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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCE

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL

ENGINEERING

BEHAVIOUR

OF SLEEVED BOLT

IN PRECAST C

CRE E BUILDING

FRAMES

by

Sherif

Ali

Mohtady Mohamed

(B. sc., M. sc. )

A thesis

submitted Doctor

for

the degree of

of Philosophy Engineering

in Structural

February

1992

PAGE NUMBERING AS ORIGINAL

UNIVERSITY OF WMAM

'1

FACULTY OF 011, EAT

AND APPLIED SCIENCE OF CIVIL ffi GIMMM M

Doctor

of Philosophy

BEERVI XJR OF SLEEVED DOLT CIDC1ICZ IN PRECAST CETE BUILDING FRAMES

by Sherif

Ali

Mohtady Mohamed

describes thesis investigation This and an an experimental finite associated element study of the behaviour of sleeved bolt beam-to-column the Despite connections. popularity such of in little building frames, connections precast concrete data has been available behaviour their experimental regarding loading. For this under static vertical reason, two series of tests were performed on full scale joints. The main focus of the first series was to examine the effect of bolts density per joint on its strength, stiffness and failure the influence mode. In the second series, of concrete confinement Failure upon the joint ultimate strength was studied. of joints However, was mostly governed by shear yielding of the bolts. failure concrete was reported when much weaker concrete with data obtained from minimum confinement was employed. Deformation behaviour. the joint Test results all tests was used to interpret have also shown that increasing the number of bolts per joint not increases its but improves its loadonly strength ultimate deflection and moment-rotation characteristics as well. The parameters affecting the behaviour of such connections have been used to develop three-dimensional finite element models of both the single joints. This was achieved by and double-bolted the (ANSYS). Material using software package properties, dimensions, boundary conditions geometrical and loading were carefully given as input data to represent, as realistically as those of the tested joints. Material possible, nonlinearity was for both steel and concrete. The opening and closing considered between the bolt of initial geometric gap at the interface and the sleeve were also accounted for. The developed models were then used to determine the stress and deformation distributions the joint within components. The models reached their ultimate loads successfully. They predicted with a very good accuracy the loading. joints Also they under response provided useful information from the experimental which could not be obtained part of the investigation, e. g. degradation of the surrounding in the and development of tensile material stresses concrete The numerical column steel links. results were verified against the corresponding experimental values whenever possible. based on both parts of the work the main conclusions Finally, and recommendations for further work have been given.

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would

like

to. take

this

opportunity Dr. C. K. Jolly this

to

gratitude and skillful

to my supervisor guidance and constructive

express my sincere for his knowledgeable programme. His to the contributed

throughout

research

ready advice steady Special

comments greatly

progress thanks

of the project. are owed to Dr. A. C. Lock for related problems. regarding the work are much his kind assistance

in computer and modelling Comments made by Dr. appreciated. I am particularly of the Civil co-operation experimental preparation grateful

J. M. Lovegrove

for

the assistance to but the

given

by the staff Their of close the of its

Engineering contributed part of this a pleasant

Heavy Structures not only

Laboratory.

motivation

research

to making the task

one. the

Thanks are extended to all past and present colleagues within discussions. department for their useful advice and fruitful Finally, but not least, and I gratefully acknowledge

the ever-present

encouragement sacrifice successful

Their affection, of my parents. generosity financial and moral support have made the and unlimited completion of this work possible.

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DEDICATIM

To My Parents

Who Gave Too Much And Received

Too Little.

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Page No.
AUb l1uALT 1 11

ACKNOWLEDGEMMS DMICUICK CONTENTS

iii iv

CEAPTER ONE

IIfx-ric

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

1.5 1.6

1.7 1.8

General.. ....... ............................. Structural Connections .......................... Concepts of Connection Design ................... Beam-to-Column Connections... ................. 1.4.1 Reinforced Concrete Corbels .............. 1.4.2 Steel Inserts ............................ 1.4.3 Metal Connectors ......................... Sleeved Bolts Connection ........................ Potential Failures. ... " ................... 1.6.1 in The Beam........... Potential Failures 1.6.2 in Steel Members...... Potential Failures 1.6.3 in The Column......... Potential Failures Work Scope ...................................... Thesis Layout ...................................

