'di^i uj
THE
VECTOR
CALCULUS
B Y
CONSTABLE
LONDON
S4<
PREFACE.
This volume embodies the lectmes given on the subject
The to graduate students over a period of four repetitions. of of consideration result the view is of many years point
The author has examined the various methods that go under the name of Vector, and finds that
of the
whole
field.
and
for
most
of those of the
geometer, the use of quaternions is by far the simplest in theory and in practice. The various points of view are mentioned in the introduction, and it is hoped that the essential differences are
brought out.
The
tables of
com
parative notation scattered through the text will assist in following the other methods.
The place of vector work according to the author is in the general field of associative algebra, and every method so far proposed can be easily shown to be an imperfect form
of associative algebra.
From
may
is
be undernot
As
far as the
mere notations
go, there
much
These
is
un
foitunate that so
many
exist.
The attempt
in this
mathematical student on the one hand, in which every physical term beyond mere elementary teims is carefully
defined.
the other hand foi the physical student there will be found a large collection of examples and exercises
will show him the utility of the mathematical methSo very little exists in the numerous treatments of the day that does this, and so much that is labeled vector
On
which
ods.
IV
analysis
is
PREFACE
merely a kind of shorthand, that
it
has seemed
very desirable to
vectors.
of the
It will
clearly the actual use of vectors as be rarely the case in the text that any use
of vectors will be found.
show
components
The
triplexes
nary Cartesian forms, and not worth learning as methods. The difficulty the author has found with other texts is
that after a few very elementary notions, the mathematical student (and we may add the physical student) is suddenly
plunged into the profundities of mathematical physics, as This is rarely the case, and if he were familiar with them.
the object of this text
is
to
make him
familiar with
them
by easy
It is
gradations.
not to be expected that the book will be free from errors, and the author will esteem it a favor to have all
errors
and oversights brought to his attention. He desires to thank specially Dr. C. F. Green, of the University of
Illinois, for his careful
and
is
whom
July, 1922.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Chapter Chapter Chapter
I.
Introduction
Scalar Fields
II.
18
III.
Vector Fields
23 52
62
Addition of Vectors
Vectors in a Plane
Vectors in Space
Applications
Chapter VI.
94
127 127 136
Chapter VII.
1.
2. 3.
4.
The Scalar of two Vectois The Vector of two Vectors The Scalar of three Vectors The Vector of three Vectors
Differentials
142
143
Chapter VIII.
1.
Two
2. 3.
Parameters
151
Differentiation as to a Vector
155 196
Integration
218
Kinematics of Displacement
Stress
269
Chapter
XL
Hydrodynamics
287
VECTOR CALCULUS
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1. Vector Calculus. By this term is meant a system of mathematical thinking which makes use of a special class of symbols and their combinations according to certain
given laws, to study the mathematical conclusions resulting from data which depend upon geometric entities called
vectors, or physical entities representable
by
vectors, or
more generally
entities of
sented for the purposes under discussion by vectors. These vectors may be in space of two or three or even four or
more dimensions.
of a straight line.
tion.
This
is
has length (including zero) and direcequivalent to saying that it cannot be de
fined merely
of
by one single numerical value. Any problem mathematics dependent upon several variables becomes For instance, properly a problem in vector calculus.
analytical
geometry
is
Several sjstems of vector calculus have been devised, differing in their fundamental notions, their notation, and their laws of combining
The lack of a uniform notation is deplorable, but there seems httle hope of the adoption of any uniform system soon. Existing systems have been rather ardently promoted by mathematicians of the
the s>Tnbols.
same nationaUty
and disagreement exists as to their and their relative logical exactness. These disagreements arise sometimes merely with regard to the proper manner of representing certain combinations of the symbols, or other matters which are purely matters of convention;
as their authors,
relative simplicity, their relative directness,
1
2
sometimes they
?j,re
VECTOR CALCULUS
due to
different views as to
things to find expressions for; and sometimes they are due to more fundamental divergences of opinion as to the real character of the
sort.
We
will in
and dispose
of
them
in this work.
Bases.
We may
systems
and
is
algebraic.
The former
we
the
the point, portions of a plane, etc. The latter lays emphasis on the purely algebraic character of the entities with which the calculations are made, these entities
line,
being similar to the positive and negative, and the imaginary of ordinary algebra. For the geometric vector
systems, the symbolism of the calculus
is
really nothing
operations upon real geometric elements, with the possibility kept always in mind that these entities and the
operations may at any moment be called to the front to take the place of their shorthand representatives. For
the
hypernumbers, that
is,
and imaginary numbers, and does not pretend to be the translation of actual operations which can be made visible, any more than an ordinary calculation of algebra could be paralleled by actual geometric or physical operations. If these distinctions are kept in mind the different points
The best examples of geoof view become intelligible. metric systems are the Science of Extension of Grassmann, with its various later forms, the Geometry of Bynames of Study, the Geometry of Lines of Saussure, and the Geometry
of Feuillets of
Cailler.
The
INTRODUCTION
exist,
and some
mixed systems
proper places.
may
be found, which
will
be noted in the
The idea of using a calculus of sjTubols for writing out geometric theorems perhaps originated with Leibniz,^ though what he had in mind had nothing to do with vector calcxilus in its modem sense. The first effective algebraic vector calculus was the Quaternions of Hamilton*
(1843), the first effective geometric vector calculus was the Ausdehnungslehre of Grassmann* (1844). They had predecessors worthy of mention and some of these will be noticed.
3.
H3rpernimibers.
The
real beginning of
Vector Cal
culus
The
was the early attempt to extend the idea of number. original theory of irrational number was metric,^ and
by means of the segments of straight lines. When to this was added the idea of direction, so that the segments became directed segments, what we now call vectors, the numbers defined were not only capable of being irrational, but they also possessed quality, and could
defined irrationals
be negative or positive.
vector calculus.
If
we
in a plane or in space of three dimensions, then we may call the numbers they define hypemtimbers. The source of the idea was the attempt to interpret the imaginary which
for
any quadratic or
For instance he gives as solution of the problem of separating 10 into two parts whose product is 40, the values
o
15,
and
V
of
15.
He
use.
considered
these
dis
no
of
Later
it
was
by Cardan's
sum
two
of these impossible
4
values
VECTOR CALCULUS
actually
a:^
was
15a:
real.
+
V
.^(2
121)
^(2
4.
These
there
impossible
numbers
incited
came about
to interpret them.
tially
that of existence, which at that time was usually The real objection to the
negative number was its inapplicability to objects. Its use in a debit and credit account would in this sense give it existence. Likewise the imaginary and the complex number,
and
later others,
is,
applica
Wessel, a Danish surveyor, in 1797, produced a satisfactory method^ of defining complex numbers by means
4.
This same method was later given by Argand^ and afterwards by Gauss^ in connection with various applications. Wessel undertook to go farther and in an analogous manner define hypernumbers by means
of vectors in a plane. of directed segments, or vectors, in space of three
sions.
dimen
missed the invention of quaternions. In 1813 Servois^" raised the question whether such vectors
of the
fi \
He narrowly
form
cos
7
would
be.
p, q, r
He
did not answer the question, however, and Wessel 's paper remained unnoticed for a century.
Hamilton gave the answer to the question of Servois as the result of a long investigation of the whole problem.^^
5.
He
first
is
to say in our
INTRODUCTION
values to define them, and
all
possible
modes
of combining
them
He
then con
1 Since sets of numbers in general. are roots of unity, he paid most attention to definitions that would lead to new roots of unity.
and
and
^I
that the couple of numbers (a, b) where a and b are any positive or negative numbers, rational or irrational, is an entity in itself and is therefore subject
is
to laws of combination just as are single numbers. For instance, we may combine it with the other couple (x, y)
in
two
different
(a, b) (a, b)
ways:
+
X
(x, y) {x, y)
bx).
we say we have added the couples, in the we have multiplied them. It is possible In both cases if we set the couple to define division also. on the right hand side equal to (u, v) we find that
In the
first
case
du'dx
dv/dy,
du'ldy
dv/dx.
Pairs of functions n, v
which
The
partial
equations were
first
connection.
The
l
particular couples
(1, 0),
62
(0, 1)
play a special role in the development, for, in the place, any couple may be written in the form
(a, b)
first
aei
+ bez
The
and the notation of couples becomes superfluous; in the second place, by defining the products of 6i and 62 in various
of couples.
general
6
definition
VECTOR CALCULUS
would
be, using the
for
ll
261
= =
Ciiii
C2iii
+ + C2122,
Cii2e2,
i2
i2'(^2
= =
Ci2ii
C22li
+ + C2222^12262,
varying the choice of the arbitrary constants c, and Hamilton considered several different cases, different
By
algebras of couples could be produced. the c's are all zero except
Cm =
From
62
1,
C122
1)
i
C212
it
=
it
1,
C221
1.
the character of
may
and
1,
1. On the may be regarded as identical wuth the V other hand we may consider ei to be a unit vector pointing to the right in the plane of vectors, and 2 to be a unit
vector perpendicular to
1.
Hamilton's investigation lies of course in its generality. He continued the study of couples by a similar study of triples and then quadruples, arriving thus at Quaternions.
His chief difference in point of view from those who followed him and who used the concept of couple, triple, etc. {Mulsay for the general case), is that he invariably defined one product, whereas others define usually several.
tiple
we
will
6. Multiples. There is a considerable tendency in the current literature of vector calculus to use the notion of
multiple.
vector
is
usually designated
by a
triple as
It is {x, y, z), and usually such triple is called a vector. generally tacitly understood that the dimensions of the numbers of the triple are the same, and in fact most of the
products
find
defined
homogeneity of
this
We
For
and
{x, y, z)
INTRODUCTION
is
the sign depending upon the person giving the definition; the vector product of the same two az, cy, ex triples is usually given as the triple (bz
it (ax
\
by
{
cz),
obvious at once that a great defect of such that the triples involved have no sense until the significance of the first number, the second number,
ay
bx)
It is
definitions
is
in each triple
for their
is
understood.
If
upon axes
is tied down to such axes, unless, as is usually the done, expressions used in the definitions are so chosen as to be in some respects independent of the particular
set
of
axes chosen.
When
these
expressions
are thus
chosen as invariants under given transformations of the axes we arrive at certain of the wellknown systems of vector analysis. The transformations usually selected to
furnish the profitable expressions are the group of orthog
onal transformations.
For instance,
it
was shown by
the invariant expressions or invariant triples are combinations of the three following:
all
Burkhardt^^ that
ax
(bz
{al
(bl
(el
\
by
\ cz,
cy, ex
az,
ay
bT)y
bx),
bm
+ en)x +
j
(am
+
j
(an
(bn
ct)z,
am)x
an)x
(al
\
bm
\
cn)y
cm)z,
cti)z.
(cm
bn)u
(al
+ 6m +
A
?n
made by
Schouten.^^
Quaternions. In his first investigations, Hamilton ras chiefly concerned with the creation of systems of
to the
lypernumbers such that each of the defining i and co above, was a root of unity.^^
units, similar
process of multiplication
multiplicand.
by
iteration
He was
VECTOR CALCULUS
and if he had noticed the group researches would perhaps have extended into
property his
the whole
field of abstract groups. In quaternions he found a set of square roots of 1, which he designated by i, j, k, connected with his triples though belonging to a set of quadIn his Lectures on Quaternions, the first treatise he ruples.
published on the subject, he chose a geometrical method of exposition, consequently many have been led to think of
However, the quaternions as having a geometric origin. original memoirs show that they were reached in a purely
algebraic way,
philoso
The geometric definition is quite simple, however, and not so abstract as the purely algebraic definition. According to this idea, numbers have a metric definition, a
number, or hypernumber, being the ratio of two vectors. If the vectors have the same direction we arrive at the
ordinary numerical scale. at the negative numbers.
If
If neither in
nor opposite we have a more general kind of number, a hypernumber in fact, which is a quaternion, and of which
the
ordinary
merely special cases. If we agree to consider all vectors which are parallel and in the same direction as equivalent, that is, call them free vectors, then for every pair of vectors
Among
8.
is a quaternion. these quaternions relations will exist, which will be one of the objects of study of later chapters.
calculus on the geometric basis. In his Barycentrisches Kalkul^^ he introduced a method of deriving points from
INTRODUCTION
applications
is
were made to geometry. The barycentric somewhat between a system of homogeneous His addition was coordinates and a real vector calculus.
calculus
used by Grassmann.
1844 published his treatise called Die lineale Ausdehningslehre^' in which several different proc9.
Grassmann
called
in
esses
geometric entities
processes
sort of
make
abstractly, leaving out of account the meaning of the elements multiplied. His methods apply to space of dimensions. In the symmetric multiplication it is possible
to interchange
result.
any two
of the factors
In the circular multiplication the order may be changed cyclically. In the lineal multiplication all the laws hold as well for any factors which are linear combinations of
He
studies
two
species of circular
the defining units of the base are ei, 2, ea multiplication. then we have in the first variety of circular multiplication the laws
,
1'
+
0,
2^
+
Co'
63^
+
0,
4
62
0,
,6;
6,..
0,
e.cy
0,
i^j.
In the lineal genus of multiplication he studies two species, in the first, called the algebraic multiplication, we
ejfi
for all
i, j.
10
result.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Of the
latter there are
multiplication in
geometric figure dimensions of the factors, while in the other, called regressive multiplication, the dimension of the product is the
difference
two varieties, the progressive which the number of dimensions of the which is the product is the sum of the
of the factors
and
the dimension of the space in which the operation takes place. From the two varieties he deduces another
kind called interior multiplication. If we confine our thoughts to space of three dimensions, defined by points, and if i, 2, 3, 4 are such points, the
progressive exterior product of two, as ci, 2, is 162 and represents the segment joining them if they do not coincide.
The product
with edges
respectively.
is
zero
if
they coincide.
The product
of this
3 is
eiez
ie23 and represents the parallelogram and the other two parallel to these
If all three
product
is
zero.
The
represents the parallelepiped with edges 162, i3, 164 and the opposite parallel edges. The regressive exterior product
of
i2 and ei3e4
of
is
their
common
is
point
1.
The
line
regressive
162.
product
their
common
26364,
The
is 6364,
is
defined to be
and
of
162
4.
The
interior product of
any expression
is
into the
the progressive or regressive product of the complement of the other. For instance, the
interior
and and 2
1
ei3e4
is
product of ei and 2 is the progressive product of which vanishes. The interior product of 2
the product of
2
the product of ei623 ]2e3 164 and 263 which would be regressive and be the line 6263. We have the same kinds of multiplication if the expresinterior
product of
and and
ci3e4
is
which
is
62ei34.
The
sions
are vectors
and not
points,
lb
INTRODUCTION
11
The interpretation is different, however. It is to see that Grassmann's ideas do not lend themselves easy readily to numerical application, as they are more closely
planes.
related to the
fact,
projective
when
translated,
most
phrased in terms of intersections, points, lines and planes, rather than in terms of distances, angles, areas, etc. 10. Dyadics were invented by Gibbs,^^ and are of both the
algebraic
Gibbs has,
like
Hamilton, but one kind of multiplication. If we have given two vectors a, /3 from the same point, their dyad is a^.
This is to be looked upon as a new entity of two dimensions belonging to the point from which the vectors are drawn. It is not a plane though it has two dimensions, but is really a particular and special kind of dyadic, an entity of twodimensional character, such that in every case it can be considered to be the sum of not more than three dyads. Gibbs never laid any stress on the geometric existence of
the dyadic, though he stated definitely that it was to be considered as a quantity. His greatest stress, however,
The
from
its
Gibbs also pushed his vector calculus into space of many dimensions, and into triadic and higher forms, most of which can be used in the theory of the elasticity of crystals.
and vector multiplication he considered as functions of the dyadic, rather than as multiplications, and there are corresponding functions of triadics and
scalar
The
In this respect his point of view is close to higher forms. that of Hamilton, the difference being in the use of the dyadic or the quaternion.
11.
z
12
VECTOR CALCULUS
these or to combinations of parts of these. The differences are usually in the notations, or in the basis of exposition.
Italics,
Grassmann,_Peano,
writes
a, b, c.
Macfarlane.
Heun
Old English or German letters, Maxwell, Jaumann, Jung, Foppl, Lorentz, Gans, Abraham, Bucherer, Fischer, Sommerfeld.
Clarendon type, Heaviside, Gibbs, Wilson, Jahnke, Timerding, BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
Length of a vector
T
I I
( ),
,
Italic
letter,
Corresponding
Mod.
( ),
Bucherer, Fischer.
letter,
Corresponding Greek
Macfarlane.
Some
Square of a
vector
(y.
The square
it is
is
where
negative.
Reciprocal
(
TT
CHAPTER
1.
II
SCALAR FIELDS
Fields.
If we consider a given set of elements in we may have for each element one or more quantities
space,
For instance, at each point in space we may have a temperature, or a pressure, or a density, as of the air. Or for every loop that we may draw in a given space we
a length, or at some fixed point a potential due to the loop. Again, we may have at each point in space
may have
magnetic intensity. Xot to multiply examples unnecessarily, we can see that for a given range
electric intensity, or a
we may
When
they are of a simple numerical character they are called acalars, and the function resulting is a scalar function.
Examples are the density of a fluid at each point, the density of a distribution of energy, and similar quantities consisting of an amount of some entity per cubic centimeter, or per
square centimeter, or per centimeter.
EXAMPLES
unit of electricity is the coulomb, (1) Electricity. connected with the absolute units by the equations
1
The
coulomb
=
13
14
VECTOR CALCULUS
The
density of electricity is its amount in a given volume, area, or length divided by the volume, area, or length
respectively.
The dimensions of electricity will be represented by [9], and for its amount the symbol 9 will be used. For the volume density we will use e, for areal density e',
for linear density e". If the distribution may be considered to be continuous, we may take the limits and find the
density at a point.
(2)
tity,
Magnetism.
we
=
Sometimes
10^
electromagnetic unit
maxwells
is
called a weber.
The symbol
[$],
fc
will
be $, the dimensions
is
the densitie
Action.
This quantity
much used
in physics, thj
most importai
The dimension^
is
the symbol
we
shall use
A, and the
unit might be a quantum, but for practical purposes a In the case of a moving particle the joulesecond is used. action at any point depends upon the path by which the
particle has reached the point, so that as a function of the points of space it has at each point an infinity of values.
function which has but a single value at a point will be called monodromic, but if it has more than one value it will
function.
ticles
field,
be called polydromic. The action is therefore a polydromic We not only have action in the motion of par
but we find
it
as a necessary function of a
field.
is
momentum
or of an electromagnetic
(4)
Energy.
The
unit of energy
SCALAR FIELDS
15
its
10^ ergs.
Its
sjTnbol will
heW.
(5) Activity.
It is
measured
(6)
Energydensity.
The
s\Tiibol will
be U, dimensions
be Q, dimensions
[Q^TLr^].
le^L'T'].
(7) Activitydensity.
The symbol
is
will
[O^L'T].
(8)
Mass.
unit of
The
mass
s\mbol
is
M, dimensions
The
the gram.
distribution of
mass
is
usually called a distribution of matter. The sjTnbol will be (9) Density of mass.
[e^TL''].
(10) Potential
c,
dimensions
dimensions
of
electricity.
Symbol
SjTnbol
V,
(11) Potential
of
magnetism.
N, dimensions
Levels.
Points at
Such surfaces are usually may named by the use of the prefixes iso and equi. For instance, the surfaces in a cloud, which have all points at the same temperature, are called isothermal surfaces; surfaces which have points at the same pressure are called isobaric surfaces;
have one or more sheets.
surfaces of equal density are isopycnic surfaces; those of equal specific volume (reciprocal of the density) are the isosteric surfaces;
those of equal humidity are isohydric surfaces. Likewise for gravity, electricity, and magnetism we have
3.
equipotential surfaces.
Lamellae.
Surfaces
are
frequently
considered
for
which we have unit difference between the values of the function for the successive surfaces. These surfaces and
16
the space between
lamellae.
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
them
a line from a point AtoB. point B, the number of unit lamellae traversed will give the difference between
we follow
the two values of the function at the points A and B. If this is divided by the length of the path we shall have the
rate of change of the function along the path. If the path is straight and the unit determining the lamellae
is
mean
made
any
at
to decrease indefinitely, the limit of this quotient point is called the derivative of the function at
that point in the given direction. The derivative is approximately the number of unit lamellae traversed in a
if they are close together. Geometric Properties. Monodromic levels cannot intersect each other, though any one may intersect itself.
unit distance,
4.
Any one
or
all of
points, pinchpoints,
may have nodal lines, conical and the other peculiarities of geoThese singularities usually depend upon
the levels
of
the
will
In the case of functions of two variables, the scalar levels be curves on the surface over which the two variables
Their singularities
are defined.
may
Gradient.
The equation
is
of a level surface
found
for inx, y,
by
If,
located
by the coordinates
is
f{x, y, z),
w
If we pass we have
f{x, y, z)
C.
same
surface
du
= /(.T +
dx,
y+dy,z\
dz)
f(x, y, z)
0.
We may
SCALAR FIELDS
functions independent of dx, dy, dz, such that
d2i
17
df/dxdx
+ djjdydy + df/dzdz.
first
point to the second has as the lengths of its projections on the axes: dx, dy, dz; and if we define a vector whose projections are df/dx, df/dy,
dfjdz,
Now
which we
will call
the Gradient of
f,
the condition that the gradient of / shall be perpendicular to the differential on the surface. Hence, if we represent the gradient of / by v/, and the differential
dition
is
du
change from one point to the other by dp, we see that dp is any infinitesimal tangent on the surface and yf is along the normal to the surface.
tiate
shall
It is
in a direction not
have
du
If
df;dxdx
+ df/dy
dx
+ df/dzdz =
is
dC.
ds then
we shall have*
du/ds
projection
of^fon
The length
of the vector
itself.
the expression used here is called the gradient. When the three partial derivatives of / vanish for the
same
measured by its and the direction becomes indeterminate from the first differentials. At such points there are singularities of the function. At points where the function becomes infinite, the gradient becomes indeterminate and
point, the intensity of the gradient,
is
length,
zero,
Potentials.
The
point may be the three partial derivatives of the same function as to the coordinates, in which case the vector
may
*
18
tion,
VECTOR CALCULUS
which
is
force function.
For instance,
if
the
components
of the
velocity satisfy the proper conditions, the velocity is the gradient of a velocity potential. These conditions will be
upon any
7.
axes.
Relative Derivatives.
functions at a point, we may have use for the concept of the derivative of one with respect to the other. This is
the
defined to be the quotient of the intensity of the gradient of first by that of the second, multiplied by the cosine
If
average or mean of the number of unit sheets of the first traversed from one point to another, along the normal of the second divided by the number of unit sheets of the second
traversed at the same time.
For instance,
if
we draw the
and the
simultaneous isotherms, then in passing from a point A to a point B if we traverse 24 isobaric unit sheets and 10
isothermal unit sheets,
isotherm.
8.
field,
the
average
is
2.4
isobars per
UnitTubes.
If
usually intersect so as to divide the space under consideration into tubes whose crosssection will be a curvilinear
parallelogram.
is
approximately
where
dsi
is
and
is
while 6
and
since
we have, Tyu
ds2 the corresponding distance the angle between the surfaces; being the intensity of the gradient
SCALAR FIELDS
of u,
19
v,
of the gradient of
ds2
1/Tvu,
1/Tvv
the area of the parallelogram will be ll(T^uI^v sin 6). Consequently if we count the parallelograms in any plane
Fig.
1.
crosssection of the
is
two
number
an approximate value
of the expression
TvuT^v
sin ^
area parallelogram
when summed over the plane crosssection. That is to say, the number of these tubes which stand perpendicular
to the plane crosssection
is
These tubes are called unit tubes for the same reason that
the lamellae are called unit lamellae.
it
successive surfaces crossed correspond to an increasing or to a decreasing value of u or of v. It is also clear that
when
sin 6
is
everywhere
In
d{u, v)fd(x, y)
20
VECTOR CALCULUS
are each equal zero, and this is the condition that w is a function of v. In case the plane of crosssection is the X, y plane, the first two expressions vanish anyhow, since
u, V are functions of x,
y only.
levels of
one of the functions, say u, as the upper and lower parts of the boundary of the crosssection, that in passing from one of the other sides
It
is
clear
if
we take the
of the
tubes
boundary along each level of u the number of unit we encounter from that side of the boundary to the
is
opposite side
side over that
on the second
dif
on the
If
u between the
two
of
have the total excess those on the second side over those on the first side.
sides of the crosssection
shall
is
we
That
to say, the
number
over the area bounded by level 1 and level 2 of u, and any other two lines which cross these two levels so as to produce a simple area between, is the excess of the sum between the two levels of the values of v on one side over the same
sum between
These
\
second
line
same
in
from one
Foi
the integral is energ}^, the number. of tubes ia of energy stored or released in the passage from one line to the other, as in a cyclone. The number of tubes
instance
if
the
amount
for
is
the approximate
integral
tdu
SCALAR FIELDS
EXERCISES.
1.
21
from a given
axis,
what are
along a line at 45 with the isobaric planes? 4. If the pressure can be stated as a fimction of the density, what conditions are necessarj'? Are they sufficient? What is the interpretation with regard to the levels?
Three scalar functions have a functional relation if their Jacobian What does this mean with regard to their respective levels? 6. If the isothermal surfaces are spheres with center at the earth's center, the temperatvue sheets for decrease of one degree being 166.66
5.
vanishes.
feet apart,
and
if
being given
by
log
B =
log B,.
0.0000177(2
Zo),
where
is
the pressure at Zu feet above the surface of the earth, what the relative derivative of the temperature as to the pressure, and the
jBo is
is
pressure as to the temperature? If there 7. To find the maximum of u{x, y, z) we set du = 0. a condition to be fulfilled, v{x, y, z) = 0, then dv = Q also.
also
These two equations in di, dy, dz must be satisfied for values of dx, dy, dz, and we must therefore have
du du &il dx dy' dz'
'
all
compatible
dv
dv
dv
which
is
VM = WW.
What
dt
does this
mean
in
The
xmit tubes?
If there is also
=
8.
another equation of condition t(x, y, z) then also Q and the Jacobian of the three functions u, v, t must equal zero.
=0
Interpret.
On
we
differentiate
everywhere, what
is
the significance?
22
9. If
VECTOR CALCULUS
a
field of force
fluid,
and such that its pressure is a function of the density and the temperaThe ture, will have the equipotential levels for isobaric levels also.
density will be the derivative of the pressure relative to the potential. Show therefore that equilibrium is not possible unless the isothermals are also the levels of force and of pressure.
[p
p{c, T),
+ prVT.
If
then vc
0,
cvv
pr^T.]
and
the dotted lines the profiles of isosteric sheets, count the unit tubes between the two verticals, and explain what the number means. If
they were equipotentials of gravity and isopycnic surfaces, what would the number of unit tubes mean?
Fig.
2.
11. If u = y 12a;^ and v = y x'' + fx, find vu and vv and Ts/uTvv sin 9, and integrate the latter over the area between x = 0^ X = 1, y = 0, y = 12. Draw the hues.
12. If
=
9
ax \by
is
TVMT'Vf sin
x'^
+ y^ +
z"^,
find
vm and vv and
CHAPTER
1.
III
VECTOR FIELDS
Hypercomplex Quantity. In the measurement of quantity the first and most natural invention of the mind was the ordinary system of integers. Following this came
the invention of fractions,
With these the necessary list of numbers for mere measurement of similar quantities is closed, up to the present time. Whether it will be necessary to invent a further extension of number along this line remains for the future to show.
In the attempt to solve equations involving ordinary numbers, it became necessary to invent negative numbers
and imaginary numbers. These were known and used as fictitious numbers before it was noticed that quantities also are of a negative or an "imaginary" character. We find instances everywhere. In debit and credit, for example, we have quantity which may be looked upon as of two different kinds, like iron and time, but the most logical conception is to classify debits and credits together in the One's balance is what he is worth single class balance. when the debits and credits have been compared. If the preponderance is on the side of debit we consider the balance negative, if on the side of credit we consider the balance Likewise, we may consider motion in each direcpositive.
tion of the
compass as in a class by itself, never using any measurement save the purely numerical one of comparing things which are exactly of the same kind But it is more logical, and certainly more general, together.
conception of
to consider motions in
of
all
directions of the
compass and
any
distances as
all
24
VECTOR CALCULUS
In that case the comparison of the different motions leads us to the notion of complex numbers. When Wessel made
study of the vectors in a plane he was studying the hypernumbers we usually call "the complex field." The, hypernumbers had been studied in themselves before, but
his
and
(in
as relations of quantities which could be considered as alike. Again when Steinmetz made use of them in the study of
the relations of alternating currents and electromotive forces, it became evident that the socalled power current
and wattless current could be regarded as parts of a single complex current, and similarly for the electromotive forces. The laws of Ohm and Kirchoff could then be generalized so
new complex quantities. In this brief an example of the interaction of the developments of mathematics. The inventions of mathematics find instances in natural phenomena, and in some cases
as to be true for the
history we
find
furnish
new conceptions by which natural phenomena can be regarded as containing elements that would ordinarily be completely overlooked.
In space of three (or more) dimensions, the vectors issuing from a point in all directions and of all lengths furnish quantities which may be considered to be all of
the same kind, on one basis of classification.
Therefore,
they
which
may
be
called
hypernumbers.
This
is
we
we
shall occa
notice others. Further, any which can be represented completely for certain purposes by vectors issuing from a point we will call vector quantity.
sionally
kind of quantity*
VECTOR FIELDS
^
25
motions,
velocities,
;ch
quantities,
for
instance,
are
Newtonian mechanics,
forces,
iiomenta, and
many
others.
The
object of
VECTOR CAL
,CULUS
to study these hypernumbers in relation to their corresponding quantities, and to derive an algebra capable
is
of handling
them.
do not consider a vector as a mere triplex of ordinary numbers. we shall consider two vectors to be identical when they represent or can represent the same quantity, even though one is expressed by a certain triplex, as ordinary Cartesian coordinates, and the
Indeed,
other
In'
We
Notation.
We
will
most
be more
As indicated
on page 12 there is a great variety of notation, and only one principle seems to be used by most writers, namely
that of using heavy type for vectors, whatever the style of In case the vector is from the origin to the point type.
(x, y, z) it
may
be indicated by
r, (p,
we may use
J
In case a vector
will indicate it
is
given by
its
components as X, Y,
z
Z we
by
?x,
r,
tion
Equivalence. All vectors which have the same direcand same length will be considered to be equivalent. Such vectors are sometimes called free vectors. The term
3.
vector will be used throughout this book, however, with no other meaning.
26
VECTOR CALCULUS
In case vectors are equivalent only when they lie on the line, and have the same direction and length, they
same
will
be called
glissants.
must be considered
same point and
resultant
moment
system
of glissants
radials.
point
IS
a radial from A.
of
The equivalence
two vectors
i8
foi:
on any other
lines will
is
however,
of
ways
may
ocx
For instance, wt
oiy
fiy,
oiz
fi^,
or ar
Br,
a^
/3^,
a^
/3,
The equivalence
of
two
reducible in every case to five independent equalities. Th? equivalence of two radials reduces to sets of six equalities,
is
Closely allied to the notion of radia that of vector field. A vector field is a system of vectoi
4.
Vector Fields.
each associated with a point of space, or a point of a surfacCj or a point of a line or curve. The vector is a function o:
the position of the point which is itself usually given by The vector function may be monodromic oi vector, as p.
polydromic.
fields.
We
will consider
some
EXAMPLES
p [L], This will usually be indicatec a function of a single parameter, as t^ by p. the points defined will lie on a curve;* in case it is a functioi
(1)
Radius Vector,
In case
it is
We
type."
VECTOR FIELDS
of
27
surface.
two parameters, u, v, the points defined will lie on a The term vector was first introduced by Hamilton
in this sense.
When we
field is p,
we mean
that at the point whose vector is p measured from the fixed origin, there is a field of velocity, or force, or other quantity,
is p.
ity
Usually we will designate velocIn the case of a moving gas or cloud, each particle has at each point of its path a definite velocity, so that we
a [LT~^].
by a.
any instant by stating what function cr is of p, that is, for the point at the end of the radius vector p assign the velocity
The path of a moving particle will be called a At each point of the path the velocity c is a trajectory.
vector.
we lay off from a fixed point the vectors a which correspond to a given trajectory, their terminal points will lie on a locus called by Hamilton the hodograph of the
If
trajectory.
multiply a by
approximation. If we the dimensions of length, namely an infinitesimal length along the tangent of the the trajectory trajectory, the differential equation of
dt,
which gives
becomes
dp
adt.
t
The
trajectory.
(3j
Acceleration.
^
t[LT~].
An acceleration field is
simi
tion
The acceleraelocity field except in dimensions. the rate of change of the vector velocity at a point, consequently, if a point describes the hodograph of a trajeclar to a
is
tory so that
its
is
the velocity be a
28
VECTOR CALCULUS
will
tangent to the hodograph, and its length of the moving point in the hodograph.
indicate acceleration.
(4)
be the velocity
will use r to
We
Momentum
Density.
[$eL~^].
This
is
a vector
function of points in space and of some number which can be attached to the point, called density. In the case of a
cloud, for instance, each point of the cloud will have a velocity and a density. The product of these two factors will be a vector whose direction is that of the velocity and
moving
whose length is the product of the length of the velocity and the density. However, momentum density without matter and without motion. In electroexist may
vector
dynamic
fields,
such as could exist in the very simple case and a single magnet
momentum
pole at a point, w^e also have at every point of space a density vector. This may be ascribed to the
hypothetical motion of a hypothetical ether, but the essenIf we calculate the tial feature is the existence of the field.
momentum density on the from a to a curve point ^ to a point B, the given tangent value of the integral is the action of an infinitesimal volume,
integral of the projection of the
integration
an action density, along that path from A to B. over a given volume would give the
all
The
total
action for
would be a minimum
the particles over their various paths. This for the paths actually described as
possible
compared
with
paths.
Specific
momentum
is
momentum density of a moving mass. Y [$0L~^]. The volume integral of (5) Momentum. momentum density or specific momentum is momentum,
j
Action
(6)
field of
momen
density is varying in time then at each point there is a_ vector which may be called forcedensity, the time derivative
tum
VECTOR FIELDS
of the
29
in fields
momentum
density.
due
to
intensity
on
magnetic density.
(7)
[^OL^T^].
It
is
The
unit of
the volume integral of force The time integral of a field of force is momentum. density. In a stationary field of force the line integral of the field
ceived a name, dyne.
path is the difference in energy between the points at the ends of the path, or what is commonly called In case the field is conservative the integral has the work.
for a given
same value
singular points),
we
the product
of the angle
between them,
is
the activity at
Flux Density.
12
[DT^.
an entity through a surface the limiting value of the amount that flows normally across an infinitesimal area is a vector whose direction is that of the outward normal of the surface, and whose intensity is the limit. In the case of a flow not
normal to the surface across which the flux
is
to be de
nevertheless define the flux density as above. termined, The flux across any surface becomes then the surface
integral of the projection of the flux density on the normal of the surface across which the flux is to be measured.
is an example of a vector which depends an The upon area, and is sometimes called a bivector. notion of two vectors involved in the term bivector may
we
Flux density
30
VECTOR CALCULUS
be avoided by the term cycle, or the term feuille. It is also called an axial vector, in opposition to the ordinary
vectors, called polar vectors.
in the sense that
it is
surface.
The
The term axial is applicable the axis or normal of a portion of a portion (feuille, cycle) of the surface is
its
traversed in the positive direction in going around boundary, that is, with the surface on the lefthand.
If
is
reversed,
we
also traverse
the area attached in the reverse direction, so that in this sense the axial vector may be regarded as invariant for
The
such change while the polar vector would not be invariant. distinction is not of much importance. The important
is
that of areal integration for the flux density or any other socalled axial vector, while the polar vector is subidea
ject only to linear integration. in the difference
We
meet the
distinction
R [^L^T'^].
When
it,
an
it
energy density has the idea of velocity attached to becomes a vector with the given dimensions. In case we consider it as of the nature of a flux density.
(10)
suclj
Energy Current.
is
[^eT'^].
If
density current
multiplied by an area
energy current.
Density Current. J [QL^T^]. A number of moving electrons will determine an average density
(11) Electric
per square centimeter across the line of flow, and the product
an electric density current. added the time rate of change of electric induction, which is of the same dimensions, and counts as an electric density current. The unit is the ami^m (12) Electric Current. C [07^^].
of this into a velocity will give
this
To
must
also be
=
of
310^
e.s.
units
This
is
the product
an
by an area.
VECTOR FIELDS
(13)
31
there
is
Magnetic Density Current. G [^L'T^. Though usually no meaning to a moving mass of magnetism,
magnetic induction
current, similar to electric
must be considered to be a
current density.
(14)
Magnetic Current.
[^f"^].
e.s.
The
unit
is
the
1 e.m. unit 3 W^ heavydde ena of magnetic leakage we have a real example of what be called magnetic current.
units.
In the phenom
may
Both
electric current
also be
the corresponding flux densities scalars. are integrated over a given surface the resulting scalar values would give the rate at which the electricity or the
For instance,
magnetism
In is passing through the surface per second. such case the symbols should be changed to corresponding
capitals.
(15) Electric Intensity.
Roman
charge
E [^L^T~^].
When an
is
electric
is
present in
any
at each
The same
situation
happens when
lines
of
magnetic induction are moving through space with a given The electric intensity will be perpendicular to velocity. both the line of magnetic induction and to the velocity it has, and equal to the product of their intensities by the
sine of their angle.
The
and
is
its flux,
meaning.
the ends of the path, for that given path. The unit of voltage is the volt =l10~ e.s. units = 10^ e.m. imits.
The sjTnbol for voltage is V [^T~^]. the same as for scalar electric potential,
Its
dimensions are
or magnetic current.
32
VECTOR CAI^CULUS
(16) Electric Induction.
[QL~^].
The
unit
is
the line
This vector usually has the same direction as electric intensity, but in non310^
e.s.
units
do not agree.
indicated
by
D =
K(E)
where
k is
measurable in farads per centimeter. In isotropic media K is a mere numerical multiplier with the proper dimensions, which are essential to the formulae, and should not be
neglected even
when
I.
The
flux
is
measured
field
in
coulombs.
(17)
Magnetic Intensity.
[eL'^T^].
The
due to
traversing a wire,
the poles of permanent magnets, or to a direct current In case is a field of magnetic intensity.
we have moving
flux
is
field of
magnetic intensity.
It
is
of a polar character,
and
its
through a surface has no meaning. The line integral between two points, however, is called the gilbertage between
the points along the given path, the unit being the gilbert = 1 e.m. unit = S 10^^ e.s. units. The symbol is [QT~^]'
Its
Magnetic Induction.
1
[^L~^].
units.
gauss
e.m. unit
310^
e.s.
The The
unit
is
the
is is
direction
usually the same as that of the intensity, but in any case given by a linear vector operator so that we have
B where
/j.
= m(H)
is
per centimeter.
the inductivity, [^Q~^L~^ T], measurable in henrys The flux is measured in maxwells.
VECTOR FIELDS
19)
33
[67"^].
field in
A
a
tor field
may
certain
manner
Magnetic Induction.
[^L~^]
This
Hertzian Vectors.
G, $.
These are
line integrals of
the preceding two, and are of a vector nature. 5. Vector Lines. If we start at a given point of a vector field and consider the vector of the field at that point to be the tangent to a curve passing through the point, the field will determine a set of curves called a congruence, since there
be a twofold infinity of curves, which will at every point have the vector of the field as tangent. If the field
will
is represented by a, a function of p, the vector to a point of the field, then the differential equation of these lines of
dp
adt,
parameter. From this we can determine the equation of the lines of the congruence, involving an arbitrary vector, which, however, will not have
where
dt is a differential
essential constants.
<t
is
then dp
The
rays emanating from the origin. The lines can be constructed approximately by starting at any given point, thence following the vector of the field
for a small distance,
the
new vector
line.
from the point so reached following and so proceedThis will trace approximately a if the field
mg
is
as far as necessary.
vector
monodromic at
34
VECTOR CALCULUS
curves must be uniquely determined as there will be at any point but one direction to follow. Two vector lines may
evidently be tangent at some point, but in a monodromic field they cannot intersect, except at points where the intensity of the field
of indeterminate
is
Such points of intersection are singular points of the field, and their study is of high importance, not only mathematically but for applications.
direction.
In the example above the origin is evidently a singular = 0, and its direction is indetermipoint, for at the origin c
nate.
6.
In the vector
field
we may select a set of points that lie upon a given curve and from each point draw the vector line. All such vector
lines will lie
upon a surface
case the given curve is closed, forming a loop, is further It is evident that the vector particularized as a vector tube.
lines
dp
are the characteristics of the differential equatioi adt, which in rectangular coordinates would be
dx
dy
dz
In case these equations are combined so as to give single exact equation, the integral will (since it must contain a single arbitrary constant) be the equation of a family
of vector surfaces. of
The vector
two such
The two
families
may
many
different ways.
Usually, however, as in Meteorology, those surfaces are chosen which have some significance. When a vector
its
limit
is
a vector
line.
Isogons.
If
we
VECTOR FIELDS
35
same
the
all
an isogon
for
For instance, we might locate on a weather map the points which have the same direction of the wind.
field.
If
any way
it
the use of meteorologists intended to mark the isogons have been invented and are in use.* As an instance consider the vector field
{2x, 2y,
z).
m, n
is
2x
or
2y
2y
I :
m
=
n
nt.
2x
It,
mt,
any point
(0, 0,
of this isogon
is
given by
t{l,
m, n)
3n0.
to
That
is
to say, to
isogon
we draw
its
then from
from the origin in the direction given, outer end draw a parallel to the Z direction
a ray
backward three times the length of the Z projection of the segment of the ray. The points so determined will evidently lie on straight lines in the same plane as the ray and its projection on the XY plane, with a negative slope twice
the positive slope of the ray. The tangents of the vector lines passing through the points of the isogon will then be The vector lines are drawn apparallel to the ray itself.
proximately by drawing short segments along the isogon parallel to its corresponding ray, and selecting points such that these short segments will make continuous lines in
ologie (1909), no. 6, pp. See plates, p. 50.
*Sandstr6m: Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteor242 et.seq. Bjerknes: Djnamic Meteorology.
36
VECTOR CALCULUS
method.
figure
passing to adjacent isogons. The figure illustrates the All the vector lines are found by rotating the
about the
X axis
Z
figure
through
all
angles.
Fig.
3.
8. Singularities. It is evident in the example preceding that there are in the figure two lines which are different from the other vector lines, namely, the Z axis and the line
which
is
in the
XY
plane.
would be an
plane passing through the origin. These lines are peculiar in that the other vector lines are asymptotic to them, while they are themselves
vector lines of the
field.
XY
method
was
used by Poincare.
II
VECTOR FIELDS
37
Lines are then drawn from the to the plane at the origin. center of the sphere to every point of the plane, thus giving
two points on the sphere, one on the hemisphere next the on the hemisphere plane and one diametrically opposite at The the from infinity in the plane points plane. away
correspond to the equator or great circle parallel to the In this representation every algebraic curve in the plane.
plane gives a closed curve or cycle on the sphere. In the present case, the axes in the plane give two perpendicular great circles on the sphere, and the vector lines will be
loops tangent to these great circles at points where they These loops will form in the four lunes cross the equator.
of the sphere a
calls
to a topographical system. the system, being the limit of the loops as they grow narrower. The two great circles corresponding to the axes
also belong to the system, being the limits of the loops as
they grow larger. If a point describes a vector line its projection on the sphere will describe a loop, and could never leave the lune in which the projection is situated.
