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3G RANOP 1

Module 5 –Inter System Handover (ISHO) Optimisation

1 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Module 6 – Inter System Handover Optimisation

Objectives

• Review the 3G <> 2G Cell re-selection process and


parameters
• Understand the key areas of optimisation for 3G <> 2G
Cell re-selection process
• Review the Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• Understand 3G ISHO Service Optimisation (AMR and PS
Data)

2 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Optimisation - Agenda

• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection Process


• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection Analysis
• Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• 3G ISHO Analysis
• 3G ISHO Service Optimisation

3 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Optimisation Process- Goals
• Optimum Cell Re-selection and ISHO performance should satisfy the following
requirements;
• Optimum setting of trigger thresholds to;
• Ensure 3G<>2G transitions are triggered at the correct time to prevent call set
failures and call drops due to 3G coverage/interference
• Avoid unnecessary transitions and minimising associated signalling load
• Satisfy traffic management strategy (i.e maximise ‘Time on 3G’ if required)
• Ensure selection of good 2G GSM target cell in terms of radio conditions (best cell)
• Minimise time delays involved in the 3G<>2G reselection and ISHO processes
• Maximise end user experience
• Achieving optimum performance requires;
• Detailed understanding of the processes and associated parameters
• Field investigation analysis to benchmark current performance
• Trials to investigate potential changes to optimise performance
• Optimum 3G<>2G neighbour plan

4 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G Procedure
• Whilst camping in a 3G cell the UE performs intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-
system measurements based on the measured CPICH EcNo of the serving cell according
to the following rules:
• Serving cell parameters Sintrasearch (12dB), Sintersearch (2dB) and SsearchRAT (4dB) are
compared with Squal (CPICH Ec/No – Qqualmin (-18dB)) in S-criteria for cell re-
selection
• UE will measure neighbour cells depending on how parameters are set (if parameters
are not sent UE shall measure all cells)
• 1 - None (Squal > Sintrasearch )
• 2 - WCDMA intra-frequency (Sintersearch < Squal  Sintrasearch)
• 3 - WCDMA intra- and inter- frequency, no inter-RAT cells (SsearchRAT < Squal
 Sintersearch)
Sintrasearch SintersearchSsearchRA
• 4 - WCDMA intra-
In T-Mobile UK network UE starts and inter-frequency and inter-RAT cells (Squal  SsearchRAT )
T
measuring 2G cells when Ec/Io ≤ -
14dB
4 3 2 1
WCDMA
CELL

5 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G Procedure

UE starts GSM measurements if


CPICH EcNo CPICH Ec/No < qQualMin + sSearchRAT
Serving WCDMA cell
calculation, with
SintraSearch First ranking of all the cells based on hysteresis parameter
CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM)

Rs = CPICH RSCP + Qhyst1(4dB)


SinterSearch Rn= Rxlev(n) - Qoffset1(14dB)
Neighbour WCDMA or GSM
SsearchRAT cell calculation with offset
parameter
qQualMin
No Yes
Rn (GSM) > Rs (WCDMA)
And
Rxlev (GSM) >QrxlevMin (-111dBm)

Second ranking (R criteria) only for Cell re-selection


WCDMA cells based on CPICH Ec/No to GSM
Rs = CPICH Ec/No + Qhyst2
Rn=CPICH_Ec/No(n)-Qoffset2 Cell re-selection to
WCDMA cell of highest
R value

6 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G
• Optimum setting of 3G>2G cell reselection triggers depends on:
• Designed utilisation targets for the 3G network (Time on 3G)
• Desired Call Set-up Success Rate (CSSR)
• Minimising the possibility of ping – pong
Call Setup status statistics for each Ec/No range
100% • As long as the Ec/No is >-12…-
90% 14dB the CSSR is excellent
80%

70%

60%

50%
qQualMin + sSearchRAT ~ -14dB
[%]

40%

30%
• To define optimum re-selection
20%
thresholds it is important to
10%
understand Ec/Io and RSCP
0%
performance profiles for T-Mobile UK
> -4 -4 to - -6 to - -8 to - -10 to -12 to -14 to -16 to -18 to <-21 network
6 8 10 -12 -14 -16 -18 -21
Ec/No [dB]
• Bin sizes important

7 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G

In urban area the mapping has been


found as:
-14dB Ec/No -> ~-102dBm RSCP

Dense Urban Area


Call Setup status statistics for each RSCP range
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
[%]

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
> -60 -60 to - -70 to - -80 to - -90 to - -100 to - -112 to - < -115
70 80 90 100 112 115
Ec/No [dB]

8 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G
• Due to very different fading conditions, it may be necessary to consider different
parameter sets for 3G -> 2G reselection in different scenarios;
• 3G border
• Outdoor, typical outdoor to dedicated indoor (in case of missing 3G indoor)
• Special indoor cases without dedicated 3G where the UE speed is high (e.g.
tunnels)
• For example in 3G border -4
0

coverage environment the -6 -20

RSCP (dBm)
-8 -40
EcNo level can be seen to -10 Ec/No (dB) -60
drop much faster -12
-80
-14
compared to RSCP -16
-100
-18 -120
-20 -140
14:14:52.867

14:15:20.097

14:15:55.097

14:16:30.097

14:17:05.098

14:17:41.099

14:18:16.090

14:18:52.091

14:19:28.093
Time

9 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G

Check levels every 5s UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev


from serving GSM cell
and best 6 GSM
running average (RLA_C) is below or above
neighbour cells certain threshold:
RLA_C  Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P (GPRS)

Compare levels
of all GSM cells UE can select WCDMA cell if the level of the
to WCDMA serving GSM and non-serving GSM cells has been

05.08:This may take up to 30s


neighbour exceeded by certain offset for a period of 5 s:
CPICH RSCP > RLA_C +
FDD_Cell_Reselect_Offset

Check quality
of neighbour
WCDMA cells, no UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's
priorities between
quality is acceptable:
WCDMA
neighbours CPICH Ec/No  Minimum_FDD_Threshold

10 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G
• Re-selection measurements are controlled by parameter threshold to search WCDMA
RAN cells (QSRI)
• This parameter defines a threshold and also indicates whether these measurements
are performed when RLA_C (a running average of received signal level) of the
serving GSM cell is below or above the threshold
• In GSM the UE is usually set to measure the 3G neighbours all the time i.e. Qsearch_I and
Qsearch_P are both set to 7

UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev


running average (RLA_C) is below or above
certain threshold:
RLA_C  Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P (GPRS)

11 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G
• For the the camping in indoor environment the set-up could be :
• Indoor GSM / Outdoor GSM (serving indoor)-> Indoor WCDMA / Outdoor
WCDMA (serving indoor)
• Mobile station measuring WCDMA neighbor only when it is well inside the
building using parameter Threshold to search WCDMA RAN Cells
• The defined set-up can be also used in outdoor environment to push the UEs to
3G as soon as possible from the 2G cell to the border 3G cell

12 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


How to avoid ping-pong ?
• As a general rule the value for FDD_Qmin parameter can be set to –11…-12 dB
(i.e. for the case where the QqualMin +Ssearch_RAT = -14dB)
CPICH Ec/No
FDD_Qmin >= QqualMin + Ssearch_RAT
UE will re-select WCDMA cell in case it's
quality is acceptable:
CPICH Ec/No  Minimum_FDD_Threshold
FDD_Qmin >=-12