1 .1 .2 .4 .6 .8 11 12 12 13 14 15 16

CEAPT

TWO

tJ[MENML PM

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

Introduction .................................... Test Progra=e .................................. Design of Test Specimen ......................... Concrete Casting and Curing ..................... Test Hardware ........................... 2.5.1 Steel Bolts .............................. 2.5.2 Steel Brackets ........................... 2.5.3 Loading Plates ........................... 2.5.4 Testing Machine....... ................. 2.5.5 Mounting Frame ........................... Test Setup ............................ Instrumentation ................................. 2.7.1 Transducers .............................. 2.7.2 Data Logger .............................. Installation of Transducers ..................... Test Procedure................. ................. Material Properties ............................. 2.10.1 Concrete .:............................... 2.10.2 Reinforcing Steel ........................ 2.10.3 Sleeve Material ..........................

......

22 22 24 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 35 37 37 38 39

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Ci 13'MR 2EM

DISCEJSSI I

OF TEST RESULTS

3.1 3.2

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

3.9

Introduction .......................... Joint Behaviour under Loading ................... 3.2.1 Deflections and Rotations ................ 3.2.2 Developed Stresses ....................... 3.2.3 Friction Effect .......................... 3.2.4 Asymmetrical Loading ..................... Test 1 .......................................... Test 2 .......................................... Test 3 .......................................... Test 4.......................................... Bracket Vertical Deflection .................. 3.7.1 Transducer Support Settlement ............ 3.7.2 Geometrical Imperfection ................. Comparison of Joints Behaviour .................. 3.8.1 Strength ................................. 3.8.2 Stiffness..... ....................... 3.8.3 Rotational Rigidity ...................... Spry .........................................

49 49 49 50 51 52 53 58 60 63 66 66 66 67 67 68 69 71

CHAPTER FOUR

NUM

QkL ?W

OF SLZEVID JOINTS BOLT ALING

4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12

4.13 4.14 4.15

Introduction .................................... Modelling Using ANSYS .......................... Model Development .............................. 4.3.1 Model Geometry..... ...... ............. 4.3.2 Model Parameters andPredictions ........ Mesh Generation... .............................. Selection of Main Element Types ................ 4.5.1 The Bolt ................................ 4.5.2 The Sleeve .............................. 4.5.3 The Concrete ............................ 4.5.4 Steel Links ............................. Contact Area Modelling ......................... Gap Elements........... ...................... Final Remarks on The Mesh ...................... Properties Material ............................ Convergence Solution ........................... Boundary Conditions ............................ Load Application ............................... 4.12.1 Model 1 ................................. 4.12.2 Model 2 ................................. Wavefront Reduction ............................ Preliminary Runs ............................... Summary ........................................

88 89 . 91 . 91 . 92 . 95 . 95 . 96 . 96 . 97 . 98 . 100 102 104 105 107 108 108 109 110 110 111

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(MPIER

FIVE

P KDELLD

TIQI AND

OF CONCRETE11

IAL

G 124 THE ANSYS PROGRAM

5.1 5.2 5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

Introduction ................................... Concrete Behaviour Under Axial Loading......... in The Constitutive Modelling Capabilities ANSYS Program. ... ............................... 5.3.1 Constitutive Model ...................... 5.3.2 Failure Criterion ....................... Special Features of Element STIF65 ............. 5.4.1 Cracking and Post Cracking Behaviour.... 5.4.2 Crushing and Post Crushing Behaviour.... 5.4.3 Stability Post-Crushing ................. 5.4.4 Concrete-Steel Interaction .............. 5.4.5 Creep Effect ............................ Element Verification ........................... 5.5.1 Rupfer's Concrete Prism ................. 5.5.2 Standard Cube Test ...................... 5.5.3 Cylinder Splitting Test ................. Concrete Input Data in The Program. .............

