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Effectively Integrating Literature and Social Studies
A Quarterly for Creative Teaching in Grades K- Volume 26 Number 1 September/October 2013
Gateway to the Core of Learning
93RD NCSS Annual Conference St. Louis, MO November 22–24, 2013
photo: J. Brough Schamp Photo: NPS/Rick Friedman Photo
Meet us in St. Louis this fall at the 93rd NCSS Annual Conference, the world’s largest and most comprehensive social studies professional development event. The conference will provide you with the resources, ideas, techniques, and skills that you need, and invigorate your career.
• 100+ sessions addressing Common Core ELA Standards for History/Social Studies • Introduction of the new C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards, featuring practical sessions on how to use it • Keynote speakers Rep. John Lewis, Taylor Branch, and Oliver Stone and Peter Kuznick • Visits to popular St. Louis sites, including Busch Stadium, a premier St. Louis blues club, the Old Courthouse, Forest Park, Cahokia Mounds and more! • Film screenings of The Graduates/Los Graduados, Jerusalem, and the making of Steven Spielberg’s Lincoln
Oliver Stone, legendary ﬁlm director and co-writer and director of the book and documentary series The Untold History of the United States Lara Setrakian, former TV correspondent in the Middle East and founder of the website Syria Deeply Peter Kuznick, professor of history and co-writer of The Untold History of the United States Taylor Branch, author of the award-winning, three-volume biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Joy Hakim, author of the acclaimed 10-volume A History of US John Lewis, U.S. House of Representatives (GA-5) and civil rights veteran.
www.socialstudies.org/conference Discounted registration rates for NCSS members! Register Now!
National Council for the Social Studies
Our conversation with you about “Eﬀectively Integrating Literature and Social Studies…”
We would recommend using literature in the service of social studies,1 even if the time allotted to social studies were not shrinking at the elementary level.2 But, because language arts and math have been getting the lion’s share of instructional time since the advent of No Child Left Behind, we believe that the integration of literature and social studies is an option worthy of consideration. There are dangers in using literature for the dual purposes of teaching social studies and language arts; integration often results in language arts being the focal point of lessons, while less valuable, even trivial, aspects of social studies get addressed, often in a scattershot way.3 On the other hand, literature can offer young readers visual images that make social studies concepts more concrete. Literature-based accounts presented from multiple perspectives allow students to extend their understanding of the personalities and events that have shaped our world. Integrating literature into lessons can be a positive way to teach social studies, but only if it is done with social studies concepts at the center of curriculum and instruction. The authors in this issue have done just that. An article at the early childhood level by Victoria B. Fantozzi, Elizabeth Cottino, and Cindy Gennarelli, “Mapping Their Place: Preschoolers Explore Space, Place, and Literacy,” highlights a mapmaking activity that fosters emergent literacy in our youngest students. Monica Zenyuh’s article, “Crisis = Opportunity: Civic Literacy in the Wake of a Hurricane,” describes how using the newspaper as a text not only increased students’ awareness of the world around them, but propelled them into a humanitarian cause. An article and Pullout by Ellen Ballock and Ashley Lucas, “Going Beyond Maps and Globes: Exploring Children’s Literature Using the Five Geographic Themes,” illustrates that geography can be used to add depth to children’s experiences in reading and writing and that every book can be a geography book.
Andrea S. Libresco
There’s nothing better than discovering a wonderful book.
In “Immigration, Any Small Goodness, and Integrated Social Studies,” Michelle Bauml, Sherry L. Field, and Mary Ledbetter show how the rich, descriptive language of a novel on immigration can help students empathize with people in circumstances that may be different from their own, and give them the tools to participate capably in our multicultural democracy. In “Social Studies is a Story: Developing Critical Analysis Skills Through Children’s Literature,” Ann T. Ackerman, Patricia H. Howson, and Betty C. Mulrey share a checklist to assist teachers in assessing, selecting, and critically analyzing appropriate texts. The checklist can remind teachers and students, alike, to examine texts through a social studies lens, attending to setting, accuracy, and perspective. Andrea S. Libresco’s book review, “A Powerful Biography of a Powerful Partnership,” of Penny Colman’s Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: A Friendship that Changed the World reminds us that highly proﬁcient children in upper grades deserve to have engaging, thoughtful, and challenging works to read. These articles provide examples of classrooms where literature is integrated with social studies in ways that do not treat social studies as the poorer cousin of English/Language Arts. So…how do YOU try to integrate literature and social studies? • To what extent do you believe that any piece of literature can be used in the service of social studies? • What books do you already use that have social studies concepts embedded in them? • How do you select texts that will do double duty—as both social studies and literature? How important is it to select books that will foster empathy in your students? • To what extent do you use literature to jump-start a social studies unit?