QqualMin + Ssearch_RAT
= -14dB

QqualMin = -18dB

t
Camping in 3G Camping in 2G Camping in 3G

• The “rule” to set the FDD_Qmin value Fdd_Qmin mapping


has not been possible to be fulfilled until Aif parameter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
the specification change (05.08 v8.18.0, Fdd_Qmin (old) [dB] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13
Fdd_Qmin (new) [dB] -20 -6 -18 -8 -16 -10 -14 -12
2003-8) has been implemented to the
UEs – as below
13 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Optimisation - Agenda

• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection


• 3G<>2G Neighbour Plan Design Guidelines
• Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• 3G ISHO Analysis
• 3G ISHO Service Optimisation (AMR and PS Data)

14 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter-System Neighbours – Design Guidelines
• Principles for 3G2G neighbour relations
• Neighbouring plan should be kept as simple as possible
• The best neighbours at each point of the 3G coverage border should be in
the list of adjacencies.
• If a 2G layer has a strong interference situation (tight frequency re-use),
layers with less interference could be preferred
• If a 2G layer has high blocking probability, layers with less traffic could be
preferred
• Avoid 2G neighbour lists containing multiple instances of the same RF carrier
• Ensure 2G neighbour plan maximises reuse between cells on same BCCH-
BSIC combination
• Principles for 2G3G neighbour relations
• The overlapping 3G cell should be in the list of adjacencies of all underlying
2G cells
• If the list of overlapping cells includes more than 32 GSM cells, it has to be
shortened
15 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Multiple Instances of same RF Carrier in 2G Neighbour
List
• Dropped in 3G PS ISHO.
• 9 Compressed Mode Activated, but no HO Command.
• During each phase of CM, RNC selects BCCH1 (2 GSM cells in ncell list BCCH1
BSIC29 & BCCH1 BSIC5) and asks UE to verify BSIC, but never receives MR
with the BSIC reported.

1f SC332
EcNo=-13dB, 2G Coverage
RSCP=-
113dBm.

MC to verified the BSIC.

16 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


3G-2G Adjacencies – Design Guidelines

Co-Azimuthed:
3G N3G = N2G + Cell2G
2G

Co-Sited, Not Co-Azimuthed:


N3G = N2GCell1 п N2GCell2 + Cell12G + Cell22G
3G

2G

Not Co-Sited, Not Co-Aziluthed:


Manual Design
3G
2G

17 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter-System Neighbours – Design Guidelines
• 2G->3G: Max # of IS Neighbours per 2G cell (ADJW):
• Max number of 3G neighbours= 32
• However in Nokia implementation to allow the SI2 message in only one BCCH block
the 3G neighbours list size should be limited to 10 neighbours.

• 3G->2G: Max # of IS Neighbours per 3G cell (ADJG):


• Max number of 2G neighbours= 32
• Minimize the number of 2G neighbours to improve the performances Nokia suggest to
limit the number of 2G neighbours to 16 when possible
• If too many adjacencies are declared the cell will go blocked by system with alarm:
• 7761 RNW O/M SCENARIO FAILURE (BCCH scheduling error) in RN1.5.2ED2
• 7771 WCDMA CELL OUT OF USE (BCCH scheduling error) in RN2.0
• Nokia RNC software Technical Note 46 specifies Restriction on number of cells in
SIB11/12 message for 47 neighboring cells (worst case)
• On one hand the SIB type 11 and 12 messages can contain information on the
maximum of 96 cells (32 intra-frequency cells, 32 inter-frequency cells and 32 GSM
cells), but on the other hand the physical size of SIB data (no more than 3552 bits)
has capacity only for 47 neighboring cells.
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Optimisation - Agenda

• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection


• Neighbour planning
• Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• 3G ISHO Analysis
• 3G ISHO Service Optimisation (AMR and PS Data)

19 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Procedure !

Handover Triggering Thresholds set in • Currently ISHO measurements can be triggered


RNC for 5 different reasons
• To measure GSM frequencies, 3G UE needs
Event Triggered Coverage/Capacity (a) dual receiver or (b) Compressed Mode
based HO fulfilled in RNC capability
• Most UEs currently use CM to ‘create’ gap
RNC commands the UE to start during which BCCH frequencies on the 2G
IS measurements periodically network can be measured
• CM introduces a delay which depends on the
Measurements are done in measurement reason and pattern used
Compressed Mode (CM) • Two types of CM measurements; GSM RSSI &
GSM BSIC verification
RSSI measurements and • Methods for implementing CM are (i) High
verification for GSM cells Layer Scheduling (HLS), (ii) Spreading Factor
Halving (SF/2) and (iii) Puncturing
UE reports best GSM cells having • Handover decision driven by RNC using
strongest RSSI results back to RNC measurements made by UE
• Compressed Mode affects 3G coverage,
RNC makes HO decision and capacity and quality
commands UE to target cell

20 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Procedure
RAN Internal measurements Configured UE measurements

UL Quality
Downlink DPCH power UE Tx power CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/I0
deterioration

Initiate Compressed Mode


Configure GSM measurements

UE Reports
GSM RSSI measurements

No GSM cell
meets HO condition ?

Yes

No Is BSCI verification
required for PS call ?

Yes
Initiate Compressed Mode
Configure GSM measurements

UE Reports
GSM BSIC measurements

Initiate Handover
21 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO 3G -> 2G - AMR Signalling Flow
UE Node RNC CN
B RRC: Measurement
Control ISHO triggering (5
RRC: Measurement Report reasons are
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration possible)
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare
Ready Initial Compressed
NBAP: Radio Link Reconfiguration Mode
Commit
RRC: Physical Channel Configuration
Reconfiguration
RRC: Physical Channel Reconfiguration
Complete
NBAP: Compressed Mode
Command
RRC: Measurement GSM RSSI
Control Measureme
RRC: Measurement Report
nt
NBAP: Compressed Mode
Command
RRC: Measurement GSM BSIC
Control Identification
RRC: Measurement Report
RANAP: Relocation
Required
RRC: Handover from UTRAN RANAP: Relocation
Command Command
RANAP: IU Release
Command

RANAP: IU Release
Complete

• BSIC verification always performed for AMR calls – no interrupt in voice call
22 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO 3G -> 2G - PS Signalling Flow
U Node RNC CN
E B RRC: Measurement
Control
RRC: Measurement Report ISHO triggering (5 reasons are
possible)

NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Prepare

NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Ready


NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Commit Initial Compressed
Mode Configuration
RRC: Physical Channel Reconf iguration
RRC: Physical Channel Reconf iguration
Complete
NBAP: Compressed Mode Command

RRC: Measurement Control GSM RSSI Measurement


RRC: Measurement Report

RRC: Cell Change Order f rom UTRAN


RANAP: SRNS Context Request

RANAP: SRNS Context Response

RANAP: SRNS Data Forward Command

RANAP: IU Release
Command
RANAP: IU Release
Complete

• In most cases BSIC verification is not required (data interrupt as UE moves to 2G)
• PS makes use of RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN message
23 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Compressed Mode
Procedure
• RNC informs UE of CM pattern and 2G neighbour list in RRC:
RNC commands the selected
UEs to enter compressed mode Measurement Control message
and provides compressed mode • 3GPP states that the UE must be capable of recording a
parameters and neighbour list minimum number of GSM RSSI measurement samples per
transmission gap
During the DL reception gap UE
can make measurements from 2G • GSM RSSI measurements are made without acquiring GSM
network synchronisation
• UE reports on strongest 6 GSM neighbours at periodic
UE measures RSSI of GSM
interval defined by GSMMeasRepInterval
neighbours and reports these to
RNC periodically • RNC applies a sliding averaging window to the
measurements provided by the UE
RNC commands UE to decode • RNC instructs UE to perform BSIC verification (AMR=always,
BSIC of cell with strongest RSSI PS=as required) using new CM pattern
• BSIC verification needs synchronisation to GSM frame
RNC makes HO decision
IS-HO trigger Target Cell found IS-HO
command

RNC sends handover command WCDMA RSSI BSIC verification


measurements
to UE T RSSI T BSIC

24 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Compressed Mode Method !