The
represent the origin, and through which only the singular vector lines pass, are called fauces.
The simplest singular lines depend 9. Singular Points. upon the singular points and these are found comparatively simply. The singular points occur where
a
Since
=
have the
or
0
00
pressions
a by any exsame, we may equally suppose that the components of a are reduced to as low terms as possible by the exclusion of common factors of all of them. We will consider first the singular
of
38
VECTOR CALCULUS
every point of which is a singular point, which will include the cases of plane fields, since these latter may be considered to represent the fields produced by moving the
itself.
The
classification given
by
Node.
directions
is
or
in
which vector
origin,
An example
0,
p.
At the
easy to see,
<r
and
it is
not possible
definite direction.
from
the
at'
the rays in one and for this construct the any plane, sphere of plane projection, we see that the lines correspond to great circles a finite distance.
If,
however, we
pass through the origin and the point diametrically opposite to it. This ideal point may be considered to be another node, so that all the vector
all
lines
line
this case.
Every vector
node
is
a spiral or a cycle.
(2)
From
all
lines
which are
on one
surface,
and a
single isolatec
The
a singular surface since every vector line in it the faux is a singular line. The singular surface through is approached asymptotically by all the vector lines not
singular.
An example
The
*
is
is
given by
{x, y,
z).
hy drawing
all
equilateral
hyperbolas
Latin.
quadrants of the
col,
meaning mountain
which fauj
VECTOR FIELDS
39
Evidently all rotating this set of lines about the Z axis. are singular lines, as plane from the origin rays in the
XY
Z
well as the
axis.
through them
Where fauces occur the singular lines are asymptotes for the nonsingular lines. If
Fig. 4.
we
axis,
its
equilateral hyperbolas
onto
tangent on the equator to the great circles which represent the singular lines in that plane. From this point of
view we really should consider the two rays of the Z axis as separate from each other, so that the upper part of the Z
axis
and the singular ray perpendicular to it, running in the same general direction as the other vector lines, would constitute a vector line
with an angle.
Such a vector
tangent at points at infinity only is a boundary line in the sense that on one side we have infinitely many vector lines
which form cycles (in the sense defined) while on the other sides we have vector lines which belong to different sys
tems of
cycles.
40
VECTOR CALCULUS
A simple case of this example might arise in the inward flow of air over a level plane, with an ascending motion which increased as the air approached a given vertical
line,
becoming asymptotic to
fire in
In
fact,
the center of a circular tent open at the bottom for a small distance and at the vertex, would give a motion
a small
to the
smoke
singular line
else is a
An example
a
the
field_
(x^
\
y^
1,
bxy
5,
mz).
Fig.
plane the singular points are at infinity as follows at the negative end of the axis, and B at the positiv end, both fauces; C at the end of the ray whose directioi
In the
Xy
A
is
tan~^
2, in
the
first
quadrant,
VECTOR FIELDS
41
2 in the fourth quadrant; and F ray of direction tan~^ 2 in the second quadrant, of tan~^ of the end the at ray lines run from E to Vector these four being nodes.
division line from
separated from the rest of the plane by an asjmptotic B to D; from C to D on the other side
of this division line, separated
from the third portion of line from C to A; and division an the plane by asymptotic from C to F in the third portion of the plane. The figure shows the typical lines of the field. At a focus the vector lines wind in asymp(.3) Focus.
totically, either like spirals
wound towards
the vertex of a
of its
spindle produced
tangents, one vector line passing through the focus, or they are like spirals wound around a cone towards the
Fig.
6.
vertex.
As an example
0
(.r+
y,
x,z).
The Z axis
is
is a single singular line through the origin, which a singular point, a focus in this case. The plane contains vector lines which are logarithmic spirals wound in
XY
The
42
VECTOR CALCULUS
of revolution, their projections
wound on cones
would have
on
az
XF
we
By
1
changing
z to
<
or
<
a.
a limit cycle.
on the cones
wind outward
cycles.
From
example
it
is
which are
spiral
may
start asymptotically
be bounded by a limit cycle. The limit cycle thus divides the plane or the surface upon which they lie into two
mutually exclusive regions. Vector lines may also start from a limit cycle and proceed to another limit cycle.
As an example of vector
field
lines of
Fig.
<j
7.
if'
1, r^
Ij tnz),
where the
XY
component is in the direction of a ray in th( plane from the origin, the second perpendicular t(
first
VECTOR FIELDS
this in the
43
parallel to the
is
Z axis.
The vector
XY
plane, are
spirals with the origin as a focus for one set, which wind around the focus negatively and have the unit circle as a
circle
having the
r~^
line at infinity as a
first set is r~^
limit cycle.
The
=
is
e^"^, of
e^'^'^.
An example with
the field
Fig. 8.
(7
( [r^
\){f
9)], (r^
2r cos Q
8),
mz)
with directions for the components as in the preceding example. The singular points are the origin, a focus; the
point
Q
cos"^ \), a node; the point B {r 3, cos~^ \), a faux. The line at infinity is a limit
(r
.3,
1,
which
is
also a vector
is
The
circle r
is
a cycle,
44
VECTOR CALCULUS
and returning
first
to the faux.
The
being spirals that wind asymptotically around the focus, out to the unit circle as limit cycle; the second start at the
node
and wind
in
on the unit
the
line at in
The second
down towards
the
exceptional vector lines are the line at infinity, the unit circle, both being limit cycles; the circle of radius
faux.
3;
The
a vector
line
winding in on the unit circle, and on the other side starts at the faux B winding outward to the line at infinity ag
limit cycle.
the regions. figure exhibits the typical curves. This type of singular point has passing (4) FauxFocus.
The The
last
lines of
through
of spirals
it
a singular surface which contains an infinity having the point as focus, while an isolated vector
line passes
No
othei
An
instance
is
(x, y,
z).
The Z
is
axis is the isolated singular line, while the plane the singular plane. In it there is an infinity of spirals with the origin as focus and the line at infinity as limi^
All other vector lines
lie
XY
=
cycle.
on the surfaces
is
rz
const
through the singular point, and not passing through this singular line there is a singular surface, with a set of loops
There
or cycles surrounding the center, and shrinking upon it. is also a set of surfaces surrounding the isolated
.iic
it
with a decreasinu
VECTOR FIELDS
45
which they pitch as they approach the singular surface, we instance an As therefore approach asymptotically.
have the
field
<j
{y,
X, z).
The Z
the
axis
is
XY plane
singular
concentric to the
lie
and on
cylinders
about the
axis,
approaching the
XY
plane asymptotically.
The method
the
of determining
Fig. 9.
either a
node or a faux.
not occur alone
Singularities
may
but
may
singular point.
be distributed on lines every point of which is a This will evidently occur when a = gives
three surfaces which intersect in a single line. The different types may be arrived at by considering the line of
singularities to be straight,
lines
of the vector
with the points of the singular line as singularities to be planes, for the whole problem of the character of the
singularities is a problem of analysis situs, and the deformation will not change the character. The types are then as follows
:
(1)
Line of Nodes.
Every point
is
o
is
node.
simple example
y,
0).
The
and
vector
parallel
axis
to the
XY plane.
46
(2)
VECTOR CALCULUS
Line of Fauces. There are two singular vector through each point of the singular line. As an instance
y, 0).
lines
(x,
The
lines
through the
all
axis parallel to
the
Line of Foci.
The
approached asymptotically by spirals. As an instance a = (x \ y, y The vector lines are logarimithic X, 0). in to the spirals planes parallel plane, wound around the
XY
axis
(4)
which
is
the singular
line.
is
cr
Line of Centers.
lines are the
simple case
(y,
it
x, 0).
The vector
circles
with
as axis.
is
The character
of these
have
lines are
tangent to the asymptotic line. 12. General Characters. The problem of the character of a vector field so far as it depends upon the vector lines
and
the
their singularities
is
is
of great importance.
Its general
resolution
due to Poincare.
des
In a series of
memoirs
in
Journal
Mathematiques* he
investigated
the
qualitative character of the curves which represent the characteristics of differential equations, particularly with
the intention of bringing the entire set of integral curves into view at once. Other studies of differential equations
usually relate to the character of the functions defined at
single points
and
in their vicinities.
is
The
chief difficulty
of the
independent regions.
j
Ser. (3) 7 (1881), p. 375; ser. (3) 8 (1882), p. 251; ser. (4) 1 (1885), p. 167. Also Takeo Wado, Mem. Coll. Sci. Tokyo, 2 (1917) 151.
VECTOR FIELDS
47
The asymptotic
on meteorological
maps as lines on the surface of the earth towards which, or away from which, the air is moving. They are called in the two cases lines of convergence, or lines of divergence,
respectively.
If
may
The line will then have the same character. divergence. The node in other fields, such as electric or magnetic or heat
flow,
is
a source or a sink.
is
If
often called a neutral point. A focus may be also a point of convergence or point of divergence. In
faux, the latter
the case of a singular line consisting of foci, the singular line may be a line of convergence or of divergence; in the first
case, for instance, the singular line
is
The
lines
limit cycles
currence of limit cycles in natural phenomena. The limit cycle may be a line of convergence or a line of divergence, the air in the first case flowing into the line as^Tnptotically
from both inside and outside, with the focus serving as a source, and in the other case with conditions reversed.
The practical handling of these problems in meteorological work depends usually upon the isogonal lines: the lines
which are
loci of
of the field.
These are drawn and the infinitesimal tangents drawn across them. The filling in of the vector lines is then a matter of draughtsmanship. The isogonal
lines
will
enable one to determine somewhat the singularities of the vector lines themselves. Since the unit vector in the
direction of
is
it is
evident that
48
VECTOR CALCULUS
the only change in <j along an isogon is in its intensity, that is, a keeps the same direction, and its differential is
therefore a multiple of a, that
differential
is,
equation
da
Consequently, when
singular point.
o
=
or
adi.
the isogon will have a It does not follow, however, that all the
cr
co
singular points of the isogons will appear as singular points such as are described above for the vector lines. When
is
reduced to the
'
standard form
dp
rdu
c,
we
and that a
so that ipa
may have
Some
zero directions,
0,
without a
0.
of the
that
may happen
Node
phenomena Dynamic
of Isogons.
These
may
case the directions of the tangents of the vector lines will increase (that is, the tangent will turn positively) as succes
taken in a positive rotation about the node, be negative in the reverse case. The positive node of the isogon will then correspond to a node, a focus, or a center of the vector lines. The negative node of the isogon
sive isogons are
or
may
will
If
correspond to a faux of the vector lines. the isogons are parallel, having, therefore, a node at
have asymptotic division lines running in the same direction, or they may have lines of inflexion parallel to the
isogons.
2.
may
Center of Isogons. When the isogons are cycles they to correspond very complicated forms of the vector
VECTOR FIELDS
lines.
49
by Sand
strom, Annalen der Hydrographie und maritimen Meteorologie, vol. 37 (1909), p. 242, Uber die Bewegung der
Flussigkeiten.
* 1.
EXERCISES*
ct),
To be
the isogons, and the singular itie.s? 2. A rotation field is given by <r = (mz ny, nx what are the isogons, singularities, and vector fines?
lines,
3.
is
ly
mx),
given by
4.
A field of deformation proportional to the distance in one direction = {ax, 0, 0). Determine the field. A general field of linear deformation is given by = {ax + by + cz, fx+gy + hz, kx + ly + mz).
<r
<r
fields this
may
represent according to
(i*
y*
2*,
2xy, 2xz).
yx, zx
is
6. 7.
stationary in a rotating fluid contained in a cylindrical vessel with vertical axis of rotation?
8.
Consider the quadratic field a = {xy xz, yz TVTiat are the Unes of flow when the motion
zy).
values of a, which
their polar radii.
fields <r = {ay x, y ax, b) for different the tangent of the angle between the curves and What happens in the successive diagrams to the
isogons, to the
9.
urves?
v.xrious fieldsf
Consider the
a
is
(l,/(r
a),
b)
where
r is the
XY
plane, a
constant, and
foims
/(x)
10.
x"S
(1,
f{ax sin
where
/(x)
11. In
various electrical texts, such as Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, and others, there will be foimd plates showing the lines of
various
fields.
Discuss
Bjeiknes'
*
Djnamic
mj\ps
in
See Hitchcock, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and See Sandstrom cited above.
i2 (1917), No.
7,
pp. 372454.
t
50
VECTOR CALCULUS
12. In a funnelshaped vortex of a waterspout the spout may be considered to be made up of twisted funnels, one inside another, the
space between the surfaces being a vortex tube. In the Cottage City waterspout, Aug. 19, 1896, the equation of the outside funnel may be
taken to be
(x2
I 2/2)z
3600.
In this
tubes,
X,
and
y are measured horizontally in meters from the axis of the z is measured vertically downwards from the cloud base,
is 1100 meters above the ground. The inner surfaces have the same equation save that instead of 3600 on the right we have 3600/(1.6010)^"; that is, at any level, the radius of a surface bounding a tube is found from the preceding radius at the same level by dividing by the number whose logarithm (base 10) is 0.20546. From meteorological theory the velocity of the wind on any surface is given by
which
{Cr, Crz,
2Cz)
where the first component is the horizontal radial component, the second is the tangential, and the third is the vertical component. C varies for the difTerent surfaces, and is found by multiplying the value
by the square of the number 1.6010. In BigeAtmos'pheric Radiation, etc., p. 200 et seq., is to be found a set of tables for the various values from these data for different levels. Charfor the outside surface
low' s
have
>
the equation
i/) sin az
const/A
where
varies
in the preceding
problem.
The
o
velocity
givenby
cos az,
Aar
Aar
sin az, 2
sin az),
the directions being horizontal radial, tangential and vertical. For the St. Louis tornado. May 27, 1896, the following data are given. Cloud base 1200 meters above the ground, divided into 121 parts
called degrees, the
in degrees.
The values
of
field.
In the treatise on The Sun's Radiation, Bigelow gives the followfor a funnelshaped vortex data ing
rh = 6400000/C
fromW^
PLATE
PLATE
11
VECTOR FIELDS
at 500 kilometers z
51
500, r
aiKm/sec)
Calculate for
{Cr, Crz,
2Cz).
2=0,
The
a vortex
field
observations.
The vector lines in the last three problems lie on the funnel surfaces, being traced out in fact by a radius rotating about the axis of the vortex, and advancing along the axis according to the law
20 26
= = az
+C
C
\
15. Study the lines on the plates, which represent on the first plate the isogons for wind velocities, on the second plat the corresponding characteristic Unes of wind flow. The date was evening of Jan. 9, 1908.
European and American systems of numbering directions are shown the margin of plate 1. See Sandstrom's paper cited above.
13.
in
Congruences.
^Ye
still
vector lines constitute geometrically a congruence, that is, a twoparameter system of curves in space. The consideration of these matters, however, will have to be post
poned to a
later chapter.
CHAPTER
IV
ADDITION OF VECTORS
1. Sum of Vectors. Geometrically, the sum of two or more vectors is found by choosing any one of them as the first, from the terminal point of the first constructing the
second (any other), from the terminal point of this constructing the third (any of those left)
till all
and so proceeding
in
space with the exception of a final side. If now this last side is constructed by drawing a vector from the initial
point of the
so
first
drawn
is
called the
to the terminal point of the last, the vector sum of the several vectors. In
case the polygon is already closed the sum is a zero vector. When the sum of two vectors is zero they are said to be
opposite,
and
its
opposite.
It is evident from the definition that we presuppose a space in which the operations can be effectively carried out. For instance, if the space were curved h'ke a sphere, and the sum of two vectors is found, it would
evidently be different according to which is chosen as the first. The study of vector addition in such higher spaces has, however, been considered.
2.
Tome
IV, Vol.
2.
Algebraic Sum.
it
sum without
the
geometric vectors.
set of
We
must indeed
hypernumbers,
which are the basis of the system of hypernumbers we intend to study. These are sometimes called imaginaries,
because they are analogous to V
r>2
1.
ADDITION OF VECTORS
53
dimensional space there are three such hypernumbers in the We combine in thought a numerical value with basis.
each of these, the field or domain from which these numeriFor incal values are chosen being of great importance.
stance,
;
the
we may limit our numbers to the domain of domain of rationals, the domain of reals, or
integers,
to other
more complicated domains, such as certain algebraic fields. We then consider all the multiplexes we can form by putting together into a single entity several of the hypernumbers just formed, as for instance, we would have in threedimensional space such a
p
compound
as
,1
'
using the base hypernumbers e it is no longer necessary to use the parentheses nor to pay attention We drop the use of the comma, to the order of the terms.
Since
we
are
now
sign, so that
we would now
= Xi+
yei
+ 23.
sum
of several
We may now
easily define
the algebraic
5^
t
pi
= =
Xiei
1, 2,
m,
2?/,e2
from
geometric definition,
sideration.
corre
orthogonal, however.
The
then the oblique or rectangular coordinates of the point which terminates the vector if it
starts at the origin.
54
VECTOR CALCULUS
We may
in
For instance,
we
write
63
= = =
+ + asioji +
ttnai
0120:2
a22Ci2 a32a;2
a21l
+ ai33, + + a33a3,
a23<X3,
then p becomes
P
=
It
(anx
a2iy
+
is
(anX
+ +
aziz)ai
222/
+
if
322)a2
(anX
023^
a33z)a3.
singular
cients of the
new
tran;
formation.
linear,
the transform of
sum
will
be the
original
is
sum.
sum of the transforms of the terms of the The transformation as a geometrical procesi
equivalent to changing the axes. This process evident! gives us a new triple, but must be considered not to giv<
us a
new vector.
Indeed, a vecto
cannot be defined by a
is
triple of
numbers alone.
Then
on the geometric side a definite set of axe such that the triple gives the components of the vecto along these axes. It is evident that the success of an
to be a basis, or
choice of
system of vector calculus must then depend upon th modes of combination which are not affected b
the change from one basis to another. This is the case with addition as we have defined it. We assume that we
may
basis
If
express any vector or hypernumber in terms of any we like, and usually the basis will not appear.
the transformation
is
ADDITION OF \t:ctors
55
tween
ci,
e^,
cs
second trihedral being substantially the same as the first rotated into a new position, with the lengths in each case
remaining units, then the transformation is called orthogWe may define an orthogonal transformation algebraonal.
ically as one such that if followed by the contragredient transformation the original basis is restored. 4. Differential of a Vector. If we consider two points at a small distance apart, the vector to one being p, to the
other
p',
p'
p,
and the vector from the first to the second, Ap where Ap = Ase, e being a unit vector in the
we may then
6
let
say a, and
w^ may
the differential of p for the given range over which the p' In the hypernumbers we likewise arrive at a hyperruns.
number
dp
dxi
dye2
dziz,
where now ds
of dx, dy, dz,
is
a linear
homogeneous
{dsr
irrational function
in case
ei,
2, 3
which
=
is
rfz/^
+ dz)
units.
The quotient
sents the time.
dpjdt
The
the velocity at the point if t repreunit vector a is the unit tangent for
a curve.
We
the binormal
by /3, 7 respectively. WTien p is given as dependent on a single variable parameter, as t for instance, then the ends of p may describe a curve. We may have
form the coordinates of p alone dependent upon the parameter, or we may have both the coordinates and the basis dependent upon /. For instance, we may express p in terms of 1, 2, ta which are not dependent upon
in the algebraic
but represent fixed directions geometrically, or we may express p in terms of three hypernumbers as co, r, f which
t
56
VECTOR CALCULUS
themselves vary with t, such as the moving axes of a system In relativity theories the latter method of reprein space.
sentation plays an important part. 5. Integral of a Vector. If we add together n vectors and divide the result by n we have the mean of the n vectors,
which
may
be denoted by
p.
If
we
select
an
infinite
number
of vectors
and
sum
after
the differential of the parameter by multiplication by which they are expressed, such limit is called the integral
dt,
t,
and
if
we
give
result
two from
is
to
the
More
generally,
if
we
number, by a corremultiply a sponding series of differentials, and find the limit of the sum of the results, such limit, when it exists, is called the
series of vectors, infinite in
they are properly difficulties due to the numerical system and not to the hypernumbers, we will suppose that the reader is familiar with the methods of handling them.
The mean
some
sequence of values
of differentials
the quotient of
by the
The examples
illustrate
the
EXAMPLES
(1)
The
centroid of
an
arc,
an area, or a volume
is
found
by integrating the vector p itself multiplied by the differential of the arc, ds, or of the surface, du, or of the volume
dv.
The
integral
is
That
is
_ 
flp{s)ds a
,
^^ or
ffpdu A

^^ or
fffpdv
:^
ADDITION OF VECTORS
(2)
57
in the following
= Ht. in Meters
77
^z
Direction
Velocity
(m/sec.)
Products
680 960 1240 1530 1810 2090 2430 2730 3040 3400 3710 4030 4400
603 280 280 290 280 280 340 300 310 36C 310 320 370
S.
S. S. S. S. S. S. S. S. S. S. S. S.
50 E. 57 E. 36 E. 28 W. 2 W. 2 W. 35 W. 53 W. 69 W. 65 W. 53 W. 58 W. 37 W.
2050 1120
1484 435 504 560 510 540 558 1080 868 1408 3773
2.0
1.5 1.8 1.8
To average
tion that the
vertically
on the assumpwas uniform the distances upward velocity can be used to measure the time. We therefore
the velocities
notice that
we
multiply each
velocity by the difference of elevations corresponding, the products being set in the last column. These numbers are then taken as the lengths of the vectors
sum
,
whose directions are given by the third column. The of these is found graphically, and divided by the total
upward, that
is,
difference of distance
4323.
In the same
in order
manner we can
meters of ascent.
a new table
Heiglit
Dens, (ton/m*)
Veloc.
Momentum
.sec.)
(ton/m*
58
VECTOR CALCULUS
find the average velocity
between the 1000 mbar, the 900 mbar, the 800 mbar, the 700 mbar, and the 600 mbar. The direction is commonly indicated by the integers
We now
from
5f.
East
is
is 0,
North
is
16,
NW.
is
The
following table
Spec. Vol.
found.
Spec.
Pressure
Height
(my Ton)
1217 1087 981 890 890
Direction
Veloc.
Momentum
0.0043 0.0016 0.0024 0.0042 0.0040
5.2
1.7
20 25 25
Of course,
ities
specific momenta should be averaged like veloc but usually owing to the rough measurements it ^
sufficient 2 to
velocities.
find
specific
momenta from
the
avera^
ADDITION OF VECTORS
59
EXERCISES
above the following observations taken at places Average mentioned (Bjerknes, p. 20), July 25, 1907, at 7 a.m. Greenwich time.
1.
as
Isobar
Dyn. Ht.
60
2. If
VECTOR CALCULUS
I
the direction of the wind
registered every hour how is the Find the average for the following observais
Station
ADDITION OF VECTORS
4.
61
Find the resultant attraction at a point due to a segment of a of density which varies straight line which is (a) of uniform density, (6) What is the mean attracis the square of the distance from one end.
jon in each case?
5.
Show
that p
ta
+ ^Pfi is the equation of a parabola, that the = ha + + x(a + ti0), that tangents
ifi*/3
by
<
= pa z0 independent of q so that all points of the line p lave corresponding chords of contact which are parallel. If a chord to pass through the point aa 6/3 for differing values of p, then = pa = b and the qff hes on the line p mo\ing point pa 1 ap \ {ap b)P, whose direction is independent of b. 6. If a, /3, 7 are vectors to three collinear points, then we can find
iirection
9/3,
is
= p p =
it
V
g/3
(p*
being
+ y{a + p/3)
which has a
iuee
numbers
a, b, c
such that
aa
1.
+ b0 + cy =0=a+b+c.
In problem 5 show that if three points are taken on the parabola rresponding to the values U, h, h, then the three points of intersection f the sides of the triangle they determine with the tangents at the
vertices of
Determine the points that divide the segment joining A and B, the ratio I : m, both internally and exKnnts with vectors a and /3, emaUy. Apply the resiilt to find the polar of a point with respect to
8.
liat are
is, the line which passes through the three points harmonic on the three sides respectively with the intersection a line through the given point and the vertex opposite the side. 9. Show how to find the resultant field due to superimposed fields. 10. A cvuve on a surface is given hy p = u{u, v), u = /(w), study the
lifferential of p.
CHAPTER V
VECTORS IN A PLANE
make
Two Vectors. We purpose in this chapter to a more detailed study of vectors in a plane and the hypernumbers corresponding. In the plane it is convenient
1.
Ratio of
some assigned unit vector as a reference for all others in the plane, though this is not at all necessary in
to take
most problems.
In fact we go back for a moment to the fundamental idea underlying the metric notion of number.
According to this a number is defined to be the ratio between two quantities of the same concrete kind, such as
the ratio of a rod to a foot.
of vectors, regarding
it
is
If
now we
them
as the
numerical ratio of lengths. The ratio in this case is in fact what we have called a hypernumber. For every pair of vectors p, ir there exists a ratio p tt and a reciprocal
:
ratio
TT
p.
This ratio we
will
designate by a
roman
character
q
IT
p/tt
P
TT
That
2.
is
to say,
we may
substitute p for
If
qir.
we draw p and ir from one point, they will form a figure which has two segments for sides and an angle. (In case they coincide we still conComplex Numbers.
sider they
the
initial
In this figure p
side.
is
Then
their
p.
is
to be looked upon
to reduce the
it is
we were
ratio
VECTORS IN A PLANE
63
A change
However,
of angle would, however, give a different ratio. we will agree that all ratios are to be considered
as equivalent, or as
we
when the figures to which they correspond have sides in the same proportion, but also when they have the same angles and sides in proportion, even if not placed in the piane in the same position. For instance, if the vectors
is
this order,
then we
shall
hypernumber
into
multiplies
AB
will also
multiply
DF
DE.
it
This axiom
differentiates
of equivalence is
this particular
hypernumber from others which might just For instance, the Gibbs a well be taken as fundamental. dyad of tt p is equally a hypernumber, but we cannot
:
any other vectors than mere multiples the Gibbs dyad we have a in the ordinary comthan more restricted hypernumber plex number which has been just defined, and which is a If we have special case of the Hamiltonian quaternion. a Gibbs dyad q, we can find the two vectors tt and p save
substitute for
of
TT
tt
or p
or p.
It is clear that in
we cannot
find
is
tt
vector there
and p further than to say that for every In other words the q.
only transformations allowed in the Gibbs dyad are translaor magnification of it. In the AB,
AC
Hamiltonian quaternion, or complex number, the transformations of the figure AB, AC may be not only those just mentioned but rotation in the plane.
In order to find a satisfactory form for the hypernumber which we have characterized, we further notice that if q we change the length of t in the ratio m then we must
ratio,
and
if
we
64
VECTOR CALCULUS
length or intensity of
to that of p the
number
r, it is
evi
r<p(d),
6,
where
only.
<p(d)
is
a function of
if
Further
we
r<p(d)p,
where the
first factor affects the change of length, the second the change of direction, it is plain that for a second multiplication by another complex number q' = r'<p{d'),
we should have
tt'
r'r<p(d')(p(e)p
r'r(p(d'
e)p.
Whence we must
consider that
These expressions are functions of two ordinary numerical parameters, dj 6', and are subject to partial differentiation,
just like
6,
any other expressions. Differentiating first then as to 6', we find {(p' being the derivative)
^'{d)<p{e')
as to
cp\d
d')
=
_
<p'{e')^{B),
whence
<py)
<p{d)
<p'{d')
'
<p(d')
where kis a constant and does not depend upon the angle at It may, however, depend upon the plane in which the vectors lie, so that for different planes k may be, and
all.
in fact
is,
different.
Since,
when
6=0
numerical multiplier,
k<p{0).
If
now we examine
<p{6)
cos 6
\
k sin
6,
VECTORS EN A PLANE
which gives
65
Im
^ft
<p\d)
sme+
k cos e
A
cos ^
if
+ F sin
A^
6,
we take
1.
^e
may then properly use this function to define (p. This very simple condition then enables us to define hypernumbers of this kind, so that we write
q
r(cos 6
1.
\
k sin
d)
cks 6
re,
where
3.
k
Imaginaries. It is desirable to notice carefully here that we must take k^ equal to 1, the same negative
This is important view from which the because there are other points of character of k and F would be differently regarded. For
instance, in the original paper of Hamilton,
Algebraic a linear as regarded equivalent, the converts which substitution or operator, couple (a, b)
Couples, the
k, or
its
is
(
On
b, a).
While
it is
true that
we may
so
regard the imaginary, it becomes at once obvious that we must then draw distinctions between 1 as an operator, and
1
as a
f
1, and indeed for any expression number, and so for In fact, such distinctions are drawn, and we find yi.
these operators occasionally called matrix unity, etc. From the point of view of the hypernumber, this distinction is
Hypernumbers are extensions of the number system, similar to radicals and other algebraic numbers. The fact that, as we will see later, they are not in general commutative, does not prevent their being an extension.
not possible.
4.
In the complex
number
cos 6
\
r sin
dk
the term
Rq.
cos 6
is
The term
r sin ^ ^ is called
66
VECTOR CALCULUS
Iq.
and written
written Tq.
versor of q
and
sin dk
is
called the
and written
Therefore,
Tqllq.
\
q= Rq+ Iq=
If
(/
bk
we
b^},
Rq
Iq
bk,
Tq
yl (a^
tan^fe/a.
5.
Division.
g~V.
It
also
write
Rq'
= RqKTqf,
Iq'
=  IqKTq)\
cos 6
sin dk.
Tq'
IjTq,
Uq~'
6.
Conjugate, Norm. The hypernumber q = Kq = Rq Iq is called the conjugate of q. If q belongs to the figure AB, AC, then q belongs to an inversely similar triangle, that
is,
norm
of
q.
It
Evidently,
tlq
i(q
q),
Iq
= Uq 
q),
q'
~qlNq,
Uq'
Uq.
7.
it is
is
a complex number
such that
Ts= TqTr^ Zr, Z_s= zq+  Tlqlr, = Rqr Rrq = RJji? = Rrq = RqRr Rqr = Rqr = Rrq = Rrq = RqRr + Tlqlr, = Rqlr + Rrlq, = Irq = = Iqr Irq Iqr = = = = Rqlr. Rrlq Iqr Irq Irq Iqr
Hence
if
Rqr
=? 0,
r are
for their
complementary sum.
VECTORS IN A PLANE
If
67
In particular
7?^?
= = =
0,
If If
S.
Iqr
0, 0,
Iqr
the angles are supplementary or opposite. the angles are equal or differ by 180.
Continued Products.
(qrs
to
notice
that
It is
these
products are commutative, but in quaternions, of which numbers are particular cases, the products are not
usually
written.
9.
Triangles.
j3,
y,
8, e
and
=
then the triangle of
g/S,
qy,
B, e is similar to
c
that of y,
qy,
5,
while
if
g/3,
the triangles are inversely similar. These equations enable us to apply complex
certain classes of problems with great success.
10.
is
numbers to
a vector
Use
of
If
in the
taken as unit, every vector in the plane may be written form qa, for some properly chosen q. We may
and talk
of
the vector
unit a.
q, always with the implied reference to a certain This is the wellknown method of Wessel, Argand,
However,
it
we have no occasion
EXAMPLES
(1)
bine from the following data. The two wheels are rigidly connected and rotate with a speed a = 400oo ft./sec. Be
68
VECTOR CALCULUS
tween them are stationary buckets which turn the exhaust steam from the buckets of the first wheel into those of the
The friction in each bucket reduces the speed The steam issues from the expansion nozzle at a speed of j8 = 220020. The proper exhaust angles of the buckets are 24, 30, 45. Find the proper entrance angles
second wheel.
by 12%.
of the buckets.
7 =
5
relative velocity of
steam at entrance to
steam,
first
wheel.
= =
= = = =
22OO20
400o
of
183024.3.
velocity
issuing
88%
of
preceding,
=
5
I6IO156.
+a=
= =
1610i56
400o
=
=
1255i48.4.
r
6
exit
110530.
a =
IIO530
400o
7]
exit
690i35.
690i35
400o
495ioo.
real part of w,
Rw, considered
termine
z,
will give
u, V plane.
v, the two parameters which dea system of curves in the x, y, or the These may be considered to be the transforma
Rw =
const,
lines
axis in the
imaginary part.
other,
The two
^
and
1*1 of the
dTIw
ox
.,
other set
/
/
I
dTIw
t^
.
r>ut
these are
ay
VECTORS IN A PLANE
negative reciprocal, since
69
dRw _ dTlw
dx
dy
dRw _ _ dTIw
dy
dx
EXERCISES
1. If a particle which has a velocity given by is
<r
medium
+ 36 sin
[p, Ols",
what
be its path? 2. The wind is blowing steadily from the northwest at a rate of 16 ft ./sec. A boat is carried round in circles with a velocity 12 ft ./sec. divided by the distance from the center. The two velocities are com= 4o. pounded, find the motion of the boat if it starts at the point p
will
3.
12i8o, the
is
slow stream flows in at the point 120" and out at the point Unes of flow being circles and the speed constant. A chip
floating
is
Find its path. 4. If a triangle is made with the sides q, r then jR.gr the vertex with reference to the circle whose diameter
640.
side.
5.
is
The area of the triangle is \TIqf. The sum q \ r can be found by drawing vectors
qa, ra.
6.
How
is
qr constructed?
is
g??
7. If
OAE
ABC
OCF
another, and
if
EC
If O,
and
AF
C
intersect in B, then
0.
A, B,
a triangle and
LM
a segment, and
if
we construct
similar to
CAB,
PQR is
similar to
CAB.
number x
9. If
as a variable parameter,
the variable complex number u depends on the real by the linear fractional form
ax
ex
\\
d
will
terminate on
circle.
For
if
we construct

70
this reduces to
(cx/d),
VECTOR CALCULUS
hence the angle of w, which
dfc
<x)
is
u a/c and u b/d, is the angle of Hence the circle goes through a/c (x=
10. If
is
(x
=0).
_ ^ ~
where x
is
x(c
~k(c
b)a
6)
+ b(a c) + (a  c)
u
a,
will
terminate on the
b,
through A, B, C, where
c.
OA
represents
OB represents
11.
and
OC represents
Given three
circles
center,
any point
with centers Ci, d, Cz, and their radical in the plane, then the differences of the powers of
with respect to the three pairs of circles are proportional respectively to the projections of the sides of the triangle C1C2C3 on OP. 12. Construct a polygon of n sides when there is given a set of points, Cn which divide the sides in given ratios Oi 61, 02 62, Ci, C2, ,
, : :
an
bn
If
Ji,
^2,
in,
,
7n,
Ci, C2,
are
+ bi?2 =
7i(ai
+61)
a^ +
6?, = 7(an
+ 6).
is
solution of these equations will locate the vertices. solution ambiguous or impossible?
The
When
the
13. Construct two directly similar triangles whose bases are given vectors in the plane, fixed in position, so that the two triangles have a common vertex. 14.
Construct the
common
Construct a triangle ABC when the lengths of the sides AS and the length of the bisector AD. IG. Construct a triangle XYZ directly similar to a given triangle PQR whose vertices shall be at given distances from a fixed point 0. Let the length of OX be a, of OF be b, and of OZ be c. Then is
15.
anywhere on the
circle of radius
a and center 0.
We
have
XY/XZ
= PQ/PR,
that
is,
OY OX ^ PQ
~OZOX
PR'
whence we have
We
draw
{
KO
OXQR + OYRP + OZPQ = 0. OXK directly similar to RPQ giving KO/OX = QR/RP = 0, that OY + OZ
and
is,
YK.Ozl'l
^'ECTORS IN A PLANE
la
71
b,
KOY
KO
OY =
and length of
PQ YK =c length RP length We
can therefore construct
17.
es of a given triangle
2 cks ^.
XB
Z
ipBA
Z
U such
v?.
ACU =
BU =
z cks
BA,CU =
18.
cks
OCA.
Construct
Find the condition that the three hnes perpendicular to the three vectors pa, qa, ra at their extremities be concurrent. We have p + xkp = q + ykq = r + zkr. Taking conjugates zkr. Eliminate x, y, z from the four ykq = r xkp = p
lations.
19. If
raj' at
angle
/3
is
reflected in
is
ray
is
in the direction
whose angle
is
2a
independent of some of the angles. is a and a point P is distant y from the line, and from P as a source of light a ray is reflected from the qa, then the reflected ray has for line, its initial direction being
Show
20.
Show
that
if
equation
2ya
+ (qa =
p.
lines, see
Laisant: Theorieet
Alternating Currents. We will notice an application of these hypernumbers to the theory of alternating currents and electromotive forces, due to C. P. Steinmetz.
If
an alternating current
/
is
7o cos 27rf(<
h),
the graph of the ciurent in terms of f is a circle whose diameter is Iq making an angle with the position for t = Q 6f 2irjti. The angle is called the phase angle of the cmrent.
If
of the
same frequency
are superim
72
posed on the same
VECTOR CALCULUS
circuit,
say
= = r
7
W
7o'
Jo cos 2Tvj{t
tx'),
we may
set
7o cos 27rf<i
h sin 2Trfti
which also has
vector
+ +
cos 2xfii'
7o" sin
27r/^2,
1"=
for its
Io"cos27rf(tt2),
circle,
graph a
sum
may then
type and
same frequency by the vectors which are the diameters of the corresponding circles. The sam^
of the
may
If
forces.
represent the current and the electromotive force on the same diagram, the current would be indicated by
we
yellow vector (let us say) traveling around the origii with its extremity on its circle, while at the same time tl
electromotive force would be represented by a blue vect( travehng with the same angular speed around a circl^
with a diameter of different length perhaps. The yelloi and the blue vectors would generally not coincide, but thej
angle, hence,
if
each
is
coi
by a vector, the ratio of thea vectors would be such that its angle would be the same fc
all
This angle
is is
according as the
E.M.F.
it.
the vectors
E=
where
diameter of
of its circle,
its circle,
ZI,
and
is
VECTORS IN A PLANE
[<l>
73
9],
measured
in ohms.
The
being
r
scalar part of
is is
the
the
Z=
The value
of
xk.
is
2irjL,
[7^*],
and
^Q~^T],
units,
l/2xfC where
[QT^~^], in farads.
It
farad
=910"
units
10~^
e.m.
units
is
opposite in sign to
is
may
being due to Steinmetz, and having the highest importance, inasmuch as by the use of these h\'pernumbers the same tjpe of calculation may be used on alternating circuits as
on direct
is
circuits.
:
The
as follows
(1)
closed circuit
zero,
resistance
and reactance
electro
distributing point
(3)
zero.
In a number of impedances in series the joint impedance is the vector sum of all the impedances, but in a
parallel
of
impedance)
connected circuit the joint admittance (reciprocal is the sum of the several admittances.
of lag or lead, as the angle
of a
We desire to emphasize the fact that in impedances we have physical cases of complex numbers. They involve complex numbers just as much as velocities involve positive
74
VECTOR CALCULUS
tive.
Of negative velocity, or rotations involve positive or negamay also affirm that the complex currents and
We
physical existences, every current implying a power current and a wattless current whose values lag 90 (as time) behind the power current.
electromotive forces
are real
force is merely the real part of the complex electromotive force, and the wattless E.M.F. the imaginary part of the complex electromotive force, both
impedance.
We find at the different points of a transmission line that the complex current and complex electromotive force satisfy the differential equations
dllds
{g\
Cuk)E,
dE/ds
(r
Lo^k)!.
is
The
r is
letters
mhosjmile\
co
ohms/mile,
is
farads/mile,
is
henrys/mile.
2t.
Setting 711"= {r+ L(^k)(g P = (r Cirk), Co^k), Lo)k)/(g so that is [L~^] while / is ohms/mile, the solution of the'
equations
is
E= I =
=
Eq cosh ms
lo cosh ms
\
IIq
sinh ms,
where Eo and
If
where
cosh
s
h,
=
I
0.
we
set
Zo
= Z
E = Z cosh
(ms
+
I
A)7o,
h)Io,
E= E=
I
coth {ms
h)I,
+ h)Eo, + h)Io.
initial station
is,
To
find
has
klo, that
h.
h)
k sinh
VECTORS IN A PLANE
75
The value
of s
must be
real.
EXAMPLES
(1)
Let
2 ohms/mile,
0, 0)
= =
2000,
reactance,
r
+ + +
Lo:k
=
coC g
40.587.15.
tance
(g
Coik)'
= =
0.00190.
lOOO/ji
1000270 ohms/mile
dielectric
to2
= =
0.0405177.15O,
m=
/
impedance.
0.200188.58,
40500_.2.85,
= =
201.25,. 43.
0)
(s
be
Eo = lOOOoo volts, 7o = Ooo. Then we have E = 1000 cosh 50.200188.58, for * = 100 E= 1000 cosh 20.0l88.58 = 625.945 92, / = 2.7727, for * = 8 E = 50.01 126. 85, = for * 16 E = 1001i8o.3, = for 5 15.7 E = 1000i8o, a reversal of phase, for s = 7.85 E = 090.
At points distant 31.4 miles the values are the same. If we assume that at the receiver end a current is to be
maintained with
h=
E=
I
5O400
with
Eo
lOOOoo,
= hts= lOOE =
1000 cosh 50.200188.58 1006238.57 Sinh 50.200188.68, 5040 cosh sm 5i.43 sinh sm.
10730x1355.
MacMahon,
Hyperbolic Functions.
76
(2)
VECTOR CALCULUS
Let ^0
i
r
10000,
7o
6613.50
Cic
(3)
0.00020
0.00002
4.
The product
is
P = EI
The
quency
doubled.
is
the effective
power, the imaginary part the wattless or reactive power. The value of TP is the total apparent power. The cos z P is the power factor, and sin z ^ is the induction factor.
The
torque, which is the product of the magnetic flux by the armature magnetomotive force times the sine of their
angle is proportional to TIP, where E is the generated electromotive force, and I is the secondary current. In
fact,
is
the
number
of
12.
lines
Divergence and Curl. In a general vector field the have relations to one another, besides having the
The most
important of these relations depend upon the way the lines approach one another, and the shape and position of a
moving
There
is
also at
a
and
this will
measure the rate of approach of neighboring lines, Starting from two points, one on each line, at the intersection of the normal at a point of the first line and the second
line,
we follow the two lines measuring the distance apart on a normal from the first. The rate of increase of this normal distance divided by the normal distance and the
distance traveled from the initial point is the divergence qj the lines, or as we shall say briefly the geometric divergent
of the field.
It
is
VECTORS IN A PLANE
ield it is
77
For instance, in the figure, the tangent to a curve of the The neighboring ield is a, the normal at the same point /3.
liirve
goes through C. The differential of the normal, and hich is the difference of
BD
iC, divided
by AC, or BD,
is
the
ate of divergence of the second curve rem the first for the distance AB.
lence,
nil
if
we a
also divide
by
AB
we
moving to the neighthe one from C. This rate of angular turn >oring curve, >f the tangent of the field is the same as the rate of turn of
he normal of the orthogonal system, and ure of the normal system.
is
he tangent
Curl oj Plane Lines. If we find the curvature of the riginal lines of the field we have a quantity of much imThis K)rtance, which may be called the geometric curl.
ust be taken plus
onvex
he tangent, Curl is really a vector, but for ingle with the tangent. he case of a plane field the direction would be perpendicular
when the normal to the field on the makes a positive right angle with and negative when it makes a negative right
o the plane
yell
Divergence of Field. Since the field has an intensity as as a direction, let the vector characterizing the field
(T
)e
rate of change of
Ta
in the direc
ion of a, the tangent, is represented by daTa. Let us low consider an elementary area between two neighboring
lurves of the field,
iisider
TV as an
78
VECTOR CALCULUS
depends also upon the length of the infinitesimal normal curve, so that we consider the quantity Tadn, then the
value of this quantity, which we will call the transport of the differential tube (strip in the case of a plane field),
of transport, will
would be Ta'dn'  Tadn. But Ta' = T<j+ djads and dn' = dn { dsdn times the divergence of the lines.
