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Evolution

20130523

The environment can promote phenotypic variation

Genetic and environmental variation can go hand in hand

Genetic and environmental variation can go hand in hand

There could be a genotype x environment interaction

Genomic imprinting due to methylation in Linaria vulgaris

Mutations can be benecial


Blount et al. 2012. Nature.

Mutations can be harmful

Men contribute to mutation load more than women


Kong_etal 2012

1st Study: Chromosome extraction: Quantifying viability Dobzhansky 1920 of recessive alleles

10% of chromosome lines were homozygous lethal, 50% signicantly reduced tness
Dobzhansky 1920

Most mutations are harmful, much hidden variation, heterozygosity is common


Dobzhansky 1920

Reveals the genetic mechanism of inbreedingdepression


Dobzhansky 1920

Drosophila pseudobscura, 195 wild chromosomes

Reveals the genetic mechanism of inbreedingdepression


Lewontin 1974

Humans, mortality up to 21 years of age, Italy 1903-1907

Inbreeding-depression in humans too

Vipera berus, fewer than 40, then recovered

Inbreeding-depression may affect population viability

Electrophoresis, Phosphoglucomutase, 18 killish, 5 allozymes (aleles)

2nd Study: Lewontin & Hubby 1966: variation at the level of expressed proteins.
~1/3 of loci polymorphic with 2-6 alleles (much higher than predicted) Detected ~12% heterozygosity (Average individual heterozygous at 12% of its loci) They extrapolated that all individuals are likely to be genetically unique: populations are more diverse than expected Studies on many other species have consistently conrmed these results.

3rd study: Kreitman 1983 (rst study of natural genetic variation that involving complete gene sequencing)
Question: How variable are the actual DNA sequences of important genes? Sequenced 11 whole copies of Alcohol Dehydrogenase gene (Adh) in D. melanogaster (2,721 bp) Included introns and exons Found 43 variable sites, 6 indels, many mutations were in introns and only one non-synonymous change occurred (13 other coding changes were synonymous) Much variation was discovered, but of these, only a single nucleotide site causes an alteration in the protein.

Drosophila melanogaster, Adh locus

Considerable sequence variation

Variation measurable as !=Nucleotide diversity per site (proportion of a random pair differ) ! Adh=0.0065 ! D. melanogaster=0.05 ! humans=0.0015

Drosophila melanogaster, Adh locus

4th study: Dobzhansky & Spassky 1969

Question: How much variation in traits is available to be shaped by natural selection? Articial selection for phototaxis in D. pseudoobscura 2 populations selected for positive phototaxis, 2 for negative phototaxis Phototaxis maze used for selection, allows 15 light:dark choices 25/300 ies with most extreme values allowed to breed in next generation Initially ies were neutrally selected populations diverged quickly in each direction

Linkage disequilibrium

Linkage disequilibrium

Linkage disequilibrium

Linkage disequilibrium: Non random mating New mutation Recent merging of two distinct populations Recombination inexistent

Linkage disequilibrium: Non random mating New mutation Recent merging of two distinct populations Recombination inexistent Genetic drift Natural selection

Tobacco, Nicotiana longiora

Poligenic variation

Clines

Ecotypes

Geographic variation

Geographic variation

Hybrid zone

Geographic races

Fst: allele frequency variation Gst: for loci with more than two alleles

NA pitcherplant mosquito, average of ve loci

Fst: allele frequency variation Gst: for loci with more than two alleles

Neis distance: how likely is that gene copies taken from two populations are different alleles

In this bird most of variation is interpopulational

In humans most of variation is intrapopulational