• Single frame approach (used in


spreading factor halving and HLS
½ data rate)

• Double frame approach (used in


puncturing and HLS ¾ data rate)

• Compressed mode Methods used in Nokia

AMR Speech RT Data NRT Data


CM Method SF/2 SF/2 ½ or ¾ Rate HLS

25 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Other Relevant CM Parameters
• Compressed mode can be enabled/disabled on a per RNC basis using CMmasterSwitch
parameter
• The maximum number of UE allowed to be in compressed mode simultaneously can be
limited using the MaxNumbUECMcoverHO parameter
• PrxTarget, PrxOffset, PtxTarget and PtxOffset are also used when making the decision
whether or not a UE is allowed to apply compressed mode
• If the cell exceeds Prx/txTarget then one more UE may apply compressed mode during
that radio resource indication period
• If the cell exceeds Prx/txTarget + Prx/txOffset then no more UE may apply compressed
mode during that radio resource indication period
Scope Configurable Nokia Range Default/T-Mobile UK

CMmasterSwitch RNC Yes 0 (false), 1 (true) 1


MaxNumbUECMcoverHO WCEL Yes 0 to 255 16
PrxTarget WCEL Yes 0 to 30 dB 4 dB
PrxOffset WCEL Yes 0 to 6 dB 1 dB
PtxTarget WCEL Yes -10 to 50 dBm 40 dBm
PtxOffset WCEL Yes 0 to 6 dB 1 dB

26 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Optimisation - Agenda

• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection


• Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• 3G<>2G neighbour Plan Verification
• 3G ISHO Analysis
• 3G ISHO Service Optimisation (AMR and PS Data)

27 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


3G ISHO Analysis Overview
• 3G ISHO performance should be analysed from;
• Drive Test Data
• Network Statistics
to obtain an overall picture of ISHO performance

28 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Drive Test
Data
• Drive Test Analysis should deliver ISHO performance metrics
such as;
• Number of ISHO attempts
• ISHO & Compressed Mode Success Rate
• Trigger reasons
• Failure Causes
• ISHO Times and Interrupt Delays
• Number of CM cycles needed

29 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Drive Test
Data
Need to analyse each ISHO
attempt to determine;
• Whether it was a necessary ISHO
• What the trigger mechanism was
(helps determine whether trigger
thresholds are set correctly)
• Whether the ISHO was successful
and if not the failure cause (e.g. No
cell found, UE failed BSIC
verification, UE didn’t receive
HandoverFromUTRANCommand)
• ISHO Success Rates

• Process needs to be automated


within the drive test post-
processing tool(s)

30 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


PS ISHO Failure Analysis - Example
13%

7% 33% Network does not isse 'Cell Change Order'


UE responds to 'Cell Change Order' with a 'Failure'
UE does not react to the 'Cell Change Order'
7%
UE does not report any GSM RSSI measurements
UE does not receive the CM 'Measurement Control'
7% UE fails BSIC verification

33%

• Generating an ISHO Failure Breakdown enables areas for further


optimisation to be identified
• May require further troubleshooting with data logging, RNC counters etc. to
determine root cause of failure
• Analysis should be performed for each service (i.e. AMR, PS etc.)

31 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Example PS ISHO Failure Analysis
• 78 % of the failures occur after the UE has completed a 2G cell re-selection.
100 % of these 2G cell re-selections was onto a 2G cell which was not in the
3G system neighbour list
• The 2G neighbour lists thus appear to have missing neighbours which
subsequently result in a 2G cell re-selection and a slowing down of the inter-
system handover procedure
• This failure scenario could be used to refine the 3G system inter-RAT
neighbour lists during the post processing and analysis of any drive test data
0%

22% 22%
UE does not read any 2G sys info

UE reads 2G sys info but does not send RACH (no cell re-
sel)
0%
UE reads 2G sys info and sends RACH but does not est.
connection (no cell re-sel)
UE reads 2G sys info and completes 2G cell re-sel but
does not send RACH
UE reads 2G sys info and completes 2G cell re-sel and
sends RACH but does not est. connection

56%
32 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Failure - No Cell Found Failure Example

Compressed Mode started

Tstart = 17:22:41.7
MW = 12 s
Tstop = 17:22:53.7

Compressed Mode stopped

GsmMaxMeasPeriod x GsmMeasRepInterval = 12s

33 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Failure - No Cell Found Failure Example

RxLev = -110 + 4 = -106 dBm

AdjgRxLevMinHO = -104 dBm

POOR GSM
COVERAGE
4 No suitable cell

34 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Failure - UE receives
iuv_relocation_prep_fail

• GSM BSIC verification is achieved and


RNC sends iuv_relocation_required
message with the target CI, LAC but
receives an iuv_relocation_prep_fail
message back from the CN
• Failure due to data build error in 2G MSC
• In this failure case no
HandoverFromUTRANcommand is
observed

35 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Analysing ISHO Delay
• ISHO delay ultimately impacts overall ISHO performance > longer the delay,
greater chance of ISHO failing
• Performance impact greater on PS calls (throughput reduction)
• ISHO delay is affected by;
• RNC databuild – 2G neighbour lists provided to UE must be optimum.
The longer the list the longer it takes UE to complete RSSI
measurements
• Radio Plan - Areas of excessive interference will hinder UE’s ability to
decode BSIC and registration procedure
• System design - Implementation of Gs interface enables faster
‘combined’ LAU/RAU registration procedure, rate of broadcasting
system information messages, e.g. SI13 Target Cell found
IS-HO trigger IS-HO
command

WCDMA RSSI BSIC verification


measurements
T RSSI T BSIC

36 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO delay, AMR
UE
RNC • Measurements taken from Nokia
ISHO triggered: Event 6A/1F/ test network (predominantly
Ta
suburban environment) – averaged
RRC: Measurement Control (IE tgmp=GSM over a large number of calls
RSSI)
RRC: Measurement Report • BSIC verification process has the
Trssi
RRC: Measurement Control (IE tgmp=GSM
greatest impact on AMR CM delay
Total Delay BSIC)
• Little scope for reducing this delay
RRC: Measurement report: BSIC no. decoded
. . TBSIC as BSIC verification always required
.
RRC: Measurement report : BSIC decoded – but delay in AMR of less
importance as there is no service
Handover from UTRAN Thandover
gap to user with AMR calls during
CM
5 4.5

4 Ta
Ta= activation time Trssi
3
Trssi= RSSI delay time. By default, the 2.0 Tbsic
2 1.3
network only requires the first RSSI 1 Thandover
measurements to choose the best GSM 1
0.2 Total delay
TBSIC=target
Time cell.
for UE to decode the BSIC of the 0
chosen cell