Therefore, the differential of the transport will be (to terms of the first order) ds (Ta
and
dn
ds
X dnX
.^
Hence, the density of this rate of change of the transport is Ta times the divergence the rate of change of Ta
.
times divergence
+ d^ Ta) +
along the tangent of the vector line of the field. This quantity we call the divergence of the field at the initial point, and
sometimes
it
will
be indicated by div.
a,
sometimes by
It is clear <SV(r, a notation which will be explained. that if the lines of a field are perpendicular to a set of straight lines, since the curvature of the straight lines is zero, the
divergence of the original lines is zero, and the expression, reduces to d^Ta. Curl of Field. We may also study the circulation of the! vector a along its lines, by which we mean the product ofj
the intensity Ta by a differential arc, that is. Tads. Or the neighboring vector line there is a different intensity^l The differential Ta', and a different differential arc ds'.
of the circulation
is
easily
{d^Ta
jr
Ta
This quantity we shall call the curl of the field, written which notation sometimes curl a, and more frequently
Wa,
will
be explained.
VECTORS IN A PL.\NE
It is
79
is
Tads around the elementary area, for the parts contributed by the boundary normal to the field will be zero. Hence,
curl
is
We
not material.
Likewise, the divergence is clearly the ratio to the elementary area of the line integral of the normal component of a along the path of integration. We will see that this also
is
is
independent of the shape of the area. Further, we see that in a field in which the intensity of a constant the divergence becomes the geometric divergence
times the intensity Ta, and the curl becomes the geometric
curl times the intensity Ta.
many
applications in vector
These
simple
in the
appear particularly
shown
changing density of a gas moving over a plane. A simple case of curl is shown by a needle imbedded in a moving
viscous fluid.
The angular
onehalf the curl of the velocity. If the general equation of a given 13. Lines as Levels. set of curves is
the needle
is
u{x, y)
c,
these curves will be the vector lines of an infinity of fields, for if the differential equation of the lines is
dxlX
then we must have
dylY,
Xdujdx
and
for the field
<r
Ydu/dy
\
= Xa
}%
80
VECTOR CALCULUS
evidently choose
We may
arbitrarily
and then
if
<ri
find
However,
field is of
is
any one
the form
(TiR{x, y).
The orthogonal
equation
set of curves
would have
c
v{x, y)
and
Xdvjdy
If
Ydv/dx
0.
we use a uniformly to represent the unit tangent of = ka. u the set, and /3 the unit tangent of the v set, then j3 The gradient of the function u is then d^ufi, and the is But the gradient d^va. gradient of the function It of u is also (Ux, Uy) and of v is (Vx, Vy) = {uy, Ux).
?j
In
fact,
writing
Vw
for gradient u,
fields
we have
V^ = ^Vw. We also
have
for
whatever
belong to the two sets of orthogr\/v, for the v curves, a' = sVw,
we may
write
ta,
Vv =
14.
Vu =
tfi,
0
Taot.
Nabla.
The symbol
is
called nabla,
and evidently
be written in the form ad/dx ^d/dy for vectors in a plane. We will see later that for vectors in space it yd/dz, where a, ^, y are may be written ad/dx ^d/dy the usual unit vectors of three mutually perpendicular
may
directions.
However,
this
form of
all
differential operator is
fact,
not at
if a and /3 are any two perpendicular unit vectors in a plane, and dr, ds are the corresponding differential distances in these two directions, then we have
V=
adidr
+ ^djds.
VECTORS IN A PLANE
For instance,
usual
if
81
r, d,
the
polar
coordinates, then
for
is
:
V=
Upd'dr
kUpd/rdd.
any orthogonal
left
possible,
to the student.
is
In general,
is
defined as follows
a linear differentiating vector with the variable vector p as follows: connected operator Consider first, a scalar function of p, say F(p). Differentiate
by giving p any arbitrary differential dp. The result is linear in dp, and may be looked upon as the product of the length of dp and the projection upon the direction of
this
If
now
these
by definition VF.
origin,
For instance,
if i^ is
the distance
from the
is
,
in
tion of differentiation.
of plane vectors,
differential of
Hence,
lie
V Tp =
we
Up.
'
VF will
is
in the plane.
polydromic,
define
VF
dromic vector, which amounts to saying that a given set of vectors will each furnish its own differential value of dF.
In some particular regions, or at certain points, the value may become indefinite in direction because the jof
VF
Of course, functions
can be defined which would require careful investigation as to their differentiability, but we shall not be concerned
with such in this work, and for their adequate treatment reference is made to the standard works on analysis.
We
of
as applied to
vectors.
is
to be a linear
and there
then such an expression as V(r must have the same meaning as VXa V 7/3 VZy if 0" = Xa F/3 J Zy, where a, j8, y are any independent
fore distributive operator,
constant vectors.
82
VECTOR CALCULUS
Vo, the only remaining necessary part of the definition is the vector part which defines the product of two vectors.
we
proceed.
Nabla as a Complex Number. We will consider no\ p to represent the complex number x yh, or Vg, and thai all our expressions are complex numbers. The prope^ for V becomes then expression
V=
u, V,
didx
kdjdy
let
Updidr
kUpd/rdd.
and
let
dp
If
o
pidu
+ p2dv.
v,
is
sense)
u,
we
will
have
dcrldu'du\kpi,
da/dvdv
is
= RdpV (x.
pi, th^
kf.
If
we multiply dp by
perpendicular to
pi,
which
perpendicular to
real part of
is
both sides
will
Rkpidp
dvRkpip2,
and
similarly
Rkpidp
duRkp2Pi
duRkpip^
the imaginary pal
Substituting in
dff
dcr
we have
kpi
Rdp
__
kpi
d
^
(
Rkpipidu
is
Rkpip^dv
exactly
The
expression in
(),
however,
what we have
de
above as V, and thus we have proved that we may in the form corresponding to dp in terms of u and v write
fined
V=
k(p2dldu
pid/dv)IRkpip2.
VECTORS IX A PLANE
83
reduces to it Tpi Tp^ according as p2 is negatively perpendicWe may write :!ar to px or positively perpendicular to it.
in this case in the
kpi TpijTpi)
,_,
form
(since pt
^
5

kpi Tpz/Tpi or
p\
p2
_i
_i
Tpi^du^ Tp2^dv
In any case we have Also in any case
dF = RdpS7F,
dv du^ da = Rdp\7
o".
"^ud du Vvd/dv. IG. Curl, Divergence, and Nabla. Suppose now that a is the complex number for the unit tangent of one of a set of vector lines, and /3 the complex number for the unit
tangent of the orthogonal set, at the same point. The ciuvature of the orthogonal set is the intensity of the vector
rate of change of
is
V=
But
this
the
same as the
as
line to
an adjacent one. The differential of a is perpendicular to a, and hence parallel to the direction of 0. Hence this
curvature can be written
RfiiRfiVa).
R a(Ra\i^)a, since the a has no component to this term is and a, zero, parallel may be added to the preceding without affecting its value. Hence the curvature
if
But
we
differential of
in the direction of
of the
R(aRaV
This
If
is
+ fiR^V)a = RVa.
the divergence of the curves of a. now <r = Taa, we find from the definition of the
it is
divergence of a that
merely
RVa,
Considering in the same manner the definition of curl of <r,
84
VECTOR CALCULUS
find
it
we
reduces to
R k\7<T, and
if
we multiply this by h,
so that
we have
curl
(T
kKkS/a^IVa,
to the expression for the
we
when added
divergence of
a we have
divo
+ curl
a
Vo.
The
of a,
is
is
the curl of
This
will
agree with expressions for curl and divergence for space of three dimensions. We have thus found some of the
remarkable properties of the operator 17. Solenoidal and Lamellar Vector Fields.
.
When
is
the
divergence of
solenoidal.
If
is
field is said to
be
the curl
everywhere
called
lamellar.
18. Properties of the Field.
be
<t
a,
and
let
the
field
= ZVw + YVv,
where
it is
points to be considered.
exist at all
diva =
The
RVa =
_
YRVVv.
RvVu
equation, and
is
therefore harmonic.
We also have
curl
<T
7 Vo
kRkvXVu
kRkvYVv,
VECTORS
Since
A PLANE
sets of curves
85
we may
+ XRVVu +
curl
<T
YRVVv,
u
curves,
= (TVu){TVv){dYfdu
0,
dXldv)k.
o
for the
X=
and
0
div(r=
0
Vc YRVVV+
1'
(TwydY/dv,
= TVuTVv dY/duk. curl We notice that curl Vu = 0, curl Vc = 0, divfcVw = div^Vr = 0, kVu = VvTVu/TW, and for
0,
y=
we have
TVu/TW,
d log iTVu/TVv)/du, d log {TVv/TS/u)ldt.
iTVu)^RVVu =
(TwrmvVv
<r.
conclusions as to the types of B. O. curves and Peirce, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts (Cf. and Sci., 38 (1903) 663678; 39 (1903) 295304.)
(1)
field will
be solenoidal
if
divc
0,
hence
=  RVW/TVv',
g/(u. r)
may
be integrated, giving
Y=
If c is
ff()^
harmonic,
5^ is
a function of
cr
u only and a
0,
= (/(w) Vi>.
and
F is a function
of T only, so that
(3)
a
is
= H{c)Vv = VLiv).
both solenoidal and lamellar,
If
the field
RVVLit) =
which
is
0,
whence
RVVvKTwf = f(v),
Hence
86
it is
VECTOR CALCULUS
not possible to have a solenoidal and lamellar
If
fiel
the
field
is
solenoidal
and
Tc,
the
intensity
a function of
d log Y/dv
= 
alone, Y = dTVv/TVvdv =
 RVW/TW^
when
2RVVV =
which
is
d{T\7vfldv,
An example
is
th^
which
carries lengthwisi
a steady current of electricity of uniform current density (5) If <T is lamellar and Tcr is a function of v only, TS7v .=
g(v).
An example
is
is
homogeneous,
condition
(6)
The
only,
If
the
is
lamellar
and Ta a function
of
since
TW =
(7) T(T
TVv/du =
k{u), or
l{u)lm{v).
the field
is
solenoidal
and Ta a function
of v only,
=_p(v)TVv.
d log
TVa/dv
RWv/{TVvY.
Hence
or else both expressible in terms of v. If the field is not lamellar also, TVv must then be a function of u as well as
of
V.
(8)
If
the field
is
function, that is, o = VP, then since a = q{v)^v, we must have P a function of v only, and tr = P'Vv. From this
it
= P'(v)RVW +
P"{v){T\/vf.
the field
is
is
V only,
we have
2RVVV =
d{T\7vfldv.
VECTORS IX A PLANE
(10)
87
Whatever function u
is,
j{u)U\7v, ^
77
g(v)UVv, or
Hu, t)UVt.
Ta
it
is
solenoidal,
a function of
only,
k divAcr, whence
k[b(u)RvVu
^^
6'(w)(rvw)'l,
If
here 6
may
a function of
Ta
is
also
k[b(u,
(12) If
v)RVVu
+ db(u, T)/duiTVuf].
Ta
is
the form
diver
(13)
If
dTVt/dv].
Ta
is
19.
of the
velocity of a continuous
the
medium
is
incompressible
it is
means
if
this
then from
dc'dt= dc/di
RaVc, =
dc.'dt
RVica)
 cRVa
we
equation of continuity, since they give the rate per square centimeter at which actual material (density times area,
since the height
is
constant)
dc/dt
is
changing.
Hence
in this case
cR^a.
This gives the rate of change of the density at a point moving with the fluid. Hence if it is incompressible, the
velocity
is
solenoidal,
RVa =0.
88
This
VECTOR CALCULUS
may
ka)
0,
hence
ha
= VQ,
there
is
and a
= ^VQ,
Q
a function
It
When curl ^ = 0, we have seen that ^ is called lamellar. may also be called irrotational, since the curl is twice the
angular rate of rotation of the infinitesimal parts of the medium, about axes perpendicular to the plane, and if
curl ^
there
is
no such rotation.
Curl
is
when
a velocity
field.
is
The
any path from a point ^ to a point B. Xdx + Ydy, and is exact when
dXldy
dY/dx.
But
vanish. Hence if the motion is irrotational the circulation from one point to another is independent of the path. In this case we may write c = where P is called the
VP
velocity potential.
When
is
Q have
as orthogonals
the lines of P.
the motion
is
the motion
is
= 0, and P must irrotational, we have for a liquid, be harmonic. Hence if the orthogonal curves of the Q
curves can belong to a harmonic function they can be curves of a velocity potential. If a set of curves belong to the
RwP
0,
harmonic function
the curl of
u,
then
is
RWu =
and
this
shows that
is
JcVu
zero,
whence Rdp(
kS7u)
exact
where kVu. From this we have Vm k\7Q for the condition that the orthogonal curves belong to a harmonic function. This however gives the equation
dv,
= =
Vv =
to
VECTORS IN A PLANE
this function are the vector lines of
89
i.~:
a velocity potential,
We
have a simple
that belong to
harmonic functions, as
well
known
to
and the imaginary part of an analytic function complex variable are harmonic for the variable coThat is to say, if p = a* + yk, ordinates of the variable. = = md ^ /(p) u + vk, then u, v are harmonic for .r, y. The condition given by Cauchy amounts to the equation where ^ is a complex number. Vu = k\7v, or V^ = [t is clear from this that the field of ^ is both solenoidal and amellar, a necessary and sufficient condition that ^ be an
>ince the real
of
malytic function of a complex variable. In this case ^ ?alled a monogenic function of position in the plane. It 'lear that ^ = \7H where is sl harmonic function.
is is
:o
In case there are singularities in the field it is necessary determine their effect on the integrals. For instance, if
field a and select a path in it, from A to B, or a flux the of a through the path is the integral of the cop, projection of a on the normal of the path, that is, if the path
.ve
have a
a curve given
by
is
Ra(
kdp),
It
is
^ = fA^{ R^kdp) =
kfladp.
shows that
integrable over any path from A to B, ivith the same value, unless the two paths enclose a singuIn the case of a node, the integral around arity of the field.
:he expression
is
90
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
imagine a constant supply the to the of enter plane or to leave it at the node, liquid and be moving along the lines of the field. Such a system
We may
was
If
called
by
Clifford a squirt.
the circulation
will usually
is taken around a singular point it have a different value for every turn around the
These
peculiarities
must be studied
EXERCISES
1.
From
coordinates that
v
= Ar"
sin nB.
These functions are harmonic and their curves orthogonal. Hence if we set a = \/u or a == ^v,we shall have as the vector lines of o the v curves or the u curves. What are the curves for the cases n = 3,
2,1,
2.
3.
1, 2,
3?
What
log
p,
Study
and
= A
log (p
a)l{p
+ a).
.
Consider the function given impUcitly by p = $ + e This represents the flow of a liquid into or out of a narrow channel, in the sense that it gives the lines of flow when it is not rotational. 4. Show that o = Ajp gives a radial irrotational flow, while o = Aklp What is true of a = Akp? The gives a circular irrotational flow.
last is Clifford's Whirl.
5. Study a flow from a source at a given point of constant strength to a sink at another point, of the same strength as the source. 6. If the lines are concentric circles, and the angular velocity of any particle about the center is proportional to the nth power of the radius
curl
is
Kn +
7. A point in a gas is surrounded by a small loop. Show that the average tangential velocity on the loop has a ratio to the average normal velocity which is the ratio of the tensor of the curl to the
divergence.
8. What is the velocity when there is a source at a fixed origin, and the divergence varies inversely as the nth power of the distance from the origin. [The velocity potential is A log r B(n 2)"V~".] 9. Consider the field of two sources of equal strength. The lines are
if r, r'
w
VECTORS IN A PLANE
fom the two sources
such that
Tff
91
= /l^ Q = A log h B, the velocity (foci) and rr' ATp/h^, the origin being half way between the foci; he orthogonal curves are given by m = iA[w/2 (O 61)] where 9, are the angles between the axis and the radii from the foci, that is bey are equilateral hjperbolas through the foci. The circulation
pout one focus is irA, about both 2xA. 10. If the Unes are confocal ellipses given by
p is the perpendicular log the center upon the tangent of the ellipse at any point, then the = c*)L and elocity at the point is such that T<t The potential function is he direction of o is the unit normal.
ben
Q =A
1,
om
Ap/VKm
B' V v/c. V is the semimajor axis. What happens at the foci? the stream lines are the hjperbolas of the preceding, then = 2A V (j'/Ox On the v)) times the imit normal of the hjTjerbola. haK way ne p = yka there is no velocity, at the foci the velocity is , etween it is 0. The lines along the major axis outside the foci act
sin"^
J*
11. If
ke walls.
12. If e
we
TVu, and
I'l
for TVi',
v
 =
'
ui^d^du^
+ Vi^d^/&v^ +
VVud/du
+ '^S/vd/dv + 2RVuVvd^/dudv.
re
the sets of curves are orthogonal the last term vanishes; if u and v harmonic the third and fourth terms drop out; if both cases happen, hly the first two terms are left.
13.
Up,
VO =
r~^kp
and
14.
gas
a source.
le
center.
moves in a plane in lines radiating from the origin, which The divergence is a function of r only, the distance from Find the velocity and the density at any point.
a
pfir),
RV<r =
e{r)
2/(r)
+ rf'{r),
id
fir)
A/r2
+ r^fre{r)dr.
=
rf(r)d log c/dr.
o determine
c,
i2V log ca
15.
= 
e{r)
f{r)Rp\7 log c
that in the steady flow of a gas we may find an integrating = = RS/ar = curl kc<r, ctor for Rdpka by using the density, [dcjdt
id Rdpkcff is exact.]
16.
Show
fluid is in
is
he curl
illy.
known
at each point
steady motion, the lines being concentric circles, and the tensor of <r is a function of r
Find the
92
17.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Rotational motion, that
is
field
which
is
not lamellar,
is also
may
points at which the curl does not vanish be distributed in a continuous or a discontinuous manner. In
finite
The
fact there
number
W
w' denotes w at the variable point of the integration, r is the variable distance from the point at which the velocity is wanted, and is any solution of Laplace's equation which satisfies the bounda;
where
(,
conditions.
If
the mass
is
unlimited and
is
stationary at infinity
we have
<r
k/irffo>'(p
p')/T{p
I
p'Ydx'dy'.
f
p' of strength
l/2^{p
p')IT{p
p'y.
1
If we multiply the velocity at each point p at which there is a vortex the strength, and integrate over the whole field, we find the sum is zer There is then a center of vortices where the velocity is zero, somethii; Instances are like a center of gravity.
(1)
I.
The vortex
and points distant from it r will move on concentric the vortex as center, and velocity lf2Trr. The circulation
rest,
circles wit
any
loo
is
They will (2) Two vortices of strengths li, h. common center of gravity of two weighted points at
apart a, the weights being the two strengths. each is
27ra2
rotate about
th
The angular
given by n^n'^ = const. Whei at infinity, and the vortices remain a fixed dis tance apart, moving parallel to the perpendicular bisector of this segmen Such a combination is called a vortex pair. The strean joining them.
The stream
l^
I2
the center
the accompanying velocity are coaxal circles referred to thi moving points as limit points. The plane of symmetry may be takei as a boundary since it is one of the stream lines, giving the motion of of th single vortex in a field bounded by a plane, the linear velocity vortex being parallel to the wall and \ of the velocity of the liquid alom the wall. The figure suggests the method of images which can indeei be applied. For further problems of the same character works 01
lines of
VECTORS IN A PLANE
93
iijiiKs
Liquid flows over an infinite plane towards a circular spot where out at the rate of 2 cc. per second for each cm.^ area of the leaky lion. The liquid has a uniform depth of 10 cm. over the entire ne field. Find formulas for the velocity of the hquid inside the ion of the leaky spot, and the region outside, and show that there is
otential in both regions.
r = iVp in spot, 40/p outside, outside.
P =
20 log
Find the flux through a plane area 20 cm. long and 10 cm. high, whose idle line is 5 cm. from the center of the leaky spot, also when it is cm. from the leaky spot. Find the divergence in the two regions.
Franklin, Electric Waves, pp. 3078.
19.
B
Show
of flow are the orthogonal curves of the stream lines of a correspondfield in which the sources and the sinks are replaced by vortices of
aigths the same as that of the sources and sinks, and inversely, For sources and earn lines and levels change place as to their roles.
ksQ =
20.
l/2irEhdi,
P =
Vector Potential.
(7
jress
kQ, the latter being a complex number. may extend our terminology and call
lential of a.
In such a case
kQ the
vector
vector
may
vector potential.
tential it is
necessary and sufficient that the divergence a vanish. Hence any liquid flow can have a vector tential, which is indeed the current function multiplied
k.
It is clear that
Q must
be harmonic.
CHAPTER
VI
VECTORS IN SPACE
We have seen that in a plane the figure two directed segments from a vertex enables us to define the ratio of the two vectors which constitute the sides when the figure is in some definite position. This
1.
Biradials.
of
made up
ratio
common to all the figures produced by rotating the about a normal of the plane through its vertex, and figure it translating anywhere in the plane. We may also reduce the sides proportionately and still have the same ratio.
is
The
If
ratio
is
a complex
number
or,
as
we
will
say in general,
a hypernumber.
now we
we may
same manner a set of hypernumbers which are the ratios of the figures we can produce in an analogous manner. Such figures will be called
define in precisely the
hiradials.
To each
number.
plane of the two sides of the biradial, we shall also permit the figure to be transferred to any parallel plane. This amounts to saying that we may choose a fixed origin, and
in space,
the origin two vectors parallel and equal to the two considered, thus forming a biradial with the origin as vertex.
Further the hypernumbers which belong to the biradials which can be produced from the given biradial by rotating it in its plane about the vertex will be con94
sidered as equal.
VECTORS IN SPACE
95
new
eature being the different hypernumbers k which we now need, one new k in fact for each different plane through the jiven vertex. This gives us then a double infinity of
hypernumbers
2.
of the
6,
where the
de
new
elements.
Quaternions.
fined metricogeometrically involve four essential parameters in whatever way they are expressed, since the
biradials involve
more.
two and the plane in which they lie two Hence they were named by Hamilton Quaternions.
In order to arrive at a fuller understanding of their properties and relations, we will study the geometric properties
bf biradials.
In the
is
first
place
its
involved in
consider any given biradial, there quaternion, just as for the complex number
if
we
in
two
and an
cos
J*
sin 6 a,
to what was written k in the preceding a tehapter, h\pernumber determined solely by the plane of the biradial. On account of this we may properly represent a by a unit normal to the plane of the biradial,
a corresponds
and
is
iso
if the angle of the biradial is considered to be the of the normal is such that a rightdirection positive, handed screw motion turning the initial vector of the
taken that
'biradial
would
in
ivolve
which
an advance along the normal in the direction in it points. It is to be understood very clearly that
a and the hyper number a are distinct one merely representing the other. The real
96
part of q
is
VECTOR CALCULUS
called, according to
The imaginary part is q, and written Sq. on account of the representation of a as a vector, the vector part of q and written Vq. The unit a is called the unit vector of q and written UVq. The angle oi q\sd and
scalar part of
called,
written
Aq.
The number
which
is
lengths of the sides of the biradial is called the tensor of q, and written Tq. The expression cos 6 { sin ^o; = casd
is
q,
and written
TJq.
Sq
of
is
or
180, Vq
is
is
90
or
270.
Tq
a quaternion
0,
3.
and sometimes
= 90,
sum
of
Sum
two quaternions we define the sum of two biradials first. This is accomplished by rotating the two biradials in their planes until their initial lines coincide, and then diminishing
or magnifying the sides of one until the initial vectors are
exactly equal and coincide. This is always possible. We then define as the sum of the two biradials, the biradial
whose
initial
vector
is
is
the
terminal vector
vectors.
the
two, and
terminal
corresponding quaternions is then the quaternion of the biradial sum. Since vector addition is commutative, the addition of quaternions is
The sum
of the
commutative.
and vector parts of the quaterthat prove they can be added separately, the scalar parts like any numbers and the vector parts like
Passing
to the scalar
nions,
now
we
will
vectors.
In the figure
let
OC/OA, and
T'gsin
oi q\
rhe OD/OA.
off as
zqUVq
be laid
a vector Vq perpendicular
VECTORS IN SPACE
to the plane of the biradial of
q,
97
similarly for Vr.
and
Then we
q
\
are to
representation
r
show that I (</ + r) Vr in the and that this represents the vector part of
definition.
It
is
= Vq \
according to the
evident that
B'
Fig. 12.
OB = OB'
B'B, the
to
first
vector along
OA.
to
Also
OC = OC" + C'C +
parallel to
perpendicular
plane
of
C"C",
C'C.
biradial of the
the ratio of
sum
and
Sr.
S{q
+r) = Sq+
vector part of the quaternion for OD/OA is the ratio to OA in magnitude, and the unit part is represented by a unit normal perpendicular to OD" and D"D.
of
The
D"D
But
the
D"D = B'B
sum
of the ratios of
C"C, and the TRtio of D"D to OA equals B'B and C'C to OA. If then we
the vector
which is perpendicular to OA, draw, in a plane through Vq along the representative unit normal of the
plane
of
OAB, and
B'B
to to
ratio of
OA, and
likewise
C"C
OA
98
VECTOR CALCULUS
to the plane OAC, because D"D is parallel to this plane, as well as B'B and C"C, the representative unit vector of
q
\
r will lie in
sum
tive,
of
Vq and
It follows at
is
associa
of vectors
is
associative,
parts of a quaternion have no necessary precedence, that the addition of quaternions is associative.
4.
Product of Quaternions.
likewise
To
utilize
initial
the
biradials.
In this
vector of the multiplier bring the to coincide with the terminal line of the multiplicand, and
whose
initial
vector
is
initial
is
vector of the multiplicand, and the the terminal vector of the multiplier.
Fig. 13.
OC/OB,
is,
first,
is
the product of
Tqr=
It follows that
TqTr.
Uqr
It is
will
UqUr.
evident from the figure that the angle of the product be the face angle of the trihedral, AOC, or on a unit sphere would be represented by the side of the spherical
I'ECTORS IN SPACE
triangle corresponding.
It
is
99
the order of the multiplication will change the plane of the product biradial, usually, and therefore will give a
quaternion with a different unit vector, though all the other numbers dependent upon the product will remain the same.
associative.
In this proof we
versors. The proof is due to Hamilton. the vectors are all taken the since biradials, represent as unit vectors, we draw only an arc on the unit sphere,
To
from one point to the other, of the two ends of the two unit
vectors of the biradial.
of q
biradial
its
by CA,
may
ED.
is
be rotated in
plane about the vertex, equally by volved are shown. The product qr from the definition, or equally by
to prove
is
The
others in
represented
by FD,
LM.
What we have
that the product pqr'is the same as the product are and pgr, that is, we must prove that the arcs on the same great circle and of equal length and direction.
KG
LN
MB
Since
points
FE = KH, ED = L, C, G, D are on
CA,
HG =
CB,
LM =
FD, the
cyclic
a spherical conic,
whose
KG
100
VECTOR CALCULUS
circle,
same great
5.
for
dials
Trirectangular Biradials. A particular pair of birawhich lead to an interesting product is a pair of which
the vectors of each biradial are perpendicular unit vectors, and the initial vector of one is the terminal of the other,
for in such case, the product
is
Fig. 15.
are
i, j,
k,
OC/OB is represented completely by the unit vector marked i, the quaternion of OA/OC by j, and of OB/OA by
biradial
k.
The products
ij
we have
j,
jk
i,
ki
and
if
we
we
j.
also
have
k,
kj
i,
ik
common
notation of powers,
^2
= 
1,
j2
^ _
i^
P= 
1.
evidently possible to resolve the vector part of any quaternion, when it is laid off on the unit vector of its plane as a length, into three components along the direcit is
Since
tions of
i, j,
k,
VECTORS IN SPACE
101
quaternions has been shown to be the vector part of the sum, it follows that any quaternion can be resolved into
the parts
q
= w
\
xi
{
yj \ zk.
These h\'pernumbers can easily be made the base of the whole system of quaternions, and it is one of the many methods of deriving them. Hamilton started from these.
The account
friend,
of his invention
is
contained in a letter to a
(Philosophical
Magaif
Product of Vectors.
we
consider the product of two or two quaternions whose scalar parts are zero, that we may consider this product, a quaternion, as the product of
quaternion factors.
From
this point of
view we ignore
the biradials completely, and look upon every geometric vector as the representative of the vector part of a set of
quaternions with different scalars, among which one has zero scalar. From the biradial definition we have
VqVr = S VqVr
V VqVr
equal to the quaternion whose biradial consists of two vectors in the same plane as the vector normals of the
Fig. 16.
102
biradials of Vq,
VECTOR CALCULUS
Vr and perpendicular to them respectively. In the figure the biradial of Vr is OAB, and of Vq is OBC, and of VqVr is OAC. If then we represent the vectors by
Greek
letters
lines or
= Vr, then the quaternion Vq, (3 a^ has for its angle the angle beand for its normal the direction OB. tween jS and a 180, If we take UVa^ in the opposite direction to OB, and of
as vector quaternions, a which is the product of
in that order,
/3,
then we
be the angle
from a to
a^=
TaTl3( cos
UVafi
sin d).
We can write at once then the fundamental formulae =  TaTfi cos d, VajS = TaTjSsm 6 UVafi. Safi
From
this
form
it is
be expressed as the product of two vectors, the angle of the two being the supplement of that of the quaternion,
the product of their lengths being the tensor of the quaternion, and their plane having the unit vector of the quaternion as positive normal.
If
now we
a
a and fi to be
resolved
in the forms
ai\ hj
\
ck,
li \
mj
nk,
k have the significance of three mutually trirectangular unit vectors, as above, then since Ta Tfi cos 6 = al\ hm\ en, and since the vector Ta TjS sin 6 UVa^
where
i, j,
is
(bn
cm)i
+
en)
(cl
an)j
(ain
hl)k,
we have
ajS
{al
\
bm
(bn
\
cm)i
(el
an)j
(am
bl)k.
^ECTORS IN SPACE
103
But
if
distribiitively,
Hence we have shown that the multiplication of vectors, and therefore of quaternions in general, is distributive when they are expressed in terms of these trirectangular systems.
easy to see however that this leads at once to the general distributi\dty of all multiplications of sums.
It is
7.
Laws
of Quaternions.
addition
and multiplication of quaternions is associative, that addition is commutative, and that multiplication is distributi\e
over addition.
^lultiplication
is
usually
not
commutative.
division, but if we now consider a biradial as not being geometric but as being a quaternion quotient of two vectors, we find that
We
differs
from
a/3
only in
T^jTa instead of TaT0. It is to be noticed that while we arrived at the hjpernumbers called quaternions by the use of biradials, they could have been found some other way, and in fact were so first found by Hamilton, whose original papers should be
ign,
its
and
tensor
is
consulted.
quaternions is exactly analogous, or may be considered to be an extension of, the method of using complex numbers In the plane the vectors instead of vectors in a plane.
some unit vector chosen for all the plane, by the complex number. In space a vector is the product of a unit vector (which would have to be drawn in the
are the product of
fourth dimension to be a complete extension of the plane) by the h^'pernumber we caU a vector. However, the use of
the unit in the plane
likewise in
space
we need never
in
vectors of space are derived. On the other hand, just as the plane all complex numbers can be found as the ratios
104
VECTOR CALCULUS
an infinity of ways, so all quaternions can be found as the ratios of vectors in space. All vectors are thus as quaternions the ratios of perpendicular
of vectors in the plane in
vectors in space.
multiplication is always of vectors as quaternions and not as geometric entities. In the common vector systems other than Quaternions, the scalar part of
And
the quaternion product, usually with the opposite sign, and the vector part of the quaternion product, are looked upon as products formed directly from geometric con
In such case the vector product is usually defined to be a vector in the geometric sense, perpendicular Therefore it is a function of to the two given vectors.
siderations.
is
In these systems, the scalar is a common number, and of course the sum of a number and a geometric vector
is
an impossibility.
It
logical
that of
the hypernumber. It is to be noticed too that Quaternions is peculiarly applicable to space of three dimensions, because of the
In a duality existing between planes and their normals. space of four dimensions, for instance, a plane, that is a
linear extension
similar figure of
dependent upon two parameters, has a two dimensions as normal. Hence, corresponding to a biradial we should not have a vector. To reach the extension of quaternions it would be necessary to define triradials, and the hypernumbers corresponding to them. Quaternions however can be applied to four dimensional space in a different manner, and leads to a
The products
very simple geometric algebra for fourdimensional space. of quaternions however are in that case not
sufficient to express all the necessary geometrical entities,
VECTORS IN SPACE
105
In threedimensional space, however, all the necessary expressions that arise in geometry or physics are easily quaternions has the great advantage over other systems that it is associative, and that division is one of its processes. In fact it is the most complex system
found.
I
And
of
numbers
8.
in
conclusion
P=
Q =
PQ =
the
0.*
Formulae.
It is clear
that
if
we
we have
/3a
Sal3
T a/3.
This
I
is
and
We
see that
VKq =  Vq = KVq.
Further, since
qr
SqSr
+ SqVr +
SqVr
SrVq
VqVr,
we have
Kqr=
From
this
SqSr
SrVq
VrVq = KrKq.
important formula
many
Kqn(
others flow.
We
have
at once
Kqi'
qn
Kqi.
And
for vectors
KaiSince
an
)"a
ai.
Sq
i(9
Kq),
Vq
^(q
Kq),
we have therefore
(SaiSCiiain
a2_i
ain
Vai\ *
ai
aonl
2n
ocon
ai),
' '
"2nl
a2n
2nl
Oitn\OC2n'
OCl)
Oil),
'
'
+ a2nl
OC\)
106
VECTOR CALCULUS
In particular
2Sal3
2Vafi
It
= =
al3\ jSa,
a/3
fia,
y^a,
yjSa.
the scalar and the vector parts of the product can them
j simply a statement again of the fact that in quaternions we have only one kind of multiplication, which
This
is
is
distributive
We
for
qr that
Srq.
Hence, in any scalar part of a product, the factors permuted cyclically. For instance,
may
be
Sa^
S^a,
Sa^y
Sa^yd
= S^ya = S^yda =
.
Sya^,
From
the form of
Sq
hence we have
h(q
Kq),
Sq
= SKq; =
Sa^
S^a,
Sa^y
= 
Syfia,
Sa^yb
Sby^a,
et<
From
the form of
Vafi
VKq =
Vfia,
Fg we
Vafiy
see that
= 
Vafiyd
V8y^a,
do not have a simple relation between Vqr and but we have the fact that they are respectively the Vrq,
We
sum and
If a: =
SqVr
SrVq,
/3
to a,
and
Vqr
=a
\ 13,
ex
13,
VECTORS IN SPACE
It
is
107
= TVrq
and that
Zqr
/.rq
We
planes and Kq is the square of the tensor of indicate the unitary part of q, called the versor of
The
differ.
q.
q,
by Uq.
q
We
"
= 2V+
.
+ jy
I
\ Icz, 2
Kq = w
TTr.
ix
jy
kz,
^2
^
w,
^ _L
w+ix + jy+kz
Tq
ix i^ fr ix
Sq
Yq =
{TVqf = x'^f^z',
UVq =
+ jy + kz, + jy +
I
tti
kz
TVq
r'
2^),
q= TVqlTq=
=
is
TVUq,
Zg
The product
qr
tani TVqfSq.
of
two quaternions
yy'
zz'
unc'
xx'
+ i{wx' +
z'x)
w'x
+ yz'
y'z)
+ j{wy' + w''y +
From
the formula Tqr
zx'
+
=
rgTr
k{wz'
+ w'2 + xy'
x'y).
we have
a noted identity
=
'
(un/j'
xx'
yy'
zz'Y
+
!
(w?2/'
w'y
2j;'
{wx'
y'z)*
x'yY.
This formula expresses the sum of four squares as the product of the sums of four squares. It was first given by
The problem of expressing the sum of three squares as the product of sums of three or four squares and the sum of eight squares as the product of sums of eight squares
Euler.
108
VECTOR CALCULUS
9.
Rotations.
for the
We
see
figure that
we
have
product
qrq
a quaternion of tensor and angle the same as that of r. But the plane of the product is produced by rotating the
plane of r about the axis of q through an angle double the angle of q. In case r is a vector /3 we have as the product a vector ^' which is to be found by rotating conically the vector ^ about the axis of g through double the angle of q.
It
is
'''Or~\
q(rOr~^)q~^
gr()[gr]~^
gaussian
multiplier,
and
is
if
jS'
is
mutations
not a mutation.
we
see that
of afia~^
As a simple case of rotator reduces to a vector a we have as the result q the vector which is the reflection of /3 in a.
j3
The
reflection of
in the plane
normal to a
is
evidently
a^a~^.
EXAMPLES
(1)
*
is
equivalent
VECTORS IN SPACE
109
(2)
which
2 (^12
^4
(3)
<P2hi, 2h)
of
the
alternate angles.
Study the case of successive reflections in mirrors in space at any angles. (4) The types of crystals found in nature and possible under the laws that are found to be true of crystals, are
solids
may
given face, so
by the
following op9rations
I,
form
A, rotation about an axis
a"Oa~".
a"()a"~".
j3
/3()]S~^
/3()/3.
The 32 types
sive
Triclinic
of crystals are
AsjTQmetric
CentrosjTiunetric
1.
Ci
Monoclinic
1,1.
1, 1,
Digonal polar dh Digonal equatorial Orthorhombic C2r Didigonal polar Di Digonal holoaxial Dih Didigonal equatorial ....
C, Ci
Equatorial
pQff.
a()a~^.
1,
a()a~S
()
1, a{)a.~^, /3()/3,
Sot^
1,
1,
= 0. = 0.
(),
5a/S
0Op\
0,
A =
Tetragonal
.
ai/2()ai/2.
/3()/3~i.
110
VECTOR CALCULUS
Cih Tetragonal equatorial Civ Ditetragonal polar
.
A, (). A, /3()/3. Di Tetragonal holoaxial .... 1, A, /3()/3~i. Dth Dietragonal equatorial .1, A, a{)a, /3()/3~^ Rhombohedral Cz Trigonal polar 1,B, where B is a^i^Oa~^'^. B. Czi Hexagonal alternating A, B,
.
.1,
1,
1,
1,
B, B,
/3()S.
j8()/3i.
/3()/3~i,
B,
tOy,
bisects Z0,
6/3.
Hexagonal
Cu
Trigonal equatorial
. .
Dsh Ditrigonal equatorial Ct Hexagonal polar Cih Hexagonal equatorial Civ Dihexagonal polar
j8()/3~i,
C =
a}'^Ocr^'^'
<
A, C, aQa.
1,
\
'
Cy,
Say =
0.
Di Hexagonal
Regular
holoaxial
A, C,
.1,
1,
/3()/3~i.
C,
aQa,
Sfiy
/3()/3~^
/3()j8i,
Tesseral polar
a()ai,
Sa0
fi
where
= Sya = 0, L L = (a +
+
Tft
Tesseral central
1,
L, aOa.
1,
707"^
7()7\
L,
1,
(a+/3)()(a+^).
()*,
/3()/3i,
L, {a
+ fi)Oia + 0)K
Oh
Ditesseral central
1,
aOa'S
L,
a()a!.
IV
VIII.
(5) Spherical
Astronomy.
We
tion:
X
h
is is
a unit vector along the polar axis of the earth, the hourangle of the meridian.
VECTORS IN SPACE
111
L= i = = j
k
COS A/2
+ X sin A/2,
=
i
=
=
j cos
/,
where
is
jj.
and meridian,
H
d
5 z .4
cos
h j sin
I,
S\n
Sk\
Skfx
0,
= = =
declination of star,
unit vector to star on the meridian
= \smd \
fi
cos d,
azimuth,
altitude.
h, 8
At the hourangle
becomes
5'
5'
=
tan
L~^8L.
The
vertical plane
through
iVi8'
jSj8'
+
is
kSkd',
=
and
Skb'jSjb'.
Sib'
At The prime
circle is
rising or setting z
0.
vertical circle
through
k.
The 6hour
a
t
li
It
La
X
s
= = = = = = = = = =
cos </2
+ X sin
X
</2,
cos a/2 H
sin o/2,
pole of ecliptic,
first
point of aries
vernal equinox
Lr^fiLt,
longitude,
latitude,
cos 8/2
sin 5/2.
I,
Problems.
Given
d, find
Sfib'
A
0.
and
on 6hour
circle.
I, /, I,
d, find d, find
h and z on horizon.
A.
d, A, find h
and
\
z,
b'
=
z.
L~^bL
cos
+ j cos z
k sin
112
VECTOR CALCULUS
/,
d, h, find
a and
(6)
d, find
and z. s and h.
light
from a medium
of
are given
by the equation
nVva = n'Vva'
where
v,
normal, the
incident, and the refracted ray. The student should show that
^(i
5^^)
.vVva.
Investigate two successive refractions, particularly back into the first medium.
(7)
It
is
if
and
are
nions,
and
F VqVr, we
may
write
(8)
q{q~'^
(r
it
q)r~'^,
and
=
zL
q r
r(r db q)~^q.
given quaternions we can find a quaternion q that will give three vectors when multiplied by a, h, That is, we can find q, a, /3, y such that c resp.
(9)
If a, b, c are
aq
a,
bq
S,
cq
y.
(R. Russell.)
We
{q
have a
V
=
Vc/aVa/b,
etc., or
multiples of these.
r)
(q
r)''
(qfryrOr^q/r)^
=
{Vq\
q(q~^ryO(q~^r)^q~^
qh'^q\)q~h^q~\
Vr){Wq+
Vr)'
{qlrfih{)r\qlrr^l\
r
where tan xA
VECTORS IN SPACE
113
sin 2la sin w/S
/3)
+
2c
cos
2la
cos
TO/3
A
a
+ sin
10.
+ 1), c + 6 cos
j8).
(6
sin
/3),
2a sin a/ (6 sin
We
will
develop
we multiply
afifia
we have
Since
Sax
0, if
ar
is
a scalar,
Sa^y = SaVfiy,
Since
Sa^y8
/3a,
SaVfiyd,
etc.
21
a/3
a/3
25a/3
AVaVPy =
For
a/37
7/^
/3Ta
=
25/37 a
ay^)
yafi).
2 (7,3a
+ 7aj3
a/37
ayfi
/37
7/3a
= 2aS^y =
+ "7/3,
whence
Therefore
FaF/37
Adding to each
side
7<Sa^
fiSay.
aS^y, we have
Va^y = aSPy
Since
/3
pSya
ySoc^.
a'afi,
/3
/3
a^5a^
+ a'Wa^,
which resolves
Sr
^SrgS
Vm~' =
That
is, if
hiqrq'
we
Kq'KrKq)
=
rotate the
^(Q^Q~^
qKrq~^)
= qVrq~K
field,
Sr and
TVr
are invariant.
114
VECTOR CALCULUS
Hence
Va^y
if
For instance
a,
13,
fi,
Va^y, V^ya, Vyaj3, a being opposite to Vya^, etc. Evidently if a\, oi2 oin are n radii of a sphere forming a polygon, then
'
sphere, then a,
they bisect the sides of the polygon, given by Vaia^ This exVa^az an, Va^VanOii ani. an(Xia2, In plains the geometrical significance of these vectors.