120 120 124 124 126 127 127 129 130 131 132 132 132 133 133 134

CHAPTER SIX

P=CAL

6.1 6.2

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

6.7

Introduction ................................... The Bolt.. ................................ 6.2.1 Vertical Displacement ................... 6.2.2 Axial Displacement ...................... 6.2.3 Lateral Displacement ...... ............. 6.2.4 Stress and Strain Distributions......... Development of Contact Area .................... The Sleeve..... .... ....................... 6.4.1 Sleeve Deformation ...................... 6.4.2 Sleeve Yield Area ....................... Steel Links................ .................... The Concrete Solid ............................. 6.6.1 Concrete Cracking ....................... 6.6.2 Concrete Crushing ....................... 6.6.3 Stress Distribution ..................... Assessment of Models ........................... 6.7.1 Ultimate Loads .......................... 6.7.2 Deflections ... ......................... 6.7.3 Stresses and Strains ....................
NM SAH RIC AL AND BFI= STUDY OF CONCRETE ON A SINGLE D L'lw JOINT

146 147 147 149 149 150 151 151 151 153 154 156 156 157 158 159 159 160 161

CEMP ER SE

7.1 7.2

Introduction ................................... Numerical Model Features ....................... 7.2.1 Geometry Changes ........................

186 187 187

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7.3

7.4 7.5

7.6 7.7 7.8

7.2.2 Changes ........................ Material Numerical Results .............................. 7.3.1 Ultimate Load ........................... 7.3.2 The Bolt ................................ 7.3.3 Steel Links........ ..................... 7.3.4 The Concrete Solid ...................... Comparison with Model 1 ........................ Experimental Work. ........... ................. 7.5.1 Test Specimen and Hardware .............. 7.5.2 Concrete Mix Design ..................... 7.5.3 Cube Testing ............................ 7.5.4 Details of Confinement .................. 7.5.5 Test Procedure .......................... Test Results ................................... Model Assessment ............................... Suznary ........................................

187 188 188 189 190 190 191 192 193 194 195 195 196 197 199 201

CHAPTER EICHT

(XM3MICN

AND FUTURE MM

8.1 8.2 8.3

Suxmnary.......... .............................. Conclusions .................................... Suggestions for Future Work ....................

216 218 220 222


234 ....... 236 237 241 243

RAS
APPENDIX I APPENDIX II APPENDIX III APPENDIX IV APPENDIX V Calculation Calculation Calculation Frictional Brackets' Force

of of

................ Load Difference

of Weld Loads ...................... Imperfection Effect of Geometrical ............. in Steel Links of Models 1 and 2...... Stresses

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flu2ktpTwm

MW

ID

IOT

1.1 General
The by the

employment

of

precast

concrete

members the

construction over the past

industry two

has increased

rapidly such

throughout as and speed above

world

decades.

Advantages

of all to

erection, reduction its of a of

better costs

quality, have

dimensional made precast A

precision concrete

superior consists

cast-in-situ number on site, beams, that its and been of

counterpart. prefabricated form a finished

precast

structure which, when

members structure. and

connected structural It has as

together

Typical panels. of the extent As a

members are been found

columns, satisfactory economy design continually connections.

slabs

wall

performance depend to a great

structure on the

a whole

and

proper engineers

selection have

of

the

connection. to develop

result,

working

more efficient

and more economical

1.2

Structural

Connections

A structural

connection are that

components which and to ensure

can be simply defined as an assembly of forces from arranged in a way to transmit In view of the importance of connections,

one member to another.

strength of a partially completed or of the completed structure must not be governed by the strength in the the connection connections, must not be the weak link Since the introduction structure. of precast concrete, many types and varied of have been developed for use. of connections each depend greatly on the magnitude and the type of to be transmitted. forms

the

Details

the forces

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In the

skeletal

frame

construction,

beam-to-column

they part of the structural most critical forces, shear forces and axial must be capable of transmitting bending moments safely In this excess deformation. and without type of connection, is the concentration region and a large This force the most common problem which usually arises as there is a small junction of the force, force to be transmitted through this region. reduces the connection's Design to design the precast concrete Designers of loadings. rigidity.