continued on page 4 September/October 2013
SOCIAL STUDIES AND THE YOUNG LEARNER (ISSN 1056-0300) is published by National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) four times a year: Sept/ Oct, Nov/Dec, Jan/Feb, and May/June. Logotype is an NCSS trademark. Contents © 2013. ONLINE: Visit us at www.socialstudies.org/publications/ssyl and ncss. metapress.com. READERS: The editors welcome suggestions, letters to the editor, and manuscripts to our peer-reviewed journal. Guidelines and services at www.socialstudies.org/ publications/ssyl; firstname.lastname@example.org; 301-850-2498. Contributors express their own views, reﬂecting divergent opinions. Send manuscripts to email@example.com. DELIVERY AND CHANGE OF ADDRESS: View and update your record, www.socialstudies.org/membership; send new address to membership@ncss. org; or call 800-298-7840 ext. 111. Callers outside the U.S. and Canada use 301588-1800 ext. 111. PERMISSION to reproduce articles for academic use, contact Copyright Clearance Center, Academic Permissions Service, 222 Rosewood Dr., Danvers, MA 01923; 978-750-8400 (phone), 978-750-4470 (fax).
co-editors Andrea S. Libresco
Hofstra University (Hempstead, NY)
Garden City Public Schools (Garden City, NY)
senior editor Steven S. Lapham publications director Michael Simpson art director Rich Palmer editorial board Janet Alleman Elizabeth Bellows Lisa Brown Buchanan Mary Fortney Jesus Garcia Eric Groce Lynda Herrera Elizabeth R. Hinde Barbara Knighton Paul Nagel Kim D. O’Neil Ellen Santora Alan Singer Cynthia Tyson Patricia D. Watson
ADVERTISING: Visit www.socialstudies.org/advertising for rates and speciﬁcations. Contact Doran Communications, firstname.lastname@example.org; 302-6440546. INDEXED by Institute of Education Sciences, eric.ed.gov. POSTMASTER: Periodicals postage paid at Silver Spring, MD, and additional mailing ofﬁces. Send address changes to Social Studies and the Young Learner NCSS, 8555 Sixteenth St., Suite 500 Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA
2 Social Studies and the Young Learner
Volume 26 • Number 1
National Council for the Social Studies
Founded 1921 NCSS OfficErs Stephen Armstrong, President William H. Hall High School and King Phillip Middle School, West Hartford, CT Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT Michelle Herczog, President-Elect Los Angeles County Ofﬁce of Education, Downey, CA Kim O’Neil, Vice President Liverpool Elementary School, Liverpool, NY BOarD Of DirEctOrs Karen Burgard Franklin College, Franklin, IN (2015) Terry Cherry Naaman Forest High School, Garland, TX (2014) Andrew Demko Rainier Jr/Sr. High School, Rainier, OR (2015) Diane Hart Menlo Park, CA (2014) Kimberly Heckart Prairie Ridge Elementary, Cedar Rapids, IA (2016) Elizabeth Hinde Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (2016) Mary McCullagh Christopher Columbus High School, Miami, FL (2015) India Meissel Lakeland High School, Suffolk, VA (2015) John Moore, Past President Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (2014) Elyse Poller Mansﬁeld Middle School, Mansﬁeld, CT (2014) Anton Schulzki William J. Palmer High School, Colorado Spring, CO (2016) Loraine Stewart Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (2014) Charles Vaughan Richland Northeast High School, Columbia, SC (2016) EX OFFICIO William R. Daniel Chair, House of Delegates Steering Committee (2013) Jefferson County Public Schools, Louisville, KY Executive Director Susan Grifﬁn Department Directors Timothy Daly Administration Brenda Luper Finance David Bailor Meetings and Exhibitions Ana Chiquillo Post External Relations and Council Communication Cassandra Roberts Membership Processing Michael Simpson Publications
MEMBERSHIPS in NCSS are open to any person or institution interested in the social studies. Join at www.socialstudies.org/membership; e-mail email@example.com; or call 800-298-7840 ext. 111. Callers outside the U.S. and Canada use 301-588-1800 ext. 111. Comprehensive members receive a journal and bulletins published during their period of membership for $82. Regular members receive a journal for $69; students, ﬁrst-year teachers, and retired members for $40. Add the other journal (get both) for $30. Members have access to the online services: Publications Archive, TSSP newsletter, and Middle Level Learning. Institutional membership comprehensive $133; regular $118. SUBSCRIPTIONS to SSYL , for institutions only, through Metapress. Visit www.socialstudies.org/publications/subscriptions and ncss.metapress. com . Online-only subscription is world wide, IP supported, and SERU friendly for $102. In the United States, paper subscription is $45; and paper-plus-online is $112. Canada add $10, international add $22, for these mailings. SINGLE COPIES of paper journals, $6.00 member; $7.95 nonmember, 770280-4196. Single articles (PDF) are also available, $9.95 for nonmembers, at ncss.metapress.com .