,
any vector a and quaternion q, the vector a bisects the angle between Vqa and Vaq, that is to say we construct Vqa from the vector Vaq by reflecting it in a. The same
fact for
is
true for
'v
va
is
is
different
from
a^ybe
ci
the reflection in
from qiq<2, qn only in the fact that has been rotated negatively about the axis of q\ through double the angle of qi. Indeed
its axis
92?3
'qnqi
q~\qiq2
qn)q\
If
V(Va^)Vy5
we apply the formula for expanding VaVfiy to = V{Vy8)Va^ we arrive at a most im
portant identity:
VVafiVy8
dSajSy
=  V'VybVa^ =
see that for
ySa^d
aS^yb
^Sayb.
From
this equality
we
bSal3y
aSjSyb
+ ^Syab +
= 
VaVbVfiy
VafiSyb
VayS^b.
VECTORS IN SPACE
115
= Va^SyS
VfiySaS
VyaSfiS,
enabling us to expand any vector in terms of the three normals to the three planes determined by a set of three Since vectors, that is, in terms of its normal projections.
aSfiyd
= V^ySad = VayS^S
+ +
Vy8Sa^
VySSafi
VSfiSay
and
^Sy8a
V8aS^y,
we have
VVafiVyS
VaySfiS
VfidSay.
From
this
we have
an expansion
for VafiyS,
namely
SadVfiy.
= Sa^Syd  SayS^d + SadSfiy. SVa^VyS = Sa8S^y  SayS^8. Va^ Sy8 = yS VafiVSe  8S Va^Vye + eS
Sa^y8
VafiVyS
y Say
Sfiy
Sa8 Sp8
lie
Sae
Sfie
/.
on a sphere of radius
AABC. From
the figure
it
evident that
^/iS
t/^
iylpy",
t/a
vh = =
ct/v
(/7)''^
08/)'^'.
Whence
116
VECTOR CALCULUS
where
V
and the
if
= ^r^,
Also pfp~^
axis of
is
rt a.
'fi^^^i^yf^ ,
so that
the pole of the great circle through then the rotation pOp~^ brings ^ to the same position as the rotation
is
XY
around
into
^'
OP
rj^^.
Since ^ goes
by a rotation about OA as well as one about OP, this means that the new position OZ' is the reflection of OZ in the plane of OP A. The angle of p is then ZAL or ZAP a. The angles of L and or according as the axis is + are right angles, and if we draw CN perpendicular to
ZFthen
ANCY = ALAY,
and
ANCX = AMBX,
APB angles at A
is isosceles.
AL = BM = CN
and
Hence the equal exterior = ZBM = 1(^ + C). Draw PZ, then zZPA
and
are
ZAL
5+
= ^ML = XY
angle
7]^^
= Zv^" for it =lzBPA = XN and NY = YL. The since MX between the planes LAP and ZOP is thus the biradial
also f
is
and
is
that of the
VECTORS IN SPACE
planes OAZ, ZOP, so that equal to Z P, hence
117
ZOA
and
AOL
make an
angle
Zp = i(AhB+C).
iPurther
pai
77/7T/^r/
(/t)'^(t//3)^'^(/3/)^/2
tt)
p..
The angle
is
S/2 where
=
is
Tj^f .
The conangle
sin
jugate of p
iip
C).
f^T/,
whose
axis
also
f^?/
a and
= 
2/2
ociaoaz
=
is
sin
2/2
=
where 2
of
cos ^a
k sin
^<r,
whose
the spherical excess of the triangle the midpoints A3 and a is the sum of the angles
of the triangle.
Hence
Saia2a3
It
is
cos ^a,
Faia23
UVaia2a3
sin ^a.
is
for a
from ^1 to
^2
and A3.
Since
is
and
made by ai, a2, as. now we have several points as the middle
say aia2is
between a\ and
drawn as diagonals
taken as an origin for spherical arcs to the vertices of the polygon, then for
if
we
call
the midpoints of
118
VECTOR CALCULUS
axis to the origin
which we
will call k,
the
common
made
up by the products
of three vectors
tnz(Xnian
y~^aia2a3
is
a.
of the
The sum
angles of
if
polygon
the
sum
it is
divided, so that
this
sum
ia2'
)"~^[cos (r/2
k sin o/2].
of the sides
polygon are
Saia2'
ai, a2,
an,
then
an
;
cos
(r/2,
where a
is
the
sum
polygon
are given
by
UVaia2'
an,
UVaoazOinl,
anOCi,
UVan
each being the vertex whose sides contain the first and last vectors in the product; and the tensors of these vectors are each equal to sin a/2.
The
expression
Sa^y
is
called
the
first
staudtian of
SVapVfiyVya/TVa^TVfiyTVya
= S^a^y/TVa^TV^yTVya,
which
is
an
TV ai'
worked out thus
vanishing.
far,
an
meaning
of their
\ECTORS IN SPACE
119
Sa^
is the product of TaTfi by the cosine of the angle It vanishes only if they are perbetween a and /3.
pendicular.
Va^ is the vector at right angles to both a P whose length is TaT^ multiplied by the sine of their angle. It vanishes
only
if
the volume of the parallelepiped of a /3 7, taken Socfiy It vanishes only if they are all parallel to negatively.
is
one plane.
Vafiy, VafiyS,
these vectors are the edges of the polj^hedral giving the circumscribed polygon, and if the expression vanishes, we have by separating the quaternion,
VafiyS
aSfiyd
VaVfiyd
0.
Hence a
all
By changing
and SfiySequals zero. the vectors cyclically we have n vectors of which have a zero tensor, so that each edge is the
is
taken
cyclically.
This quaternion in each case has a vanishing scalar. n = 3, a jS 7 are a trirectangular system.
n
shown by the four vanishThe angle a^ = angle y8. ing scalars. 5, the edge T^aiS7 is parallel to VSe and cyclically
4,
j8
are coplanar,
We have
sum
circumscribing polygon a multiple of 27r and it satisfies the inequality 3 (re 2) tt is greater than
a which
that
if
is greater than (n 2)x. It is evident the polygon circumscribed has 540 the
vectors
Safiy8
>
lie
in
0.
If
is
=
at
0,
J'afiyd,
Vcx^ySe
0,
and the
is
preceding case
aiaz
hand
an
the
sum
an odd multiple of
tt.
120
VECTOR CALCULUS
EXERCISES = SVafiVfiyVya {SaPy^ VVa0V0yVya = Vafiiy'^SaP  SfiySya) S{a + 8)(/3 + 7)(t + a) = 2Sa0y.
5F(a
1.
+ +
)(
2. 3.
)F(t
4. 5.
iSF(Fa8F)37)(F87F7)F(F7aFa^)
<S5ef 16(iSa/37)S
= 
=  USa8yy.
8)
{Sa^yY.
where
r
6.
S{xa
+ yfi+ zy){x'a
m+ +
y]V[^ ]F[7
]),
][
/3]),
/3][^
X
Sa0y,
VECTORS IN SPACE
13. If 5 = !! succession in a, a_i,
ttn
121
if we reflect an arbitrary vector in when Sq = the final position will be a a fixed vector, and if F5 = the final position
then
atai
if
the reflections
.
a,
au
11.
Functions.
We
is
notice
of the
We have
the follow
which
useful
OSa)"
(a/3
+ /8a)[(a/3)"i]  afifia[(a^Y^
=
Whence
2"5"a/3
25a/3[(/3)"i
08a)"i]
03a)2]
^^^[(a/S)"^
+
=
(afi
(/3a)"=^].
+ /3a)" =
[(a/3)"
03a)"]
il(n
1;!
2S(afir
+ ,,,
l!(7i
""
1)!
,,V/3^>S(a/3)"^
.
This implies the familiar formula for the expansion of cos" 6 in terms of cos nd, cos (n 2)6, and we can write as the reverse formiJa
iS(aj8)"
()"/2[a"/3"
n even
( ) (i)/2[Sa^
n(n2
ani/3"Vl
P)S3/3a"33"V3!
n odd.
Likewise
TV^ccfi
(l)"/22"i[S(a/32"
(2n)!
l!(2n
S(a^"Wi82+
1)!
122
VECTOR CALCULUS
i2nl\{2n
1)1
TV{a^Y^^
2)!
H
(_l)(nl)/2^
71(71"
(^2
n even
71
odd.
Since
axis
Tl3
jS/a is
we have
(1
+ jS/a +
+
(/S/a)^
when
<
Ta, and
formula
S
Likewise
a = ^ a
p
S^/a
S(l3lar
TV^= afi
TVl3la+ TV{^/ay
If
we
13/a)
(S/a)
.
Therefore
log
f (1
a
= 
S^/a
 ^SW/aY TVl3/a
fi
TV
log (1
iS/a)
+ ^ TV US/ay
Again
T(a
13)'
Ta'
 f (1 
^/a)'
Ta'[1
+
+
Pi(
SUl3/a)Tl3/a
P^i SWla)rp/a
where Pi P2 are the Legendrian polynomials. Evidently for coaxial quaternions we have the wholt
theory of functions of a complex variable applicable.
VECTORS IN SPACE
12. Solution of
If
123
Some Simple
Equations.
ap = a then p = a~^a. (1). = a then we set Vap = ^ where f is any vector (2). If Sap perpendicular to a, and adding, p = aa~^ + ~Y. = then Sap = x where x is any scalar, and (3). If Vap adding we have p = a~^^ \ xa~^. = y then SaVap^ = Sa^pjS = (^Sp^ = Say (4). If Vap^ = and S^Vapfi 0^Sap = S^y. Now
fi
Vapfi
aS^p
pSa^
+ ^Sap
yySap.
is
[ai<Sa7
if
+ ^'S^y =
0.
The
solution fails
Safi
=  a^S^^y  ^^Sa^y
xVap,
X any
scalar.
(5). If
Vafip
= y
then
SafipSafi
Sa/37
and
Sa^p
Safiy/Safi.
Adding to
Vafip,
we have
o/Sp =,
Sa^y/Safi and p
/r^a^7
(6). If
Sap
Sap
=
=
a,
S/3p
=
b,
6,
then
6a)Fa8.
(7).
If
a, iSjSp
Syp
c,
pSafiy
(8).
aF/37
6T'7a
cVafi.
If 9a9~^
8
then 9
(x^
?/)/(a
/3)
where x and
y are any
q
scalars.
Or we may write
u\ T(a
/3)
wVafi
where
8,
wSa{a
/3).
(9). If
qaq^
= 
7, q^q'^
then
Jl
L
m)(5^) 1
^S(7 +
a)(5/3)J
124
(10). If qaq^
VECTOR CALCULUS
^,
q^q'^
rj,
qyq'^
f,
then
Sq{^
a) =
is
0,
Sqiv
i?)
0,
Sq{t
t)
0,
hence Vq
we have
x{^
a)
2Sy(v
+ y(v ^)
:
i8)
+ 2(f a)
:
7)
where
x:y:z= The
2Sy{^
S{^
a){'n
^).
not independent.
Vq
is
easily
found
^q.
a)'
let
(p
^)i
(p
7)i
(p
5)i
=
(p'
0,
then
a')'
if
we
1
([(P
5)i
(p
5]
[(or
5)'
5])
=
where
5,
5)(p
a)~\a
8), etc.,
p,
from D, the extremity of to the inverses with respect to D, of the extremities of a, fi, 7, then
p', a',
j8',
(p'
a')'
ip'
fiT'
(P'
 iT' =
0.
Prove that
/
^'
_
p.
y'
^' _
'a'
whence
p'
p'Y
a)'
ii/2
'
and
(12). If {q
{q
b)'
d)
(9
(R. Russell.)
c)'
(q
=
{q
d)\
0,
we
set
d){q'
d)
= {a
d){a'
f
1,
VECTORS[_^IN SPACE
125
thence
 d)'  (q a)' =(q d)'(a  d)(q  a)"^  d)' [{a  d)Kq  a) + (b  d)l(q b)(c d)l(q  c)] (q = iq'  aT' + iq'  bT'  iq' " cT'
(q
and we have
(6'
q'
from
c')
c')l{q'
iq'
c')l{a'
c')]K
(R. Russell.)
13. Characteristic
*
Equation.
If
(f
we
S^q
write
sides
we have
q=
Sq{
Vq
+
=
(Vqy
0.
+ 25^ Vq
2qSq
S'q
V^q
This equation
is
q.
The
coefficients
2Sq
and
S'q
 Vq = Tq
to say, are also the
is
subjected to the rotation t{)'^~^ They Kq is substituted for q. Hence they will not define q but only any one of a class of quaternions which may be derived from each other by the group of all rotations of the
g
is
same
if
form
j
or
Sq
TgV
and
Sq
Tq^l
1.
1 it
biquaternions which we do not enter here, but a few remarks will be necessary to place the subject properly. Since the invariants do not determine q we observe that we must also have UVq in order to have the other two
parameters involved.
126
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
as
quaternions as Sq
TVqllVq and
q
TVqUVq
or
and
Kq.
all
If
we
the
terms that arise from the identical equations of q and r separately, we have left the characteristic equation of two
quaternions,
which
will
reduce to the
first
is
are
made
to be equal.
This equation
2SqSr
2SVqVr =
0.
We may
write
it
qr+ rq14.
2qSr
2rSq
^SqSr
of
Sqr\ Srq
q, r, qr,
and
rq.
Biquaternions. eters involved in q can be imaginary or complex then Thus if division is no longer unique in certain cases.
we have
as possible solutions
zb 9
Q =
If
g2
and
also
Q =
V ( \)UVqq.
Vq
and we have and Vq = Q then TFg = and scalar x is where V i, j are any 1) any x{i\ j
CHAPTER
VII
APPLICATIONS
1.
1.
is
Notations.
a product.
writers
the negative of the scalar since this is generally essentially A table of current notations is given. If a and 3 positive. define two fields, we shall call Sa^ the virial of the two
fields.
Sa/S
q:
jS
Grassman, Resal, Somoff, Peano, BuraliForti, Marcolongo, Timerding. Gibbs, Wilson, Jaumann, Jung, Fischer.
a^
aj3
(a/3)
Bucherer,
Henrici.
Gans,
Lorentz,
Abraham,
a 1/3
Cos a^
[ajS] Caspary. For most of these authors, the scalar of two vectors,
though called a product, is really a function of the two While it is vectors which satisfies certain formal laws. evident that any one may arbitrarily choose to call any
function of one or more vectors their product,
it
does not
seem desirable to do so. For Gibbs, however, the scalar is defined to be a function of the dyad of the two vectors,
which dyad
is
a real product.
The dyad
or dyadic of
127
128
VECTOR CALCULUS
are looked
upon as geometric or physical entities, from which by various modes of "combination" or de
They
termination other geometric entities are found, called products. The essence of the Hamiltonian point of view, however, is the definition by means of geometric entities of
which gives hypernumbers as products. Functions when useful, but are called
It
is
functions.
2.
and
we
will consider
a few.
vector
its
is
a, per
pendicular to a line whose direction is 5 has for since p a is anj^ vector in the plane,
equation,
S'8(pa) =
If
0.
and as this vector is parallel to 5 it is the perpendicular from the The perpendicular from a point B origin to the plane.
set p
we
8Sald
satisfied
is
j8
and
jS
given by the
equation
13)
0,
orp2
2Sdp
+ 8' + C2
fi^
0.
intersection of the
p2
two spheres
2S8ip
+ Ci = =
82) p
2S82P
C2.
2S{8i
of this equation
ci
The form
shows that
it
represents a plane
APPLICATIONS
perpendicular to the center line of the spheres.
129
The
point
where
it
is
Xi8\
Xi
+ + X2
3*252
whence
solving,
we
F(5,
/S
find
p
3. Virial.
=
If
the representative of a force in direction and magnitude then its projection on the direction a is
is
a~^Safi,
is is
and perpendicular to
this direction
a~Wafi.
is
jS.
If
If
a a
a direction not in the line of action then the projection If a gives the component of the force in the direction a.
is
Sa^
the vector to the point of application of the force then is the nrial of the force with respect to a, a term introIt is the
duced by Clausius.
the force in
moving the point of application through the vector distance a. If a is an infinitesimal distance say,
8a,
then
S8afi
is
the virtual
total
placement.
4.
The
all
virtual
XSSanfin for
Circulation.
successive displacements 8p to B, we may form the negative scalar of the vector If the vector intensity of the field and the displacement.
intensity varies
must be
is
The sum of these products, if there a finite number, or the definite integral which is the limit of the sum in the infinitesimal case, is of great importance.
infinitesimal.
If
a point
/3
is
force of
moving with a velocity a [cm./sec] in a field of dynes, the activity of the field on the. point is
130
SjSa
[ergs/sec.].
VECTOR CALCULUS
The
field
the point
remain stationary,
activity
is
which ease the activity is S^a. also called the effect, and the power. If a
in
The
is
the
vector function of p which gives the field at the point have for the sum
P we
This integral or
the field a,
5.
XSa8p
or
 // SaSp.
sum
is
Volts, Gilberts.
in passing
For a force
from
is
field
If
the circulation
the
field is
is
the
work done
field E,
AtoB.
the circulation
the difference in
If the field is a magnetic field H, then the circulathe difference in gilbertage from A to B. It is measured in gilberts, the unit of magnetic field being a
and B.
is
tion
no name yet approved for the unit of the electrostatic field, and we must call it volt per centimeter. The unit of force is the dyne and of work
gilbert per centimeter.
There
is
the erg.
Gausses and Lines. In case the field is a field of flux surface <T, and the vector Uv is the outward normal of a through which the flux passes, then
6.
is
S(tUv
per square centimeter. The unit of magnetostatic flux B is called a gauss; the unit of electrostatic flux D is called a
line.
The
total flux
through a
finite surface is
the areal
integral
J'SorUvdA,
written also
SSadv.
The fluxintegral is called the transport or the discharge. Thus if D is the electric induction or displacement, the
APPLICATIOXS
discharge through a surface
in
131
is
J'SDUvdA, measured
the magnetic induction B, Similarly the discharge is measured in maxwells. 7. EnergyDensity. Activity Density. Among other
for
coulombs.
scalar products of
If
and induction
in lines at a point,
^*SED
is
magnetic intensity in gilberts/cm., and gausses, respectively, 2;:SHB is the energy in ergs. If J is the electric cur<SEJ is the activity in rentdensity in amperes/cm.^ If is G the watts/cc. magnetic currentdensity in heavisides*/cm.^,
<S
HG
is
If
the
S E(J
D) and
*SH(G
up the
B).
EXERCISES
1.
An
cdefBcient of friction being 1/3, how high can it get? 2. The force of gravity may be expressed in the
form
a
mgk.
Show
the vertical difference of level 3. If the force of attraction of the earth that the work done in going from A to 5 is
A to B is the of A and B.
by
hUp/p^ show
4.
The magnetic
field at
infinite straight
wire carrjdng a current of electricity of / amperes 0.21 a~\ sin di cos dj) (i and j perpendicular to wire)
and the
differential
+ a cos ej)dd.
Show
is
a sin
fli)
gilberts,
which for one turn is 0.4x7. Prove that we get the same result for a square path. 5. The permittivity k of a specimen of petroleum is 2 [abfarad/cm.], and on a small sphere is a charge of 0.0001 coulomb. The value of the displacement D at the point p is then
jj
0^ UplTp^
maxweU
per second.
[Unesj.
heaviside
is
a magnetic current of 1
132
VECTOR CALCULUS
What
is the discharge through an equilateral triangle whose corners are each 4 cm. from the origin, the plane of the triangle perpendicular to the field?
6.
If
magnetic inductivity n
is
field is
given by
H
then the magnetic induction
is
7a
[gilbert/cm,],
7 1760a
[gausses].
field
What
is
given by
i
24(cos
+ sin 6j),
what
is
equation
the discharge per second through a portion of the plane whose 12 from is Sip =
(?
10
to
= 20?
origin of e
8.
coulombs
is
=  eUp/TpHw
[lines].
What
center
9.
is is
the origin?
to a magnetic point of
m maxwells is
=  mUp/Tp^
ia
What
10.
is
the point?
In problem
the permittivity
is
k,
then the
electric
intensity
/ciD47r.
What
is the amount of energy enclosed in a sphere of radius 3 cm. an<i center at a distance from the origin of 10 cm.? 11. In problem 9, if the inductivity is 1760 and the magnetic in^
tensity
is
M>B,
is enclosed in a
10 cm. from the point and one face perpendicular to the line joining the point and the center?
12. If
mm.
in
diameter
is
is
10 amperes and
what
the activity?
APPLICATIONS
133
13. If there is a leakage of 10 heavisides through a magnetic area of 4 cm.*, and the magnetic field is 5 gilberts/cm., what is the activity? 14. Through a circular spot in the bottom of a tank which is kept level full of water there is a leakage of 100 cc. per second, the spot
If
is
gravity what
is
front from the sun has in its plane surface 10 volts per cm., and a magnetic intensity of 0.033 gilberts per cm., and if for the free ether or for air ^ = 1 and K = ^10"*, what is the energy per cc. at the wave front? (The
an
electric
wave
an
electric intensity of
average energy
is
half this
4.3 lO"* ergs per cc. per sec.) 16. If a charge of e coulombs is at a point
at
A and a magnetic point B has to maxwells, what is the energy per cc. at P, any point in space,
medium
being air?
8.
the
Geometric Loci in Scalar Equations. (1). The equation of the sphere may be written
forms
Sip
a/p
in
each
of the
= Kpja, = a, = 1, = 1, = 1,  CO) = T{cp  a), Tip  a)ia  ^)(/3  7)(7  5)(6  p) = 0, Sip a'S^yp + pl'Syap + y^Sa0p = p'^Sa^y, ipay ip^Y ipy? ip^y  bY  /3)2 (a  yf ipaf (a ip^f i^af i^yf 036)2 =0.  Sf ipyf iyaf iy^f {y
(p
5)2
(5
^)2
(5
3)2
(5
^)2
The equation
of the eUipsoid
may
1,
'
be written in the
forms
SV is
v^p!^
where a
not parallel to
Tiply
jS,
Kpid)
Tipp
= Tip/d + p\)=\'p\
Kp/y),
134
VECTOR CALCULUS
planes
The
p
These
C7/3
cut the elHpsoid in circular sections on Tp = T^. are the cyclic planes. T^ is the mean semiaxis,
soid,
the
a is normal to the plane of the ellipse of contact of the cylinder and the ellipsoid. In the second form let
rx
Tm,
h= '^]~ ^f i (X m)
c=T\
Tfx.
(3).
(4).
(5).
The hyperboloid of two sheets is S^p/a + V^pl(3 = ~ The hyperboloid of one sheet is *SV" + V^plfi The elliptic paraboloid of revolution is
Spl^
1.
FV/3
0.
(6).
(7).
(8).
The elliptic paraboloid is Spja + F^p/iS = 0. The hyperbolic paraboloid is Spla Sp/fi = Spfy. The torus is
Tizk bUa^Vap
p)
a,
2bTVap= (rp2+62 a"), = 4b' Pp  {rp+b^ ay, ^b'S'ap  &' + a^?, AbWcxp = (Pp ^a'rp  b'')) = V (a2 62))/(p + aV (a2 SU(p r any vector. p = d= bUa~WaT + aUr,
(9).
b/a,
Any
surface
is
given by
p
(p{u, v).
APPLICATIONS
135
= =
0.
pe is
0.
SViVafiVde)ViV^yVep)V(Vy8Vpa)
which
is
0,
Pascal's theorem
on
conies.
p.,
The cones
of revolution through X,
v are
The cones
Spp
0,
of revolution
0, Sp.p
0,
are
to (p
a)^
/3)2
+ =
c^
from ^
a).
c^.
is
r2j3(p
is *S/3(p
a)
g2P_ Y2P=
a
/8
from y
is
a 7
a
is
The
i3
)\CL
\
3/
a:
q;
a.)
136
VECTOR CALCULUS
of Quater
Notations.
a and
fi
are
two
fields,
we
shall call
Va^
fields.
= Va^
a^
q;
[a,
jS]
[a
/3]
Caspary.
13
a/S
Heun.
Macfarlane.
Sina/S
lAas
1
.
Peano.
Lines.
is
that
Vafi
0.
Vap
0.
The
line
through
y.
parallel to
is
or
line
^
a~Wa8
+ a~^y.
= a, S/xp = b, is = Vpa y and Vp^ = 5
S\p
to a point
The
FpFXjLt
ap,
hX.
If
we have lines
then a vector from a point on the second is 5/3~^ ya~^ { xfi ya.
tersect then
first
on the
If
now
vanish,
thus
^a^)pa
=0=
Sba\ Syl3.
APPLICATIONS
If
137
parallel
we
two points
and
perpendicular to
5/3~^
Va^ we have*
ya~^
 7"' +
a:j3
yoi)
Va0
Fa/3
/3
Pa/3 J
.[
Fa/3 J
first line
to the
(Va^)\S8a
Sfiy)
this perpendicular with
and second
'and
Note that
(Fa^)iF(Fa/3)(x8
(7a/3)i7Fa^(5^i
ya'^)
^5a5/3)
.Va0(.'s^ + r'S^).
10
138
VECTOR CALCULUS
The projections of the vectors a, 7 on any three rectangular axes give the Pluecker coordinates of the Hne. For appHcations to Hnear complexes, etc., see Joly: Manual, p. 40,
Guiot: Le Calcul Vectoriel et ses applications.
2.
Congruence.
The
that
given directions
is
cf,
is,
given by
VdpG
or
its
=
'
equivalent equation
dp
3.
adt.
Moment.
Val3.
The moment
If
of the force
(3
with respect
to a point
a,
is
some point
the
a, then
moment with
If
plane then the moments as to a point in the plane will have a common unit vector, the normal to the plane. If several forces are
point is vanishes.
If the respect to the origin is Va^. on the line of application the moment obviously
common
normal to the same plane, their points of application in the plane given by fii, ^2, fiz, their values being aia, then the moments are a2.a, aza,
' ' '
F(ai/3i
If
a2/32
as/^s
+
+
[dyne cm.]
we
set
ai/3i
ai^i
tta/Sa
8(ai
02
as
),
then
/3
is
upon
If
is
^3
0,
we cannot make
this substitution.
APPLICATIONS
4.
139
Couple.
magnitude, opposite directions and different lines of action. In such case the mean point becomes illusory and the sum
of the
moments
for
on the
called the
moment
of the
It is evidently unchanged if the tensor of j3 is increased and that of ai a2 decreased in the same ratio,
or vice versa.
5.
Moment
of
Momentum.
If
mass
momentum
The
of the
being
to be
p,
the
moment
of
momentum
mass
is
defined
VpnuT
6. Electric Intensity.
mVpff
[gm. cm./sec.].
is
If a
medium
moving
in a
mag
medium an
electromotive
E=TVBlO~^
For any path the volts
will
[volts/centimeter].
be
 fSdpE = +
If this
fSdpBalOr^
we
shall
in
will
medium
140
intensity field
VECTOR CALCULUS
H =
For any path the gilbertage
8.
OAirVDawill
If
[gilberts/cm.].
be OAwJ^SclparD.
Moving
Electric Field.
an
tion, of value
lines, is
moving with a
medium
gilberts/cm. where
H = OAtVctD.
For
a
moving
electron
with
charge
e,
this
will
hi
of
electro:
Moving Magnetic
Field.
is
If
will
intensity E
10.
Torque. If a particle of length dp is in a field o( intensity a which tends to turn the particle along the line^
of force, then the torque produced
by the
field
upon
th<
element
is
Vdp<r.
If
is
//
For instance
cdp,
is
if
V'dpa.
a nonuniform distribution
dp, or in case of
the strength in magnetic units, maxwells, of a wii magnet from A to B, in a field a, then
fiVdpa
is
or
f/V'cdpa
field
APPLICATIONS
.
141
1 1 Poynting Vector. An electric intensity E volts/cm. and magnetic intensity H gilberts/cm. at a point in space are accompanied by a flux of energy per cm.^ R, given by
[ergs/cm.2 sec.].
This
the Poynting vector. Force Density. The force density in dynes/cc. of a field of electric induction on a magnetic current is given by,
is
12.
= 4T'DG
10
[d>Ties/cc.],
where D
G
If
is the density in lines of electric displacement the magnetic current density in heavisides per cm.^. the negative of F is considered we have the force per cc,
is
density D.
The force density in dynes;cc. of a field of magnetic induction on a conductor carrying an electric current is
F
= lr.JB.
A single moving
= AireVafiVaD.
The
field
is
13.
Momentum
of Field.
momentum
lines
induction B gausses is T = 310^ V DB [gm. cm./sec.l. the magnetic induction is due to a moving electric field then r = 0.04x1' D;ur Do, and if the electric induction is due
to a moving magnetic
field,
at a and magnetic
142
3.
1.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Area and Pressure. If we consider two differential vectors from the point P, say dip, d2p, then the vector area of the parallelogram they form is Vdipd^p. If then we have a distribution of an areal character, such as pressure per square centimeter, /3, the pressure normal to the differential
area will be in magnitude
S^dipdip.
The vector Vd\pdip may be represented by dv or UvdA. The vector pressure normal to the surface will be
UvS^dipd^p.
There will also be a tangential pressure or shear, which isj the other component of j8. If jS is any vector distribution the 2. Flux. expression]
S^dipdip
Vdipdip.
It
is
jS
is
must be
carefully considered.
Thus the
of dimensions that' magnetic intensity do not correspond to any magnetic quantity. flux of
is
If j8 is the velocity of a fluid in cm./sec, 3. Flow. then] the volume passing through the differential area per second]
is
Sfidipdip
4.
[cc./sec.].]
flow
Energy Flux. The dimensions of the Poynting energy R show that it is the current of energy per second across]
is]
S^dipd^p
SVlWVdpidp2
12007r
[ergs/sec.
In the case of a straight conductor carrying a current of! electricity, we have at a distance a from the wire in a]
APPLICATIONS
direction at right angles to the wire directly
143
away from
it
the value
T
Consequently
R=
(4x)U08(0.2Jai).
if we consider one centimeter of wire in circumference of the circle of radius a we and the length shall have a flux of energy for the centimeter equal to
}{E2Ei)
This
5.
is
b'oules].
is
represented by heat.
For a moving conductor we have already vector the E, and as the current density J can expressed be computed from the intensity of the field (J = k E) we
Activity.
have then
watts per
[watts].
Likewise in the case of the magnetomotive force due to motion and the magnetic current G = /H we have for the
=
SDcrG
= 
S(FD(r)Z(FD(r)10^
[watts].
Volts.
The
in a
total
electroipotive difference
is
between
two points
conductor
conductor
fSdpaBl(r^
The total magnetomotive difference be7. Gilberts. tween two points along a certain path is the lineintegral
4.
1.
AirfSdpUa
[gilberts].
Stress.
We
find with
no
difficulty
the equations
Va{Uazt Uy)y =
and
db
TyTaiUadz Uy)
V'a(Vay)y
Say V ay.
144
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
a state of stress in a medium, given
now we have
by
its
=
= =
g2
to f/FX/x,
93
\~
to U(U}i
Ufx),
9i
< 92<
93,
is
j3
+ 9^
the scalars
91, 92, 93
placement
is
D = FXE/i+^E.
If
B
If
VXHfi
gW.
/3
becomes
/3'= FX^/x+fif^.
If the scalars are elasticity constants of the ether,
then
is,
according to Fresnel's theory, the force on the ether for the ether displacement /3,
FXj8m+^/3.
If
then
D =
VXtX/j,
{
9Q.
where Q
is
the scalars are rXju, If FX)u = 0, If ^ = T\n, S\fi. t the scalars are TX/jl, rXju, TKix, that is, practically tin all directions and to X. X ^ perpendicular along
CHAPTER
differentials
1.
1.
VIII
and integrals
scalar
parameter
t,
say
p
=
t
<p{t),
Pi
^
to
<p{h)
<p{h)
If
now we suppose
that
<
<
U and that
^i
and U can
independently approach the limit, ^o, then we shall call the limit of the fraction above, if there be such a limit, the
'i 'o, righthand derivative of p as to t, at U, and if <2 we shall call the limit the lefthand derivative of p as to t at to. In case these both exist and are equal, and if p
<
<
ta
which
is
at
then we shall say that p is a continuous function of and has a derivative as to t at U. There is no essential difference analytically between the
fo
function
variable,
and the ordinary functions of a single real and we will assume the ordinary theory as known.
ip
t
we may
con
which
will
be a continuous curve.
will give
Since p2
pi is a
a vector along the tangent of the cur\'^. Further the tensor of the derivative, Tp' T<p'(t), is the derivative of the
If the arc s length of the arc as to the parameter t. parameter then the vector p' is a unit vector.
is
the
145
146
VECTOR CALCULUS
EXAMPLES
(1)
The
circle
= a
cos ^
+
p'
i8
sin
6,
q;
Ta =
sin ^
Tfi,
SajS
0,
)3
cos
6.
(2)
The hehx
p
p'
(3)
The
conic
2t(^
bp)
(7
cp)
i^
=
qo,
= y'/c, and for 0, p the curve goes through a/a and y/c.
ttjS)
+ t(ca
,
ay)
{cj3
the direction of the tangent is ^/b y/t CO the direction of the tangent is a/a at a/a. Since these vectors both run from the jS/& points of tangency to the point /3/6, the curve is a conic,
for
t
Hence
0,
at
7/c,
for
/3/6
and
/3/&,
y/c, at these
two
points.
If
if
taken at
y'
so that p
= X+
j3/b,
and
a'
a/a
(3/b,
yjc
jS/6,
then
af{a'
tt
tt)
2btTr
c{y'
tt)
is
now we
let
x{a'
+ y'), then
2btx
x)
0, 0.
DIFFERENTIALS
147
From
and
these equations
we have
f
c/a
^l
acl2(yl ac
h).
These values of x give us the two points in which the diagonal in question cuts the curve. The middle point between these two is
r
i(..
.=)('
7')
= '""t"'^
2o{ac
~
0)
f"^
ca
26/3
+ ay
tr)
2{ac
If
we
on the curve
hh\c
for
U= we
ah
b
Pi
p2,
we have
(p2
+ Pi)
so that K
is
h and
t2
,
ati
rT +
'
b^,
becomes
oo
ex
[Joly,
Manual, Chap.
is
Xp'.
We may
=
when
p ^(t), by substituting the value of p in the expression and differentiating as before. Thus
let
= a
cos 6
\ fi
sind
where Ta
={=
Tfi.
148.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Then
Tp=
V [
a^ cos^ B
2Sa^
sin d cos 6
0" sin^
6].
Tp in the manner
Thus
2Sa^
cos 2d
/S^
sin 26
iS^).
tan 26
2.
2Sa^l{a^
0,
FrenetSerret Formulae.
expressed in terms of
s.
is
essentially
we
will
is
s,
and accents
mean
only
differentiation as to
Then both
and
p
p
are points
+ dsp' +
dsp", which
is
derivative of the latter gives p' a unit vector since the parameter is s.
The
is
its
perpendicular to p', and its quotient by ds has a length whose limit is the rate of change of the angle in the osculating plane
of the tangent
and a
which
turns with the plane. That is to say, p" in direction is along the principal normal of the curve on the concave side,
and
in
magnitude
is
we
a =
jS
p' ,
,
= Vp" 7 = Va^,
curvature
so that
is
C\
C17
= =
Tp"
Vp'p".
The
meter of arc
the plane.
rate of angular turn of the osculating plane per centiis found by differentiating the unit normal of
Thus we have
71
= cr^hFpV" 
Vp'p"C;\.
DIFFERENTIALS
149
CiCz
But
ci'
= Tp" = Ca
Substituting for
71
= 
Sp"p'".
Sp"p"'Vp'p"]
= = =
where
CxWaVc^Vp"'crfi
crWot^Vp'"^
OijS,
cr'VyVp'"fi
cr'pSyp'"
and
is
the
tortuosity.
It
may
form
Sp'p"p"'lc^\
Again since
/3
the relations
C\a.
any curve
Ci0,
/3i
ai7
Cia,
71
OijS.
obvious
now
that
/3,
order in terms of a,
ai
we may
oc,
p2
/3c2
/3ci,
jSiCi
/8c2
(701
ac2)ci
aci)ci,
P4
/3c3
+ 2(701
=
aci)c2
(702
/3(ai2+ci2)ci.
The vector w
aoi
+ yci
is
useful, for
/3,
if
77
represents in
7, then
771
Voirj.
It is
the vector along the rectifying line through the point. The centre of absolute curvature k is given by
K
1/p"
+ ^ICi.
150
VECTOR CALCULUS
centre of spherical curvature
(T
The
is
given by
yc^laic^.
yd/da Ci~^
The
It
is
3.
in the direction of 7. polar line is the line through the ultimate intersection of the normal planes. Developables. If we desire to study certain de
velopables belonging to the curve, a developable being the locus of intersections of a succession of planes, we proceed
thus.
where
p
is
of a plane being S{'k Q, p)r] the vector to a variable point of the plane, and a point on the curve, while 77 is any vector belonging
tt is
The equation
is
is
p)r]
ds'd/dsS(Tr
p)v
0.
The
intersection of this
is
the line
whose equation
TT
rjSar]
t)/Vrirji.
line lies wholly upon the developable. If we find a second consecutive plane the intersection of all three is a point upon the cuspidal edge of the developable, which is
This
This vector
(VrjivSar]
2VTiriiSar]i
rj,
V7]rjiSfirjCi)lSrir}ir]2.
By
a,
/S,
7,
we
arrive at the
EXAMPLE
Perform the substitutions mentioned.
4.
Trajectories.
If
of a
moving point, that is, as a trajectory, then the parameter becomes the time. In this case we find that (if
is
DIFFERENTLVLS
p
151
^ciir
+ ai.
The
first
term
is
term
is
the
In case a particle is forced to a the describe curve, pressure upon the curve is given by xcc) ^ar. There will be a second acceleration, p = air
tangential acceleration.
The
last
term
represents
tendency per gram particle out of the osculating that to rotate the is, plane of the orbit. plane,
draw the
Expansion for
as origin,
sa
+ ^Ci*2j8
\fr^{c^a
fi[cz
d^
Cior]
CiUiy)
YipK^CiCia
ci'
7[2c2ai
+ Cia^]).
a constant ratio
EXERCISES
1.
is
in
a cylindrical helix.
2.
The
straight
hne
is
where.
3. If the principal normals of a curve are everjrwhere parallel to fixed plane it is a cylindrical helix. 4. The curve for which
Ci = \lms, Oi = 1/ns, a heUx on a circular cone, which cuts the elements of the cone imder a constant angle. is
maximum
or
minimum.
6.
Show
that
if
Ci~^
=A
cos a
a curve B sin a
lies
are constants.
surface of
The converse is also true. 7. The binormals of a curve do not generate the tangent
a curve.
a/37 of a given curve
8.
Find the conditions that the unit vectors of the moving trihedral remain at fixed angles to the unit vectors of the moving trihedral of another given curve.
Two Parameters
6.
Surfaces.
If
arbitrary parameters
the variable vector p depends upon two it will terminate upon a surface of
152
VECTOR CALCULUS
(p{u,
v),
some kind.
then we
may
dudldu{(p)
dvdldv((p)
du(pu
dv<pv.
We
where
find then
r~dp
Edv?
2Fdidv
Gdv\
E=
We
one for u
(pj^,
F=
S(pu(Pv,
G =
v
(pv".
differentials of p,
will
one for
constant,
constant, which
metric curves upon the surface given by these equations, and may be designated by
Pidu,
p^dv.
Vpip2,
Tv=
^ {EG
F')
H.
For certain points or lines v may become indeterminate, the points or lines being then singular points or singular
lines.
7.
Curvatures.
If
we
the
point p
p
+
V
dupi
dvp2 the
two normals
will
be
and
duV(pnP2
+ P1P12) +
and
p
dvVipuPi
+ P1P22) +
which
may
be written
V
+
p
dp.
The equations
F(7r
p)p
=
if
F(7r
0.
dp)(p
dv)
0.
They
intersect
Sdppdp
lie
upon a
line of
DIFFERENTIALS
curvature so that this
lines.
is
153
If
we expand the
we have
du^Spivvi
+ 2dudvS(pivv2 +
=
=
pidu
\
+
xv
dirSp2VV2
0.
We may
dp
\
form
\
XV
ydv
p^dv
{
yvidu
yv2dv.
Multiply by
(pi
scalar part
S(pi
+ yvi)(p2 +
= = ySvviV2
2ySv{piV2
+
is
V\P2)
v^.
The ultimate
intersection of the
TT
two normals
yv
given by
p ^ dp
\
+ ydv,
that
by yv. Hence we solve for yTv, giving two values R' which are the principal radii of curvature at the The product and the sum of the roots are repoint.
is
R and
spectively
RR' =
\
R
The
by the
first,
R'
reciprocal of the
first,
that
is,
SvviV2Jv^
and
Sv(piV2
+ v\P2)lTv^,
of the
lines of
= V VdpVvdv =
VdpV{dvlvv)
Hence the direction of dUv is that of a line of curvature, when du and dv are chosen so that dp follows the line of curvature. That is, along a line of curvature the change
11
154
VECTOR CALCULUS
normal
is
of curvature.
When the mean curvature vanishes the surface is a minimal surface, the kind of surface that a soapfilm will take when it extends from one curve to another and the pressures on the two sides are equal. The pressure indeed
is
curvature, so that
the product of the surface tension and twice the mean if the resultant pressure is zero, the
vanish.
If
the radii are equal, as in a sphere, then the resultant pressure will be twice the surface tension divided by the radius, for each surface of the
film, giving difference of pressure and air pressure = 4 times surface tension/radius. The difference of pressure is thus for a sphere of 4 cm. radius equal to the surface
tension, that
is,
When
a surface
is
Surfaces are said to have positive zero, or negative curvature according as the absolute curvature is positive or negative.
and conversely.
EXERCISES
1.
The
a)
0.
2.
The
Sva
3.
0,
Sv(j)
a)
=0.
is
The
differential
Sapv
0.
is the center of spherical curvature of a spherical curve not 4. of necessity the center of the sphere? 5. Show how to find the vector to an umbilicus (the radii of curvature
Why
SVav<pVai'
0,
where ^
is
a linear function.
\:
DIFFERENTIALS
7.
155
The
differential
by
lines that
meet
/3)a
is
SVvVip
8.
 P)ocv(VvV(p is
/3)a)
0.
The
by equal and
SV{Va^p)<p{VVafip)
9.
=0.
Show
xi
is
is
axis.
Differentiation as to a Vector
Let q
Definition.
= f(p)
be a function of
p,
either
}
dta
where a
is
given by
dq= q'and
dq/dt
= f(p+dta)f(p),
[f(p
= Urn
If
dta)
 f(fi)]ldt
first
as dt decreases.
we
we can
a)
write
dq
in
dtf'ip,
which a
will enter
term
in
a and
write dta
dp, so that
we have dq
dq
f(j>, dp).
It needs to be noted that the vector a is a function of the variable di, although a unit vector. The differential of q is of course a function of the direction of dp in general, but the direction may be arbitrary, or be a function of the variable vector p. It may very well happen that the
limit obtained
above
may
156
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
EXAMPLES
(1)
Let
q= [p2
p\
Then
dq= 
+
=
2dtSpa
T^p
p2]
= 
2dtSp(x
= 
2Spdp.
Also since q
we have
2Spdp,
dq
= 2TpdTp= or
whence
dTp/Tp
(2)
Sdpfp,
dTp
= 
SUpdp.