connections concept because

are

concentration

1.3 Concepts of Connection It is a common practice more

most of

frames as pin-jointed usually pay

under all attention

conditions to the design

rather than members. This is perhaps of design codes which cover the practical only little be cited consider stages dealing with reference, [1-3]. in the literature and

of the connections due to the non-availability design

of connections. design, could the connections to However, it is essential their ramifications through the the at all to construction. loads structure. it be

connection problems of work, from conceptual

studies

A connection must be designed to resist to carry during the lifetime required of connections,

will

In most

load will be transferred through several elements of the connection by various mechanisms, e. g. shear and/or flexural bearing, bond, anchorage and friction. strength, compression, the forces to be used in

Each of these mechanisms establishes designing the connection.


Load transfer projecting concrete; embedded construction across methods the is through reinforcing by use of structural techniques, connecting also widely connections bars mechanical steel or surfaces. acceptable. and

may be accomplished encasing them with

by:

welding

cast-in-situ brackets or

devices sections; by

such as bolts, by a employing

composite force the above that

applying A combination Any other

prestressing of any of

method

provided

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it

satisfies

both of

the

requirements introduced. innovative behaviour

codes it However, connection,

principles for the is before of

and the stress involved can be materials importance to test an vital of statics to determine its

at both working

it, approving loads. and ultimate structural and these

The

of an ideal requirements [1,4-6] in References listed follows:

have been connection can be summarised as

a) Structural

Adequacy a connection must have the strength its during be subjected to which it will these forces are apparent, caused by dead and above,

As has been mentioned the forces to resist lifetime. live loads, Some of

wind and earthquakes loads. Others are not so obvious creep and temperature changes. such as those caused by shrinkage, large to accommodate relatively The joint should have the ability deformations directions, connected without is parts also during failure. required construction. Sufficient to achieve rigidity, stability in of all the

b) Economy is achieved when Maximum economy of precast concrete construction details consistent are kept as simple as possible, connection Simplicity of the with adequate performance and ease of erection. influence on the total may have a greater in weight of the than would a reduction economy of the structure time, it is advisable to main members. To minimise the erection for have standard of a shapes and dimensions connections connection details particular c) Tolerance Tolerance is the measure of deviations which must be accommodated structure whenever possible.

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tolerances on specify connection. dimensional accuracy which can be achieved in manufacture and on for each the limits Tolerances permitted must be within site. in the It is important to type of connection d) Durability Evidence by corrosion is usually of exhibited of concrete. exposed steel elements, or by cracking and spalling both inserts bars Cover should protect against and steel all and fire. corrosion of poor durability e) Appearance After giving also erection, it is desirable to have an invisible connection It is concrete. without any [7,8].

the appearance of monolithic the structure for it to have a neat and clean finish important or cracks.

unwanted shadow lines


1.4 Beam-to-Column

Connections

Most

in beam-to-column types precast connections of common to the structural members according can be divided, concrete into three main groups as follows: formation, involved in their 1.4.1 Reinforced Concrete Corbels

Corbels

are

widely

They usually

project to work as horizontal They are designed to be capable of transmitting Figure (l. la). loads beams horizontal loads from to Such columns. and vertical are always transmitted on corbels. Behaviour by direct of bearing, through bearing has corbels under loading subject of many research works in the past 25 years. Many design its ultimate formulae and charts have been proposed to predict

buildings construction. used in industrial levels from the faces of columns at certain seats for beams to be connected as shown in

plates, been the

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the methods of designing [18,191 are mainly by current Codes of Practice the following two concepts of design: strength Today, 1. The "truss analogy concept" which

[9-17].

corbels

adopted

based on one of

the corbel as a considers force as simple strut-and-tie system acted upon by an external illustrated in Figure (1.1b). force is The applied external be in equilibrium, These forces at failure, with force the corbel forces. are a tensile in the main

assumed to internal top steel

and an inclined compressive force in the concrete. is a that the corbel mode of failure Such assumption implies flexural an additional step must be taken in one. As a result, the design process to eliminate the failure interface.
2.