37 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO delay, PS
• PS ISHO introduces service affecting
UE
RNC data interrupt (i.e. throughput reduction)
ISHO triggered: Event 6A/1F/ • In most cases PS calls do not require
BSIC verification during ISHO process
Ta
RRC: Measurement control (IE • BSIC verification required when 2G
TGMP=”GSM RSSI”)
neighbour list contains multiple cells on
RRC: Measurement report Trssi same frequency as the ‘best’ RF carrier
chosen by the RNC
RRC: Cell change Order from UTRAN
• Need to avoid the need for BSIC
verification where ever possible

Tactivation
3 2.6 Trssi
2.5 Total
Ta= activation time
2

seconds
Trssi= RSSI delay time. By default, the network only 1.4
1.5 1.2
requires the first RSSI measurements to choose
the best GSM target cell. 1
0.5
0

38 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Impact of 2G Neighbour List Length
on TRSSI
• UE measures all GSM carriers indicated in the Measurement Control message prior to
sending Measurement Report to RNC
• If UE is not able to measure all GSM carriers within the measurement period it sends
an ‘empty’ Measurement Report
• Once UE has measured all 2G carriers (L1) it reports these measurements to L3 which
reports the top 6 strongest to RNC in Measurement Report
• In general GSM RSSI measurement delay increases as the length of the 2G neighbour
list increases. There is however quite a large
35
scatter

Number of GSM Neighbours


30

25
• Tests made with Nokia 7600 UE
20
• The general trend is that the GSM 15
RSSI measurement delay increases
10
as the length of the 2G neighbour list
5
increases. There is however quite a
large scatter 0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Delay to the first GSM RSSI Measurement (seconds)

39 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


CM Throughput Reduction – HLS
Example
• Throughput will be affected by;
• method of CM used (e.g. HLS)
• poor coverage requiring additional re-transmisisons
• Once UE has been instructed to move to 2G throughput drops to zero until UE
has registered (LAU and RAU) on the 2G network
HLS starts
Average = 121 kbps
• Example measurements from the
HLS method applied to the PS data
service
Throughput

Average = 71 kbps • 7 slot transmission gap


• Single frame approach
• 4 frame transmission gap pattern
length

Time• Throughput reductions


• 64 kbps service: 55 to 15 kbps
• 128 kbps service: 121 to 71 kbps
40 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Analysis from Network
Statistics
• ISHO counters are found in the Inter-system hard handover measurement table
(M1010Cxx)

• The inter-system handover measurement is carried out in the serving RNC


(SRNC)

• The object of the measurement is the source cell from which the handover is
attempted.

• In case of multiple cells in the AS the object of the measurement is the best cell
of the Active Set during the handover decision (except for
IS_COM_MOD_STA_NOT_POS_(N)RT) where the object is the best active
set cell during the compressed mode preparation phase

• From the measurement point of view the ISHO is divided into two phases:
• Inter-system measurement
• Inter-system handover

41
• Separate counters
© Nokia Siemens Networks
for RT and NRT services
Presentation / Author / Date
Counters for Triggering
Reasons
If compressed mode can NOT start (before sending
RNC Measurement Control to UE) the following counter is
RRC: Measurement Report incremented:
IS_COM_MOD_STA_NOT_POS_(N)RT
CHECK TRAFFIC TABLE
RRC: Measurement Control The counter is updated when: COUNTERS

- Admission Control rejects compressed mode request


- Compressed mode can not start due to radio link (or
These counters are not
incremented in this physical channel) reconfiguration failure (BTS or UE
phase but they are reasons)
incremented
After RxLev/BSIC - ISHO is a parallel procedure (especially NRT)
verification phase
together with the If compressed mode can start the following counters are
ATTEMPT or NO CELL
FOUND counters
incremented:
ALSO COUNTERS
FOR ISHO START
IS_HHO_W_CMOD_UL_DCH_Q_(N)RT WITHOUT
COMPRESSED MODE
IS_HHO_W_CMOD_UE_TX_PWR_(N)RT EXIST (DUAL
RECEIVER)
IS_HHO_W_CMOD_DL_DPCH_(N)RT IS_HHO_WO_CMOD_
Compressed XXX
IS_HHO_W_CMOD_CPICH_RSCP_(N)RT
Mode start
The counters are updated
IS_HHO_W_CMOD_ in the best cell of the active set
CPICH_ECNO_(N)RT

42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Counters for measurement procedure failure

If the RNC does not find a suitable cell, one of the following
RNC counters are updated:
IS_HHO_NO_CELL_UL_DCH_Q_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report”
(3,4,5) IS_HHO_NO_CELL_UE_TX_PWR_(N)RT
IS_HHO_NO_CELL_DL_DPCH_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement Control” IS_HHO_NO_CELL_CPICH_RSCP_(N)RT
IS_HHO_NO_CELL_CPICH_ECNO_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report”
These counters are updated when either:
RRC: ”Measurement report”
• No suitable GSM target cell is found in terms of RSSI
(RxLev)
RRC: ”Measurement report” • Target cell is suitable (RSSI) but BSIC verification fails
And;
Maximum number of measurement reports have been
Triggered in the referncereceived
cell when:
1) GsmMaxMeasPeriod measurement reports are received with an rx level
not suitable
2) GsmMaxMeasPeriod measurement reports are received with a BSIC not
verified

43 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Compressed Mode Stopped – Case 1
RNC does receive GsmMaxMeasPeriod ISHO Measurement Reports (meas id = 3)
before the above max_meas_interval time window expires.
-Stop RxLev measurement
-Start BSIC verification phase

-GsmMaxMeasPeriod = 12

13 Measurement Reports: -GsmMeasRepInterval = 0.5s

-12 with measurementIdentity = 3 -max_meas_interval = (12+4)/2 = 8s


-1 with measurementIdentity =5 (1f -
EcNo)

-Stop BSIC verification phase


(GsmMaxMeasPeriod msg with
meas_interval < 8 s measurementIdentity = 3 received
before the max_meas_interval time
window expires)

IS_HHO_W_CMOD_DL_DPCH_RT = +1
IS_HHO_NO_CELL_DL_DPCH_RT = +1

44 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Counters for ISHO Attempt for RT

If the RNC has found a suitable cell (both RxLev


RNC
and BSIC phases), one of the following counters
RRC: ”Measurement report”
(3,4,5) are updated:
RRC: ”Measurement Control” IS_HHO_ATT_UL_DCH_Q_RT
IS_HHO_ATT_UE_TX_PWR_RT
RRC: ”Measurement report” IS_HHO_ATT_DL_DPCH_PWR_RT
RRC: ”Measurement report” RxLev IS_HHO_ATT_CPICH_RSCP_RT
meas. IS_HHO_ATT_CPICH_ECNO_RT
BSIC verif.The counters are triggered when the RNC sends
RRC: ”Measurement report”
the RANAP: RELOCATION REQUIRED
MSC message to the MSC
X
HHO Attempt Only the SRNC can update the counters.
RELOCATION REQUIRED
Counters

The counters are updated in the best cell of the active set

45 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Counters for ISHO Attempt for NRT