From
the definition
d(qr)
we have
dqr
{
qdr,
hence
d(TpUp)
= dTpUp+ TpdUp =
dp
we have
dUp/Up
Also
Vdp/p.
pVdpp/T^p This equation asserts that the differential of Up is the part of the arbitrary differential of p perpendicular to Up, divided by the length of p, that is, it is the differential angle of the two directions of p laid off
we may
write
dUp =
Vdppp/T^p
p~WpdplTp,
etc.
and
In case dp
is
itself,
dUp =
0.
pd{p~^)p
+ pp'^dp
=
2dp
+ pdip~^)p,
DIFFERENTIALS
157
and thence
dp
d.p^
pd{p^)p,
= is,
p^dpp'
[p'Spdp
pWpdp]irp
=
That
the differential of p~^
of Tp.
is
pHppl'Pp.
d{Vap)^
This vanishes
(4)
If
TT
= {VapTWadpVaplTWap.
is
if
dp
parallel to a.
a?lp
then dw
we have
dzir/diT
p~^d2p/dipp.
"
inverting
"
or taking the
image
is
we
two
dif
ferential vectors
merely reflected in
Interpret this,
(5)
T
p
=
a
c is
a and
as
limit points.
of
r
(P
cc)']
0.
plane section through a can be written Syap = 0, in which Syadp = gives a differential confined to the plane.
of
Therefore a differential tangent to the line of intersection any plane and any sphere will satisfy the equation
Vdp[VVya((j)
+ a)i ()
(p
a)')]
0.
in the
is
and
2Sa8p
a^
158
VECTOR CALCULUS
5 is
where
S{p
to
any
Va8)dp
0.
But
a(p2
+ a2)
=
[]
(p
+ a)' and
2Spa8].
2pSap
a^
Sip
S'a;p[p^
tangent line. the differential equation above shows that the tangent dp of the intersection of the plane and the sphere of the A. system is perpendicular to a sphere through A and
Hence
all
through
(6)
and
A.
The equations?/^
pa =
e is a
about their
SU(p VU(p
e, V (1
e'')UVap
<t.
we have
s\v^_^U{p L p +
+ a)U{pa)
+
or
U{p\a)V
p a
a)']
~^^'U{p=
0.
ol)'\= J
Sadp[{p
+ a)^ is
(p
Now
in a
meridian section a
Vdp[{p
constant so that
(p
)!
a)']
=
through
and dp A and
1.
is
A.
EXERCISES
The
potential due to a
mass
at the distance
Tp
is
mITp
in
DIFFERENTL\LS
gravntation units.
tion,
2.
I5d
any
direc
Find the
in
and determine
what
<r
directions
zero.
The magnetic
2hjVap.
if
and determine
0; for dp
in
what
<fH
=
3.
= dsVaWp, dH = 
direction,
any,
zero.
For Vdpff
0,
Htis/TFap; for dp
dsUVap,
dH = TVHds/rF<rp.
The
potential of a small
is
free
magnetism at p
Up,
4.
UVap,
UaVap.
The
tion imits
= 
Up/T^p.
Find the
d<T
Up and
p,
F/3p.
= 5.
(p^p
SpSpdp)/T^p;
parallel
to
2/p;
perpendicular, UVfip/T^p.
The
force exerted
upon a
is
particle of
magnetism at p by an element
of current
at the origin
direction of p,
3Fa/p;
6. The vector force exerted by an infinitesimal plane ciurent at the origin perpendicular to a, upon a magnetic particle or pole at p is
ff
{ap^
3pSap)/T^p.
Find
2.
tials
its
Differential of Quaternion.
We may
define differen
same manner as
motions of vectors.
= qKq so that
qKq]
2TqdTq
d(qKq)
= = = =
[(q
^ dtUq) (Kq
+ dtUKq) 
dt[qUKq
qKdq + 2SqKdq
UqKq] dqKq
2SdqKq.
lat
is,
dTq
= SdqUKq =
dTq/Tq
SdqUq'"^
TqSdqfq
Sdq/q.
160
VECTOR CALCULUS
dUqiUq
Vdq/q,
dSq
Sdq,
dSUq = SUqVidq/q) =
dKq =
dVq = Vdq,
Kdq,
S(dUq)/Uq
0,
S{dq/qUVq)TVUq
+
=
2Sq Vdq
2Sdq Vq,
=  2V qdq^qVaq^ =
qaq~^,
dq~^
q~Hqq~^,
2Vdq{Va)q\
that
is, if r
then
2V(qdq'r)
= 
2V{Vdq/q)r
2q'VV(q'dqa)q'
dUVq= dzq=
We
define
V'Vdq/VqUVq,
Sidq/iUVqq)].
when Ta =
a''
= =
cos7rx/2
sin7ra:/2a
cas^Tx;
thus
da""
If
Tl2a''+^dx.
Ta +
1,
then
da""
dx[log
Taa''+ 7r/2Q;^+Vr],
q^'HqKq''^*
d^q =
Jy + j^
For a stationary value of /(p) in the = 0. If /(p) is to be vicinity of a point p we have df(p) the terminal point of p and same time at the stationary
3.
Extremals.
is
to remain on
some surface,
or in general
if
is
to be subject
DIFFERENTIALS
to certain conditioning equations,
161
also have,
if
we must
if
there
is
0, dq{p)
0,
and
there are
0,
0,
maximum
of numerical value or a
minimum, or
otherwise,
we
EXERCISES
1.
g(j,)
(p
ay
+ a* =
Sdpip
0,
Tp =
f(j>).
Sdpp,
parallel to F rp where t is a) =0, for all values of t. Therefore = 0, or p = ya. Substituting 0, or Vap
= =
a/Ta,
= a
aUa.
= =
Sdp{p
F/3(p
(p
a)2
a*
0.
a)
=
0.
S^ap,
a)
p
3. g{p)
y0,
y
a
a/T0,
aUff.
(p
a)2
0, h{p)
= S^p =
0, find
stationary values
a)
of Tp.
Sdp(j>
and
since
Sp/3(p
SpaP,
p
4. (^(p)
F/3Fa/3(l
[a*
S'afiVTVaff).
stationary'
fiSap),
=
=
p*
SapSffp
+
=
a*
0.
Find
values of Tp.
Sdpp
p
Sdp(p
aS^p
x(a5/3p
+ /3Sap)
(a5/3p
+ /3Sap)/(5a/3
=F 1).
To^),
whence
(Sop
TaSpUfi,
p
Substituting in the
5. Sfip
SpUfiiUa
equation,
Up)/(SUaU0
first
we
c,
(Sap
c',
(Sdp/3
= Sadp =
i//3^
5pJp
xa^
=0,
= xa +
c',
yfi
and
y.
xSa/3
c,
2/(Sa/3
whence x and
162
6.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Find stationary values of Sap when
(p ^
ay
a^
0.
Sadp =
hence
p
Sdp(p
a);
= ya = a
Sap =
a^
zL alia
and
aTa.
p^
7.
S^pSyp
+ a" =
0,
Sadp
p
8.
Sdpip
fiSyp
= xa + PSyp +
(p
yS^p),
etc.
yS^p,
a)2
+ a2 = + a2 =
0.
0.
9.
SaUp when
a)2
0.
10.
Syp
4.
+c =
Nabla.
The
a function of p is found by taking dp in the given direction. Since df(j)) is linear in dp it may always be written in the
form
^(dp),
where
of dp.
is
In case /
a linear quaternion, vector, or scalar function is a scalar function, $ takes the form Sdpp,
where
dp.
call
i/
is
a function of
v is
p,
which
is
usually independent of
In case
we
/ a continuous, generally differentiable, function. Functions may be easily constructed for which v varies
with the direction of dp. If when v is independent of dp we take differentials in three directions which are not in the
same
plane,
we have
vS dipdipdzp
= V
d\pd2p Sd^pv
+V
dipdzp Sdipp
f
dzpdipSdpv
Vdxpdipdzf
Vd2pdspdif
V'dzpdipdij.
DIFFERENTIALS
It is
163
evident that
if
we
divide through
by
Sdipd^pdzp, the
The
entire
expression
may
upon/, which we
by V.
Thus we have
v= V/ =
,,
dipd^pdzp
We may
If
then write
djip)
= 
SdpVfip).
directions, say
k,
then
id/dx
V =
It
is
+ jd/dy + kd/dz.
which
is
easy to find
gener
ally differentiable
is,
df{p)
= Up, V TVap = UVap a, V{TpY= n Tp""' Up= n Tp""' p, VSaUp=  pWUpa, VSapS^p =  pSa/3  Vapfi,
Vp2
2p,
VSap = 
= 
\7 Tp
Vlog TVap
=
Vap
VT(p
a),
\/{/.p'ol)
p~^UVpa
p UVap
5.
Gradient.
If
/(p)
C, then
it
we
consider the level surfaces of /(p), have generally for dp on such surface or
we
tangent to
Sdpp.
df{p)
where n
is
164
surface.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Since
SdpVf =
xVf,
/x is
arbitrary,
is
the normal to the level surface of /(p) at p. It is called the gradient of f(p), and by many authors, particularly in
books on electricity and magnetism, is written grad. p. The gradient is sometimes defined to be only the tensor
of
is
taken as
V/.
Care must be
Since the rate of change of /(p) in the direction a is SaS7f(p), it follows that the rate is a maximum for the
direction that coincides with
UVf, hence
the gradient
V/(p)
gives the
That
J7
maximum rate of change of f{p) in direction and size. is, T\7f is the maximum rate of change of /(p) and
V/ is the direction in which the point P must be moved in order that/(p) shall have its maximum rate of change.
6.
Nabla Products.
it
The operator
is
sometimes called
may
as to scalars, yielding very important expressions. These we shall have occasion to study at length farther on. It
and be sufficient here to notice the effect of applying combinations to various expressions. It is to be observed that may be found from dq, by writing dq
will
its
^dp, then
VQ VQ =
i^i
+ j^j +
+
k^k.
Vp =
(Vdipdipdsp
3
Vdipdzp'dip
Vdzpdipd2p)l{
Sdipd^pdzp)
= 
166
VECTOR CALCULUS
Circuital derivative
VaV,
a
Tait, Joly.
Sa~^VSau,
~~) Fischer.
Tait, Joly.
da
Projection
of
directional
derivative
perpendicular
to
the
direction
VaWSV 'a,
f
Tait, Joly.
Fischer.
da
Gradient of a scalar
V,
Bucherer.
grad, Lorentz, Gans,
Abraham,
p.
,
'
dr
being after the operand, the whole being read from right to left; e.g., Fischer's
Vv
is
equiv. to
?;*SV.]
Gradient of a vector
V,
grad,
>
Jaumann, Jung.
Fischer.
dr
7.
Directional Derivative.
One
is
of the
operators in which
occurs
DIFFERENTIALS
167
vector a.
differentiating.
Sa\7
S^p= 
SaV Tp
SaUp,
SaVTV(xp =
0,
'
An
rational spherical
and
solid
SaVTp'
= = 
SapfTp^
= UYiTp^
=
2lY2Tp\
SlY^Tp^.
S^VSa\7Tp'=
(3SapS^p\ Tp^Sa^)Tp'
SyVS^VSaV Tp^
(3.5SapS0pSyp
+ Si:S0ySapTp^)Tp' =
y = 2.(l)(2n
2s)li[2r'nlin
s)^i:S'^^aUpS'aia2,
0^5^
The summation runs over n
SaiUpSaiUpand
s factors of
n/2.
the type SaiajSakar , each subscript occurring but once in a given term. The expressions Y are the surface harmonics, and the expressions
arising
solid
harmonics
of negative order.
When
multiplied
by
Tp"'^^
we have
corresponding solid harmonics of positive order'. The use of harmonics will be considered later.
8.
Circuital Derivative.
is
called the circuital derivative. It gives the areal density of the circulation, that is to say, if we integrate the function combined with dp in any linear way, around
FaV
an infinitesimal loop, the limit of the ratio of this to the area of the loop is the circuital derivative, a being the normal
to the area.
We
give a few of
its
formulae.
We may
also
168
find
it
VECTOR x;alculus
from the
differenilal,
for
if
dQ =
^dp,
Fa V Q
Far^r.
VaV Tp = VaUp, VaV Tp"" = nTp^'Wap, = VaV Up {^ap" pSap)lTp\ VaVS^p = V^a, VaV Vfip = a^+ Sa^, VaV fip = 2Sa^, VaV TV^p =  VafiUV^p, VaV p =  2a, = VaV (aiS^ip + a2Sfi2P + a^SM Sa(a,fii + aa/^s
'
+ aalSa) +
9.
VaiVafii
Va^Vafi^
VazVa^z.
0, V'^Q =0. In a preceding formula we saw that V{Vap)~'^ = 0. We can easily find a number of such vectors, for if we apply SaV to any vector
Solutions of
VQ =
of this
kind.
in
kind we shall arrive at a new vector of the same The two operators V and SaV are commutative their operation. For instance we have
d{Vap)^
= 
(Vap)Wadp(Vap)^;
hence
r
is
SfiV{Vap)'
(Vap)W^a'(Vap)'
0.
new
Vr =
The
series
can easily
be extended indefinitely. Another series is the one derived from Up/T^p. This vector is equal to p/T^p, and its
differential
is
(p'dp+SSdppp)/T'p.
The new
is
then
(The
latter case
ap''\3Sapp)/T'p.
however is easily seen to arise from the vector V Tp~^, and hence is the first step in the process of = 0. So also using V twice, and it is evident that V^Tp~^ the first case above is the first step in applying V^ to log
0.
Functions of p
DIFFERENTIALS
169
harmonic functions. That is,/(p) is harmonic if "V^ip) = 0. Indeed if we start with any harmonic scalar function of p
ishes,
and apply V we shall have a vector whose gradient vanand it will be the beginning of a series of such vectors
also apply the
may
function deriving a series of harmonics. From these can be produced a series of vectors of the type in question. V^ F(p) is called the concentration of F(p) The concentra.
harmonic function.
EXERCISES
Show
1.
where a and
Tpnogtanl z
tani Sap/Sffp
Sa0 =
a2
/32
= Z

1.
log tan 5
10.
Harmonics.
We may note
that
if
u, v are
two
scalar
functions of p, then
V uv =
and thus
\7uv
u\7v
v\7u
= mVc
of
I'VM
2SVuVv.
is is
two harmonics
not necessarily
perpendicular to
is
harmonic, then
VUV
13
= uVv
2SVu'Vv,
170
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
harmonic and
is
ujTp^^^^
p,
then
=  (2n+
and
svuvrp^""^
hende
l)(2n)fp2'3
= 
In this case w
is
a solid harmonic of degree n and mTp~^"~^ 1. Also uTp~^ is a n a soHd harmonic of degree
is
The converse
is
true.
EXAMPLES OF HARMONICS
Degree n
=0;
<p
tan~^
where
\p
5q;)8
0,
a^
/J^
= 1;
1;
log cot I
oi^
= 
Sa^UpSapS^p/V'a^p;
SafiUpS(a
+ fi)pS(a  fi)plV'a^p.
=
=
gives harmonics course, rational
The
tion
gradients of these as well as the result of any operaSyV are solid harmonics of degree 1, hence multiply
by Tp[n
1, 27i
1]
Taking the gradient again or operating by <S7iV any of times will give harmonics of higher negative n by Tp^""^ Multiplying any one of degree degree.
number
will give
1.
Degree n
1.
Any harmonic
ypiTp,
of degree
divided by
1/rp,
<p/Tp,
SotfiUpSaUpS^p/V'afip,
,'
172
Degree
4.
VECTOR CALCULUS
3a;4
3?/4
as(422
Ss^
SX"
^xY y^),
2ixh^
3^2
32/2),
2/21(422
_
x^
242/V,
_
x^
3^2)
y^),
(x^
y^)(Qz^
x^
yziSx"^
xz{x^
xy{Qz^
3y^),
+ y^ 
6xY,
ly zzzz
iJ zzzy
DIFFERENTIALS
lines in the plane
line for
173
normal to a.
If
we
after
curve, provided
we leave the point we shall get a determinate we consider a to be its normal. We may
however draw any surface through the point which has a for its normal and then on the surface draw any curve
through the point. All such curves can serve as /S curves but a might not be their principal normal. It can happen therefore that the j3 curves and the 7 curves may start out
However
a,
/3,
and 7
a becomes becomes and y \ dy. The 7 a\ da, ^ becomes /3 + rfjS, new vectors are unit vectors and mutually perpendicular, hence we have at once
perpendicular. If we go to a
new
Sada=
Sfidy
SW=
=
Sydy=0,
Syd^,
Syda = 
Sad^
= 
S^da,
(1)
Sady.
These equations are used frequently in making reductions. We have likewise since a^ = 1,
Va
= 
V77 = 
V'aa',
V/3/3
= 
VWy
we have
etc.
/)
V'77',
it
indicates that
operates only
Similarly
ViSa
= 
V'a/3'
V'/3a',
(3)
We
Sa(SOV)a =
Sa{SOV)^ = 
0,
Sfi(SOV)a,
etc.
ajS
(4)
We now
7 =
with
V, and
174
VECTOR CALCULUS
X/i
we have
X/i
juX
Vt =
Va13
V'a(3'
VajS
 V^a +
2V'Sa(3'.
(5)
The corresponding equations for the other two found by changing the letters cj^clically. Multiply every term into y and we have
vectors are
V7T = Vaa
If
+ +
Vi3i8
+
+
2V'Sa^'y.
(6)
now we
we have
(7)
= SaVa ^y Vt
S^V^
2SyV'Sa^'.
We
set
now
2p= + SaVa +
*Si3V/3
+ SyVy
(8)
and the equation (7) gives, with the similar equations deduced by cyclic interchange of the letters,
=  SyV'Sa'(3 =  p+ SyVy, SaV'S^Y =  SaV'S^'y =  p+ SaVa,  S^V'SYa =  p+ S^V(3, Sl3V'Sya' =  Sy[ SaVy] = SaV Syy' = ^Sa\7 7' = 0, Sa[ SaVy] = SaV'Sa'y = Sy{ SaV a) = Sy(ul3 \ vy) =
SyV'Sa^'
That
is
^^
v.
if
the point
is
moved
along a,
^{SaVa
d^lds
p).
Likewise
y{
SaVci)
va.
The
{p
trihedral
SaV a)
as
vertex
moves along
a.
ta=
+ P
SaVa.
(10)
ta+t^
ty=
+p.
(11)
DIFFERENTIALS
It is also evident that
175'
t.\h= SrVy,
The
t^
S/3 V/3.
(12)
expressions on the left hold good for any two perpendicular unit vectors in the plane normal to the vector
on the
right,
and hence
if
we
divide each
by 2 and
call
the
result the
mean
we have
rotatory deviation for a.
^Sa'^a
= mean
Again the negative rotation for the /3 trajectory gives what we have called previously the rotatory deviation of a
along
mean
Hence, as a similar statement holds for y, the rotatory deviation is one half the sum of the rotatory
j9.
deviations.
Hence ^Sa\7a
is
is
whose central
trajectory
we may
about a, as the point moves along a. to (9) and see that back go
a,
Or
SaVa = (+
p
SfiVB)
= 
(+ p
 SyVy)
SfiV'Sya'
+ SyV'S^',
which gives the rotatory deviations directly. The scalar of (5) and the like equations are
SVa =
We
SyVfi
scalar, giving
176
VECTOR CALCULUS
can therefore write
We
SVa = that
is
S^V'Sfia'
SyV'Sya',
of the projection of
SVa
sum
7.
a along /3 on 13, and the rate of change But these are the divergent deviations
is
SVa
section.
We may
write the
corresponding equations of
and
7.
Again we have
Woi =
= =
Now
aSaVoc
ocit,
l3S^Va
ySyVoc
p) V)
^Sy(SaVa)
VaiSaS/
a).
yS0(SaV a)
a{t^
Sa\7
where
Ca is
oi
CaV,
is
the
principal normal.
Hence
VWoi
where
one
is
/i
a{t,
V)
+ cji,
(15)
is
fore that
FVa
the binormal of the trajectory. We find thereconsists of the sum of two vectors of which
tary cube about a, measured along a, and the other is twice the rate of rotation of the elementary cube about the
But we
will see
This should not be confused with the rotation of a rigid area moving along a curve. The infinitesimal area changes its shape since each point of it has the same velocity. As a deformable area it rotates (i.e. the invariant line of the deformation) with half the curvature as its The student should picture a circle as becoming an ellipse, rate. which ellipse also rotates about its center.
DIFFERENTIALS
later that this
177
the vector which represents twice the rate of rotation of the cube and the axis as it moves along
is
sum
Hence
this
is
what we have
called
We may now
field
= SUaVTa
TaSvUff.
The last term is the geometric convergence multiplied by the length of a, that is, it is the convergence of a section The first term is the negative rate of at the end of a.
The two together give therefore Tcr along a. the rate of decrease of an infinitesimal volume cut off from
change of
the vector tube, as
it
In the lanSimilarly
the convergence of a.
we have
VS7a
= WTaUah TaVvUff.
The
last
term
is
the double rate of rotation of an elementary <r, while the first term is a rotation about
that part of the gradient of Ta which is perpendicular to Ua. It is, indeed, for a small elementary cube a shear of
one of the faces perpendicular to Ua, which gives, as we have seen, twice the rate of rotation corresponding. Consequently T'Vo" tary cube.
is
EXAMPLES
(1)
Show
that
aSVa
(2)
VaVVa
is
Ci(a)
zero
V^VV0 J^aVVa = 0.
FtFVt.
This
is
the
It
178
(3)
^1
1
VECTOR CALCULUS
Let
VVa =
SaV
^
^,
 SaVa =
s,
x,
then f^
= V
[c^
+ x^.
Xia
means
differentiation as to
congruence.
Sl3^i
cip;
ai
cr^S^^i
+ x,
or
its
If
of surfaces, then
a =
UVu
and
Vcc
is
at once
sufficient.
also
VaVVa =
0,
pcVVa =
and
that
also necessary
(6)
If
sufficient.
=
is
or
SaVa =
SjSV/S
suffi
+ SyVy
cient.
(7)
xcu which
necessary and
If further
+ SyVy = =
(8)
If ci is If also plane,
S8V0
and conversely. and therefore circles, Sft^i = or + Ci.T/3. This is necessary and sufficient. For a normal system of circles we have also
constant, *S7^i
.
^i
Xia
VVa =
(9)
const
Ciy.
$i
Cia^ff.
DIFFERENTIALS
179
Notations
Vortex of a vector
VX
w,
curl u,
rot u, BuraliForti,
dX
dr
,
J^
iscner.
Vort u, Voigt.
in use
by
Divergence of a vector
SVu,
well.
Tait, Joly.
SVu
is
the "convergence" of
Max
Jahnke,
Fehr,
Gibbs,
Wilson,
Jaumann, Jung,
Marcolongo.
\7u, Lorentz,
du
j
,
r^.
inscher.
dr Derivative
dyad
of a vector
 SQV'U,
Vw,
Tait, Joly.
Gibbs, Wilson.
V
dr
r
dr
M,
Jaumann, Jung.
Du
Shaw.
180
VECTOR CALCULUS
Conjugate derivative dyad of a vector
VSuQ,
Tait, Joly.
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
J,
Fischer.
Z)i(,Shaw.
Planar
derivative
dyad of a
vector
FvFwQ,
Tait, Joly.
dr
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
x{Du), Shaw.
Dispersion.
Concentration
of
Maxwell.
A2, for scalar operands, l^^ r t^ tit 1 Marcolongo. A2', for vector operands, 1^"^^^^^^*^'
.
^z
dr
Fischer.
Dyad
of the gradient.
Jung.
div, BuroliForti,
Marcolongo.
DIFFERENTIALS
Planar dyad of the gradient.
Vortex of the vortex
181
Jaumann, Jung.
IMarcolongo. Vector Potential, Solenoidal Field. then we say that o is a vector potential of ^.
13.
If
VV<t,
Obviously
SV^ = sr'a =
The
0.
vector potential is not unique, since to it may be added When the convergence of a of vanishing curl. vector any vector vanishes for all values of the vector in a given region
we
call
If
the vector
lamellar.
have an example of lamellar fields in the vector field which is determined by the gradient of any scalar function,
for
We
FVVw =
0.
In case the
field of
a unit vector
12 that the
is
solenoidal
we
see
from
the considerations of
deviations of
first
any one of its vector lines are opposite. If then we draw a small circuit in the normal plane of the vector line at P and at the end of dp a second circuit in
the normal plane at p circuit back upon the
and if we project this second normal plane, then the second will overlie the first in such a way that if from P a radius vector sweeps out this circuit then for every position in which the radius vector must be extended to reach the
dp,
first
is
in
which
is
amount.
of the
two
circuits
unity.
is
182
section.
VECTOR CALCULUS
In the general case it is also clear that SV<t gives the contraction of the area of the tube.
When
SV<r by
plied
(T
is
by the Ta + by the area of the initial circuit. Hence SVa represents the volume contraction of the tube of tr for length Totraction in area
per unit area of crosssection. When the field is solenoidal it follows that if Ta is decreasing the tubes are widening
2lTp signifies that per unit the area of a circuit which is normal to p length along p is increasing in the ratio 2/rp, that is, the flux of Up is 3 Also SVp = increasing at the rate of 2/7p along p.
indicates that an infinitesimal
field of
is
is
due to the widening of the tubes, as just stated, the increase 1 is due to the rate at which the intensity of the
If
field is increasing.
the
of
field is
a velocity
field,
is
the rate
3 times
of increase of
volume
an infinitesimal mass
now if we multiply SVo" by a differential volume dv that we have an expression for the differential flux into the volume. If a is the velocity of a moving mass
is
moving mass, and SVadv is the compression per unit time of this mass, and yj^J^SVadv is the increase in mass per unit time of matter at initial density or compression per unit time of a given finite mass which occupies initially the moving volume furnishing the boundary of
the integral. If T is the specific momentum or velocity of unit volume times the density, then SVt is the condensation rate or
DIFFERENTIALS
rate of increase of the density at a given fixed point,
183
increase in
is
mass
and Hence
c
where
c is
1 = r
density at a point,
SV(T= \sVct\SVt c co
1
,
5 log c
c?
log c
= =
SVo'dv=
^J'J'SV<^dv
change of density at a
moving dv divided
original density.
mass
=
md
for a
decrease in
For an incompressible
fluid S\7o'
or
cr
is
solenoidal,
homogeneous
fluid
SVr =
or r
is
solenoidal.
#= 0.
SVr
air.
We
If
we take
of air
tube of crosssection
enters at the bottom, so that one ton leaves at the top, but the volume at the bottom is 1000 cubic meters and at the
at the
top
is
184
are solenoidal,
in
VECTOR CALCULUS
the atmosphere r
is
solenoidal.
We
and r in tons/w^ sec. At every staa r are tangential, and at a surface and tionary boundary of discontinuity of mass, the normal component of the velocity must be the same on each side of the surface, as for example, in a mass of moving mercury and water. It is evident that if a vector is solenoidal, and if we
measure a
in m^/sec
or otherwise the total divergent deviations of a vector of length Ta, then the sum of these will
know by observation
furnish us the negative rate of change of Ta along cr. Thus, if we can observe the outward deviations of r in the
we can
Tt
in
vertically.
If
forward velocity.
1.
An
infinite cylinder of
permittivity 2 [farad/cm.], is uniformly charged with l/207r electrostatic units per cubic cm. Find the value of the intensity E inside the rod,
and
the
field,
and
if
there
is
a potential for
2. A conductor of radius 20 cm. carries one absolute unit of current per square centimeter of section. Find the magnetic intensity H inside and outside the wire and determine its convergence, curl, and potential.
14. Curl.
of the curl
for the curl
We now turn our attention to another meaning of a vector. We can write the general formula
5/3
V Ta)
Ua =
a'.
These terms we
first
will interpret,
is
term
But
if
we
consider a
small rectangle of sides qdt = dip and rdu corresponding actual deviations are
Sdipd^a'
dip,
then the
and
Sd2pdia'
DIFFERENTIALS
185
But
docr' is
origin
and to terms
cr'
of first order
is
the
dip
and dip dip. c?2P between the average values of a' along the side dip and its Hence if we consider Sdpa' for a path consisting opposite. of the perimeter of the rectangle, the expression above is
the value of this Sdpa' for the entire path, that is, is the circulation of a' around the rectangle. Hence the coefficient
 SUaVUa
is the limit of the quotient of the circulation around dip diP divided by dtdu or the area of the rectangle. If we divide any finite area in the normal plane of <j into elementary rectangles, the sum of the circulations of the
elements will be the circulation around the boundary, and we thus have the integral theorem
fSdpa = ffSdipd^pVVa
when Vdipd^p
see,
may
is parallel to Fv<7. The restriction, we shall be removed as the theorem is always true.
The component
of V\7<r along
is
then
Ua Lim
as the area decreases
J'Sdpafarea of loop
and the plane of the loop is normal to or. Consider next the term ^SyV Ta. It is easy to reduce to this form the expression
[ Sa'iSyV)(r
But
this is the circulation
13
Sy(S(T'V)<T][
/3].
186
plane normal to
direction
jS
fi.
VECTOR CALCULUS
of
FVc
in the
is
/3
Lim
/3.
component
of
VVcr
in the direction
is
7 Lim
It follows
if
a
is
is
of
Vs/c along a
a Lim J'Sdpa/acea
as the loop decreases.
of loop in plane
normal to a
is
The
direction of UV\7(t
then
that direction in which the limit in question is a maximum, and in such case TVS7ff is the value of the limit of the circulation divided
by the
area.
That
is
is,
TV\/<t
is
the maxi
mum
of given
a velocity such that each point of the volume has an independent velocity given by cr. Then the moving volume will
The point which is originally in general change its shape. A point at p will be found at the new point p <7{p)dt. will be found at near p, say p dp)dt, dp, p \ dp { a(p
and the
of dp,
line originally
from p to p
+
=
c^p
dp
dt[(T(p
dp)
cr(p)]
dp
Sdp\7
adt.
But
this
can be written
[\V\7'dp(j'
dp'
= dp
\dpSs7(T
\V{V\7<T)dp]dL
This means, however, that we can find three perpendicular] axes in the volume in question such that the effect of the
DIFFERENTIALS
187
motion
is
to
directions
move the points of the volume parallel to these and to subject them to the eflFect of the term
dp
W(VV(y)dp
dt.
Now
vector
if
we
(1
du)p{l
edu)
+ 2\\pdu;
will
'IJepdu
and
'IVepdu
rfp
+ 2V^pdu,
that
dp becomes dp \ 2Vtdp du. We find therefore that the form above means a rotation about the vector
is,
LTVowhen
(T
of
is
amount ^TVS/ffdi, or in other words VV<t, a velocity, gives in its unit part the instanta
neous axis of rotation of any infinitesimal volume moving under this law of velocity, and its tensor is twice the angular velocity. rotation.
is
For
is
When FVo" =
S7u,
and u
is
not a velocity,
we
still call
u a potential for a.
EXERCISES.
rotated about a vertical axis at the rate of two revolutions per second, find the stationary velocity. What are the convergence and the curl of the velocity? Is there a velocity potential?
1.
If
a mass of water
is
fluid is flowing over a horizontal plane from a central that the velocity, which is radial, varies as the height above the plane, study the velocity. 3. Consider a part of the waterspout problem on page 50.
2. If
a viscous
axis in such
way
15. Vortices.
lines,
Since T'Vostart at
is
a vector
it
has
its
vector
and
is
if
we
line of T'Vo"
such
The
field of
Fv<r
If a vector is lamellar
ir rotational.
the
The
188
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
VdpWa =
The
SJ'Saa'.
= SdpV
Since
is,
o
V'Sdpa'
= 
da
tr
V'Sdpa'.
is
its
vortex lines
is
S^VS/a =
0,
the curl of
always
solenoidal, that
vortex lines
The
thus
if
curl
an elementary volume taken along the has no convergence but merely rotates. of the curl is FvFVo = V'SVo" and
VV
is
harmonic the
is
the negative
is
gradient of the convergence, and if the vector the curl of the curl is the concentration VV.
solenoidal,
EXERCISES
1.
If
so that
2.
if we set a = Var, and determine a vector potential of the vector o. Determine the vector lines in the preceding problem for a. Also
Saa =
SaSJ
ff,
and
VX
r,
then
Xa is
show that the derivative of X in any direction perpendicular to a is equal to the component of <r perpendicular to both. What is V^ST? 3. If ff = wy and SyV w = 0, then either Xa or F/3 will be vector potentials of a where /Sy = a and all are unit vectors and
SyV'X =0 =SyVY.
4. If the lines of <r are circles whose planes are perpendicular to y and centers are on p = ty, and Ta = f{TVyp), then any vector parallel to y whose tensor is F{TVyp), where / = dF/dTVyp is a vector
potential of
5.
<r.
Is
<r o
solenoidal?
are straight lines perpendicular to y and radiating and Ta = f{TVyp), then what is the condition that a be solenoidal? If Tcr = /(tani TVyp/Syp) a cannot be solenoidal, Show that if/ 6. If <T = f{Sap, Sfip)Vypy, then what is Vsj'r'i is a function of tan"! Sap/Sfip, that SypVf is a function of the same = and no vector of angle, but if / is a function of TVyp, SypS7 / the form a = f{TVyp)Vypy can be a potential of yTVyp. If
If
the lines of
ty
from p
n
If
=
7.
= 
<r
is
the curl?
is
a function of TVyp, so
if
FiTVyp) = {TVyp)^fTVyp<pTVypdTVyp
then
If / is
FTVyp
is a vector potential of the solenoidal vector y<pT{Vyp). a function of p. the curl is a function of n, and \fip.)Vyp is a vector
yfijj.).
^ i
potential of
8.
If
is
solenoidal
If its
DIFFERENTIALS
189
lines are plane and it has the same tensor at all points in a line perpendicular to the plane, then it is perpendicular to its ciu1. 9. The vector a = / Up, where / is anj scalar function of p, is not
Sa^a =
0.
a function of the two scalars SXp, Sfip where X, m are any two vectors (constant), or if S\p = 0, then what is true of a vector
is
<SaVff?
SaVa =1= 0, show that if F is determined from Ss/ffVF SaVo then F is the scalar potential of an irrotational vector t which added to a gives a vector o', S<t'\/<t' =0. Is the equation for
11. If
always integrable?
12.
The
following are vectors whose lines form a congruence of f{Vap)a, [where/ is a scalar function], which
are respectively neither solenoidal nor lamellar, lamellar, solenoidal. The case of both demands that Tv = constant.
13.
are
= aUp,
aVap
+ ayl Q^  aW^).
Determine whether these are solenoidal and lamellar. 14. If the hnes of a lameUar vector of constant tensor are parallel
rays,
it is
solenoidal.
it is
If
straight hnes,
15.
lamellar.
An example
at all points,
a{x
+ 2yz)
of vectors whose convergences and curls are equal and whose tensors are equal at all points of a surface, are + fi{y + Szx) + xyy, and 2yza. + 3zx/3 + t^xy + 2z)
is
X*
i/2
22
+ 6xyz
0.
Therefore vectors are not fully determined when their convergences and curls are given. What additional information is necessary to determine an analj'tic vector which does not vanish at Determine a vector
.
which
f or
is
Tp =
16.
is
12
Show
that
of q over a sphere of radius value at the center] divided by r*.
(
r,
less
the
Sa^Yq
in all directions a.
TV^g =
17.
Show by expansion
ff(p
that
5p)
= <r(p) 55pV oCp) = VSp[ Sadp + ^SdpVpSaSp]  WSpV\7p<r = VVSp[ WSp<r + ^SSpVpVSpa] i5p5Vp<r.
190 The
first
VECTOR CALCULUS
expansion expresses
<r
in the vicinity of p in
and an infinitesimal rotation. the form of a curl and a translation. 18. Show that for any vector a we have
of a scalar
The second
S\/{Y\7"^"S><y'<T"alTa^)
=0,
V acts, and are removed after the The unaccented V acts on what is
and da\ =
<f>i(dp),d<r2
19. If
<f>2{dp),
show that
16.
Exact Differentials.
of a function
If
is
the
differential
Sadp
u{p), then it is necessary that for SdpS7u, every value of dp, which gives
\7u.
the gradient of a scalar function of u{p), u is sometimes called a forcefunction. It is evident at once
When
is
that
FVoThis
0,
or
SV{v\7)o
for
every
v.
is obviously a necessary condition that S<rdp be an exact differential, that is, be the differential of the same
dp.
It
is
also sufficient,
cr
for
if
VVcr =
Ss/udp
0,
it
will
= Vu,
and
du.
if
In general
take the form
Q(p)
is
p,
must
Q{dp)
SdpV Rip)
identity
Q{)= S{)vRip)But
if
we
fill
the
( )
VvV, we have
QiVvV) =
DIFFERENTIALS
I
191
This
may
Q'W'i
identically.
EXERCISES = a constant vector. For VaVS7 v=0 1. Vadp is exact only when for every X, v, and for X for ever\' v, that is S\{vSVff 'VSap) = = 0, or Sdtrv = for every p to v therefore SXS/Sav perpendicular = v, perpendicular to the dp that produces d<r. Again if X
<r
SV<r
!
+ SpVSav
0,
for every
v.
Therefore
SVv =
sAb_
Yap
v{yap)dp,
7^.
p
Integrating Factor
If
Then
where
operates on
mQ(FV) = m and Q, or
0,
where
QrVm() V operates on m
)
+ wQFV()
0,
Q
0.
Sa\/m{
\
mS{ ) Vo =
is
or
VaVm + mVV(r =
0.
This condition
SaV<T
Conversely,
when
we must have
VVa =
where r
is
Var,
arbitrary,
hence SrVo"
0,
and
SaVr =
0.
But
is
by being
192
VECTOR CALCULUS
we must have
is
for all
such
FVt =
0,
or
(t
0.
The
latter
is
VVr = 0, that is r = Vu, or we may = X/u/u. VV<t+ Vsyuaju = = V\7{ua), and S{ua)dp=0
We may also proceed thus. Since every vector line is = v, then we can the intersection of two surfaces, say ii =
write the curl of a, which
is
VVaand
if
= hVVuVv,
that
plane
we must have a
in the
Sadp
xdu
ydv.
But
also
VVoHence
= VVxVu +
WyVv =
x and
hVVuS/v.
SVuVyVv =
These are the Jacobians
since
their vanishing
it
= SVvVxVu.
v,
of u,
u, v,
y however, and
is
pendence,
of
follows that x
u and
v.
y{u, v)dv
0.
this equation in two variables is Therefore a always integrable by using multiplier, say g. = Further we is exact for a properly chosen g. S{ga)dp It
is
see that ga
If
SVcT
= =
\7w, or that
for
all
0,
(x
= mVw.
that
find
easily
= FVr.
For
a
= hVVuVv,
DIFFERENTIALS
o that
193
SVa
= SvhVuVv =
h
and
h(u,
).
w=
then
J'hdu
+ /(),
a.
Vw = hVu + fvVv,
Set T
VVwVv = hVVuVv =
and we have at once a = T Vr. It is clear that if we draw two successive surfaces Wi and W2 and two successive surfaces ti and v^, since
ic\7v or
v'Vic
Tv^c
and the
the
area
^
An
I
and
Tw =
which
is
^'
An2
the section of
esc
0,
tube are
A*2
= Awi
esc
^,
A^i
= Aw2
and
these AuiArii esc 6, then TaX area numbers are constant for the successive surfaces, hence the four surfaces form a tube whose crosssection at every point is inversely as the intensity of a. For this reason a is said
to be solenoidal or tubular.
If
= Aw At, and
VxjoS(t\/(t
\/u.
For
is
a function of
= VVgVt,
hence g
= Vw.
since
<S
If
Vo"
=
(T
0,
since
FVcr
0,
is
Vcr
V\7r, and 0. whence Therefore, if the gradient of a harmonic function and also the
Vo"
0,
we must have,
0,
cr
\/u,
= V"W =
Also
VsjV\7t =
0, since
therefore
SVl'Vx =
we must then have VsJt = Vv, and = V'V, we can say that if the curl
194
VECTOR CALCULUS
it
its
curl
Sdp\7T=dv.
SvVVc =
or
0,
we must have
VV(r
whence
= VVuVv
a
FV(o"
uVw) =
0,
wVw =
Vp,
so that in
It follows that
If
we choose
u,
and X as independent
whence
variables,
we have
and we can
p from the
integral
p
In case
Scr'Vo'
A
o
useful,
= Vp
is,
V\7t,
where
FVVp =
0,
SvFVr =
0,
that
a can always be considered to be due to the superWe position of a solenoidal field upon a lamellar field.
V'p =
for
0
SV<r,
S\/{(t
Vp) =
0,
and therefore
DIFFEREXTLAXS
This
195
may
easily
= Vp +
(FV)"T.
EXAMPLES.
(1).
FORMS
SVoIf
Vo
0,
o
0,(T
= Vp.
(2). If
is
ously,
and <pV
<Po
0,
6, do
= 0, = 0, <p=  VSaQ. If (T^V^()) (3). Vv<pO = doVvOVSaO. If(FV^())o = 0,^ = p()VS<r(). <P  iSQVVp. Fv^^o = 0, ^0 = (4). A particular solution of certain forms is given, as
lullows:
iSVo"
a,
^ap,
T'Vo"
=
a,
a,
(f
Vp =
<p
a,
Sap,
(pV
= =
\V<xp,
SapQ,
VV^O = e, =  Sap'O,
VS7<P
1.
+jf(gip))
ax)/{ay
a.
lowing values:
=
V
g,g^,g*,
log
</,
sin j, tan g,
by),
and
x/y,
,has
;
the
values
yjx,
(2*
+ x),
r
{bx
+ y)l{x
/>
2.
ylx, etc.,
2/*)
cos (3tt)
+i sin
3.
4. If
FV
da
p'dp,
da
= Vradp where
t is a function of p.
17.
Groups.
If Hi, E2,
,&
196
in
VECTOR CALCULUS
but of any degrees
if
in p,
and only
for
any two
Hi, Hy,
where
six
arbitrary vectors.
An, and a, j3 For instance, we have a group in the formal coefficients of the two vector operators
is
Hi
for
=  V  pSpV,
H2
=  VpV,
Sa'EiS^'Ei
*SaH2<S)8H2
5aHi*S/3H2
S^SiSaAi
/S)3H2*SaH2
S^^iSa^i
The
general condition
may
be written without a,
Si
S S/
S/5Hy
is
= Fe
0,
Integration
18. Definition.
We
of p,f{p),
by the expression
J'If(p)<p(dp)
= Urn
n
= 00
i:f(pi)<p(dpi),
1,
n,
pi for the
n values
of
are
line
from
(p((x)
A
is
to
to take place,
B along a function
and be
in
a and of
first
degree, rational or
pi
p,_i,
and the
limit
must
exist
the same value for any method of successive subdivision Likeof the line which does not leave any interval finite.
wise
sion
we
SSf{p)^i{dip,d2p)
= Lim
i:f(pi)<p2(dipi, dipt),
INTEGRALS
where
tpi is
197
a homogeneous function of d\pi and dipu two differentials on the surface at the point p,, and of second A definite integral throughout a volume is simidegree.
larly defined
by
dip, dsp)
fffKp)<Pzidip,
= Lim i:f(pi)(p3(dipi, dipt, dzpi). For instance, if we consider f(p) = a, we have for J'^adp ^ { xy, dp = dxy and along the straight line p = xo to = Xi is 07(2:1 xq), Lim Hadxy from
a:
a;
hence
f/^'adp
= a(pi
po).
The same
where dp
function along the ellipse p = /3 cos 6 {j3 sin 7 cos d)dd has the limit (
sin 6,
(a/3
cos 6
{
ay
sin 6)
po).
between 6
6q,
=
=
di,
that
is,
again a(pi
EXAMPLES
any path. qo'', for any path. (2). fgV qr' q~'dqq' (3). The magnetic force at the origin due to an infinite straight current of direction a and intensity / amperes is H = 0.2 1 Va/p, where p is the vector perpendicular from the origin to the line. In case then we have a ribbon whose
(1).
