative Lloyd Morgan. Thorndike. Ribot. Thorndike. Binet. Point Scale for Measuring Mental Ability. History of Psychology. SPECIAL ATTENTION : TOPICS IN GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY W. Fernald. SENSATION : Ladd Physiological Psychology. of the Thought . (PsychologicalReview F. Titchener. J. How J. Psychology of Thinking. 58. E. Experimental Psychology . Behavior Lower Organisms. Watt. Psychology. We Think. Processes. Diseases Memory. M. T. Psychology of Reasoning. Pillsbury. J.) A. McKendrick Snodgrass. Titchener. Psychology of Learning. MEMORY : E. B. Hobhouse. Baldwin. J. B. Chapters 4. Instinct and Experience. PERCEPTION : Ladd and Woodworth. Animal Intelligence. Attention. E. Psychology. bibliography. Psychology of Feeling and Attention. Meumann. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests. J.
E. H. H. Expression and Animals. Moore. Ribot. WILL: T. Psychology of Beauty. R. Darwin. Diseases of Will. of K. Sense of Pain and Pleasure. Marshall. T.BIBLIOGRAPHY FEELING : H. Ribot. Washburn. Gordon. The Psychology Emotion. and Mental . Esthetics. Titchener. M. of Emotions T. of INSTINCT : See Comparative Psychology. EMOTION : in Man C. F. Stanley. Movement Imagery. Evolutionary Psychology of Feeling. Psychology Feeling and Attention. 277 Pain. Pleasure and Esthetics. B. E. M. Puffer.
223. atanalytic functions Brain. mixtures. Affection. establishment Chapters IV of. see Volition. Chapter XI. Auditory center. 23. DEWEY. 7. psychology. Choice. 91. Cerebellum. 49j5f. Association. ous nerv- 70/f. cerebral. BRYAN. fig. nature and function Consciousness. DiscriminaDissociation. figs. 7. Chapter XV. 36. Comparative 8. 274. Character. Cerebrum. with of and connection III. 209. Association centers in cortex. tual. Sen- affection. 31. bodily Emotion. Axis cylinder. 218. Anger. affective ele190. 234. 46]^. as Blind-spot. Acquisitiveness. 184. 370#. Alternating personality. 6. as phase elementary of feeling. 74 . 35/. see consciousness. and Cerebral laws association. fig. 87jf.INDEX Abnormal psychology. Chapter V. 160f. After-images. 277. 27. 277. tention. figs. Autonomic system. as ment. trast and theories of. Cutaneous sensations. and tion. abnormal.. Experimental psychology. Deduction. 36. and sensory Color. Accommodation of lens. successive. DARWIN. 31-35. of and Cortex. BALDWIN. complementaries. 22. 203. see Self. 25. Axone. 260. 250. 81 f. Amoeba. peripheral. as affective element. IQOff. 205. Chapter factors in. Child psychology. 92#. Feeling. 279 . personality. 19. structure 70ff. simultaneous. of. Dendrite. 31-35. 195. Ego. Calmness. Cochlea. 190. 92. con- 89/. 273. system. 34/. over. Ear. FRANKLIN. control XIV. 92. Attention. Eustachian tube. 210. figs. intellecAnalysis. Excitement. Discrimination. Dreams. XII. sensations.y relation Coordinations. Fovea. 80. Chapter nating AlterDouble see Brightness personality. Concept. 160 ff. 39#. Aphasia. normal 83. 35 ff. 22. see sations. appearance of to the Chapter III. Color blindness. Disagreeableness as CALKINS. 4.
intelligence. ROYCE. theory selection. KinMuscular see sensations. ness. 99#. Object. aesthetic. 174. and perception. 229 ff. Imagination. 273. Grey. eleaffective 190. 21 ff. 183/jF. as ment. Chapter VIII.. 191. images. definition of. 212.280 FREUD. autonomic. GORDON. Chapter tion rela204. definition of. in reasoning. Fusion. IS"ff. Illusion. Hearing. JAMES. 21 ff. 223ff. RIBOT. personal. Hypnosis. 133tf. and concepts. 277. Race psychology. Sensations. in brutes. HARTER. to instincts. 277. see Identity. Genetic psychology. 253ff. 80tf. Perception. relation action. Iff. 215 ff. Genius. in memRetention ory. 36. Semicircular canals. imagination. sensations of. Introspection. fields of. 205/. and 175/jf. 219. Jealousy. MARSHALL. HO/. of. 218. 243)7- 190f. 72ff . 7. Judgment. Kinaesthetic. 232. VII. sensations of. 159. Chapter XVII. Ideas. 1. 205. 263ff. Rhythm. 118. BrightNerves. and association. 156/. 273. to idea. Chapter VI. sensation. 179/f. system.. 218. Induction. 234. 253. 3ff. with connection 190. its relation to affection. Reflex 120. Reasoning. 277. Hallucinations. 46#. of material LANGE.. see 165/. in Self. of. 156/. Personal identity. to emotion. of sound. 29 ff. Retina. 260. Impulse. function in establishment of motor control. Chapter X . 137. imagination. control. 159/. I75ff. 94j5f. Motor aphasia. Generalization in thought. 171. oblongata. 8. reasoning. Reproductive 158/. Memory. 357. Habit. 118/. Lapsed 222. ISlff. Pleasure. Productive Psychology. Images. 22Qff. 114. 152)7 219. Motor IV. Physiological psychology. INDEX Mood. Chapter IV. Pain. central. theory of. 94j9p. Chapter Identity. 21 5ff. 3ff. Chapter Multiple personality. Sensation. as instinctive. Relaxation. nature of. Interests.. Chapter IX. Imitation. methods of. Meaning imagery. 114. function / relation PILLSBURY.y of . perception Organic of. Psychophysics. 206. 250. 7. as affective element. Instinct. XIII. H4ff. Relations. 8. 204. 138/. Nervous structure of. to volition. Medulla 33. Neurone.
of consciousness. 190. 208.. 219. 178. as affective element. 7. Social psychology. see Sensations. Volition. Thought. 212. Temperature. of 167/. see Sensations. Skin-senses. SHERRINGTON. Strain. sensations. WATSON. see Sensations. Space.y orand ganic. see Perception. Size. of touch. Volition. perception of. 104/f. Sentiment. 274. Subconscious. 190. SPENCER. . Chapters or XIV. see WUNDT.. 108/f. 77tf. 212. Reasoning. of movement. llQff. XV. processes. in reasoning. 222. see Similarity. see Sensations. 130/.INDEX 281 system. Sensations.of smell. Span. 46/f. Taste.... Vision. TITCHENER. apparent \25ff. Touch. association by. Will. 179. 221. of objects. Spinal cord. 112/. Glff. 273. Temperament. Sympathetic Synaesthesia. Time. Twilight vision. 194. 87. \Qlff. see 274. 163/f. 273. 261. scope. 277. sight. 28ff. ture temperataste.
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