RNC If the RNC has found a suitable cell (most


RRC: ”Measurement report” likely only RxLev), one of the following
(3,4,5) counters are updated:
RRC: ”Measurement Control”
IS_HHO_ATT_UL_DCH_Q_NRT
RRC: ”Measurement report” IS_HHO_ATT_UE_TX_PWR_NRT
IS_HHO_ATT_DL_DPCH_PWR_NRT
RRC: ”Measurement report” RxLev
meas. IS_HHO_ATT_CPICH_RSCP_NRT
BSIC
verification only IS_HHO_ATT_CPICH_ECNO_NRT
RRC: ”Measurement report” in case 2 ADJG
with same
BCCH The counters are triggered when the RNC
CELL CHANGE ORDER
X sends the RRC: CELL CHANGE ORDER
HHO Attempt
FROM UTRAN message to the UE.
Counters Only the SRNC can update the counters.
The counters are updated in the best cell of the active set

46 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


KPI for ISHO measurement procedure
No Cell Found
Counters … measurement fail
Max measurement interval
not expiring
Compressed
CM measurement is not Mode start
interrupted
HHO Attempt
Max measurement interval Counters
… measurement not
expiring OR fail
NO counters
CM measurement is triggering
interrupted

It’s not possible to monitor cases like:


1) the UE does not send some It’s not possible to distinguish
measurement reports between failures in the RxLev
2) Drop during measurement measurement or in the BSIC
3) parallel procedure (e.g capacity verification
request for NRT)

 IS _ HHO _ NO _ CELL _ xxx _( N ) RT


Accuracy in ISHO _ Meas _ Fail _ Rate  Allcauses

GSM neighbour
 IS _ HHO _ W _ CMOD _ xxx _( N ) RT   IS _ HHO _ WO _ CMOD _ xxx _( N ) RT
Allcauses Allcauses
planning
KPI is useful for cell
level
47 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Call Duration and ISHO procedure triggered
• Monitoring how often ISHO procedure is started  ISHO Triggering threshold tuning
AVG_RAB_HL D_TM_CS_VOICE/ 6000
Minutes_per_ISHO_procedure_RT 
 IS_HHO_CMOD_RT  IS_COM_MOD_STA_NOT_POS_RT
Allcauses, with& withoutCM

• The KPI on cell level does not take into account user mobility. It does make sense on
cluster/RNC level only
• The KPI can help operators in understanding the ISHO strategy
• Same KPI for NRT
(AVG_DCH_HLD_TM_PS_INTER+AVG_DCH_HLD_TM_PS_BACKG at numerator)
• Service level counter at denominator shall be used because allocation duration
counters (Traffic table) incremented in all the cells within Active Set
• Accuracy of the Indicator affected by:
• the number of ISHO procedures which have no ISHO counter incremented (e.g. drop during
CM, see previous slide)
• number of not successful ISHO procedures during the same call due to e.g. wrong ADJ
parameter, rough mobiles etc. KPI is useful for cluster level and
cell level as well
48 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Attempt UTRAN Failure RT

RNC When the UTRAN is not able to execute an Inter-System


RRC: ”Measurement report”
Handover the following counter is triggered:
(3,4,5)
UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXC_ISHHO_RT
RRC: ”Measurement Control”
The counter is triggered when the ISHO fails before the
SRNC sends the handover command to the UE, in the
RRC: ”Measurement report” same cell where the ISHO attempt has been updated:
RRC: ”Measurement report” • Relocation Preparation Failure or
• TRelocPrep (def. 6s, from Relocation Required to
Relocation Command) expires.
RRC: ”Measurement report”
The failure can take place for the following reasons:

Relocation Procedure • Radio Resource congestion in the target cell


• Radio Link setup/addition failure in the BTS (IFHO)
Handover Command • Failure during the Relocation preparation procedure in
the CN (for example ciphering parameter not set properly
UTRAN Failure in 3G MSC, LAC mismatching in RNC/MSC)
Counter • Failure during the Relocation resource allocation
procedure in the target BSC

49 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


KPI for ISHO Triggering Reasons

RNC
RRC: ”Measurement report”
(3,4,5)
It’s important to know which is the most frequent
RRC: ”Measurement Control” triggering reason:
IS _ HHO _ W _ CMOD _ xxx _( N ) RT
xxx _ Cause _ perc 
 IS _ HHO _ W _ CMOD _ xxx _( N ) RT
Allcauses

The triggerning It’s possible to diffentiate between quality and


reasons must coverage reasons
be enabled:
GSMcause… Understand the network limiting factors:
• CPICH coverage
• Pilot pollution
• UL/DL Service coverage

KPI is useful for cluster level and cell level as well

50 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO UE Failure RT and NRT
RNC

RRC: ”Measurement report” When the UE is not able to execute an Inter-System


(3,4,5)
Handover the following counter is triggered:
RRC: ”Measurement Control”
UE_NOT_ABLE_EXC_ISHHO_(N)RT

RRC: ”Measurement report” The counter is triggered when the source RNC receives a
failure message from the mobile with the failure cause
RRC: ”Measurement report”
“configuration unacceptable”.

The counter is triggered in the same cell where the ISHO


RRC: ”Measurement report” attempt has been updated.
HANDOVER FROM UTRAN
CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN
x
HANDOVER FROM UTRAN FAILURE
CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN FAILURE

UE Failure
Counter

51 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Unsuccessful ISHO RT and NRT
RNC
RRC: ”Measurement report” When the RNC receives a failure message from the mobile
(3,4,5) and the cause is not “configuration unacceptable”, one of
the following counter is triggered:
RRC: ”Measurement Control”
UNSUCC_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report”
UNSUCC_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_(N)RT
UNSUCC_IS_HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report” UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_(N)RT
UNSUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_(N)RT

RRC: ”Measurement report” The counter is triggered in the same cell where the ISHO
attempt has been updated.
Handover Command
Cell Change Order (PS) Reason for failure:
• Physical channel failure (the UE is not able to establish
Handover Failure x – in the target RAT – the phy. Channel indicated in the
Cell Change Failure
handover command)
ISHO Unsuccess
• Protocol error
Counters • Inter-Rat protocol error
• Unspecified
52 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Successful ISHO
RNC When the source RNC receives the RANAP message “IU
RRC: ”Measurement report” RELEASE COMMAND” from the core network, one of the
(3,4,5) following counter is triggered:
RRC: ”Measurement Control” SUCC_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_(N)RT
SUCC_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_(N)RT
SUCC_IS_HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report”
SUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_RSCP_(N)RT
RRC: ”Measurement report” SUCC_IS_HHO_CPICH_ECNO_(N)RT

The counter is triggered in the same cell where the ISHO


RRC: ”Measurement report” attempt has been updated.
During testing the counter is updated in case of failures
Handover Command (RAB Active failure for RNC internal): for RT use RAB
Cell Change Order (PS) release due to SRNC relocation (relocation not used at the
moment)
Handover Complete to BSC
CN

ISHO Success IU Release Command


Counters

53 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


RRC Drop during ISHO RT

When the source RCC Connection drops during the


RNC ISHO, one of the following counter is triggered:
RRC: ”Measurement report”
(3,4,5) CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_RT
CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_RT
RRC: ”Measurement Control” CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_RT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_RSCP_RT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_ECNO_RT
RRC: ”Measurement report”

RRC: ”Measurement report”

RRC: ”Measurement report”

Handover Command
For RT:
TRelocOverall (def. 8s, from Relocation Command to
CN Iu Release Command) expires.
RRC Drop
Counters IU Release Request