Sdp/p
right crosssection
origin
is
any
curve,
H = 0.2IfVaTdplp.
For instance, for a segment of a straight
/S,
line p
a^
\
xy,
dx,
x?)
H =
0.21
= 
f {ay  x^)dxl{a^ +
(a^
tan^ Xyfa),
198
VECTOR CALCULUS
(4). Apply the preceding to the case of a skin current in a rectangular conductor of long enough length to be practically infinite, for inside points, and for outside points. (5).
(4)
be a
circle
b3
ajS
cos 6
ay
sin 6.
is
the
The area
is
of a plane curve
in the
plane
^TfVpdp.
If
the curve
is
is
made by drawing vectors to the ends of the curve. If we calculate the same integral hSVpdp for a curve not in the plane, or for an origin not in the plane of a curve we will
call
term
the result the areal axis of the path, or circuit. This is due to Koenigs (Jour, de Math., (4) 5 (1889), 323).
projection of this vector
The
plane,
If
a cone
is
immersed
uniform pressure
field
(hydrostatic) then the resultant pressure upon its surface is ^^VpdpP, where p is taken around the directrix curve.
(8).
According to the Newtonian law show that the atA to 5 on a unit point at
AOB,
and
intensity
is 2/i
sin
^AOB/c, where
c is
the perpen
dicular from
(9).
to the line.
the preceding results find the attraction of an infinite straight wire, thence of an infinite ribbon, and an
infinite prism.
(10).
From
solid
cylinder.
19,
Integration by Parts.
We may
integrate
by parts
INTEGRAI^
just as in ordinary problems of calculus.
199
For example,
^VctVfiJ^'Vpdp,
f^'VadpS^p
^Va{dSfi8
 ySM +
which is found by integrating by parts and then adding to both sides J'^VadpS^p. The integral is thus reduced to an areal integral. In case 7 and 5 are equal, we have an integral around a loop, indicated by ^.
EXAMPLES
(1).
f.'dpVap
hi^Vad
yVcry)
\Vaf,'Vpdp
+ hSaf^'Vpdp.
(2).
f;VVadpVPp = \[aS^f,'Vpdp
fy'SVadpVfip
(3).
USaSSfiS
SorySfiy
y'Sa^(4).
Sa^f^'Vpdp).
f^VadpV^p
S'^Safi
+ + y^'Sa^
Safif.'Vpdp).
(5).
f^^SapS^dp
[Sa5S/35
 SayS^
SVafif^'Vpdp].
(6). (7).
fy'dpSap
U^Sctd
ySay
VaJ^'Vpdp].
f^'VapS^dp
^[Va8S^8
VaySfiy
Sa^f^'Vpdp
+ ^Saf^'Vpdp].
(8).
fy'Vapdp = i[Fa55
 Vayy + aJ^'Vpdp
+ Saf^'Vpdp].
(9).
Jl'apdp
[a(52
y)
2af'Vpdp\.
As an example
and notice
200
current of value
VECTOR CALCULUS
Ta amperes,
B
for a circular
path
cr
= 
2fxVap/a\
Therefore
For
^0.2fiSapdp/a'^
=  SJ'dpB = = ATaixa~^Tr'^.
OAirC.
0.2fjLa^Sa^Vpdp
fi
1, r
a, this is
fy'V<ppdp
+
(12).
rmf.'Vpdp]*
f;<ppdp
i[^55
<pyy
Sef.'Vpdp
<p'f,'Vpdp]
m,f,'Vpdp.
= Mi^,
5)
Q(7, 7)1
MQ(5,
5)
in p, third degree,
20. Stokes'
Theorem.
We
refer
now
of
<to,
to
problem
17,
po,
a function of
stated for the points in the vicinity of a given fixed point. If we write <to for the value of o at a given origin 0, its
is
dp
is
= Vspi
S(To8p
iS8pVS<To8p]
^VdpWcro,
of the curl at
where
*
refers only to
cro,
mii<p)
Si(f>i
Sjipj
INTEGRALS
the origin
0.
201
If
we
we have
:<ad8p
=
is
dsp[S(To8p
if
^S8pVSao8p]
+ ^S8pd8pVV<ro.
whose vector
Therefore
radius
8p
we integrate we have
J'i^S(T{48p
[S<ro8p2
Scro8pi
^S8p2'VS<To8p2
+ ^S8piVS(To8pi] + \SV\7<TofV8pd8p.
The
last expression, however, is the value of
and
5p2].
we have
^Saod8p
SUvVV(rodA.
If now V'Vffo is the curl of a at some point inside the loop. we combine several circuits which we obtain by subdividing any area, we have for the sum of the line integrals on the
left
in question,
the line integral over the boundary curve of the area and for the expression on the right the sum of
the different values of the scalar of the curl of a multiplied into the unit normals of the areas and the areas themselves
or the area integral J^J^SVVffdipd^p. That is, for any finite loop, plane or twisted, the formula
we have
JSadp
This
is
= ffSVVaVdipd^p.
It is
assumed
in the proof
<t
or
VS7<t,
bounded by
obviously arbitrary,
a singularity of a or T'Vo.
It follows
of the path
that J'Sadp along a given path is independent when the expression on the right vanishes for
202
VECTOR CALCULUS
the possible loops, that is, is zero independently of dip, = 0. This condition is necessary and diP, or that is, FVo"
sufficient.
It follows also
vector over a diaphragm of any kind is equal to the circulation of the vector around the boundary of the diaphragm.
That
is,
is
boundary.
We may generalize the theorem as follows, the expression on the right can be written SS^UvVsja dA, where v is the normal of the surface of the diaphragm and dA is the
area element.
If
now we
construct a
function of the form Saidp, Scr^dp, Sandp, we will have^ a general rational linear vector function of dp, say (pdp,and arrive at the integral formula
f<pdp
where the
This
is
= ff<p(VUvV)dA,
refers now to the functions of p implied in cp the vector generalized form of Stokes' theorem. If the surface is plane, Uv is a constant, say a, so thai
for plane
paths
^(pdp
SJ^(pVVoi'dA.
interesting theorems
(p.
We may arrive
at
some
by
assigninj
For instance,
let
adp,
then
(p(VUvV) = <r'VUvVv'=UpSV(r+V'Sa'Uu{SUuV<r,
whence
<fdp
pSdpa,
INTEGRALS
then
203
<pVUvV = pSUpV<t
therefore
ValJv,
ffVadv = SfpSdvVff
If
J'pSadp.
= = <pVUvV
(fdp
pVdpa,
pV{VUv\7)<T
SUva
+ aUv,
therefore
ffadp +
hence
Sadv
=  ffpV{VUvV)<r + fpVdpa,
2ffS<Tdv =
 ffSp{VUvV)<T +
EXERCISES
fSpdpiX.
Investigate the problems of article 19, page 198, as to the appUcation of the theorem.
1.
2. Show that the theorem can be made to apply to a line which is not a loop by joining its ends to the origin, and after apph'ing the theorem to the loop, subtracting the integrals along the radii from to the ends of the line, which can be expressed in terms of dx, along a line. Also consider cases in which the paths follow the characteristic lines of
V<rdp
3.
is
0.
stated thus: the circulation around a path the total normal flux of the curl of the vector function a through the
4. If
loop.
circuit the
the constant cvurent la amjieres flows in an infinite straight magnetic force H at the point p (origin on the axis) is for
Tp<a
and
for
= jVFap,
0.2a*//Fop,
aSTp
o
is
= /(a/10) inside the wire and equals zero outside. Integrate H around various paths and apply Stokes' theorem. In this case the cturent is a vortex field of intensity
the radius of the wire.
Then
YvH
a*//10.
5.
If
we
tube of vortex
is
consider a series of loops each of which surrounds a given lines, it is clear that the circulation around .such tube
If the vector a defines a velocitj' field the elementary volumes or particles are rotating, as
which has a
204
we have
VECTOR CALCULUS
seen before, the instantaneous axis of rotation being the unit and the vector hnes of the curl may be compared to wires on which rotating beads are strung. It is known that in a perfect
of the curl,
fluid
whose density is either constant or a function of the pressure only, and subject to forces having a monodromic potential, the circulation in any circuit through particles moving with the fluid is constant. [Lamb, Hydrodynamics, p. 194.] Hence the vortex tubes moving with the fluid (enclosing in a given section the same particles), however small in crossIt follows by passing to an section, give the same integral of the curl.
elementary tube that the vortex lines, that is, the lines of curl, move with the fluid, just as if the beads above were to remain always on the same wire, however turbulent the motion. In case the vortex lines return into themselves forming a vortex ring, this leads to the theorem in hydrodynamics that a vortex ring in a perfect fluid is indestructible. It is proved, too, that the same particles always stay in a vortex tube.
6.
that for o = a(352ap 2Sfip) ^AS^fip  2Sap), where, the from the 2a to 0, integral 2jS is independent of the origin Calculate it for a straight line and for a parabola. path. 7. The magnetic intensity H, at the point 0, from which the vector p is drawn to a filament of wire carrying an infinite straight current ir
Show
Sa0 =
+ +
is
given
by
0.21 /Vap.
Suppose that we have a conductor of any crosssection considered as made up of filaments, find the total magnetic force at due to all
the filaments.
Notice that
0.27
FaV
log
TVap,
is
SfMA
= ffQ.2IVaS7
log
TVapdA =
jf0.2I log
TVapdp
crosssection.
to the ordinary form 0.21 This expression is called a loglog rdp. arithmic potential. If I were a function of the position of the filament
in the crosssection, the form of the lineintegral would change. For a circular section we have the results used in problem 4.
Con
sider also a rectangular bar, for inside points 8. If a and t are two vector functions of
and
p,
S<7{VUv\/)t,
ffSr{VUv\/)<T = ffSa{VUvS/)T
fSdpar,
INTEGRAXS
for a closed circuit.
noidal.
9.
205
or t or both are sole
Show
applications
when a
Show
that
JfSdpoSVa = fSdpira + ffSdv{,Sa\7)<T, ffSS7uadv = fuSadp  ffuSV^dp, fvSsjudp, J'J'SVuVvdv= fuSS7vdp =  J'ih)SVvdp. f^htS^vdp=
10.
(1)
Prove Koenig's theorems and generalize. Any area bounded by a loop generates by translation a volume Sau, where w is the areal axis; J't Saoi + (2) The area for a rotation given by (a + Vtrp)at is
VpVpdp.
ftSaf
21.
Green's Theorem.
The
ring to the second form in example 17, page 189, for the expression of a vector in the vicinity of a point, which is
(^
= y^sp[
T'5p(To
+ ^SdpVVdpao]  l8pSV(rQ
we
see that if we multiply by a vector element of surface, Vdxbpdihp, and take the scalar
Sadibpd^hp
If
= SUvS7 hpWdA
^S\7<ToSdi8pd2dpdp.
integrate over any closed surface the first term on the right gives zero, since the bounding curve has be
now we
come a mere
point,
a closed surface
^ ^Sadibpd'ihp
But the
^S'^o'o^ ^SdiSpd^SpSp.
hand member is the volume of an elementary triangular pyramid whose base is given by dibpdidp. Hence, the integral is the elementary volume of the closed surface, and may be written dv, so that we have
last part of the right
for
^^Sadihpdihp
Ss/aodv.
206
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
dissect
now we can
in
which
the function has no singularities and sum the entire figure, then pass to the limit as usual, we have the important
theorem
f f^adxpdip
This
is
= fffS\/(r
dv.
in the
first
form.
It
is
theorem proper was only a particular case and Green's publication antedates Gauss'
writers, although Gauss'
German
by several years. The theorem may be stated thus: the convergence of a vector throughout a given volume is the flux through the
bounding surface.
It is evident that we can generalize this theorem as we did Stokes' and thus arrive at the generalized Green's theorem dv. V is the outward unit normal. J'J'^vdA =
S S S^^
applications are so numerous and so important that will occupy a considerable space. they The elementary areas and volumes used in proving Stokes'
The
integral definitions
convergence or
its
rotation, or vortex.
negative, the divergence, and of curl, For such methods of approach see Joly,
German
then
texts.
is
that
if
S\/a
0.
^ ^Sadipd^p
It follows
face
is
zero.
that the flux of any curl through any closed surHence, if the particles of a vortex enter a
closed boundary, they must leave it. Therefore, vortex tubes must be either closed or terminate on the boundary
wall of the
medium
in
is,
or else
wind
the
about
infinitely.
We may
if
SVcr
INTEGRALS
207
yySorfiprfaP is invariant for different diaphragms bounded bj' a closed curve, noting the usual restrictions due to
singularities.
proceed to develop some theorems that follow from Green's theorem. Let ^Uv be pSUva, then
We
pSVa
0
^Uv = pJ'Vcr + 2a and pVUva, then $V = = \ffpVVv0dA. fff(Tdv \fffpV^(jdt = = Let ^Vv pSpS7(T + Fpa, whence pSpUva, then ^V dr^ fffpSpVa dv + ffpSpUvadA. fffVpa
ljet^Vv=
hence
pFpFZ/i/ff, then
$V = 
pVpVS7ff+ 3TV,
S(rVr)rfr
^J'SprUvff dA.
In the first of these if a has no convergence we have the theorem that the integral of a, a solenoidal vector, throughout a volume is equal to the integral over the surface of p
multiplied
by the normal component of a. In the second we have the theorem that if the curl of a vanishes throughout a volume, so that a
integral of
is lamellar in the volume, then the a throughout the volume is half the integral over the surface of p times the tangential component of a
a.
In the third,
if
the curl of a
208
VECTOR CALCULUS
to the origin
vanishes then the integral of the moment of a with regard is the integral over the surface of Tp^ times the
of the negative of the tangential
a,
comand by the fourth this also equals the surface integral of the component perpendicular to p of the negative tangential component of a taken perpendicular to a. According to the fifth formula, if a solenoidal vector is multiplied by another and the scalar
component along p
ponent of
<r
taken perpendicular to
is integrated throughout a volume, then the the SpcrSjT throughout the volume integral of integral the integral of Saprllv over the surface.
of the product
is
If in
the
first,
and
first
and
o for r,
and second the expression for X, the momentum of a moving mass of continuous medium, of density c, and from the third and fourth the moment of momentum, ju, and from the fifth the kinetic energy. If the medium is in= V\7a, since SVca = 0, then compressible, and we set 2k
X
= fffcadv =  ffcpSUva dA
=
+ fffpSaVc dv + fffcpS\7(T dv
^ffcpVUvffdA.
fffpcKd'o\ lfffpV\/c<jdv
T= 
 \ffcpVpVVvadA.
hfffSa'cdv
=  hffSpaUvac dA
In case
If c is
simpler.
we
set
= Vw
and r
= Vw
in the
above formula we
INTEGRALS
arrive at others for the gradients of scalar functions.
curls will vanish.
If
209
The
further
we suppose
that
ii,
or w, or
both, are harmonic so that the convergences also vanish we have a number of useful theorems.
Othei forms of Green's theorem are found by the follow= uSVwUv, then ing methods. Set ^Uv
$V =
uV^w
+ SVuVw
fffu^^wdv,
fffw\f''u
dv.
we have
wV'^v) dv
fffiuS/'W
wS^u])dA.
In the
first of
these let u
If
=
and
1,
then
fffS7ic
dv
=  ffSUvVicdA.
then
ic is
a harif
will vanish,
V^w
varying as the inverse square of the distance, inside the masses, n being the density of the distribution, then
J'J'SUvViv dA
where
is
47rJ/,
is
This
Gauss' theorem, a particular case of Green's. In words, the surface integral of the normal component of the force
is
47r
The
total
mass
is l/47r
times the volume integral of the concentration. In the first formula let u = 1/Tp and exclude the origin
210
VECTOR CALCULUS
(a point of discontinuity)
by a small
sphere, then
we have
pointing out of the enclosed space. But for a sphere we have dA = Tp^ dco where w is the solid angle at the center,
and dv
TpHccdTp.
dv
Thus we have
fffV'w/Tp
= ffSdA UpVw/Tp fffSv(llTp)Vwdv = ffSdA UpVw/Tp fffSv{wV[l/Tp])dv since V^l/Tp = = f^S dA UvVw/Tp ffS> dA Vv w Vil/Tp) = ffS dA UvVw/Tp +ffS dA UvUp/rpw.
Now
is
0,
of the integrals on the right let us consider first the The firstintegral surface of the sphere, of small radius Tp.
then
if
and
Vw,
that
is, the component of \7w along p, this integral will vanish with Tp.
everywhere
finite,
then
The second
is
integral for
the
sphere
is
J'^SUpUpwT^pdo)/T^p =
of
^f^wdu,
is is
at the origin
47r.
Hence we have
fffdv
and
4iirwo
V'w/Tp =
ffSUvi^wjTp
wUp/rp)dA
wUpfPp) dA,
INTEGRALS
211
exists,
w here the volume integral is over all the space at which w the origin excluded, and the surface integral is over
the bounding surface or surfaces. In words, if we know the value of the concentration of ic at every point of space,
of the gradient of
w and
of
ic
at every point
bounding surfaces at which there is discontinuity, then we can find w itself at every point of space, provided
is finite
with
1
is
its
gradient.
If
S7^w
is
of order in p not
lower than
the integral
we do not need
is
yyy V^^
vanish
EXERCISES
1.
We shall
examine
in detail the
= everywhere, V^p = surface, zero over the infinite sphere, V^"' on the inside of the sphere, but not zero on the outside. Then for the
inside of the sphere the equation reduces to
4iru'o
problem of
w =
J" ^wSUvUp/T^pdA
^ww,
hence
faces
On
w is constant throughout the sphere and equal to the surface value. thg outside of the sphere, we have to consider the boimding surto be the sphere and the sphere of infinite radius, so that we have
4iruo
= 
UvUplTp",
where the
taken over both sm^aces and the second = at The second integral is over the given surface only, since tc integral vanishes, however, since it is equal to w times the solid angle If we suppose then that of the closed surface at a point exterior to it. IP is at 30 we have a single integral to evaluate
first
integral
4xu'o
A simple
Then
The
case
is
const.
C.
= CffdAlTp.
integration of this and of the forms arising from a different assumption as to the normal component of S/w can be effected by the use of
fundamental functions proper to the problem and determined by the boundary conditions, such as Fourier's series, spherical harmonics, and the like. One very simple case is that of the sphere. If we take
212
VECTOR CALCULUS
we have
to find the integral
where
po is the vector
r~^^ ,fdASpU{p by PO is given by the integral and equals 47r or 0, according as the point is inside
This integral, however, breaks surface, the integrands being
sphere.
po)IT\p
po)
or outside of the
up
easily into
r^T^{p
po)
SfpoC7(p
po)/T2(p
po),
but the
last
term gives
or
of the sphere.
gives
po)
47rr or
AmyTpo
inside or outside.
t^o
We
=
CrV^po.
If in place of
SUv\7w,
po)
it is
equal to C/T^{p
po")
po)
we
or
find that
ffdAIT\p Inside
47rr/(r2
4iTrV(r3po
r^rpo).
dA =
27rr2 sin
Odd
Po)
= d[a^ + a
ax cos ^
x'
r^
x^
= ~xdx, a
'
po(p
T^{p
a*
+ x^
2x3
r^
po)
y/^As l^(p
or
a Jra,ar \
4irr
X^
) /
The differentiation of these integrals by using Vp as operator under the sign leads to some vector integrals over the surface of the sphere. 2. Show that we have
ffUvdAIT{p 
po)
JTTpo
or
7rrVrVopo
INTEGRAI5
3.
213
4.
=4r/[a(r*o)7'(Tai+^)].
Consider the case in which the value of u? is zero on a surface not at infinity but surrounding the first given sxuface. We have an example in two concentric spheres which form a condenser. On the inner sphere let tr be const. = Wi, on the outer let u? = 0, on the inner
5.
let
SUv\7w =
on the
If tr is
6.
0, inside,
Ei, outside,
outside.
on the outer
let
SUy^w
= Et
inside,
on the
considered with regard to one of its level surfaces, it is and the integral ^^SdAUvUplT^pno
Arrw,
hence we have
47rip
= fffdoS/hclTp  ffSdAUw^wlTp.
it is
then
tr is
constant at
all
points
and
tr)
=  ffSdAUw^wlTp.
we approach the
surface,
But
V(w
X and
Wo)
is
0,
so that Vt/'
0.
Hence wo = w.
If tc
everjwhere harmonic it equals zero. 7. If two fimctions Wi, trj are harmonic without a given surface, vanish at , and have on the surface values which are constantly in the
ratio
8. If
= \wt. 1, X a constant, then tri the surface iSi is a level for both the functions
and
if
between
wi)
<S>i
then
(u
ui){wt
= =
(w
ui).
?>(u)
For a
etc.
w =
ip(u),
then
V'w =
<e"(tt)T*Vu, hence
au +b,
w
if
is
if
and only
FVtcV
0.]
Outside a closed surface S, wi and ipj are harmonic and have the same levels. while wt has at i vanishes at everywhere the constant value C. Then wt = Bwi C.
For Vtr, = tVtoi, V*w?i = VtVwi = 0, thus and ^ = fi or tf 1 = const. 10. There cannot be two different functions
V* =
tri,
0,
or Vici
0,
tri
both of which
within a given closed surface are harmonic, are continuous with their gradients, are either equal at every point of S or else SUpVwi =SUrS7wt at every point of S while at one f>oint they are equal.
tr,,
then
0.
V'u =
0,
Vu =
on
iS
or else
Vu =
SUw'^u =
0,
214
VECTOR CALCULUS
11. Given a set of mutually exclusive surfaces, then there cannot be two unequal functions Wi, vh, which outside all these surfaces are
as Tp~^, their harmonic, continuous with their gradients, vanish at gradients vanishing as Tp'"^, and at every point of the surfaces either equal or SUvS/Wi = SUvSJwi.
show that
if
V^w =
Pff(p)y
0, all
we need
are the
boundary conditions,
In case V^w is a function of we can proceed by the method of integral equations arrive at the integral. However the integral is express
ible in the
form of a
wUp/rp)dA].
Thus
these integrals is called the potential and written for any function of p whatever we have
Pot
go
fffq dvlT{p
po)
where p describes the volume and po is the point for which Pot go is desired. Let Vo be used to indicate operation as
to
Po,
then we have
go
Vo Pot
= V,fffqdvlT{p  po) = fff[dvU{p  po)mp  Po)]g = fffV[q/nppo)]dv + fffdvVqlTip = Pot Vg  ffdAUvqlT{p  Po).
again,
Po)
If
we operate by Vo
go
we have
Vo' Pot
Pot V'g
ffdA{Uv\7qlT{p
po)
+
But the expression on the
right
is 47rgo,
V'UvqIT'ip
Po)].
INTEGRALS
important theorem
215
Vo^ Pot
go
4irgo.
That
is,
function of which
the concentration of a potential is 4x times the we have the potential. In the case of a
material distribution of attracting matter, this is Poisson's equation, stating that the concentration of the potential of the density is 47r times the density; that is, given a
distribution of attracting masses, they
have a potential at
of this potential at
4ir.
any given
that point
point,
is
The gradient of Pot go was called by Gibbs the Newtonian of go, when the function g is a scalar, and if go is a vector,
then the curl of
convergence of
its
potential potential
is is
and the
go.
its
called the
Maxwellian of
Thus
New
go
= Vo
Pot P,
Lap
ao
=
cro.
Vo Pot <ro.
Max ao = S Vo
Pot
f^dA[UvTqlT{p
po)
+
We may
also define
U{p
Po)qUp/r(p
Po)].
This gives us the inverse of the concentration as a potential, plus certain functions arising from the boundary conditions.
an
integral,
sometimes
useful, called
the Helmholtzian,
Him. Q
fffqnp  po)dv.
p^).
Pot
(w, v)
ffffffn{p{)v{p^)dvydvtlT{pr
216
VECTOR CALCULUS
(^77)
= ffffff  S^v dv,dv,IT{p,  p,), = ffffff + S^tjCpi  p,)dndv,IT\p,p,), Lap New {v, = ffffffSUPiP2)vidvxdv2mPiP2), Max{^,v) =  ffffffviS^2(piP2)dvMr(piP2).
Pot
EXERCISES
from a scalar function
VPisa field of force or velocity or other vector arising P as its gradient, then Po= fffSv^dv/[47rT{p  po)] + ffdA[SUv^l{AKT{p  po))
1.
If$=
+ PC/^Vri(pPo)/4x].
K P is harmonic
2.
<ro
the
first
term vanishes,
if
the
first
two vanish.
If ^
Vo', that
is, it is
= fffV\/<y
3.
dvl[4.irT{p
po)].
up (in an infinity of ways) any vector into two parts, one solenoidal and the other lamellar. Thus, let ff = x + T where *S V t = 0, and F V tt = 0, then *S V o = S V ir and since Fv^r = 0, this may be written V^r = Ss/a whence v. FVf = VSJt = Vr whence t. We have, therefore, from these two
therefore, break
47rao
We may,
= VfffSdvV<r/Tip 
po)
 V ^J'SdAUpa/T{p 
po)
where
3.
+V^fPSdAUvVil/T(ppo) + VVfffVV<rdv/T{ppo) VVffVUpffdA/T{ppo)+Vs7ffDSUpV{T'(pPo)dA, P is such that V^P = SV<r and D such that V^D = W<r.
Another application is found in the second form of Green's According to the formula
theorem.
=  ff{SUv{u\/w  w\/u])dA it is evident that if G is a function such that \7^G = 0, and if, further, G has been chosen so as to satisfy the boundary condition SUvS/G = 0,
fffiuV^w 
wV'^u) dv
fffGvhodv =  ffSUv\7wGdA.
If
then V^w^
is
ffGSUv\/wdA =  fffGJ{p)dv.
Similar considerations enable us to handle other problems. = 0, then we have Green's Reciprocal 4. If u and w both satisfy
V^
Theorem:
ffuSUpVtv dA = ffwSUv^udA,
INTEGRALS
Thus
let
217
therefore
ff ^^^ dA
5.
= f^uSUpV
then
dA.
Let
A relate to a as V
to
p,.
Pot
Q = fffQdvU{p 
li
Q = on the surface, the surface integral = 0. New P = Pot 7  ffUrP dA{T{p  a) = A Pot P when Pot exists. = V Pot Vff  ffVUwodAIT{fi  a) = FA Pot a when Pot Lap
<7
exists.
Max
=5 Q =
Pot V<7
ffSUpirdAIT(j,
a)
= SA
Pot
<r
when Pot
exists.
A
If
Pot
Pot
VQ  f^UvVQdAITip  a)
+ ffdAVx[UpQIT,{p  a)].
surface, that
is, if
Q =
on the
A Lap a A Max a
6. If
/3
= =
AFA Pot a,
ASA Pot
t,
<r.
is
then
^=
^[rr7i(FvFv^+b^j <+*r
+ VV f^l Vd, Pt^ff Fdr FV^l4*r the subscript means + 6r put for after the
f
is
operations on
15
CHAPTER IX
THE LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTION
1.
Definition.
If there is
tp
a vector
cr
which
is
an
integral
rational function
of the vector p,
0
(pp,
and
tion
if
in this function
tp of p,
if
then we
call
substitute for p a scalar multiple the vector function a linear vector functhis substitution.
we
a becomes
function
ta
under
It
is
also called
a dyadic.
The
in
(p
p,
which
may
be
any
which
If
may
a,
directions.
(pa,
and
(p
in space.
We
may,
formation that deforms space by a shift in invariant the origin and the surface at
case of a straight line
infinity.
Vap =
we
/3,
or
(p
xa
\
a~^fi,
on
all its
vectors gives
X(pa
{
<pVa~^fi,
is
and
this
is
V(pa(pVa~^l3,
jS
which
only,
lines.
will later
(p^.
Hence
lines
The
which Vacpa
0,
remain
parallel
218
219
Again
p
so that
xa\ y^,
x<pa
+ ytp^,
S(r<pa(pfi
0.
origin,
and likewise
will
all
planes,
These
be parallel to their
Va^ =
uV<pa<p^, or
VVafiV(pa<pP
Sa^ip^.
normal to the plane, and /3 is any vector in the plane, and ^/3 by the equation is normal to Va^, hence
Vafi
is
Now
^/3
ra
+
<pO
w^
/S
in the plane.
the function leaves the origin in\'ariant. the lines and planes through the origin that Consequently remain parallel to themselves are invariant as lines and
Since
planes.
These lines we will call the invariant lines of (p, and the planes the invariant planes of (p. 2. Invariant Lines. In order to ascertain what lines are
invariant
we
0,
or
(pa
ga,
that
is
(<p
g)a
0.
First
we
write
in the
form
iiSvXa
\
aSKp.v
= \Snua +
vSXfJLa,
where
X,
p.,
v are
vectors.
Then we
have at once
{<p
g)\Sppa
j
{(p
g)pSv\a
(^
g)vS\pa
0.
220
VECTOR CALCULUS
this
But
for
coplanar vectors \,
Si<p
g)\{(p
g)fi{<P
g)v
()
g^SXfJiv
g'^(S\ix<pv
S'Kfxcpu
\
S\(ptJLV
ScpK/xv)
g(S\(pii(pv
S(p\(pfxv)
S(p\(pfX(pv,
an equation to determine
g^
g,
which we
shall write
mig^
Wg^
(p,
TO3
0,
= = =
S<p\<pix(pv/S\fxv.
variants of
These expressions are called the nonrotational scalar iu' That they are invariant is easily seen bj (p. The resulting form is precisely X' vfx for X. substituting
and from the symmetry involved this v we can substitute any other three and arrive at the same values foi vectors, noncoplanar obvious that m^ is the ratio in which the It is mi, m2, mz.
the same for
X',
fx,
v,
means that
for X,
ix,
volume of the parallelepiped X, ix, v is altered. If W3 = one or more of the roots of the cubic are zero. The number
of zero roots
is
(p.
If is
obvious that
General Equation. We prove now a fundamental equation due to Hamilton. Starting with (p we iterate the
3.
thus
p, (pp, (p<pp
<p^p,
<p<P<PP
<p(p'^P
=
/x,
<P^P,
'"
We
have then
for
X,
coplanar
221
<p\V V(pKpVp.v
(p[(p\Sv(pp.p
<pnS\<pvp
(fvSpupkp
(pXSp.(pvp
<pfiSv<pXp
<pvS\(pnp].
Adding to
S\fiv{<p^p
we have
vS(p\(pnp]
pS(pk<pfX(pv.
Subtracting SXixvmsp from both sides and dropping the nonvanishing factor SXfjiv, we have the Hamilton cubic for <p
(f^p
mi<p^p
all
m^ifp
mzp
0.
may be written
7ni(p^
+ m2(p
ms
This is also called the general equation for (p. the same equation so far as form goes as the latent equation. Hence we may write it in the form
identically.
It
is
{<P
9i){<P
92){<P
93)
0.
In other words, the successive application of these three operators to any vector will identically annul it. We scarcely need to mention that the three operators
written here are commutative and associative, since this
follows at once from the definition of linear vector operator, and of its powers.
It is to
<p
may
is
cp
satisfy
an equation of
be called the
lower degree.
one, will
characteristic equation of
Since
must
222
VECTOR CALCULUS
equation, the process of highest common divisor appHed to the two will give us an equation which ^ satisfies also,
and as
this
characteristic equation.
and must divide it, it is the Hence the factors of the char
among those
of the general
prove that the general equation. from the factors no different can have factors equation of the characteristic equation.
to
(1)
We
proceed now
(<P 9)p
for every vector;
=
X,
ju,
v,
we
find easily
Sgx"
3g^x
is
g^
0,
{<pgy=0.
In this case
<P
[gXSfxvO
guSpH)
gvS>M/S\fJiP,
(p.
where
(2)
X, n, v are
9i)(<P
is
92)P
=0,
a
for
which
we have
(<Pand at
least
9i)oc
+0,
one
j8
for
which
(<p
X,
g,)^ 4= 0.
gi)a
((p
<72)/3
M
223
Then
{ip
g.2)\
0,
((p
gi)fx
0.
Hence, we cannot have X and n parallel, we assume is not the case, since from
{if
else gi
gi,
which
g2)U\
=0,
(<p
gi)UfjL
=
gi,
0,
we have
g2U\
if
gjjn,
and
would
g^
is
parallel to
is still
ju,
that
is if ^''X
Tin.
There
say
V.
X and
/x,
Let
ipv
= =
av
cX.
Then we have
{(p
gi)v
(a
gi)v+ bn
gi)v
cX.
Since
(a
(<p g2)(<pgi){ip
0,
g2)v
(a
6(^2
^i)m g2)v
=
b(a
g{)\i
= We
or
gi){a
c{a
gi)\.
must have,
therefore, either
=
=
gi
and
and
=
=
0,
g2
0.
As the numbering
<^
9i, b
0,
then
(pp
g^v
+
if
cX,
^X
^2X,
(pyL
gin.
{clg2)\,
c
We
notice that
tpv'
c 4= 0,
whence
giv'
0.
Hence
g^
<p
g\2gi
gi)
= [ginSM)
224
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
9iy(<P
Qi)
0.
(3)
gfp
0.
Then
there
is
g\,
is
and there may be other directions for which the same true. There is at least one direction such that
/j.
(^
9)1^
X.
We
have, therefore,
(plj.
gii\ X,
^X
g\.
Let now
i'
(pv
{(p (<p
g)v
gfv
= = = =
av
{a
cX,
(a
gfv
+
g,
h{a
g)fi
+
cpv
[6
+ c{a  g)]\.
Therefore,
(p(v
Cfx)
we have a =
g(v
cju)
gv',
6=0,
0,
{<P
(P
gf
g\ \Sv\{)lS\ixv.
We are now in a position to say that the general equation has exactly the same factors as the characteristic equation. Further we can state as a theorem the following:
(a)
9i)p
0,
225
9i)(<P
92)
0,
X such
thai <p\
form
ar/i
+ yv we have
9i)(xn
+ yv) =
0.
Hence and by
<p
^2 all vectors
in the direction X.
(<P
9x?
0,
there is
gi\
yv
9i){^i^+yv)
(v
gi)v
h\.
(<P
9i)f^
= ^\
w\,
we may
set
w
giving
gi,
tpfi
gijj..
Therefore
tp
and shears
all
components parallel
in the direction X.
left
4.
Nondegenerate Equations.
We
have
to consider
hp
<7i)(^
(<P
 g^W
gs)
0,
0,
0.
vectors X,
In the last case we see easily that there /x, v such that
is
a set of unit
226
VECTOR CALCULUS
^X
<pv
gi\ H na,
giv.
Hence we
<p(xX
see that
2//i
+ zv) =
=
gi(x\
{
yfx\ zv)
gi{x\
+ 2/M +
zp)
+ +
aa*M
a(xiJL
(pixn
+
(p
T/i/)
<P
= =
+ byv + yp) + (6 
a)yp,
gi(xfx
yj')
6a:^,
gi\ [afjiSfipO
all
bpSp\0]/S\tiP.
gi,
Therefore
extends
shears
ij.
all
vectors
in the
In the
first
case
we
is
p such that
(<p
92){<P
g^)p
X,
where
^X
g{K.
=
if
<72M,
(pp
gzP.
fore
we
x\
\
yn
+ zp,
we have
(pp
<p
[gi\SnpO
X,
/jl,
by operating on
all
vectors
92)(<P
gz),
{<P
gi){<P
gz),
{<p
9\){<p
92)
respectively.
we
see in a similar
227
ip
^iX
fJL,
(pfJL
5.
Summary.
We may now
is
summarize these
results in
of highest importance.
Every linear
may
function satisfies a general cubic, and also satisfy an equation of lower degree called the charrector
acteristic equation.
cubic, then it
may
If the equation of lowest degree is the have three distinct latent roots, in which
through the origin, any vector in each of the three directions being extended in a given ratio equal to the corresponding root; or it may have two equal roots, in which case there corresponds
unequal root an invariant line, and to the multiple root an invariant plane containing an invariant line, every vector in the plane being multiplied by the root and then affected by
to the
a shear of
or there
its
may
points parallel to the invariant line in the plane; be three equal roots, in which case there is an
plane through the origin being multiplied by the root and its points sheared parallel to the invariant line, and finally every
its
in this plane is multiplied by the root and sheared In case points parallel to the invariant plane. the function satisfies a reduced equation which is a quadratic,
line in space not
this quadratic
is
may have unequal roots, in which case there an invariant line corresponding to one root and an invariant
to the other,
plane corresponding
any
by the corresponding
is
may
root
an invariant
multiplied by the
and
plane
is
In case
228
VECTOR CALCULUS
the reduced equation is of the first degree, every line is an invariant line, all vectors being extended in a fixed ratio. Where there are displacements, they are proportional to the
distance
from
the origin,
and
shear region. Hence <p takes the following forms in which be equal, or any two may be equal:
I.
gi, g2, gz
may
[giaS^yO
+ +
92^SyaO
+
gi
gzySam/Sa^y,
reduced
equations for gi
II.
gi or g\
=
g^,
gi
=
\i
gz',
+ g2ySoc^{) + amyOMSafiy,
=
ot
0;
if
III.
[{a^
+
=
cy)Sfiy{)
hySyaOySa^y, reduced
a=Q=c, or a = Q=h=c.
EXAMPLES
(1).
Let
^, V
Vap^, where Sa^ 4= 0. Take VaP, then we find with little trouble
(pp
a,
mi
and the
= 
Sa^,
m2
= 
a'fi^
(p,
mz
a'fi^Sa^,
characteristic equation of
{<p
Safi)((p
Ta^)((p
Ta^)
0.
general,
and oper
Safi)p
= aS^p
+ ^Sap,
U^)Ta^.
Tocfi is
{<p TaP)(<p\Sa^)p
a^^S^p
=  {TaS^p+ TfiSap)iUa+
line
Ua
U^.
Ua 
and
UVa^.
229
Let
Let
<pp
<pp
=
=
Vafip.
gipcS^p
(4).
Let
Let
ipp
(5).
6.
<pp
= gp+ = Vep.
(fp
(hfi
Solution of
a.
ob\'ious that
when
(p
satis
fies
mi^ +
mi(p
jriz
0,
73
4= 0,
(nit
mi<p
if^p.
For
if
we take the
all
(p
we have an
unique, for
identity for
if
values of
to be
is
added to the left side, or could be added to the left side, then it would have to satisfy the = 0. But if Wa =# 0, there is no vector satisequation (p<x fying this equation, for this equation would lead to a
a vector
zero root for
(p.
a had
Hence,
if
^p =X, msp
= jnzX
mi^\\<f^,
satisfies
+ niiip =0,
it
w^
4= 0,
then
tion,
<pa
xa
\
{m\<p
((P)p
xa
\
miK
<p\.
If
<p
satisfies
the cubic
<p^
mi<p^
=0,
wii
={=
0,
the vacuity is two, and we have two cases according as there is not a reduced equation, or a reduced equation exists
230
of the
is
VECTOR CALCULUS
form
(p^
mnp =
0.
mi.
There
vector
is
a corresponding invariant line X, and if the such that (pa. = 0, then we have in the two cases
is
(pfi
a vector ^ such that respectively ip^ = a, or Hence, if (pp = y, we must have in the two cases
0.
aX
+ ya,
is
or
x\.
impossible.
\
Hence
\
mip
where
If
(p
x\
\
za
y^
= y
(pfi
ua
j
y^,
^/3
a, <pa
0,
or where
(pa.
sa'tisfies
the cubic
<P'
0,
/?
and no reduced equation, there are three vectors (of which and y are not unique) such that (py = 13, (pl3 = a, (pa = 0, and then (pp = X, we must have \ = xa \ yl3, where p is any vector of the form
p
If
(p^
0,
(p(xfi
+ yy)
0,
a,
(pa
0,
and
(pp
=
0,
ua.
li
(p
there
is
where p
is
may
7.
evident that
if
one root
zero,
then the region ^X where X is any vector will give us the other roots. For instance let (pp = Vtp. Then if /x = FeX,
(pp,
Xe^
eS'eX,
^V
cV>
and the other two roots are db V 1 Te. If two roots are zero, then <p^ on any vector will give the invariant region of the other root. For instance, let
231
(pa
aSafiy Hne a. and its invariant other root as the Sa^y gives In case a root is not zero, but is gi, if it is of multipHcity one, then <p gi operating upon any vector will give the
<p^p.
Hence
If it is of multiplicity region of the other root, or roots. two, then we use {(p giY on any vector.
8.
Transverse.
We
define
now
ip, and sometimes equal to indicate by (p', and call the conjugate of if, and define by the equation
related to
which we
shall
or transverse of
SX(pfx
Sfx<p'\
for all
X,
ju.
For example, if <pp = Vap^, then SX(pp and (p' = V^Qa = (p, if (pp = Vep,
(pp
S\apfi
Spfi\a,
if
(p'p
Vep;
=
a
ocS^p, (p'p
is
If
(p,
(pa
/3
gSafi
Sa(p'fi,
or
Sa{(p'
g)^
0,
that
(p'
is
is
g,
that
perpendicular to the region not annulled by is invariant for (p' If we consider that g.
S/x(p' X,
S\(p^iJL
Siji(p'
X,
it is
clear that
tion
and (p' have the same characteristic equaand the same general equation. They can differ only
(p
if
at
all.
If
all
distinct,
it is
normal
to the
two invariant
two two
If
now
corresponding to the other roots, and conversely. the characteristic equation is the general equation,
ft
232
VECTOR CALCULUS
SO that each function satisfies only the general equation, let there be two equal roots, g, whose shear region gives
ipa=
ga]r
/S,
ip^
gfi,
let
<py
giy.
Then
S^p, gSap Sa^yip'p = g{V^ySap
Sa(p'p
Sficp'p
gS(3p,
Sy<p'p
giSyp,
+ VyaS^ +
V^ySjSp
+
+
giVa^Syp.
Therefore corresponding to the root gi, <p' has the invariant line Fa/S, and to the root g, the invariant line Vfiy.
Further
<p'
converts
Vya
into
gVya
Vl3y.
(p'
Hence the invariant line of gi for shear region of g, and the shear region
is
normal to the
<p' is
of g for
normal
to the invariant line of gi for (p, but the invariant line of g for (p' is normal further to the shear direction of g for (p,
of
cp'
for g
is
for g.
1
we have
<pa= ga
fi,
<p^
g^\y^
<py
gy^
so that
Saip'p
gSap
(p'p
S^p,
Syip'p
Sfiip'p
gS&p
Syp,
gSyp,
Sa^y
pgSa^y
V^ySfip
is
VyaSyp.
shear line
Hence, the invariant line of (p' Vya, and second shear line Va^.
In case there
roots,
is
V^y,
its first
we have
(p{xa
+
=
2/i8)
g{xa
+ y^),
=
gSjSp,
(py
g\y,
Saip'p
gSap,
S^<p'p
Sy<p'p
giSyp,
Saj3y<p'p
gVfiySap
+ gVyaSfip +
giVa^Syp,
233
g\ is
corresponding to
<p,
normal
corresponding to g there is an invariant plane normal to the invariant line of g\ for ip. Every line in the plane through the origin is invariant.
In case the reduced equation has two equal roots, then
ipa.= ga{/3,
^/3
g^,
^=
gy,
Sa<p'p
gSap +
S^p,
Sy(p'p
gSyp,
Sfi(p'p
gSfip,
Sa^ycp'p
= gp+S^p{V^).
Corresponding to g, we have then two invariant lines: T'a/3, which is perpendicular to the shear plane of <p; V^y, which is perpendicular to the nonshear region of g and to
the shear direction of g; also the shear direction of V^y, so that the shear region of cp' is determined by
cp'
is
Vya
and
1/37,
and
is
therefore perpendicular to y.