at the plane

of maximum shear,

possibility of shear i. e. the column-corbel

The is

"shear overloaded, As

friction

theory" would tends due to to take

which form to the

assumes along produce roughness This its

that

when a corbel with along the crack, develops interface. the tension a the the a

a crack the load and assumed in

interface slippage of

column. cracked separation a tensile Assuming would

plane, is

place.

separation the

stress a full a

the

reinforcement of force the forces (l. lc). [20], be the

crossing reinforcement,

anchorage clamping

provide

on

the

concrete to stresses friction

creating maintain at

compressive equilibrium interface was originally by Hermansen of are

stress [5]. shown

across Developed in Figure

interface and

the theory

Shear

introduced and Cowan

by Mast [11] to

and was later more applicable

modified for the

design

corbels.

Although

in their concepts are different they deal with the corbel predictions of the mode of failure, ultimate as a function of its geometrical and material strength design proposals, A review and details properties. of cited the above together with a critical comparison between them have been

two design

-5-

published
It is

by the author
mentioning on the

elsewhere
that detailing all

[21].
design such stress

worth emphasis

corbel of

methods

place

great

a corbel bearing detailing

as geometrical and stirrups to have alter its a

proportions, details. great ultimate during This effect

reinforcement is essential

anchorage, as improper behaviour practice, or

proved

on a corbel's [9). fabrication corbel In

and substantially improper detailing

strength design, the

may arise

erection. are

Adequate given in the

recommendations design sources

concerning [1,18,19].

detailing

In used

recent in

studies an attempt The in of the with

(22,23], to replace

different the of the shear

types stirrups fibres strength. to in

of

steel reinforced a

fibres

were

concrete

corbels. increase development need to for

introduction the such corbel's technique

showed The the

considerable adoption of to and the

may lead

elimination which has

complex the

reinforcement design

detailing recommendations.

be met

comply

above

1.4.2

Steel

Inserts inserts connection, steel into the beam or into both bolting the the inserts jointed Inserts may be also can be incorporated of them. Steel bolts together together during the by bearing

In into

this

type

of

the column, process.

are usually erection

needed for

on each other. inserts steel higher ductility. connection construction require

reinforced concrete corbels, produce simple detailed connections with much Besides, they have the advantage of keeping the the depth of the beam, On the i. e. other can be obtained. regarding a uniform hand, they

Compared with

within depth

the minimisation of voids formation under the embedded members during casting. Special care must also be given to the projecting parts during handling and lifting to avoid their distortion. special consideration

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Different [1,6]. the of is

types However,

and the

shapes

of

steel

inserts shown The billet structural in

have Figure

been

in

use is form It

cast-in-billet, this or group. hollow

(1.2a), the

most steel

popular plate,

one of I-section

can be in steel

member.

enclosed

by the sufficient

column to

reinforcement provide the the to

cage and projects proper bearing as

outward it will

a distance act lining surface.

as a steel to the

corbel. entire

The end of bearing area

beam incorporates provide a uniform

a steel contact

Under

loading,

a high beneath

compressive the embedded stress

stress

develops at at

in the

the

concrete end. far

immediately Another end, design steel for

section appears

loaded of the

zone of

compressive (1.2b). have [3].

the simple

top

see Figure equations sections assuming steel

Based on conservative been developed design depth i. e. As steel a of for

assumptions, with various

connections were later

These

equations the

criticised the of were of of on results

a 'constant' section, load.

compression of the

zone below eccentricity studies the effect length

embedded the

independent result, shapes to

applied

experimental investigate proportions, and load

conducted the the the were steel

on certain section

shape, column

its

geometrical

embedded part, joint's then

reinforcement capacity the above

eccentricity

load-carrying used to improve

[24,25]. design

Experimental equations.

Current

design

area as in bearing between

recommendations pay high attention most cases beam shear is transferred the

to the bearing through direct

inserts. Confinement steel of concrete has also to be ensured as in most reported embedding the inserts failure cases [26,27], was due to the tensile splitting of Lengths of both the concrete in the plane of the embedded plate.

to embedded and protruding parts of the steel insert are crucial Other Limits concerning avoid any premature failure of the joint. the design and construction processes can be found in References [1,3,6].