54 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


RRC Drop during ISHO NRT
When the source RCC Connection drops during the ISHO,
RNC one of the following counter is triggered:
RRC: ”Measurement report”
(3,4,5) CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_UL_DCH_Q_NRT
CON_DRPS_IS_HHO_EU_TX_PWR_NRT
RRC: ”Measurement Control” CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_DL_DPCH_PWR_NRT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_RSCP_NRT
CON_DRPS _IS _HHO_CPICH_ECNO_NRT
RRC: ”Measurement report”

RRC: ”Measurement report”

RRC: ”Measurement report”

For NRT:
Cell Change Order (PS)
RRC-TmrlRCC = T309+ InterRATCellReselTmrOffset
expires
where: CN
IU Release Request
RRC Drop
Counters T309 parameter = 5 s (SIB1)
InterRATCellReselTmrOffset is hidden parameter 3s
55 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
KPI for ISHO Failure Rate

RNC ISHO _ Fail _ Rate _ Over _ Att _ RT  1 


Nbr _ Success _ RT

RRC: ”Measurement report”


 IS _ HHO _ ATT _ xxx _ RT
Allcauses
(3,4,5)

RRC: ”Measurement Control” RAB_ACT_REL_CS_VOICE_SRNC, SRNC Reloc/IFHO


Nbr_Success_RT =

RRC: ”Measurement report” SUM(SUCC_IS_HHO_XXX_RT), SRNC Reloc/IFHO on


RRC: ”Measurement report”
 SUCC _ IS _ HHO _ xxx _ NRT
ISHO _ Fail _ Rate _ Over _ Att _ NRT  1  Allcauses

RRC: ”Measurement report”


 IS _ HHO _ ATT _ xxx _ NRT
Allcauses

Handover Command  SUCC _ IS _ HHO _ xxx _ NRT


Cell Change Order (PS) Overall _ ISHO _ Fail _ Rate _ NRT  1  Allcauses

 IS_HHO_CMOD_NRT  IS_COM_MOD_STA_NOT_POS_NRT 
Allcauses, with& withoutCM

Nbr _ Success _ RT
Overall _ ISHO _ Fail _ Rate _ RT  1 
 IS_HHO_CMOD_RT  IS_COM_MOD_STA_NOT_POS_RT 
Allcauses, with& withoutCM

KPI are useful for cluster level and cell level as


well
56 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Analysis from Network
Statistics
CN
UE Node B RNC

RRC: Measurement Control


ISHO triggering
RRC: Measurement Report (5 reasons are
NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Prepare possible)

NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Ready


Initial Compressed
NBAP: Radio Link Reconf iguration Commit Mode
RRC: Physical Channel Reconf iguration Configuration

RRC: Physical Channel Reconf iguration Complete


NBAP: Compressed Mode Command
RRC: Measurement Control
GSM RSSI
RRC: Measurement Report Measurement
NBAP: Compressed Mode Command
RRC: Measurement Control GSM BSIC
Identification
RRC: Measurement Report

RANAP: Relocation Required

RANAP: Relocation Command


RRC: Handover f rom UTRAN Command
RANAP: IU Release Command

RANAP: IU Release Complete

57 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Network Statistics
UE doesn’t receive HandoverFromUTRAN Command

• ISHO success rate on Beckton3 (URKKT03) had always been poor (<80%) with
UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHO_RT the largest failure counter (>90% increments on
<6 cells)

• Similar pattern was observed across a


number of other RNCs

58 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Network Statistics
UE doesn’t receive HandoverFromUTRAN Command

UTRAN_NOT_ABLE_EXEC_ISHHO_RT counter
according to customer documentation

59 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Network Statistics
UE doesn’t receive HandoverFromUTRAN Command

PROCEDURE IS
STARTED.....

60 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Network Statistics
UE doesn’t receive HandoverFromUTRAN Command

1 GSM SUITABLE CELL IS FOUND


AND BSIC VERIFICATION IS
REQUIRED....

2 BSIC IS CORRECTLY VERIFIED....

3 RELOCATION IS REQUIRED TO
MSC...
Timer TRelocPrep (6s) is started

61 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Analysis from Network Statistics
UE doesn’t receive HandoverFromUTRAN Command

Timer TRelocPrep (6s)


expires
Relocation Cancel msg is
sent
to MSC.....
Note that, in the
meantime, no parallel
procedure is
allowed.....

62 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Optimisation - Agenda

• 3G <> 2G Cell Re-selection


• Neighbour planning
• Handover Process & Compressed Mode
• 3G ISHO Analysis
• 3G ISHO Service Optimisation (AMR and PS Data)

63 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning
CPICH RSCP (Event 1F) DL DPCH power CPICH Ec/Io (Event 1F)
•Thresholds: •Threshold: •Thresholds:
HHoRscpThreshold HHoEcNoThreshold
GsmDLTxPwrThrXX
HHoRscpCancel HHoEcNoCancel
•Data rate threshold
L3 filter: HHoRscpFilterCoefficient HHOMAxAllowedBitrateDL •L3 filter:
•Timers: EcNofilterCoefficient
HHoRscpTimeHysteresis •Timers:
HHoRscpCancelTime HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis
HHoEcNoCancelTime
UE Tx Power (Event 6A)
•Threshold: 2. GSM measurement reporting UL Quality
GsmUETxPwrThrXX •Timer:
•L3 filter: GsmMeasRepInterval ULQualDetRepThreshold
GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff GsmNcellSearchPeriod •Data rate threshold
•Hysteresis margin: GsmMinMeasInterval
HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL
GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst GsmMaxMeasPeriod
•Data rate threshold
HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL

(XX=AMR,CS,NrtPS,RtPS)
3. Decision Algorithm
AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH
AdjgRxLevMinHO (n)
1. Triggering GsmMeasAveWindow

2. GSM measuring
3. Decision Handover Execution
2G-to-3G back prevention
GsmMinHoInterval

64 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning
The IS-HO process consists of several independent sub-processes. Therefore the
optimisation can be applied to each sub-process individually:

1. Triggering process:
• Parameters that belong to this process defines the starting of the GSM measurements:
filters, hysteresis, timers and thresholds
2. GSM Measurement reporting process
• Following parameters control the reporting of the GSM measurements
• GsmMinMeasInterval: Establish minimum time between successive GSM
measurements
• GsmMaxMeasPeriod: Maximum duration of the GSM measurements in CM
• GsmMeasRepInterval: Reporting period of the GSM measurements during CM
3. Decision process:
• Parameters that participate in the selection of the best target cell:
• AdjgRxLevMinHO(n): Minimum RX level of the GSM cell to do handover
4. ISHO cancellation parameters:
• Cancellation parameters are built for CPICH EcNO and CPICH RSCP triggering
functionality only
65 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Triggering Process
• Each triggering procedure makes use of filters, hysteresis and thresholds which
are used to control the inter-system handover behaviour
• The purpose of the hysteresis and filters is to improve the accuracy of the
measurements
• The purpose of the thresholds is to control 3G boundary of the different
services
• Each 3G cell had in average 4 GSM neighbour cells.
• By modifying the network configuration (blocking of cells etc), the radio conditions
in each route was aconditioned so that the need for an inter-system handover
was due to the triggering condition studied
• For example, when the UE Tx power trigger was studied, the radio
conditions along the routes were modified so that the uplink path was the
critical one, in this way the IS-HO performance was not affected by other
reasons e.g. poor CPICH EcNo
• During the tests the following traces were recorded:
-The coordinates where the CM starts
66 -Unsuccessful/successful
© Nokia Siemens Networks ISHO events
Presentation / Author / Date
ISHO Triggering Process – Ec/Io Threshold
Different CPICH EcNo thresholds were used with setting 3:

Routes EcNo (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO


Threshold /(Attempts) success rate
Route 2 -11 12/12 100%
-12 12/12 100%
-14 3/9 33.3%
Route 4 -11 7/9 77.7%
-12 8/9 88.8%
-14 7/9 77.7%
Route 6 -11 13/16 81.25%
-12 13/16 81.25%
-14 9/20 45%
-11 32/37 86.50%
Total -12 33/37 89.20%
-14 19/38 50%

IS-HO performance at threshold values of –11 dB and –12 dB is very similar.