(p'
The
I.
three forms of
ip'
are
= =
=
II.
<p'
III.
<p'
summarize these results in the theorem: The invariant regions of <p' corresponding to the distinct roots are normal to the corresponding regions of the other
roots for
<p.
We may
In case
which through the origin is invariant, then every line of the corresponding plane will also he invariant, hid if there is a plane with an invariant line and
a shear direction in
it,
jugate
tvill
and
to
tp, and the shear direction of the conjugate will he perpendicular to the invariant lines of <p;
16
234
VECTOR CALCULUS
while finally, if there is an invariant line, a first shear direction, and a second shear direction, then the invariant line
of the conjugate will be perpendicular to the invariant line
and
(p,
and
the second
shear direction of
(p,
and
perpendicular to the two shear directions of = V^yjSa^y, define the various directions a
Let a,
j8,
Vya/Sa^y,
= =
or
\giaSa [giaSa
or
\g\
\g+aaS0+
9.
Self Transverse.
when
and further if two are not perpendicular, then every vector in their plane must be an invariant, and even in this case the invariants may be taken perpendicular. Hence
real vectors,
now that cp = (p' only regions, if we limit ourselves to the invariant lines must be peris
pendicular or
may
be
aSapgi
^Sppgz
ySypgz,
where a ^ y form a trirectangular system, and where the roots g may be equal.
Conversely, when <p = cp', the roots are real, provided that we have only real vectors in the system, for if a root = V 1, then if the invariant has the form g ih, where i
235
root be X
ifi,
where X and
ifi)
/x
are real,
i{h\
we have
ifi)
= (g+
c?X
ih)(\\
g\
hti\
+ gn)
=
Therefore
+ i<pn.
g\
hn,
<pn
<p\
h\
gfi,
and
S/iipK
gSXfi
hfi^
S\<pn
h\^
+ gSXfi.
Am'
0.
follows that h
0.
may
is
be real without
that
<p
being
are
self
An important theorem
transverse.
<p<p'
and
<p'(p
self
For
Sp(p<p'(T
S<T<p<p'p,
Sp<p'(fC
S(T<p'<pp.
EXERCISE
Find expressioDB for
10.
i(np'
and
ip'ip
in
terms of
a,
/3,
y, a,
/3,
y.
Chi of
<p.
We
tp
tions related to
define now two very important funcand always derivable from it. First
Xt,= mi
so that
<p,
(paSfiyp
(f^Syap
(pySafip
= =
VVafiV<rrp
aSp(fi<py
is
+
y<pfi)
+
(p.
.
indicated
mi<p
\
by ^^ or by
x^ and
(pXpy
defined
Wi2
Wi2
= =
pSatpfiipy
(paSp(fi(py
\
y<pfi)
aSp<pfi<py 4 pSp<fy<pa
ySpifcup^.
236
VECTOR CALCULUS
have at once from these formulae the following im
We
Whence we have
ySapy
Since
it
evident that
X^/
x/,
and
=
^J/^,
\}/J,
we have
at once
= ^\V\n =
x'^FXm
V<pKfx
FX^M
shown to be
V(p\<pti.
The two
It
is
(P'
x'y
ip^
(p'\J/'.
EXERCISES
If
V =
show that
Ml =
2Saij8i,
/Saiajaa^/Si/Sij/Sa,
2.
Show that
are
mi (x)
W2(x)
mi^
+ m2,
msCx)
= mirm
mz]
mi{\l^)
m2.
m2(i/')
= 2m = mims,
1,
THE LINEAR
3.
SECTOR
FUNCTION
i/^.v*,
,
237
we have
mj*.
tp,
fni(^)
wiiCv*)
= = =
mi*
"ii*
2mi,
SotiTHi
nj(^) =
wij*
wis(v^)
wij*
+ 3mj,
wi(^')
Smitnimz
3j',
"i(*'')
4.
*nj*
4wtiwis*mj
+ 2i*mj* + 4mimj*,
ip
ins(>*)
fj*.
+ c, where c is a scalar multipher, = Ji(*) + 2mi(y)c + 3c*, fnii^ 4 c) = miM + 3c, Tnt{<p + c) mi{<p + c) = mj(^) + cmtiip) + c*mi(#>) + c*. 5. Study functions of the form + yx + zShow
that for the function
x\ff
6.
v''^'^^^ipM
wijV^X/*;
v''(^^^M
^m^pM
fniV\fi
V<p\ipft.
= aVW; ^^C*"!**!) = ^(.Vi)H<Pi)^(aif>)  aSa(), ^( pSa) = 0. 8. ^(a) = a, i^[Fa()] = ^( ffiiSt gxJSj gJcSk) = gjgiiSi g^gJSj
7. 9.
gigJcSk.
vt(a,S^i
+ atSpi + a,S/3,)
= F/3,/3iSFaiT,
ip,
VffjpjSVatai
VpzfiSVajfXi.
10.
0,
ntiiipd)
mii^pe)
= =
mii0<p), ni(^p)mi(fl)
mt{ipe)
mi{e<p),
mjC^) =
ms(tf
mj(e#.).
+ ni(vj) + mi{e)
*>).
mi{<pB)
ws[^'(*')
mi{<p
+ 0) + 0) mt(v + 0)
mi{ip
11.
I.
+ ^'(*)1.
mi(ipe).
0'^'M].
n.
ni.
+ gz)aSa + G/j + gOfiSk + + gt)yS^; (gi + gt)aS^ + (gi+ gi)0S0 + 2giySy + affSa; 2g  (off + C7)55  byS^.
(gt
(ffi
The operator x is the rotor dyadic of Jaumann. 12. The forms of ^ for the three types are
I.
gtgtoSa
II.
ni.
+ gtgifiSfi + gigtySy; gigtaSi + gtgi0S8 + gfySy agi0Si;  gc)y]S^  bgy.S^. gi [agp + {ab
238
13.
VECTOR CALCULUS
An
operator called the deviator
is
defined by Schouten,*
and
is
iiOi
92 
g3)aSEi
(Ui
93
n.
III.
ihgi(afi
92)iaSS
+ cy)S^ + bySlS.
=
<p
+JS0)
(!sf2
g2)yS^;
It is V(p
14.
S<p,
if
where
{\,
S{<p)
Show
that
n)
(i)
F
where
11.
(X,
is
symmetric
in X, n
ip
and
is
a quaternion function of
FX/x.
We
derive from
and
(p'
That there
which
mz{(p
S{(p
is
(p'),
is
a vector
is
and
invariant,
For
if
we form
we
find that
(p')fi{<p
(p')\((p
S(p\(piJi<pv
<p')v
= =
But
'LS ip\(p'ixip' V
l^Sipkip ynp'vS(p'\(p'yi(p'v
mi(}p(p')).
S\ixv{mz
it is
ma
mi(\p'(p)
easy to see that this expression vanishes identically, two terms cancel, and if cpi, ipi are any two linear
vector functions,
we have
SlJ.V<PiKSlXV(p2k
SfJiV(pifJ.Sv\(p2S.
SlJLP(pivS\pL(p2K
+ +
=
Sv\<Pi\SlJiV<P2fJi
S\fi<pi\SfiV(p2V
S'^IJLVmi((p2(Pl).
Again after
this has
been done we
may
take
the conjugate. Hence the expression above vanishes, and there is a zero root in all cases for cp Further we <p'.
may
*
always write
p. C4.
239
= = =
<pKSnvp
+ + +
.
VijlpS\(p'p
VfjivSifXp
Hence we have
S\fiv(<p
<p')p
From
this
we have
X, n, v.
<pq
+ 2S\nv = V<p\Vp.v +
VpV(yyLv)<p\
for every
noncoplanar
The function
conjugate of Fc()
is
is
VtQ.
2<piS\iiv
'.
The
of
(p,
expressions Te, T<p, and S<pe are scalar invariants and these three may be called the rotational invariants.
In terms of
scalar invariants of
If
or
(p'
may
be expressed.
gi, g^, gz,
v,
and thus
2iS7i7273
+
2^S7i7273 =
gigzVyiVyzyz
(^1
^2)7357172.
gzgiVy2V'Y3yi
^ifir2F73p'^7i72.
gia f
fih^,
gi^, (py
QfY,
we have
(^2
2S/37 =
giWyVafi
VfiVfiyh.
=
[t is
gy
2Sa^y = h^V^
evident, therefore, that
if
+ lyVya.
the roots are distinct and
240
VECTOR CALCULUS
the axes perpendicular two and two, that e = 0; if two roots are equal and the invariant line of the other root is
perpendicular to the plane of the equal roots, then it direction of er and if the three roots are equal, and
invariant line
is
is
if
the
the
perpendicular to the
then
shear.
12.
is
in the
plane of
Vanishing Invariants.
The vanishing
of the scalar
invariants of
If
leads to
is
some
interesting theorems.
which are whose are in the transformed by ip edges faces of the original trihedral. If ^ transforms any trihedral in this manner, m\ = 0, and there is an infinite set of trihe
mi
0,
there
an
into trihedrals
drals so transformed.
We
is
choose X,
ju,
v for
the edges of the vertices, and if ^X y, (p/j. with v, X, and (pp with X, ix, the
0,
we choose
X, n, arbitrarily,
and determine
SXjJKpV
from
ScpX/xv
=
(p
S\(piJ,v.
Then
also
0.
if
The
invariant Mi vanishes
transforms a trihedral
first.
whose faces pass through the edges of the The converse holds for any infinity of trihedrals.
into another
EXERCISES
1.
Show
that
if
a,
/3,
nil
Sjipy
and
is
invariant for
all
trirectangular systems,
T^<pa
'S^Xv'a
m^i^^p')
= = rV(X)
2.
<p
= a^aSa
7:mVaV0ct,
<P
VaVOct,
a^VapQ,
VV^VaO,
V,pVaOfi.
241
Show
that
<pp
'S7
^Sp<pp
wherein ^
is
= =
2e
TOi,
V^P =
2fpe
nii,
rriip
2<pvp,
V Vpipp
2Sep
S<pp,
a constant function. Hence <poP may always be represented as a gradient of a scalar, Sep as a convergence of a vector, and We may consider also that mi is a iip Sfpp (deviation) as a curl. convergence and e is a curl, mt a convergence and <pf a curl. 5. An orthogonal function is defined to be one such that
<pip'
1.
Show
<P
cose
sin
0VOP =
is
(1
cos
0)^00 = P+'I'Qp*''
/3
or
/3(')+i()^C^' which
0,
/3.
through
the angle
by
normal to
6. 7.
^^''2.
Show
that
mi{<po)
nil,
ii(<po)
wii
c*,
a(*>o)
njj
+ S<pe.
Hence
if
Te =
Seipe
8.
0, 0,
mtM =
ms(^)
mi(^o).
nttivn).
Show
that
milVeO]
9.
0,
TO,[F601
Te',
rrnlVeO]
0.
Show
that
<(x)
10.
= that
e,
(x)
<fi,
e(*>~0
=
nit
<Pt
Show
11.
= VPvQ,
miie)
i'ivo)
^0
fSeO
25/3,
rm{e)
= 
S0V0,
mt(e)
0,
12.
^ = Vai),
^ = a(a  aSa),
*, 0,
13.
26(^)
2e(^oo)
X{v)e{e)
x(fl)6(*)
V{v)^{e).
242
In particular
VECTOR CALCULUS
14.
An
c,
Tipa
operator ^ a constant.
is
a similitude
when
Show
is
Any Unear
15. If
<p<p'
,p
transformation which preserves all angles is a simih'tude. aSi pSj ySk, then ,p' = iSa jS^ kSy, and
<Sia
j8<S/3
7*87,
mi{<p<p')
T^a
T^fi
2^27,
maCv^v')
7^Fa/3
+ TW^y +
T'Vya,
mi{<p<p')
S^a^y.
is
13.
Derivative Dyadic.
There
a dyadic related to a
variable vector field of great importance which we will study next. It is called the derivative dyadic, since it is
somewhat
field of
nature of a dyadic. This linear vector function for the a will be indicated by D and defined by the equation
D.= It
is
SQV(T.
dp,
if
we operate upon
we
arrive
at
d(x.
This function
is,
which en
The
expression
SdpDJp =
Cdf,
where C is a constant and dt a constant difi'erential, represents an infinitesimal quadric surface, the normals at the ends of the infinitesimal vectors dp being Ddp.
Let us consider now the
field of
is p,
and
let
us sup
243
pose it has been moved to a neighboring position given by the vector lines of the congruence, that is, p becomes
p
+ adt.
is
Then p
that
to say, 5p has
D<Tdt)8p.
of the first
VdipdiP
dt{V8ipDJ.2P
VDMphp)t
The
Vbiphip
therefore
x{I),)Vhph,p.
Likewise, the infinitesimal volmne Sbiphiphzp
is
trans
dt{Shiph2pT)hzP
S8ipD82p83p
+
The
the
rate of increase of the
if
SDdipd2pd3p).
volume
is,
therefore, miSdipdipdsp.
In other words
we
displace
medium
so that
its
any portion
ex,
by amounts propor
moved
area
the change in any infinitesimal line in the portion of space is given by dtD8p, the change in any infinitesimal
is
infinitesimal
given by x'iDff)dtAiea, and the change in volume is iiiidt times the volume.
an
In case a defines a velocity field the changes mentioned will actually take place. We have here evidently a most
adt
important operator for the study of hydrodynamics. If is the field of an infinitesimal strain, then Z),5p is the
244
VECTOR CALCULUS
displacement of the point at dp. Evidently the operator plays an important part in the theory of strain, and consequently of stress. Further, (we shall not stop to prove
.
the result as
function of p
vector a a
to Taylor's
ha)
o(po)
+ hD^ +  ( SaV)Da
This formula
is
of the congruence.
the basis of the study of the singularities For if o(po) = 0, then the formula will
of the con
gruence depend upon the roots of D. In brief the results of the investigation of Poincare referred to above
(p. 38)
show that
real real
if
is
zero,
we have
is
the
cases:
1.
Roots
Roots
and same
but not
all
a node.
2. 3.
One
sign, a faux. real root of same sign as real part of other two,
of the
same
a focus.
4.
One
a fauxfocus.
5.
If
One real root, other two pure imaginaries, a center. one or more roots vanish, we have special cases to coninvariants of
sider.
The
mi
D
=
and are
ISVViViVaiffz,
SV(r,
IVVff,
m2
all
removed.
The
245
and
in other cases
we can
mi and
in
terms of the convergence and the curl of the field. In case (T is a field of magnetic induction due to extraneous
causes,
and a
is
In any case we might call per unit current on the circuit. the force x'l^'5ip52P density per unit circuit. Since x' is not usually selftransverse, the force on circuit a has a
component
in the direction
different
in the direction
of the force
on
circuit
Recurring to Stokes'
see that
J'dpa
ff
VvVhiphtpa
= 2ffShiphpe ffxTbipb^p.
It is clear
field of
is
always
some points
6 is
not zero.
The torque
if
of the field
is
on the
any
normal which
From
these
it is it
clear that,
we have
be an exact
sufficient
differential
conditions
FVpO =
For
if
0.
^ifdp
the condition.
whence
The
will
be sometimes positive, sometimes negative. A theorem given originally by Kronecker enables us to find what the
excess of the
number
of roots at
which mz
is
is
positive over
the
*
number
of roots at
which mz
I,
negative
is.*
We
set
p. 139.
246
VECTOR CALCULUS
r
i^ajTa^
and
then the integral will vanish for any space containing no roots, and will be the excess in question for any other space.
We
number
and something
0.
= \(D
DJ)
is
= 0, o is a unit vector everywhere, then BJa D must have zero itself the transverse has a and since root,
In case
a zero root.
There
is
Da
0.
The
are the isogons of the vector lines given by field. In case there are two zero roots the isogons are any
lines
Vadp =
on certain isogon
surfaces.
EXERCISES
1.
Study the
p,
fields
given by
=
2.
a
that
<T
=
if
UpIp^,
a
Vap,
p,
aSfip,
Vaplp^.
Show
is
a function of
\
d<T
= Vof'Spoo= VVoWVapQ 
^Spo'ppo]
\VpoVPo]
iVpoVS/a
\S\7<T,
The first form where Vo operates only on po, and <p aSS7{). expresses a \ da as & gradient and a term dependent on the curl of a, the second as a curl and a term dependent on the convergence of a.
po is
3.
an
If
infinitesimal vector.
= VVt,D^ =
Da'.
14.
Dyadic Field.
p,
pendent upon
If ^ is we say that
every point in space there will be a value of <p. Since there is always one root at least for (p which is real, with an invariant line, there will be for every point in space a direction
247
and a numerical value of the root which gives the real invariant direction and root. These will define a congruence of lines and a numerical value along the Unes. In case the other axes are also real, and the roots are distinct or practically distinct, there will be two other related congruences.
The study
from
it is
this point of
view
EXERCISES
1.
K
If
^ =
is
(),
field is
Vw
The
vorticity
is
of
the field
vector.
2.
FVvO =
V'^uQ.
is
The
<pV,
()SV^
3.
+ Da = is
x{D).
D,<t,
If
vJ
= cSrO,
VffDyQ.
the
gradient
vSWr
the vorticity
is
is
VX/aSri)
 DT,
4.
the vorticity
If
transverse field
rS'^a
vor
Ve(S7)v
Vad'sj', the
ticity is
field
we have
is
0'FvV
flFV^,
V^'B'VaO
+
is
FV'OFa'O.
If
v?
= D,
VV, the
concentration of
and the
6. If
^p
vorticity is
Dvvais
The gradient
zero.
the gradient is Fv^V, where both V's act on and the vorticity is V*^() VSVOQ. 7. Jf <p = De(a^), the gradient is V^Oa, the vorticity is Dvvta8. If *> = ^9, the gradient is 2(FVfl).
9.
= FV^O,
vorticity
0,
For any
<p
1,
f *i'Vil.
248
15.
VECTOR CALCULUS
The
Differentiator.
We
SO V
be used
by D.
It
may
upon quaternions, vectors, scalars, or dyadics. As examples we have, D being the transverse
Am =
16.
<D,),
D^= Let
i^
v,
SOV'<pO.
p,
Change
of Variable.
be a function of
w.
and
Let
A=
adjdu
+ ^djdv + yd/dw,
where a, jS, y form a righthanded system of unit vectors. Then we have the following formulae to pass from expressions in terms of p to differential expressions in terms of the
parameters.
AF = 
AiSpiVF,
 SV<T=
A'Sp'\7"(T",
VA(7= Sp'V"Vc"A'.
Notations
Dyadic products ), Hamilton, Tait, Joly, Shaw. aX 4>, Gibbs, Wilson, Jaumann, Jung.
),
</>Fa(
Va(f>(
a,
Reciyrocal dyadic
({r^,
Marcolongo, Shaw.
q~^,
Timerding.
lie.
1611,
249
\l/
(0c)2,
0),
Shaw.
</)',
0, Taber,
<t)e,
Shaw.
\6 /
Elie.
wh
<f>c,
(t>',
<t>J
<()/,
Gibbs, Wilson.
Jaumann, Jung.
*, Joly.
4>',
[<t>],
Jaumann, Jung.
,
^
In this case expressed in terms of the axes.
Elie.
l(0
<f>",
(t>')
= V(
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
17
250
\ b /,
lie.
VECTOR CALCULUS
Sin
<f),
Macfarlane.
Mixed functions
x(0,
9),
of dyadic
Shaw.
(/)^ 6,
Gibbs, Wilson.
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
R{(f), 6),
Vector of dyadic
,
^/,
R=
e{(f)),
Te, Elie.
Shaw.
Negative vector of adjunct dyadic
(j),
<f>'(f>x,
00r*,
Jaumann, Jung.
<l>),
aVa,
X(0,
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
Shaw.
4)(f)',
^<t)c,
Square of pure strain factor of dyadic Hamilton, Tait, Joly. Gibbs, Wilson.
{</)p,
Jaumann, Jung.
BuraliForti, Marcolongo.
aKa,
[b],
Elie.
00^ Shaw.
Dyadic function of negative Hamilton, Tait, Joly, Shaw. 0^0xj Wilson, Gibbs.
(jy^e,
vector of adjunct
TBDE
251
d'<t>T*,
Jaumann, Jung.
Marcolongo.
a^Vot, BuraliForti,
K2, Elie.
Scalar invariants
of dyadic.
Coefficients
of characteristic
equation
m", m', m, Hamilton, Tait, Joly, Carvallo. /:, lo, 1 3, BuraliForti, Marcolongo, Elie.
F, G,
H, Timerding.
<t>z,
Os, {<i>2);
'ffii,
Gibbs, Wilson.
7712,
^3, Shaw.
1
o
<?'>
 U/, Jf
'
03,
Jaumann, Jung.
cos
<t>
<t>z,
Macfarlane.
Other scalar invariants
wi(0o^),
mi((f)(f)'),
2{m^
,
TTh), mi(<f>d'),
mi[x(<f>, e),
/S],
Shaw.
Wf;
,
{0}^
'
WV,
,
Jaumann, Jung.
e
:
,
(t>
d, <I>1
fi,
Gibbs, Wilson.
Elie uses
Ki
for Se<f>.
operates on
indicates
Gradient of dyadic
V0,
Tait, Joly,
Shaw,
Specific force of field
Fischer.
252
VECTOR CALCULUS
Transverse dyadic of gradient
'
r^, Fischer.
i
V
X
0,
Jaumann, Jung.
Divergence of dyadic
/SV0(
),
Tait, Joly,
Shaw.
FV0(
Rot
),
Tait, Joly,
Shaw.
'.
a, BuraliForti. 0,
VX

Jaumann, Jung.
Directional derivatives of dyadic
S{)V(p(
<SaV
1
</>.
Sa^V<f>Va{
),
Tait, Joly,
Shaw,
S(a,
d(f) ~
)),
BuraliForti.
6
,
X
)
</>
Tj,
da
( Tp
5^, da
Fischer.
Shaw.
BuraliForti.
Shaw,
BuraliForti.
X 4^, Fischer,
CHAPTER X
DEFORMABLE BODIES
Straix
1.
When
body has
its
vector to a point
is p,
we must
new
by some function
of p,
(pp,
then we say that the body has been strained. We do not at first need to consider the path of transition of P to P'.
If
is
is
strain
We
cp,
vector function can represent a strain. In the first place we notice that solid angles must not be turned into their
S(p\(pfi<pvfS\iiv
cp
must be
positive,
positive.
Hence
must have
either one or
When
(p
self conjugate
The
is
Any
linear
^
where
(<P<p')q~\)q
2)~W
{(p'<p)0P,
q\)q
(<P<pT"'<P
The function (p(p' is selfcon jugate and, therefore, has three real roots and its invariant lines perpendicular. If we set TT = V ((pep'), then TT = <p(p'. Let the cubic in (p(p' be G'3  MiG^ + M2G  il/3 = 0. Then from the values
given in Chapter IX, p.
2.37,
for the
coefficients of
^
253
254
in
VECTOR CALCULUS
(p
terms of those of
we have
in
X being
Ml =
Pi"
2p2,
M2 =
P2'
2pip3,
Mz =
pi,
whence we have
pi^
2(ilf 1
I6M2M3P1
pz.
(p(p'
+ M^  ^M^Mz =
0.
Thence we have
and
Now
if
unit vectors a,
cp
7,
we may
collect the
terms of
(p
in the
form
= aaSa'O
h^S^'Q
+ cySy'Q,
=
ir
where
a, b, c
cpcp'
and
a',
/3',
7' are
to be determined.
Hence
ip'
= aa'SaQ
b'l3'Sl3'0
But
also
<p'<p
= aWSa'O = 
and + + c'^y'Sy'Q.
(p<p'
a'aSa
(pep',
b^^S^
c'^ySy,
since a,
/3,
are axes of
and
a^, b', c^
are roots.
Now
we have
(p'a
aa',
ip'fi
b^' ,
<p'y
cy',
hence
(pcp'a
a^a
= =
aPaSa'a'
1,
ab^Sa'fi'
acySa'y'.
Thus we have
a'
Sa'fi'
Sa'y',
and similar
equations, so that a',^', y' are unit vectors forming a trirectangular system, and indeed are the invariant lines of
^V
C7S7,
ySy'.
a',
jS',
q^(^q
= 
a^a'
/SS/?'
7' into
DEFORMABLE BODIES
the system a,
/3,
255
is
7, as a rigid body.
orthogonal
by
its
we multiply
it
aSa
^S^
ySy =
1().
Reducing it to the standard form of example five, Chapter jS/3' 77') and IX, p. 236, we find that the axis is VV{aa'
the sine of the angle of rotation ^TV{aa'
+ + + ^^' + 77')
EXAMPLES
(1).
Let
ip
VeO.
Then
^<P'
^'
= 
VeO,
e
= 
^^^y<)
^SeO
e\
The
axes are
and any two vectors a, /S and these must be taken so that a/S = Ue,
T'e.
q~^OQ the
aSl3 ^Sa =
and
this
is
F(Faj8)(),
Ve
of
90.
The
effect of
T = Te( aSa
is
^S^)
to give the projection of the rotated vector on the plane perpendicular to e, times Te. That is, finally, FeO rotates
p about
of the
e
as an axis through 90
is
parallel to
aS^Q where a, /S are any (2). Consider the operator g vectors. It is to be noticed that we must select of all the
square roots of (f(p' that one which has It is obvious that p = q.
its
roots
all
positive.
256
3.
VECTOR CALCULUS
The
Tp
soid T(p~^p
r,
or
Sp(p'~^<p~^p
r^.
This
is
tt^.
The
ellip
converted into the sphere Tp = r. This is the reciprocal strain ellipsoid. Its axes are in the directions of the principal axes of the strain. The extenr^ is
sions of lines
drawn
before
the strain are stationary, and. one of mum, one the minimum extension.
4.
them
is
shear
is
represented by
<pp
l3Sap,
where Sa^ = 0. The displacement is parallel to the vector = 0. /3 and proportional to its distance from the plane Sap There
If
no change in volume since ms = 1. there is a uniform dilatation and a shear the function
is
is
(PP
=
is
9P
^Sap.
g^.
The change
seen to be
in
volume
now
The equation
0.
is
easily
(<P
gf
This
is the necessary and sufficient condition of a dilatation and a shear, but this equation alone will not give the axes and the shear plane, of course. 5. The function (pp = gqpq~^ ql3q~^Sap is a form into which the most general strain can be put which is due to
= by an amount proportional to the perpenplane Sap dicular distance from the fixed plane, then altering all
lines in the ratio g,
and superposing a
rotation.
This
is
DEFORMABLE BODIES
any
strain.
257
into the
We
(p'tp
form
6^
+ XSm + MSX,
T\ii
where
5X/x=^(a2+c2262),
and then we take
We),
c)\
g=h^
The
6.
a=
is
\,
6/3
^X^a
rotation
determined as before.
body that are lengthened the same ratio, say g, are parallel to the edges of the cone T(pUp = g or SUp{<p'(p g^)Up = 0, or in terms of X, /*, = b^ g^, sin w sin r = (62 2S\UpSnUp c*), ^)/(a2
in
where u and
v are
=
p
T^p.
is
The displacement
d
of the extremity of p
((p
l)p,
+ pVp^tpp.
The
term is called the elongation. the numerically reciprocal of the square of the radius of the elongation quadric:
coefficient of p in the first
It is
Sp{<pQ
l)p
1,
the radius being parallel to p. The other component may be written Tep V(foPP~^p, where e is the invariant vector of <p, the spinvector.
8.
If
it
now
the strain
is
sider
again the formula da = SdpV a = fpdp, where a is now the displacement of P, whose vector is p, and <t \ da that of
258
p
VECTOR CALCULUS
provided that we can neglect terms of the second these have to be considered,
+ dp,
order.
If
da
= =
SdpV<T
(pdp
+ K'Sc^PV)VV
'
^Sdp'^^ (pdp.
first
We may
now
order into
=
if
(Po+ VeQ.
e
Since
e
is
= ^FVc,
0,
it
follows that a
VP
and there
<p=
 V^SVPQ.
pure strain.
If e is
The
not zero, In any there is rotation, about e as an axis, of amount Te. case the function cpo determines the changes of length of all
strain
is
in this case a
lines in the
e of
direction
Up
SUpcpoUp.
The
are
six coefficients of
cpo,
of
form
Sa(po^,
where a,
(3,
j3
any two
y,
shears,
In the case of
SV<r, and this is called the cubic dilatation. If it vanishes, the strain takes place with no change of volume, that is, with no change of density. A strain of this character
is
called
a transversal strain.
There
is
a vector
by the formula
0.
= FVr,
SVt =
no scalar potential since we do not generally have Indeed we have also FVo = 0. There
is
FVor
DEFORMABLE BODIES
This would give us the integral
259
The
integration is over the entire body. This strain is called transverse because in case
we have a
a
S Vo"
afix
/i
+ fif2x + yfz'X,
0,
/i
constant,
and
rigid
all
points are
moved
body.
zero,
and /i
0.
Hence every displacement is perpendicular to the line a. 10. When FVo = 0, we call the strain longitudinal; for, 9, we see that we have giving a the same expression as in
Wo =
Hence we have
11.
is
7/2'
 fifz,
Va<T
and
/2
fz,
0.
all
0,
the strain
= 0, purely of a shearing character, and if the curl VVo^ the strain is purely of a dilatational character. Since any vector G can be separated into a solenoidaJ and a lamellar
part in an infinity of ways, it is always possible to separate the strain into two parts, one of dilatation only, the other
of shear only.
If
we
write a
= VP +
find
and r
in
P=lTfffSa'vTp'dv',
r=  iTfffVa'VTp'dv',
p=
p'
PC.
260
VECTOR CALCULUS
The integrations extend throughout the body displaced. This method of resolution is not always successful, and other formulae must be used. (Duhem, Jour, des Math.,
1900.)
12. The components are not functionally independent, but are subject to a set of relations due to Saint Venant. These relations are obvious in the quaternion form, equiva
The equation
if
is
VViPoVvO =
0,
<p=SOV<r,
where both V's operate on (po. The equation is, furthermore, the necessary and sufficient condition that any linear
vector function
(p
The problem
of
when ^
=
is
SOV(T.
evident that
It
we
we have
(pdp
da.
EXAMPLES
(1).
li
(p
Fe(),
wehaveo
Vep.
equations.
(2).
If
<^
= pWOp\
then a
Up.
ant's equations.
13. In general when we do not have small strains, we must modify the preceding theory somewhat. The dis
placement
will
change the
dpi
differential
element dp into
dp
Sdp\7
or.
The
two
strain
is
characterized
differential
DEFOKMABLE BODIES
o as to arrive at the tensor
261
{dpiY
Sdp[l
 2vSa +
is
V'S<t'(t"SV'Vp.
The
c
which we
by
jSQVo then
$ =
Of course
also called
<l>
(1
is
<p){i
^')
(1
+
If
^)(i
^y.
selfconjugate.
strain.
Its
components of
infinitesimal,
we
may
substitute (1
+ 2<pq)
is
for $.
The
cubical dilatation
now found by
subtracting
(f)
from
SdipidiPidzpil Sdipdipdzp
= ^3(1+
The
= 1+ A.
in
Evidently
angle of
(1 j
A)^
is
rrisi^).
alteration
the
two elements
found from
'P)\u{i<p)\'.
 sua +
If
angles are not altered between the infinitesimal elements, the transformation is conformal, or isogonal. In such case
For example,
if
= VaQ,
<p)y
when Sa\
14.
SXX',
infinitesimal transformations,
This part of the subject leads us into the theory of and is too extensive to be
treated here.
On
15. If the function
it
Discontinuities
o
may happen
continuous.
is continuous throughout a body, convergence or its curl may be disThe consideration of such discontinuities is
that
its
262
VECTOR CALCULUS
usually given at length in a discussion of the potential Here we need only the elements of the theory. functions. We make use of the following general theorem from analysis.
Lemma.
all
face for if, as we approach the surface by each and every path leading
If a function is continuous on one side of a surpoints not actually on the surface in question, and
up
to
derivatives
a point P, the gradient of the function, or its directional approach one and the same limit for all the paths;
Sdp\/
q
dq,
p.
[Hadamard, Lemons sur la propagation des ondes, etc., 84, Painleve, Ann. Ecole Normale, 1887, Part 1, ch. 2,
2.]
no.
each side of a surface, which is the value on the surface, and is the limiting value as the surface is approached, at all points of the surface, we have on one side of the surface
d(T
SdpS7
o'
<pidp.
On
da
If
Sdp\7o'
(P2dp.
now
<p,
in
so that ^2
these two do not agree, but there is a discontinuity (Pi is finite as the two paths are made
^
by the notation
((p2
[],
we have
in the limit
(pi)dp
[(p]dp.
But
is
[da]
0,
DEFORMABLE BODIES
and therefore
[<p\
263
t^Sv,
where
ay,
v is
we have
the unit normal, n a given vector. for the transition of the surface
That
is
to
[SOV<t]
hSp.
Whence
[SV(t]
= [Vs^a] =
Spfi,
Vvti.
identical conditions,
under which the discontinuities can actually have the surface for their distribution.
16.
is
U Suv =
Svvfj.
0,
then [S V<r]
0,
continuous.
Since
Sv[VV(r] = [SvV(t], the norma! component of the curl of a is continuous, and the discontinuity Likewise is confined to the tangential component.
S^vfi=
0=
[SfiV<r],
and the component along /x is continuous. Hence VS7(t can be discontinuous only normal to the plane of /x, v.
17.
In case a
of
itself is
ponent passes the surface of discontinuity cannot be discontinuous without tearing the surface in two. Hence
it
a as
It
can be related
Consider a line on the surface, of infinitesimal length, and an infinitesimal rectangle normal to the surface, and let the value of a at the two upper points differ only infinitesimally, as likewise at the two lower points, but the difference at the two right hand points or at the two
left
hand
264
VECTOR CALCULUS
discontinuity
in
going
Then
around the rectangle, when k is normal to the rectangle. But the four parts on the left for the four sides give simply
/S5p[o],
where hp is a horizontal side and equal to VKvT8p. we have for every k tangential to the surface
SkVp[<7]
Hence
Sk Lim {AVV(T)/Tdp.
Dropping
all infinitesimals,
we have
AV^/a/Tdp.
Vv[a]
= Lim
Tangential discontinuities may therefore be considered to be representable by a limiting value of the curl multiplied
by an
infinitesimal area, as
if
tinuity were the locus of the axial lines of an infinity of small rotations which enable one space to roll upon the other.
The expression
[o] is
strain
is
continuous strain
tinuity in
its
may
Vv[a]
v.
derivatives of
everywhere, then
exists is parallel to
0,
derivation above applies to any case, and we may if a field is irrotational, any discontinuity it possesses must be normal to the surface of discontinuity.
The
say that
Integrating in the
box,
surface of a small
we would have
^^Sv[a]d^
SV<T'V,
DEFORMABLE BODIES
wliere x
is
265
this gives
But
vS'V(rlsuT{ace.
If then SVoeverywhere, the discontinuity of a is normal to the normal, that is, it is purely tangential. These theorems will be useful in the study of electrodynamics.
Kinematics of Displacements
In the case of a continuous displacement which takes place in time we have as the vector a the velocity of a moving particle, and if p is the vector from a fixed point
18.
cr.
It
is
necessary to distin
guish between the velocity of the particle and the local velocity of the stream of particles as they pass a given fixed point in the absolute space which is supposed to be sta
The latter is designated by d^dt. Thus da'dt is the local rate of change of the velocity at a certain point. While da/dt is the rate of change of the velocity as we follow
tionary.
the particle. It is easy to see that for any quaternion q the actual time rate of change is
dq/'dt
dqjdt
SaVq.
We
da'dt
SaV<T
is
(d/dt\
<p)<r.
If
considered to be displaced,
we have
Sdpldt
=
dt,
is
SdpV<r.
the angular velocity of turn attached is ^FVo. This is
is
^Vv<t
which dp
SVor.
rate of change of
The
18
an
infinitesimal
volume dv as
it
266
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
moves along
SV(Tdv.
The equation
density, or
of continuity
is
d(cdv)
=
0.
0,
where
c is
the
dc/dt
c( SV<t)
That
is,
we have
for a
medium
of constant
mass
dc/dt
cjSVo"
That
is, the density at a moving point has a rate of change second per equal to the density times the convergence of the velocity.
It
may
dc/dt
Sv(c<7).
i^
momentum
pt
0,
is
irrotational, or dik
put
\^P, where
now
is
a veloc
which
0,
may
be monodromic or polydromic
is
the motion
= FVr
potential of velocity.
is
the vector
in this
become
The
lines of
and the
is
continuous, and the equation of a surface of = 0, discontinuity of the gradient dyadic of a and of a' is / where now (t is a displacement and a' is da/dt the velocity,
20. If
<r
we have
certain
0,
[S()V(r]=
/xSi^
DEFORMABLE BODIES
in the case in
267
t is
surface in which /
a function of
as well as of p,
SOV<f]=fiSUvfO,
^"^
fv ^] ^ "
as
it
^'
^^
f ^^"^^^
^'''^^
~^'''
it
The equation
in the
t),
we have
normal direction
 SdpVf+dtf =
that
is,
0,
since dp
'
is
now Us/fdn,
the derivative of / any point on the instantaneous position of the moving surface the rate of outward motion of the point of the
is
where /
at
surface
G'
coinciding
with
the
fixed
point
in
space
is
called a
f '/Tvf The moving surface of discontinuity is wave and G the rate of propagation of the wave at the given point. We may now read the condition of compatibility above in these words: the abrupt change in the
displacement velocity is given by a definite vector ju at each point multiplied by the negative rate of propagation of the wave of displacement, that is, if G is the rate of
propagation,
W] =
21.
Gil,
and
[S\7a]
= 
5/xT'V/
= 
Siiv.
tinuities of
general for disconin order the Let the funcany following way. tion a and all its derivatives be continuous down to the
(n
l)th,
5()_iVo]
0,
268
VECTOR CALCULUS
we
'
same manner
'
[SOiV
SOnVc] = fxS0iUvfS02Uvf
in
SOnUvf,
is
V/
constant.
n),
And
if
we
insert
dpjdt
parentheses
(m ^
we
moving,
[SOiV
S()_^V(7()]
= In particular for
to
tJiG^^SOlUVf'
2
sonmUvf{ir
n,
we have
k"]
= nG\
which
is
placement.
If TO
1,
2,
[SOVa']= fiGSQUvf.
From
this
we
derive easily
GSfiP.
[SVcr']
GVixv.
22.
The
nth. derivatives of
[SQiV
If
S{)nVSaa]
= SOiUvf
SOnUvfSan.
of
two values
of the infinitesimal
perpendicular directions
volume which has two on the surface and the third along be given by the formula
SQiUvf SOnUvfS^Uvf.
In case
we have a
DEFORMABLE BODIES
[density
269
fixed,
and
of
we have
log c
log Co
r/27o
= =
=
volo/vol,
log vo
log
V,
V log c =
I
V log
Vo/vV{c/vo).
we have
since i?/^
ksQiV
we have
SOnV
log
c]
= SOiUvf
'
'
SOnUvfSnUvf.
two
[Vlogc]= UvfSfxUvf.
These theorems may be extended to the case in which the medium is in motion as well as the wave of discontinuity.
23.
Stress
24. In
any body
The
consists of
if
two opposing
if
as positive
a tension, negative
stress
taken
all
body
will
first
terms of the
equivalent to assuming that the stress on any infinitesimal portion of the surface is a linear function of the normal,
that
I
;
is
e = ^Uv.
25.
We
J'fQdA = ffEdv =
But
bj^
0.
is
270
VECTOR CALCULUS
SSS^^
p,
0
Hence
HV =
0.
and
differentiates
S
oi
ii
integrated over
through is not infinitesimal, this equation (in which H no longer a constant function) remains true if there
equilibrium; and
if
a is
there are external forces that produce equilibrium, say ^ per unit volume, then the density being
c,
we have
HV +
for every point.
c^
=
we have
c<x".
In case there
is
a small motion,
HV +
27.
c^
Returning to the infinitesimal space considered, we: moment as to the origin of the stress on a
vanish, considering
as constant,
is
ffVpZdv = fffVp^Vdv,
hence
FpSv =
(H).
We see
therefore that
is
selfconjugate.
EXAMPLES
In this case (1). Purely normal stress, hydrostatic stress. is of the form pH = gp, where g is {for tension, foi
pressure,
(2).
and
is
S=
(3).
paSa.
Shearing
stress.
H =  p(aS^
jS
+ ^Sa),
not parallel to a.
DEFORMABLE BODIES
(4).
271
Plane stress.
E=
(5),
giaSa
+ gzPS^.
stress.
Maxwell's electrostatic
2:=
where
28.
l/8x
FVPQVP,
is
the potential.
Its principal
Since
C is called the stress quadric. axes give the direction of the principal stresses. the direction of the normal we may arrive at a
graphical understanding of the stress by passing planes through the center, and to each construct the conjugate
the direction of the stress, and since T'Ep inversely proportional to the perpendicular from the origin on the tangent plane at p, if we lay off on
diameter.
This
is
will give
the conjugate diameter distances inversely as the perpendiculars, we shall have the vector representation of the
stress.
When the
diameter
is
normal to
its
conjugate plane,
stress.
there will be no
component
that
is
no tangential
Such planes
It is
be the principal planes of the stress. evident that a stress is completely known when the
is
selfconjugate linear vector function H depends therefore upon six parameters. then, of the stress H, since
tion
is
known, which
shall speak,
We
it.
From
this point of
components
vector in sixdimensional space. These components in the quaternion notation are, for a, ^, y, a trirectangular system,
SaZa,
SjSHt
iSjSSjS,
Sy'E^,
StHt,
Sy'Ea
SaH/S
= 
S^Za,
Sa'Ey.
272
VECTOR CALCULUS
is,
That
It
is
easy to see
now
component
Thus we have
at once
Xx ~r
J^ y
~T ^zi
1
^ V^z
^zAx
+ Xxl
Zx
Xy
.
Xxiy^z
2XyY z^x
XxY z
YyZix
ZzXy
EXERCISE
What
are the principal stresses
we may
a"
^\
c^SV.
is
>
W'=  fffSa'ZVdv.
The other terms
of energy.
of the kinetic energy are not
due to storage
in
to the effect that the stress dyadic is a linear function of the strain dyadic. The latter was shown
is
statement
to be
The
<r and where operates upon c, and owing to the selfconjugate character of ^p, we must be able to
function of
interchange
and
a,
that
is,
S=
e[(),
V,
cr].
DEFORMABLE BODIES
First, it follows
273
that
a,
variable parameter
if the strain ^o is multiplied by a that the stress will be multiplied by We have then for a parametric change
may
in
a alone
ax'.
Hence
we would
have
W =  xx'fffSa^Vdv,
W
if
=  hfffSa^V
to
1.
dv,
This gives an expression for the energy if it is stored in this special manner. If the work is a function of the strain alone and not dependent upon the
X runs from
is called an energyis brought about, to be a thus seen quadratic function of the fiindion. is an In case there strain. energy function, we have for
way
in
which
it
It is
two
strain functions
ai, at
Hi
e[(),
(Ti,
H2
The
same
have
way we
SozGalVs,
01,
Vi]
acts. 4 merely indicate upon what function This is equivalent to saying that so far as vector is concerned, in the form
3,
we can interchange
is
a,
selfconjugate,
Since E is self conjugate, /3 and 7, 5. and we can interchange a and j8. From
Of course,
in the
274
VECTOR CALCULUS,
have
in this
'
We
way
<Pl2
<Pn
e[(),
,]
<P23
e[(), fi,y]
',
jS
7 being
We
C1112,
Soiipua,
six functions
C1112
Saipi^a,
six constituents.
each of the
having
These
are the 36 elastic constants. If there is an energy function, they reduce in number to only 21, for we must be able to interchange the first pair of numbers with the last pair.
left
3 forms Cim, 6 of
C1112,
3 of
C1122,
3 of
C1212,
3 of
C2311,
3 of c^ni
In theories of elasticity based upon a molecular theory and action at a distance six other relations are added to
these reducing the number of elastic constants to 15. These relations are equivalent to an interchange of the second
and third subscript in each form, thus C1122 = Ci2i2 These are usually called Cauchy's relations, but are not commonly
used. (See Love, Elasticity, Chap. III.)
strain function
v'o,
Remembering the
we can we have
interpret
SanpoUj
(pij,
the stress dyadic due to the strain component where a,, ay are any two of the three a, /?, 7.