Mapping Their Place: Preschoolers Explore Space, Place, and Literacy
Victoria B. Fantozzi, Elizabeth Cottino, and Cindy Gennarelli 11
Crisis = Opportunity: Civic Literacy in the Wake of a Hurricane
Monica Zenyuh 15
Going Beyond Maps and Globes: Exploring Children’s Literature Using the Five Geographic Themes
Ellen Ballock and Ashley Lucas PULLOUT
Handouts for “Going Beyond Maps and Globes
Ellen Ballock and Ashley Lucas 17
Immigration, Any Small Goodness, and Integrated Social Studies
Michelle Bauml, Sherry L. Field, and Mary Ledbetter 22
Getting the Story Right: Developing Critical Analysis Skills Through Children’s Literature
Ann T. Ackerman, Patricia H. Howson, and Betty C. Mulrey 29
A Powerful Biography of a Powerful Partnership: Stanton and Anthony
Andrea S. Libresco
ON THE COVER: Children from three to ﬁve years old can assist in making a threedimensional map of a place that they know. See the article "Mapping their Place" on pages 5–10. Courtesy of the WP Child Development Center
P.O. BOX : To become a member or subscribe (as an institution) by mail, send a check to NCSS, P.O. Box 79078, Baltimore, MD 21279-0078. RETURN ADDRESS : Social Studies and the Young Learner, NCSS, 8555 Sixteenth St., Suite 500, Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA
ToP StorY from page 1 • What books do you use in the service of geography? economics? civic action? • Are there any pieces of literature that you have shared with your students that you believe had a powerful effect on their thinking on a social studies issue? • How do you handle a book that is a beautiful piece of literature but has historical inaccuracies? • In addition to literature, what other sources do you use (songs, artwork, plays, storytelling, puppetry, etc.) in the service of social studies? • Which of these strategies that serve both literature and social studies do you employ? What other strategies do you employ? Create a sociogram of the characters in the book. Make a timeline of the events in the story. Sketch a map of the story’s setting. Generate a list of questions sparked by events or characters’ choices in the book. Re-write parts of the book from different characters’ points of view. Craft different endings for the book to explore what is either possible or desirable.
Discuss the author’s motive for writing the book— what the author says about how we should behave, relate to one another, and make difﬁcult choices. We look forward to the thoughtful conversation at NCSS Connections about how to use literature most effectively in the service of social studies. Please join us! —Andrea and Jeannette
Notes 1. Andrea S. Libresco, Jeannette Balantic, and Jonie Kipling, Every Book is a Social Studies Book: How to Meet Standards K-6 (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011). 2. James S. Leming, Lucien Ellington, and Mark Schug, “The State of Social Studies: A National Random Survey of Elementary and Middle School Social Studies Teachers,” Social Education 70, no.5 (2006): 322-327; Jennifer McMurrer, “Choices, Changes, and Challenges: Curriculum and Instruction in the NCLB Era,” Center on Education Policy (2007), www.cepdc.org; Katherine A. O’Connor, Tina L. Heafner, and Eric Groce, “Advocating for Social Studies: Documenting the Decline and Doing Something About It,” Social Education 71, no. 5 (2007): 255- 260; Jeff Passe, Tracy C. Rock, Tina L. Heafner, Katherine A. O’Connor, Sandra Oldendorf, Amy J. Good, and Sandra Byrd, “One State Closer to a National Crisis: A Report on Elementary Social Studies in North Carolina Schools,” Theory and Research in Social Education 34, no. 4 (2006): 455–483; Phillip J. VanFossen, “Reading and Math Take So Much of the Time…’ An Overview of Social Studies Instruction in Elementary Classrooms in Indiana,” Theory and Research in Social Education 33, no. 3 (2005): 376-403. 3. Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, “Is Curriculum Integration a Boon or a Threat to Studies?” Social Education 57, no. 6 (1993): 287-291; Janet Alleman and Jere Brophy, “Trade-Offs Embedded in the Literary Approach to Early Elementary Social Studies,” Social Studies and the Young Learner 6, no. 3 (1994): 6–8.
Teaching Reading with the Social Studies Standards: Elementary Units that Integrate Great Books, Social Studies, and the Common Core Standards
Edited by Syd Golston and Peggy Altoff
NCSS Bulletin 112, 118 pp., 2012 This book has been designed for elementary teachers who want to meet the Common Core Standards for Reading Literature as they teach social studies. The class activities recommended in this book for each grade level allow teachers to accomplish the following objectives: 1. Achieve speciﬁc learning expectations outlined in the National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies. 2. Achieve speciﬁc objectives outlined in the Common Core Standards for Reading Literature (as well as selected other Common Core Standards) This book’s opening chapters lay the groundwork for the eﬀective teaching of standards-based social studies through the use of literature. Most of the volume consists of reviews and annotations of outstanding children’s books for the elementary grades. The contributors examine seven outstanding children’s books in depth (one for each grade from pre-K through 5) and recommend scores of other suitable books. Item 120112 Price: $29.95/NCSS Members: $19.95
How to order: Customers in U.S. and Canada only may use www.socialstudies.org/bookstore or call 800-683-0812. All customers may e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org, call 770-280-4196,
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4 Social Studies and the Young Learner