67 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Triggering Process – RSCP Threshold

Routes RSCP (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO


Threshold /(Attempts) success rate
-105 9/9 100%
Route 2 -106 9/9 100%
-107 8/9 88%
Route 3 -105 10/10 100%
-106 14/15 93.3%
-107 11/15 73.3%
-105 8/9 88%
Route 4 -106 8/9 88%
-107 6/9 66%
-105 21/25 84%
Route 6 -106 16/20 80%
-107 -- --
-105 48/53 90.5%
Total -106 47/53 88.7%
-107 25/33 75.8%

IS-HO performance at threshold values of –105 dB and –106 dB is very similar.

68 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Triggering Process – UE Tx Power Threshold

Routes UE Tx Pwr (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO


Threshold /(Attempts) Success rate
-1 6/6 100%
Route 2 -3 6/6 100%
-5 6/6 100%
-1 10/10 100%
Route 3 -3 9/9 100%
-5 9/10 90%
Route 4 -1 6/6 100%
-3 6/6 100%
-5 6/6 100%
-1 22/30 73.30%
Route 6 -3 27/30 90.00%
-5 22/25 88%
-1 44/52 84.60%
Total -3 48/51 94.00%
-5 43/47 91.50%

The results show that a threshold= -3 dB is large enough to provide a good performance.

69 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Triggering Process – DL Tx Power Threshold

Routes RSCP (IS-HO Success) % IS-HO


Threshold /(Attempts) success rate
-1 0/6 0%
Route 2 -2 0/6 0%
-3 6/6 100%
-1 1/6 16.6%
Route 4 -2 1/6 16.6%
-3 6/6 100%
-1 6/20 --
Route 6 -2 -- --
-3 13/20 65%
-1 7/32 21.9%
Total -2 1/12 8.3%
-3 25/32 78%

Clearly, the IS-HO performance at the threshold GsmDlTxPrwAMR =–3 dB is the best: excellent
performance (100 % success rate) at medium speeds but degradation occurs at high speed (route
6).

70 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


ISHO Triggering Process – Parameter Summary

Parameter Suggested values


HHoEcNoThreshold -12 dB
HHoEcNoCancel -9 dB
CPICH EcNo HHoEcNoCancelTime 640 ms
HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis 100 ms
EcNoFilterCoefficient 600 ms
HHoRscpThreshold -105 dBm
CPICH RSCP HHoRscpCancel -103 dBm

HHoRscpFilterCoefficient 200 ms
HHoRscpTimeHysteresis 100 ms
HHoRscpCancelTime 640 ms
UL Tx Power GsmUETxPwrThrAMR -3 dB
GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff 10ms
GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst 320ms
DL DCH GsmDLTxPwrThrAMR -3 dB

UL Quality ULQualDetRepThreshold 0.5s


Measurement GsmMeasRepInterval 0.5 s
Reporting GsmNcellSearchPeriod 0
Parameters GsmMaxMeasPeriod 20 meas. report
GsmMinMeasInterval 2s
HO AdjgRxLevMinHO -98 to -100 dBm
Decision AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH 33 dBm
Algorithm GsmMeasAveWindow 6 meas. report

71 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


GSM Measurement Reporting Process

RNC The first measurement report


has info from the best GSM cell:
Triggering RRC: ”Measurement report” BCCH freq & RSSI, no filtering
used in UE

Details about the RRC: ”Measurement Control”


measurements
RRC: ”Measurement report” • Inter-system measurement stops if RNC
GsmMeasRepInterval has not been able to perform inter-
(default 0.5s) RRC: ”Measurement report” system handover after
GSMMaxMeasPeriod GSMMaxMeasPeriod (value 10, default
=20, 1…20, step 1 meas report)
Max 6 GSM cells RRC: ”Measurement report” • RNC could not initiate inter-system
reported measurements if:
• The UE has « recently » performed
Handover Command
an inter-system HO:
GSMMinHoInterval / 10s, 0…60, step
Handover Complete 1s
Handover Failure • An inter-system HO « recently » fails
for this UE: GSMMinMeasInterval /
10s, 0…60, step 1s

72 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


GSM Measurement Reporting Process
• The RNC databuild parameters GsmMeasRepInterval (0.5 s) and
GsmMaxMeasPeriod (10 measurement reports) define the maximum combined
time which may be used for GSM RSSI measurements and BSIC verifcation, i.e.
5 secs
• If GSM RSSI measurements are completed successfully and if there is only a
single GSM neighbour on the strongest GSM RF carrier then the RNC issues the
Cell Change Order from UTRAN message
• If GSM RSSI measurements are completed successfully and if there are multiple
GSM neighbours on the strongest GSM RF carrier then the RNC instructs BSIC
verification only for the neighbours on that RF carrier
• Both RSSI measurements and BSIC verification make use of a 7 slot
transmission gap every 4 radio frames

73 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


GSM Measurement Reporting Process

GsmMeasRepInterval (default value=0.5 seconds)


• The GSM measurement reporting interval given by this parameter should be
kept to 0.5 seconds (default value)
• Increasing the reporting interval would increase the IS-HO process delay
• Besides, accuracy requirements related to the GSM measurements in
compressed mode are given for a reporting interval of 0.5 seconds (480ms TS
25.133)
GsmMaxMeasPeriod ( default value = 20 measurement reports)
• This parameter controls the maximum compressed mode duration time for
each GSM RSSI and BSIC decoding measurement process. The duration of
this parameters in seconds is given by:

max_meas_time (s) = GsmMaxMeasPeriod x GsmMeasRepInterval

• Thus, the default value of GsmMaxMeasPeriod in seconds is 12

74 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


GSM Measurement Reporting Process
GsmMinMeasInterval (default value=10 seconds):
• In case of an unsuccessful IS-HO attempt, the network will deactivate compressed
mode for a time period given by this parameter value
• The network will reactivate automatically compressed mode after the timer has
expired unless a cancellation event is sent by the terminal during that period
• In case IS-HO cancellation event does not occur, and the mobile is leaving clearly the
3G boundary, then there is a death time equal to 10 seconds in which the UE is not
able to attempt new GSM measurements in case of an unsuccessful IS-HO.
• Experience in the field has shown that the probability of having a cancellation event
(event 1B,1E), after an IS-HO was requested, is very low and therefore the
GsmMinMeasInterval is reduced to a lower value (2 seconds) to speed up the
reactivation of the compressed mode
Terminal in Terminal in Terminal in
Compressed mode normal mode Compressed mode