Sai(poaj,
Cijki is
the
component
direction ai
normal
to ay in the
Sak(po(xi
275
EXAMPLES
(1). If Sij
Sai<p(/Xj,
function
W=
(2),
^ZcnnSn
2Cu23*ll*23.
When
there
y an odd number
reflection in
unchanged by
/3,
If there are
two per
7, the only
Cn22,
Ci2l2>
is
If
a,
^ into
'as
by
rotation about
is
normal to 7
7 through other
angles.
(5).
When
yi,
we have
where
d'
e(X,
30.
v)
0(/z, \, v)
= 
VvB^^yL,
6.
A body is said
to be isotropic as to elasticity
when the
body.
not dependent upon directions in the In such case the energy function is invariant under
It
(po,
The
is
last is of
while the energy function and therefore can be only of the form
IT'
quadratic
= 
Pnii
AvH^
Brrii.
276
VECTOR CALCULUS
zero except for gases and is then positive. refers to resistance to compression, and
is
The conis
stant
J5 is
positive.
a constant belonging to soHds. The form given the quadratic terms by Helmholtz
is
Ami^
Bmt = ^Hmi"
C[2mi2
Gmz].
The
[]
is
the
sum
(fo.
latent roots of
The constant
of form,
H
in
refers to
and
if there is no change of form, the roots the and other term is zero. C refers to changes equal of form without change of volume, since it vanishes if the roots are equal and is the whole energy if there is no cubical = 0. expansion mi. For perfect fluids C The form given by Kirchoff is
B
C = 2Kd,
3C = 2K,
H=
2K{d
+ \),
C=
IK.
We may
+ Km^W)  Pmi. that Later notation gives 2K6 = \, K = W = ^Xmi^ + iumi(^o^) Pmi.
W=
Kemi"
fx,
is,
The
constants X,
ix
are the
of
isotropic bodies.
S = Xmi
2/x^o.
EXAMPLES
(1).
know H = p
DEFORMABLE BODIES
and we have
for ^o
277
<P^=
 h(SOVap + ASapO) =
we have
a().
Op =
The
cubical dilatation
is
X(3a)
2/xa().
thus
3a
p/(X
+ fm) =
p/Jc,
where k
(2).
is
called the
modulus
of cubical compression.
S= 
a/2[S/3()
+ fiSaOl
fiSai)].
m^
0,
apiaSPO f
is
If
T, then
T=
afi.
is
the shear
modulus or simple
(3).
rigidity.
is
subject to tension
T uniform
over
its
plane ends,
and no
lateral traction,
we have
H =  aTSaO = Xmi
From
both
sides,
2fx<po.
T = 3miX
+ 2mifi,
so that
mi=
Substituting,
r/(3X+2/i).
we have
''
2fi
2/i(3X
+2m)'
the quotient of a
We
\\Tite
now
E=
/i(3X
2/i)/(X
+ n),
simple longitudinal tension by the stretch produced, and Also we set called Young's modulus.
s
X/(2X
2/i),
Poisson's ratio.
278
VECTOR CALCULUS
any two
of the three
the other
may
be found.
We
have
M
E/[(l
+ *)(1 k
2^),
i^/(l
+ s),
IE/ (I 2s).
In terms of
and
we have
(po
m~
<
0,
Wi(H)5
and the material would expand under < 1, IT would not be positive. pressure. =  and X = ju. For (5). If Cauchy's relations hold, 5 numerical values of the moduli see texts such as Love,
(4).
If
<
6',
If *
Elasticity.
31. Bodies that are not isotropic are called aelotropic.
There
is still
(po
after
o'o
+ Jlo^da =
= = = =
(To
Jl^a^cSvdp, where
fp'o'i^odp
acts on a
<To+
00+
(To
hV(Pi
iV(pi
Po)VV(To
fp'o'lfodp
(To
hViPi
P)VVd<r]
.
poWVcro +
fp^'[<Podp
p)VV'iPodp].
pi in
terms of the
DEFORMABLE BODIES
\alues at po of a,
integration of ^o
279
of
EXAMPLES
(1).
is
vertical
with horizontal ends, the upper being cemented to a Then we have the value of zontal plane.
hori
H =
where the origin
is
gcySypSyO,
vertical unit,
The
SV +
That
under
gel
is,
c^
0,
or
is
c^
gey,
the condition
realizable
its
own
I is
where
The
we have
L
Let a
L
gc{l f s)IE,
gcs'E, b
VV<PoO = The
(^0
 aVyO  bVyySyQ = 
aVyO
integral
2^^(Pl
is
thus
Po)0
+
=
<To
J'p^'iaSypdp
2^^(Pl
+
\a
bySypSydp
aV(pi
p)Vydp]
Po)o
+
=
(To
S/o'[aSyp8p
po)eo +
+ aySpdp]
r(pi
+ aVpiVyp + laypX,
the differential being exact.
a at
pi.
280
01
VECTOR CALCULUS
r
V(pi
po)(ieo
aVypo)
+ h^Vpiypi + ^byS'^yp,
V5(r()L
f, e
constants.
Substituting a and
6,
and constructing
^0= M'S()Vcr+
we
easily verify.
If
the cylinder does not rotate, we may omit the second term and if the upper base does not move
laterally,
^gcP/Ey, and
we have
a= A
^cP/Ey
gcsl2E'Vpyp
gc(l
+ s)/2EyS'py.
plane crosssection of the cylinder is distorted into a paraboloid of revolution about the axis and the sections shrink laterally by distances proportional to their distances
from the
(2). If
free end.
a cylinder of length 21
is
immersed
in a fluid of
density c', its own density being c, the upper end fixed, p the pressure of the fluid at the center of gravity, then we have the stress given by
S= 
(p
gc'Syp)
<po,
g(c
c')(l
Syp)ySy,
whence calculating
<Po
we have
1
X
And
(1
Syp)]
+

2*)
gs{c
c')
ySy[g(c
c')(l
Syp)l
+ s)]/E.
a= ^+Vdp +
p[{
2^)2?
gslic
c')
Spyg[cesic+c')]lE ^y[hicc')ii\s)(iSypr
+
(3).
hgp'W
if
s(c
c')]/E.
What
c'?
Solve
also directly.
DEFORMABLE BODIES
(4).
281
If a circular
is
bar has
its
axis parallel to 7,
and the
only stress
of
moment
is,
a traction at each end, equivalent to couples ^xaV^ about the axis of 7, a being the radius,
that
we
have
H= 
ht^tiySpyO
+ VfyySyO), + VpySyQ],
Any
section
t
tSyp.
(5).
it is
is
The
turned in its own plane through the angle the angular twist per centimeter. next example is of considerable importance, as
is
The equations
are
H= .^0
E/RSapySyO,
+ sEr^yocS^pSap
If
R~^ySapSyp.
the body
is
axis
horizontal, there
a cylinder or prism of any shape with the is no body force nor traction on the
resultant traction across
perimeter.
The
any section
is
ffwhich
will
EiRSapdA,
is
equal zero
if
the origin
normal
state, that
by the tractions at its terminal the traction across sections, any section being equivalent
is
stressed only
The couple becomes one with axis ^ = ya and value EIjR, where / is the moment of inertia about an axis through the centroid parallel to /3. The line of centroids
is
Saa
19
\R~^Syp,
282
SO that
it is
VECTOR CALCULUS
approximately the arc of a
circle of radius
R.
strainenergy function is \ER~'^Sap, and the potential energy per unit length ^EI/R^.
The
For further discussion see Love, p. 127 et seq. =  ESypdQ, where dy = 0, and (6). When S
6',
vector,
show that
= = (1
We
recur
now
SV +
E = Xmi
whence
c^
0.
2m^o
=  \SWa  (aSQV
fiVSV(T
+
=
0,
VSaQ),
WSV(T + /xVV +
or
(X
c^
c^
0,
+ m) V5V<r + juV^c 
or equally since
VV =
(X
2ju)
0.
the equation of equilibrium when the displacemen and the force ^ are given. In the case of small motion w<
This
is
ca''.
The
tractioi
+ fx)vSV(r
fxVVva,
where
tion
v is constant.
by <SV(), we
(X
see that
2fi)V^SVa
cSV^ =
0.
DEFOR\L\BLE BODIES
If
283
if
P and V^P =
throughout
the body,
we
see that
is
a harmonic function.
also harmonic.
Since ?Wi(E)
SAtwi,
we
see that
7?Zi(S) is
Again we have
(X
+ m) V5V<r =  M VV,
VSaQ)
Now we
/x(<r5V0
VSaQ),
harmonic
= 
,xV'(<tSvO
u)
VSaO) =
(1
2(X
+ /x)VSv5V<rO
= 2(X+
3^.
VSvSVtrQ =
V'S =
+ *)^V5VSV(r().
or
T^ V5vJ/i().
(5) 1 (1892).
This relation
is
EXAMPLE
i
Maxwell's stress system cannot occur in a solid body which is isotropic, free from the action of body forces, and
slightly strained
from a state of no
'j
*
stress, since
we have
TOi(H)
l/8x.(vP)^
284
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
which
34.
not harmonic.
We
consider
now
under no body
aeolotropic.
forces, the
body being
is
either isotropic or
j
The equation
ca"
0
of vibrations

0[(),
0( V, V, 0"),
where
t
H=
p.
V,
o"]
as before,
iii
and
is
a function of both
and
If
the vector
represents
the direction and the magnitude of the wavefront, the equation of a planewave will be
Spjoo,
moving along
is
its
velocity
co.
By
That
definition of a wavefront
mean
position
is,
at
any instant
is
a function of u
and
t,
hence
Vc =
VSpfcoda/du
of
uT'^da/du,
as/(V)
gives
/(co^)av/^w^
where n
is
the degree of /.
for
wavemotion then
is
If
if
the wave
is
the vibration
a"
Therefore
du^a/d^
= =
pV.
caT^u.
in the direction Uco
Q[Uoi, Uo}, a]
Hence
for a plane
wave propagated
DEFORMABLE BODIES
the vibration
function
e[Uo}, Uo),
()].
285
lines of
is
parallel to
the
The velocity is the square root of the quotient of the latent root corresponding, by the density. There may be three planepolarized waves propagated in the same direction
with different velocities.
The wavevelocity
surface
is
ca]mor\ ur\^
of 0[?7a>, TJw,
c^][Q{or\ aj\7]
0,
that
is,
by the cubic
is
()].
an energy function, 9[?7co, U<a, ()] is selfconjugate as may easUy be seen. In such case the invariant
If there
lines
is,
vibration,
dz,
for
any
mutually trirectangular.
in
Since
is
essentially positive,
the roots are positive, and there are thus three real velocities
any
If
gf
direction.
is a repeated root, there is an invariant plane of indeterminate lines and the condition for such is
V[e(c^\ co\ a)
cct][e(oi\
is
or\
/3)
m=
0,
a and
/8
arbitrary.
There
a finite
co,
number
vectors
of solutions to
internal
conical
refraction.
The
terminate
at
is,
Hamilton's
waveslowness surface,
5[0(p, p, a)
a,
/3,
is
given by
/3)
ca][Q{p, p,
c/3][e(p, p,
y)
cy]
0,
surface,
which is the inverse of the wavevelocity the current vector of the surface, just as ta for the other surface, the equation being formed by setting
arbitrary,
is
286
p
is
VECTOR CALCULUS
oT^.
=
the
The
envelope
co~^.
The condition
surfaces.
of the
two other
It
is
surface with respect to the unit sphere p^ 1, or the of the wavefronts in unit time after envelope plane passing the origin, or the wave of the vibration propagated from the
origin in unit time.
The
its
equation
are in magnitude and direction the ray velocities. When there is an energy function, this rayvelocity is found easily, as follows:
The wavesurface
is
e(iu,
a)
C(T,
Q{djx,
fx,
a)
6()U, djx, a)
9()U,
p.,
da)
cda,
Sfxp
Spdjx
0.
From
SdaQin,
/x,
a)
cSadX,
or
by the equations
SdixQ(<T, a,
jx)
0.
Hence
as
djx is
perpendicular to
9((r,
(T, fx)
p,
we have
xp.
Operate by
S/j,
of x,
cp.
This equation with Q(ix,ix, a) = ca gives all the relations between the three vectors. See Joly, p. 247 et seq.
CHAPTER XI
HYDRODYNAMICS
1.
mon name
tinguished from a viscous fluid has the property that its state of stress iiT^otion or when stationary can be considered to be an operator which has three equal roots and
all lines
invariant, thus
S=P(),
where p
density
is is
positive, that
c,
we
a"
= ^
c^Vp.
^)
=  Vp is
(X
+ m)
c^.
VSV
(t
ijlV(t.
When
there
equilibrium
Vp=
If
may
= cVP,
all
directions.
That
is,
any
infinitesimal
variation of the pressure is equal to the density into the infinitesimal variation of the force function. In order that
there
may
^, we must have ^ subject to a condition, for from Vp =c^, we have V^p = Vc^ + cV^, whence <S^V^ = 0, and
VV^ =
T'^Vlogc.
287
288
If ^
VECTOR CALCULUS
= VP,
last
the condition
is,
of
course,
is
satisfied,
and
from the
is
equation we
see that ^
parallel to
Vc, that
is normal to the isopycnic surface at the point, or the levels of the force function are the isopycnic surfaces. = c^ states that ^ is also a normal of the The equation
to say, ^
Vp
isobaric surfaces.
iso
baric surfaces, the isopycnic surfaces, and the isosteric surfaces are geometrically the same. However, it is to be
noted that
if
three so that the values of the function represented differ for the levels by a unit, that is, if unit sheets are constructed,
may
words:
Specific
volume times pressure gradient is the force per unit mass. We can also translate the differential statement into
words thus:
sheet is the
the
mean
specific
number
number
Since dp and
dP
we have:
Under
pressure per unit mass as well as the line integral of the force from the force function per unit volume are independent of the
path of integration and thus depend only on the end points. 3. There is for every fluid a characteristic equation which
states a relation
of
p = const
(1+ 273
7")
for constant
volume.
HYDRODYNAMICS
289
The
pa
form
= RT,
where
volume, the
equation reading
dP =
adp.
From
this
we have
dP = RTdplp.
connected with p by any law such as that given above, we can substitute its value and integrate at once. Or if T is connected with the force function P by an equation, we can integrate at once.
If
is
Example.
In the case of gravity and the atmosphere, suppose that the temperature decreases uniformly with the equiSince we must in this case take P so that potentials.
T= ToRbdp/p,
bP,
dP = dT/b,
Or again
dPJiTo
dT/T
T = TMp^y^.
hP) =
R dp/p,
full
bP/To
(p/poy.
solution of the problem, the initial conditions being for mean sealevel, and in terms of a or c as follows:
We
T=
T = Tod
ToiplpoY^
ao{pfpoy^\
""^^i,
290
VECTOR CALCULUS
P=
and substituting we
find c
To/b,
0,
0.
If 6 is
negative,
the Active limit of the atmosphere is below sealevel. For values of bR from qo to 1, for the latter value b = 0.00348
(that is, a temperature drop of 3.48 C. per 100 dynamic meters of height), we have unstable equilibrium, since from the equations above for c we have increasing density
upwards.
The
case
bR =
is
extreme; however,
it
is
mathematically interesting from the simplicity that results. Pressure and temperature would decrease uniformly
and we should have a homogeneous atmosphere. This condition is unstable and the slightest displacement would
continue indefinitely.
Values of
bR
less
than
lead
still
to unstable equilibrium, the state of indifferent equilibrium occurring when the adiabatic cooling of an upward moving
mass of air brings its temperature to that of the new levels. For dry air this occurs for bR = 0.2884 = (1.4053
1) /1.4053,
or a
fall of
1.0048
eter.
See Bjerknes, Dynamic Meteorology and Hydrography. 4. The equation when there is not equilibrium gives us
aVp
Let
^
a".
( ),
= VP,
and operate by
VV
then
WaVp =
ffSUvWaVp = The righthand
or force per unit
side
is
V\7(t".
If we multiply by SUv and integrate over any surface normal to Uv, we have
ffSUv\7(7" =
fSdp<x".
side
HYDRODYNAMICS
is
291
the surface integral of VS7aS7p over the area enclosed. If then we suppose that in a drawing we represent the isobars as lines, and the isosterics also as lines that cut these,
drawing a
line for
case (and noticing that in equilibrium the lines do not intersect), we shall have a set of curvihnear parallelograms
representing tubes.
The
It is to
must be counted positively and negatively, that is, the number of tubes must be taken positive or negative, according to whether Va, Vp, the two gradients, make a
positive or a negative angle with each other in the order as written. This circulation of the force per unit mass may be
taken as a measure of the departure from equilibrium. In the same way we find that if we draw the equipotentials
shall
any area equal to the circulaper unit volume around the bounding
line,
we choose
an
isobaric curve, a
downward
vertical,
and an
isobaric curve,
ence between the excess up one vertical of the cubic meters per ton at the upper isobar over that at the lower isobar and
the corresponding excess for the other vertical. If the lines are two verticals and two equipotentials, the number of
isopotentialisopycnic tubes is the difference of the two excesses of pressure at the lower levels over pressure at the upper levels. These are the circulations around the boundaries of the forces per unit
may
5.
be.
If
we
292
the
fluid,
VECTOR CALCULUS
we have
Archimedes' principle, usually related to a body immersed in water, in which case the statement is that the resultant of all the pressure of the water upon
enclosed.
This
is
is
we were
moment
of
the normal pressures and the external forces, we would arrive at an analogous statement. The field of force, however,
EXERCISE.
Consider the case of a
force due to gravity
field in which there is the and a horizontal force due to
vertical
centrif\
We
now
to
moving
fluids.
small space containing fluid with one of its points at po may be followed as it moves with the fluid, always con
same particles. It will usually be deformed in shape. The position p of the particle initially at po will be a function of po and of t, say
taining the
6 (po,
t).
The
particle initially at po
dp
will at the
same time
6 (po
\
dp,t)
t
SdipVop,
SdipVop
(pdipo.
= V (pdipQipd^po,
and the
HYDRODYNAMICS
volume
Sdipdipdzp
293
S(pdipo(pd2PQ(pdzPo
=
Sdipod2Pod3Po''>n3{(p).
If
we must have
Cq.
Codvo,
or
cms
This
The
is the equation of continuity in the Lagrangian form. reference of the motion to the time and the initial conis
figuration
variables.
7.
Since
dp
SdpVp =
S(pdpo^p
Sdpo<p'Vp
= VoP = <p'Vp =
But the equations
of
SdpoVoVf
VoSpVp.
aVp =
aVoP =
p",
t
we have
p")
and the equation of continuity, give us five scalar equations expressing six numbers in terms of po and t. In order to
definite
then,
we must introduce a
The two
is
common
The temperature
is
constant,
if
if
is
or the salinity
variables
eses;
constant,
is
salinity.
come
in,
294
(2)
VECTOR CALCULUS
The
The
usually
written
kc*.
y is the ratio of specific heat under constant pressure to that under constant volume, as for example, for compressed
air,
1.408.
In the integrations we are obliged to pay attention to two kinds of conditions, those due to the initial values of
8.
the space occupied by the fluid at ^ = 0, the pressure po and density Cq, or specific volume ao, at each point of the
the particles po' at po. The other conditions are the boundary conditions during the movement. As for example, consider a fluid enclosed
fluid,
and the
initial velocities of
The velocity in the must be tangent to the walls. If we have the general case of a moving boundary for the fluid, then its equation would be
in a
latter case
/(P,
If
t)
0.
then
p' is
the velocity,
idf/dt)dt
we must have
 SdpVf+
0,
or
Sp'Vf\ df/dt
0.
If there is a free surface, then the pressure here must be In order to have constant, as the pressure of the air. various combinations of these conditions coexistent, it is
necessary sometimes to introduce discontinuities. 9. If we were in a balloon in perfect equilibrium moving along with one and the same mass of air, the barograph
would
on
mograph the varying temperatures, and if there were a velocitymeter, it would register the varying velocity of the
mass.
From
HYDRODYNAMICS
they inhere in the same mass.
values of
dpidt,
295
is,
That
dT/dt,
dpjdt.
These
may
As the balloon passed any fixed station the quantities. all the instruments would be the same as instrureadings of ments at the fixed stations. But the rates of change would differ. The rates of change of these quantities at the same station would be for a fixed p and a variable /, and could
be called the Vjqq\ timederivatives, or partial derivatives. They can be calculated from the registered readings. The
relation
is
diet
Sp'V.
individual
and the
local values
dp
dp
,^
dT
dT
dp'
dp'
The
last
we have
aVp = k
dp'/dt h
Sp'Vp'
dp'Idt
e{p')y
d= S{ V p',
)
d'
=  VSp'i
2e
),
do
US{)V'p'= Wp'.
WO),
296
VECTOR CALCULUS
is
Since
near
(p
po,
Po
+ Pa'dt,
form
we have
the
former?
function
ip=
 S()Vop= l +
=
dt( S()V'p')o=
+ dtdatpo.
Whence
ms{<p)
1
dtm,(d)
dt{ SVp').
is any point, this equation holds for and we have the equation of continuity in the any point form
c
or,
cdtSVp'
Co
Co
dtdcldt{l
dtSVp'),
ciSVp'
0.
This
If
is
we use
dc/dt SV(cp')
0.
That
is,
vergence of specific
the local rate of change of the density is the conmomentum. It is obvious that if the
fluid is incompressible,
that
is,
if
is
solenoidal.
If
solenoidal.
constant, then the specific momentum is If the medium is incompressible and homo
solenoidal vectors.
geneous, then both velocity and specific momentum are It is clear also that in any case the of normal component velocity must be continuous through
any surface, but specific momentum need not be. boundary is stationary, then both velocity and
If
anyj
specifid
momentum
are tangential to
it.
HYDRODYNAMICS
297
In the atmosphere, which is compressible, specific momentum is solenoidal, but in the incompressible hydrosphere, both velocity
Of course tie
specific
made
If
is
at
close
the vector hues of the velocity which are called lines of flow. These lines are not made up of the same particles and if we were to mark a given set of particles at any time,
say by coloring them blue, then the configuration of the blue particles would change from instant to instant as they
moved
line.
trajectory of a blue particle is a stream If the particles that pass a given point are all colored
along.
line as a line of flow,
The
only when that called stationary. In this case the line through the red particles would be the streamline through the point. If the motion is not stared,
is
tionary, then after a time the red particles would form a red filament that would be tangled up with several stream
lines.
In the case of meteorological observations the direction of the wind is taken at several stations simultane10.
ously and by the anemometer its intensity is given. These data give us the means of drawing on a chart suitably pre
pared the
lines of flow at the given time of day and the curves showing the points of equalintensity of the wind Of course, the velocity is usually only the horivelocity.
zontal velocity and the vertical velocity must be inferred. One of the items needed in meteorological and other
studies
cific
is
the
amount
of material transported.
If
the spe
momentum
in a horizontal direction
is cp' ,
and
lines
20
298
of flow
VECTOR CALCULUS
be drawn, then for a vertical height dz and a width lines of flow equal to dn, we will have the trans
between
port equal to Tp'dndz. Since, however, we have for practical purposes dz = dp, we can write this in the form
transport
Tp'dn{
dp).
In order to do this graphically we first dra>v the lines of flow and the intensity curves. An arbitrary outer boundary curve is then divided into intervals of arc such that
the projection of an interval perpendicular to the nearest lines of flow multiplied by the value of Tp' is a constant.
is
constructed.
these lines
by drawing the
curves that represent Tp'dn, and if these are at unit values of the transport, they will divide the lines of flow into quadrilaterals
air
transported horizon
by
units,
vertical
transport must
respectively increase or decrease by units, through a sheet whose upper and lower surfaces have pres1. Towards a center of sure difference equal to dp =
convergence the lines of flow approach indefinitely close. dn decreases and it is clear that the vertical transport up
ward
be small areas of descending motion, however, even near such centers. In this manner we may arrive at a conception of the actual movement of
increases.
There
may
the
air.
Since the specific momentum is solenoidal, we can ascertain its rate of change vertically from horizontal data.
For
= SVcp' =
or
dZ/dz
+ horizontal convergence,
momentum.
dZ/dz
HYDRODYNAMICS
Substituting the value of dz,
299
we have
dZ
dp)
dZ/Op
= horizontal = dTp'fds +
convergence of velocity,
Tp'8.
lines of flow,
and
5 is
the diver
gence per unit ds of two lines of width apart equal to 1. These considerations enable us to arrive at the complete
air.
On
this
is
When
and the
ents,
c
forces
the density c is a function of the pressure p, and the velocities can be expressed as gradi
Thus
let
f(p),
set
=
u
Vu{p,
t),
p'
Vu(p, 0,
and
Q=
fadp, then
VQ =
aVp,
+ d{p') =
V(?, or since
Q]
p'
=
0.
Vv,
independent of p and
We
any function
differing
only by a function of t, thus we may absorb the function of the right into v and set the right side equal to zero.
from
We
dv'dt
+ irvr these
Q =
0,
dcjdt
c
SV(cVr) =
0,
f(p).
From
p in terms of p and t. 12. In the case of a permanent motion, the tubes of flow are permanent. If we can set ^ = Vm(p), then we place
we have
v, c,
300
VECTOR CALCULUS
J'adx),
Q = u
on
t,
p'
we have
Sp'Vp'
operate by dsSUp'Tp'VTp' on the from this equation we have
If
we
 SdpihTV
Hence along a tube
0 =
0.
This
is
is
a function of the
line
two parameters that determine the infinitesimal Hence along the same tube of flow flow.
of
UTV  TW)
at once, giving
QQo=uUois
X,,^ adp.
KV u+ ap=
find the velocity
From
this
we can
must
when the pressure is the velocity is given. Since be positive, it is evident that the velocity
when
square
fact
is
2(u\ C), or else the liquid will separate. This made use of in certain air pumps. In the case of no
we have u
gz,
\Ty  gz+ap=C.
This
the fundamental equation of hydraulics. We can< not enter upon the further consideration of it here.
is
Vortices.
13.
In the case of
p'
\/v
it is
evident that
(
FVp' =
When
HYDRODYNAMICS
there
is
301
not a velocity potential and vortices are said to It is obvious that if a particle of the exist in the fluid.
fluid
is
be consic'ered to change
its
shape as
it
moves, then
the instantaneous velocity of rotation. At any instant all the vortices will form a vector field whose lines have the
differential
equation
VdpWp' =
that
is,
= SdpV'
or
p
VSp'dp;
dp'/dt,
e'dp
dp',
e'p'
from which
P'
e^^'^W
These vector
fluid.
Occasionally the vortex lines may be closed, but as a rule the solutions of such a differential equation as the above
do not form closed lines, in which case they may terminate on the walls of the containing vessel, or they may wind about indefinitely. The integral of this equation will
usually contain t, and the vortices then vary with the time, but in a stationary motion they will depend only upon the
The equations
of
motion
may
be expressed in terms
Vp'Wp' =
we have
Sp'Vp'
\Vp'\
Vvp' =
and thus
a\/p
15.
2rp'6
+ ivp'',
Vp''
dp'ldt
When now
giving
P = S^dp,
2Py. c = fij)), we
2Vep'.
set
VP = Vm 
+ l\/p' 
302
Or,
if
VECTOR CALCULUS
we
set
H=
this
u\ p'
dp'/dt
P,
we have
2Fep'
= V^.
and
since
Operate
2deldt,
on and
with
FV(),

WVep' = SeV
de/dt,
p'
eSVp' 
VVdp'/dt
is
Sp'Ve, de/dt
Sp'V
e
SVp' by
equal to c~^dcldt
ar^dajdt,
we have
d{ae)/dt
= 
S{ae)Vp'
d{ae).
This equation
If
is
is
due to Helmholtz.
variables,
it is
t,
clear that
hence the
ef"^'a^eo
ef
^^^^'"''^'a^e^
^{t)aoo.
(p
to be equal to
itself,
=
if
aoSeoVop
ao(P^o,
we
Cauchy's form
J
(a/ao)e
SeoVop,
t.
1
is
where
for
2^
is
a function of po and
e is
It
is,
evident
now
if
any
0.
particle
co
=
for
This
is
equivalent to Lagrange's
particles of the fluid
any group of
we have a
velocity
vortex are phenomena that belong to the particles and the stream lines, and not to the points of space and the lines of flow.) It must be remembered too, that this result
of
HYDRODYNAMICS
303
conservative.
16.
We may deduce
=
Let dpidt
that
a,
form the essential features of Cauchy's (Appell, Traite de Mec. Ill, p. 332.) and Q = u J^adp, then, remembering
t,
Q
t,
is
a function of p and
and p
t).
is
a function of po
and
da/di
I
VQ(p,
Also VoQipo,
t)
VoSpVQ =
we can
write
(p'da/dt.
VoSpda/dt, where
Vo
operates on p only; or
VoQ =
Hence, operating with T'Vo(
c?
),
we have VVo(p'daidt
equals
<p'a is
(Tq,
=
since
(/^(rVo^V). Thus the parenthesis value, that is, since the initial value of
its
initial
and
Vo =
(f'V,
FVov'o"
2eo
V<p'V<p'<T
m3((p)(p~WV<T
This
is
2m3<p~^.
=
,
(pea.
a/ do
The
= of
fSdpp'.
is
The time
derivative
this
gral of
But this is an inteSdpp") [hp'' Q] ). an exact differential and vanishes. Hence if the
= f{ SdpV
dl/dt
= ^(^SdpVSp'p'
and the density depends on the the circulation around any path does not change pressure, as the particles of the path describe their stream lines. The
304
circulation
is
VECTOR CALCULUS
an
integral invariant.
This theorem
is
due to
Lagrange.
/
If
we express the
circulation in the
form
=  ffMvVp' =  2ffSdve,
is
we
through the loop. Hence as the circulation is constant, the flux of the vortex through the surface does not vary
bounded by the stream loop. The through any loop at a given instant is the vortex strength of the surface enclosed by the loop. If a closed surface is drawn in the fluid, the flux through it
in time,
if
the surface
is
is
is
a solenoidal vector.
we take
bounded by a
J
''
vortex tube and two sections of the tube, since the surface integral over the walls of the tube is zero, it follows that
the flux of the vortex through one section inwards equals that over the other section outwards. Combining these
theorems, it is evident that the vortex strength, or vorThus the collection of ticity, of a vortex tube is constant.
particles that
make up
is
invariant in time.
In a perfect fluid a vortex tube is indestructible, and one could not be generated. 19. It is evident from what precedes that a vortex tube
fluid
or a surface of discontinuity, or be a closed tube with or without knots, or it may wind around infinitely in the fluid.
If
it is
a vortex tube
is
20.
We =
velocity
find a
known.
That
is,
given
e,
to
fluid, in
solenoidal, that
is,
SVous
0.
the
HYDRODYNAMICS
to find <j when 2 VS7<t, following problem SUva = at the boundaries, or if infinite o:
305
SS7a
0,
0.
This
is
it,
problem has a unique solution, if the containing v'essel simply connected. We cannot enter extensively into
for
it involves the theory of potential functions, and may be reduced to integral equations. However, since tSVo'=0,
we may
set
= FVr,
wheie <SVt
0,
whence
Vr
and we may suppose r
r
If
is
2e,
known,
in the
form
po)dv.
= hT^fff(^iT{p
this
we operate upon
a
by P'V(
),
we
<r,
= i;2TfffVe(p 
po)/P(p
Po)dv.
As we see, this formula is capable of being stated thus: the velocity is connected with its vortex in the same way as a magnetic field is connected with the electric current
density that produces it, the vortex filament taking the place of the cm rent, the strength of current being Te/2ir,
and the elements of length of the tube acting like the elements of current. This solution holds throughout the
entire fluid,
in
even at points outside the space that is actually motion with a vortex.
0,
move
like
in time.
ment
is
defined
that
of
any
discontinuity,
is
as
UvFdFjdt.
the other
On
irrotational,
on
it is
vortical.
On
306
VECTOR CALCULUS
UpSUj^VP.
in a vortex
on account
of the velocity
K=  hcfffp'"dv
= = = = =
This
is
 hcfffSp'Vrdv
over
cl27rffffffSee'lT{p 
cJ^J^J^STtdv
all
space
po)dvdv'.
rents.
the same formula as that of the energy of two curIn the expression every filament must be considered
with regard to every other filament and itself. Examples. (1). Let there be first a straight voitex
fila
ment terminating
all
at the top
and bottom
of the fluid.
Let
Then
0,
Vye
0,
de/dt
0.
We
say,
have
then
Vy\7w,
2e
y'V^w
2zy,
w =
zdA, we have
TT
~^yj^z
log rdA.
For a
k
dA and strength
w =
a=
where p
is
+ y^)
measured
is
parallel to the
bottom.
The
versely
velocity
as
is
tangent to the
circles of
motion and
in
the
distance
The
motion
ETYDRODYNAMICS
307
other,
For the
effect of vortices
p. 518 et seq. a number of vortex a vortex or ring (2). For the case of rings with the same axis, see Appell, Traite, vol. Ill, p. 431
and
their
et seq.
21. In the
theorem that any vector pressible can be decomposed into a solenoidal part and a lamellar part and these may then be found. The extra term in the electromagnetic analogy would then be due to a permanent distribution of magnetism as well as that arising fiom
resort to the
more we must
is
com
the current.
EXERCISES
1.
If
Sea
M being a function of
2.
0,
then
it is
necessarj
and
suflficient
that
<r
= MS/P,
Lomb.
(2)
p.
0.
Beltrami, Rend. R.
1st.
22, fasc. 2.
3.
we decompose a
thus,
lines
= Vu
+ I'^V.
I
Show
v,
the surfaces
:in
and
when the
surfaces
onal.
Discuss the problem of sources and sinks. Consider the problem of multiplyconnected surfaces, containing
fluids.
22. It
will
was
tial
this
which the impressed forces had a potenand the density was a function of the pressure. In case we will have the equation
da/dt
+ 2TW
)
 aV p +
=
 Vo^.
Operate by ^T'V(
deidt
eS Vo
 SaV
a ^d(ae)ldt,
308
If
VECTOR CALCULUS
at the instant
the particle does not rotate and if a is a function of p alone, then at this instant de/dt = FV^, and the particle will acquire an instantaneous increase of
now
its
That
If
to zero
if
there
is
to
FV^ =
but a
is
have
aH{ae)ldt
SeV (r =
 FVaVp.
Now
/,
The
an
cAl
right side
is
of the isobaric
and the
we take
is
the cross
ATe =
m, the mass
constant
= M. Then we
have, since ae
= AlejM
^ fUeVff =
I
I^9^A, at
L
aH{ae)ldt
dm/dtlUe/aM
md{lUi)/a Mdt
SeVa =
md{lUe)ldtaM
dm/dtlUe/aM
=
1
VedTeldt
= =
number
of tubes.
change
rotat
Thus a
If then the ing particle may gain or lose in vorticity. isobaric and isosteric surfaces under the influence of heat
conditions intersect, vortices will be created along the lines of intersections of the surfaces and these will persist until
save
so
far
as
viscosity
23. Finally
we
is,
must be
a wave of acceleration.
HYDRODYNAMICS
Let
c
309
be a function of
dpldc Vlog
c,
only.
Then
of
c.
aVp =
motion becomes
p"
dp'dc
log
Let the equation of the surface of discontinuity be /(po, t) = 0, the normal v. Let ^, a, p, and c be continuous as
well as dpjdc,
but p"
o'
= 
dpldc[V log
c],
Gy = dp;dcUVfSnUVf.
It follows, therefore, that
G =
^i
{dpjdc), or else
first
In the
longitudinal, in the
second transversal.
it is:
This
is
Hugoniot's theorem.
In
full
In a compressible but non viscous fluid there are possible only two waves of discontinuity of the second order; a
longitudinal
velocity equal to
is
not propagated
The formula
Laplace.
due to
Also
we have
waves [SVo"]
GSp.U'^j, for transversal waves equal to zero. On the other hand, for longitudinal waves, [P'Vo] = 0, for
transversal,
GVUVffi.
310
VECTOR CALCULUS
REFERENCES.
1.
Berlin,
1850.
Bd.
II,
p. 20.
2.
On
Die
new
of quaternions.
3.
species of imaginary quantities connected with a theory Proc. Royal Irish Academy, 2 (1843), pp. 424434.
lineale
Ausdehnungslehre.
of
Leipzig, 1844.
4.
5.
Greek Mathematics, p. 78. Ars Magna, Nuremberg, 1545, Chap. 37; Opera
286.
Gow: History
4,
Lyon, 1663,
p.
6.
7.
Om
Read
1797.
Nye Samm
lung af det kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, (2) 5 (1799), pp. 469518. Trans. 1897. Essai sur la representation de
la direction,
8.
Copenhagen.
imaginaires
Essai sur une maniere de representer les quantites dans les constructions geom^triques. Paris, 1806.
9.
10. 11.
Theoria residuorum biquadraticum, commentation secunde. 1831. Annales Math, pures et appliqu6es. 4 (18144), p. 231. Theory of algebraic couples, etc. Trans. Royal Irish Acad., 17
(1837), p. 293.
12.
grossen sind.
13.
14.
Ueber Functionen von Vectorgrossen welche selbst wieder VectorMath. Annalen, 43 (1893), pp. 197215.
Grundlagen der Vektor und AflfinorAnalysis. Leipzig, 1914. Lectures on Quaternions. Preface. Dublin, 1853. 15. Note on William R. Hamilton's place in the history of abstract group theory. Bibhotheca Mathematica, (3) 11 (1911), pp. 3145.
17. Leipzig.
18.
(18814),
New
Haven.
Vol.
2,
INDEX.
Acceleration
Action
14,
27 28
Crystals
Cubic dilatation
Curl Curl of field Curvature
15, 129, 142 Activity 15, 131 Activitydensity 4, 65 Algebraic couple 9 Algebraic multiplication 71 Alternating current
Ampere
Anticyclone
Area
Areal axis
Argand
Ausdehnungslehre Average velocity
Axial vector
Bar\centric calculus
30,37 47
242 150 105 145 155, 159 55 248 166 130 261 84 180 76, 82 77 2, 11, 218 246 2 29
Dickson
Differential of p Differential oi q Differential of vector Differentiator
Directional derivative
Bigelow Biquatemions
Biradials
Discharge
Discontinuities
Bivector Bjerknes
Cailler
Divergence Divergence of
Dj'adic
field
Cardan
Center (singularity) Center of isogons
Change
of basis
2 3 44 48 54 125
221 235 266 167 9 78, 129 3, 90 3 63 51, 138 66 5 195 87 177
13
Dyadic
DjTie
Electric Electric Electric Electric
field
Dyname
current
density current induction
intensity
dvadic
Chi'of dyadic Christ offel's conditions Circuital derivative Circular multiplication Circulation
CMfiford.
30 30 32 31, 139
14
Energy
Energ>' current
30
15, 131
Energydensity
Energj'density current
Erg
Euler Exact differential
Exterior multiplication
Coulomb
Couple
Extremals
139
Eye
311
of cyclone
47
312
Farad Faux
Fauxfocus
Feuille Feuillets
VECTOR CALCULUS
32, 73 37, 38
.
44 30
2 13 142 29, 130, 142
191 198 10
Field
Flow
Flux Flux density Focus Force Force density Force function
,
29 41 29
28, 141 18
219 88 15,288 34
15
15, 15,
288 288
15
Isothermal
Joly Joule Joulesecond
138, 147
Franklin 90 Free vector 8, 25 FrenetSerret formulae 148 Functions of dyadic 238 Function of flow 88 Functions of quaternions. ... 121
14 14
73
198, 205
Koenig
Laisant
87 4 .... 32, 130 Gaussian operator 108 General equation of dyadic 220 Geometric curl 76 Geometric divergence 76 Geometric loci 133 1 Geometric vector 2 Geometry of lines Gibbs 2, 11, 215 Gilbert 32, 130, 143 Glissant 26 Gradient 16, 163
. .
Lamellae Lamellar
field
71 15 84, 181
214 220
Gram
Grassmann Green's Theorem Groups
Guiot
15
2, 3,
9 205
8 138
103 3 15 Level Line (electric unit) 32, 130 Lineal multiplication 9 3 Linear associative algebra ... Linear vector function 218 46 Line of centers 47 Line of convergence 47 Line of divergence 46 Line of fauces 46 Line of foci 45 Line of nodes 80 Lines as levels 87 Liquid defined
Hamilton Harmonics
Heaviside
2, 3, 4, 65,
95
84, 169
MacMahon
Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic
current density current induction
intensity
75
31 31 32 32, 139 15 65 13 3 8
Henry
(electric unit)
31 32, 73 33
.
Hodograph Hypernumber
Imaginary
3,
49 27 94 65 73 73 32 56
Mass
Matrix unity Maxwell
McAulay
Mobius Modulus
Impedance
Inductance
Inductivity Integral of vector
66
of
Moment Moment
momentum
138 139
INDEX
313
26 26 62 73 65 108
...
density
of field
28 28
141 14
Radial
Radius vector
Ratio of vectors Reactance Real
Reflections
Xode Xode
of isogons
. .
X'ondegenerate equations
Xorm
Xotations
Refraction Regressive multiplication. Relative derivative Right versor Rotations Rotatory deviation
Saint Venant's equations.
112 10 18
96
108 175
.
.
Sandstrom
Saussure
Scalar Scalar invariants Scalar of g
35,
260 49 2
13
220, 239
Schouten
Science of extension Self transverse Servois
One
12 vector 127 Scalar 136 Two vectors 165 Derivative of vectors Divergence, vortex, derivative
Shear
Similitude
Singularities of vector lines.
.
dvads
Dyadics".
179 248
Ohm
(electric unit)
73 241 55
3 85 73 32
71
Singular lines Solenoidal field 84, 181 117 Solid angles 123 Solution of equations Solution of differential equations
Specific
momentum
Permittance
PermittiAity
Steinmetz
68, 71
84 46 30
14 17 10 76 141 142 98
200 Stoke's theorem 253 Strain 90 Strength of source or sink ... Stress 143, 269
Polydromic
Potential
15,
.
Study
Sum
of quaternions
96
151
Progressive multipUcation
Surfaces
Power
Poynting vector
Pressure
Tensor Tensor of 5
Torque
113 101
14 95
Tortuosity
Trajectories
Product of vectors
Quantum
Quaternions
2, 3, 6, 7,
314
Triquaternions Trirectangular biradials
VECTOR CALCULUS
3 100 18
Unit tube
Vacuity Vanishing invariants
Variable trihedral
27
18
Volt Vortex
Vorticity
calculus
field
23,
lines
of g
25 26 33 96
Waterspouts
50
15 14
Watt Weber
Wessel Whirl
potential surfaces
4 90
tubes
34 34
^'
38
1982
QA.
Shaw, James
Bymle
261 S45
Vector calculus
Physical
&
Applieti 3ci.
SS'