Cancelation threshold
Trigger threshold

Compressed mode is
reactivated automatically by
8s 10 s the network af ter the
Unsuccessful ISHO GsmMinMeasInterval timer
75 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date expires
Handover Decision Process Optimisation
• The Inter-system handover decision process need to be optimized so that the network
selects the best GSM target cell which compliance with the following formula:

AVE_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AdjgRxLevMinHO (n) + max( 0, AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH (n) -


P_MAX )

• AVE_RXLEV_NCELL(n): is the average RSSI level from the cell n


• P_MAX is the maximum power in GSM classmark (+33 dBm)
• AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH (n): is the maximum power of the traffic channel in GSM (default=+33
dBm)
• AdjgRxLevMinHO (n): Minimum required RX level of the target GSM cell to do handover
(default=-95 dBm)
• Thus, if P_MAX and AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH (n) default values are used, then the formula
simplifies to:
AVE_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > AdjgRxLevMinHO (n)

• AdjgRxLevMinHO(n): The sensitivity of a GSM MS is –104/-102 dBm in GSM 900 MS


and –100/-102 dBm for DCS 1800 MS (TS 45.005)
• Since the handover decision process usually only uses one RSSI measurement sample
per neighbour with an accuracy of +/- 6 dB (from specs), it may happen that the terminal
reports a GSM level of –95 dBm when actual level is –101 dBm
76• Could consider
© Nokia Siemens Networks using average
Presentation at RNC with lower threshold value
/ Author / Date
ISHO Cancellation Parameter Optimisation

• The cancellation thresholds 3dB above the triggering works the best
• Values of the cancellation filters (HHoEcNoCancelTime and
HHoRscpCancelTime) depend actually on coverage i.e. in case of fast
changes then the filters values should be relatively long to avoid possible ping-
pong (initiate IS-HO, cancel, initiate and so on…)
• In case some such ping-pong noted then longer cancellation filters should be
tried

Optimized values
CPICH EcNo
HHoEcNoCancel 3dB above EcNo threshold
HHoEcNoCancelTime 640 ms
CPICH RSCP
HHoRscpCancel 3dB above RSCP threshold
HHoRscpCancelTime 640 ms

77 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


WCDMA <-> GSM PS data inter-working functionality

3G->2G for PS data (network controlled cell reselection)


•Uses compressed mode (in both RAN & mobile) for measuring how good
2G coverage exists, before RNC moves the control of the call to BSC
•No resources reserved in BSS in advance; thus the PS data call
continues on best effort basis, like all PS data calls in 2G
•No need for BSIC identification
2G->3G for PS data (UE controlled cell-reselection)

•Terminal measures neighboring cells during different time slots (no


compressed mode needed) for measuring how good 3G coverage exists,
before BSC moves the control of the call to RNC
•No resources reserved in RNC in advance; thus the PS data call
continues on best effort basis in 3G

78 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


WCDMA <-> GSM PS data inter-working functionality
• Throughput degradation in the 3G->GSM frontier exists partly due to the CM activation but also due
to the poor 3G radio conditions
• Below is the average throughput in good and poor 3G coverage
• The definition of poor and good coverage is defined as :
• Good 3G coverage: CPICH EcNo>=-10 dB, CPICH RSCP>-100 dBm
• Poor 3G coverage: CPICH EcNo<-10 dB, CPICH RSCP< -100 dBm

64k RAB 128k RAB 384k RAB


ftp Throughput in ISHO Zones, 64 RAB (server ftp Throughput in ISHO Zones, 128 RAB (server ftp Throughput in ISHO Zones, 384 RAB (server
x.x.x.111 /121) x.x.x.111 /121) x.x.x.111 /121)
Good 3G coverage Good 3G coverage Good 3G coverage
7 Poor 3G coverage 18
Poor 3G coverage
50 Poor 3G coverage
6.51 15.35 43.03
17 %, GPRS 16 GPRS 45 GPRS
6 37.76 12 %,
5.41 downgrad 13.82 10 %, 40
14 downgrade
5 e downgrade
12
35
4 30
kBps

kBps
10
kBps

25
3 8
20
2.7 6
2 2.7 15
4 10
1 2.7
2 5
0 0 0
1 Service downgrade due to coverage and CM between
10 to 17 % 1 good and poor 3G coverage areas 1

Throughput in poor coverage


includes throughput during compressed
mode .

79 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Cell Change Order (CCO) to GSM
• Triggers
• GsmUETxPwrThrNrtPS (range -10..0 dB,default: -1 dB): This parameter determines the UE
TX power threshold for a non-real time PS data connection. Values –1 dB and –3dB tested.
• GsmDLTxPwrThrNrtPS (range –10..0 dB,default;- 1 dB): This parameter determines the
downlink DPCH TX power threshold for a non-real time PS data connection. Values –1dB
and –3 dB tested.
Parameter Default Values used
• Other Parameters HHoEcNoThreshold -22 dB -12 dB
HHoEcNoCancel - 20 dB -9 dB
CPICH EcNo HHoEcNoCancelTime 1280 ms 640 ms
HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis 640 ms 100 ms
EcNoFilterCoefficient 600 ms 600 ms
HHoRscpThreshold -105 dBm -105 dBm
CPICH RSCP HHoRscpCancel -100 dBm -103 dBm
HHoRscpFilterCoefficient 200 ms 200 ms
HHoRscpTimeHysteresis 640 ms 100 ms
HHoRscpCancelTime 1280 ms 640 ms
UL Quality ULQualDetRepThreshold 5s 0.5s
UL Tx Pow er GsmUETxPwrThrNrtPS -1 dB -1, -3 dB
GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff 10 ms 10ms
GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst 1280 ms 320ms
DL DCH GsmDLTxPwrThrNrtPS -1 dB -1, -3 dB

80 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


3G/2G Neighbour Verification Process - Example
• Required equipment for 3G/2G neighbour refining
• 2G and 3G scanners + UE in dual mode (outdoor measurements)
• 3G->2G neighbours could be optimized with a prioritization algorithm.
• Priority 1: ISHO failure
• Find the missing neighbours which cause the call failure during the drive test.
• Careful analysis with 2G Scanner and UE data
• Priority 2: poor 3G coverage but good GSM coverage
• 2G and 3G scanner data used to compare signals.
• 3G signal is compared to ISHO triggering parameter values (e.g.
HHoRSCPThreshold, HHoEcNoThreshold)
• GSM neighbor is added if the ISHO condition is met. (2G RSSI>
GsmncellRxLevMinHO)
• Priority 3: good 3G and GSM coverage (probable ISHO when going inside the
building
• 2G and 3G scanner data used to compare signals.
• GSM neighbours of this class are added only when there is still room to reach
the max # of ADJG per cell.
• GSM RSSI > GSMncellRXLevMinHO +Indoor loss (15-25 dB)
81 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date
Module 5 – Inter System Handover Optimisation

Summary

• Proper Cell reselection will improve call setup success, it


can be managed with parameters, some margin should be
left to avoid ping-pong
• Good inter-system neighbour planning is key to maintain
the service, the neighbour list should be not too long
• Compressed mode delays the ISHO, for PS data it is
shorter due to no need of BSIC decoding but PS
throughput will be degraded during CM

82 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date


Version control
Version Date Status Owner

RAN04 2006 Base version Mike Roche, Steve Hunt,


Gareth Davies, Pekka Ranta

83 © Nokia Siemens Networks Presentation / Author / Date