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1.4.3

Metal

Connectors
such as threaded in many kinds in bolts, of the bolts

A wide and

variety

of studs This

connectors are is industry. [28]. a found most

anchor

headed

precast

concrete and

connections. precast are well

pronounced Types of bolts

prestressed

concrete

and threaded of a connector,

connectors to by be its lists usually to

documented in forming

Selection is

involved properties covering provided tension,

connection,

highly strength.

governed Standard are be

such as dimensions the by shear available the or ranges

and design of such

properties can

manufacturer. their

Connectors

subjected

combination.

Anchor

is mainly dependent on whether the bolt is fully The design strength or partially embedded in concrete. based on steel failure taken as the lesser of the strengths or failure (with pull-out cone or wedge cone). Nominal concrete bolts design is of short anchor bolts are reviewed and [29,30]. the authors In this review, bolt They found that single anchorages. design procedures that were using significantly some of these results.
of singleThey and found with

and shear capacity in References presented focused several on isolated commonly used

tensile

Moreover, unconservative. equations led to different


Ueda et double-bolt that large the al. [31] investigated

they reported predictions


the shear in of more

from the test

resistance concrete.

anchorages maximum shear be

embedded capacity 40-60%

plain

double-bolt than that

anchorages of

spacings with design [32]. and In

could the

a single-bolt of the

anchorage current et al.

same edge distance. of anchor

Recently, bolts

a review

procedures this shear

was presented was given

by Lynch to the with

review, capacity

a special of

emphasis

tensile overlapping

multiple-anchorages

stress

cones.

Numerical were

models for developed to

single-bolt study the

anchorages most

under

tensile influences

loads on

relevant

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anchorages

[33,34].

The two-dimensional with test

non-linear

finite

models in

showed a good agreement the anchoring of these models realistic In Figure

results.

Crack propagation

zones was also obtained models failed prematurely. expanded loads ultimate (1.3a), to

However, some successfully. that if the It is believed analysis, more

were

three-dimensional

could have been obtained.

headed studs are used to carry the shear load from a precast beam. Being generally concrete made of steel, devices allows for shear to bracket welding plates or similar from transfer Then shear is transmitted as shown in the figure. the welded studs to the concrete through bearing. In addition to by the joint, the shear carried the joint to a can be subjected force, tensile The ultimate strength as shown in Figure (1.3b). depends highly spacing, of a headed stud joint on the diameter, embedment length As with capacity [29,30]. and design strengths of the studs. nominal tensile and shear

the case of

the anchor bolts, are reviewed

of headed studs

and presented

in References

Based mainly on this review, Shaikh and Yi [35] reported a comprehensive design procedure for the welded headed studs. In design for different their they equations, allowed edge conditions, A primary stud groups and combined shear and tensile disadvantage are always on of the use strength of with of studs their welds is loadings.

tolerances concrete. disadvantage

associated the

close in placement is another

that

Dependence of this

connection.

The classification groups (corbels, representative, or

into three main of beam-to-column connections steel inserts and metal connectors) was given as but countless and combinations variations of two Several alternative may be developed. beams and columns are suggested in

more of these groups means for interconnecting References [1-3,6,28].

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Nowadays, structural column connections programmes : 1. A research

research follows

and development

in precast four

beam-to-

one of the following

co-ordinated

programme to develop and evaluate new connections in terms of design concepts, materials This and technologies. is done with the purpose to produce more efficient connection

time and costs. The connection designed and to reduce erection and tested by El-ghazaly et al. [36] is a good example of this research approach. of this programme is to develop recommendations design of precast building frames concrete and experimental research. demand for introducing carried As a such out in

2. The purpose for the on of based result

seismic sound

analytical increasing the

a number of studies were North America over the past few years [37-39].
3. The research provide using equations performance research investigate columns of in more this or is carried out on well data established on their the

recommendations,

connections behaviour. existing on the

to Then,

comprehensive data study of the to the either effect

improve of

design overall Current to of trend

connections under of on

connected at the

members University effects a typical

loading.

undertaken the skeletal [40].

Nottingham the stability of this

moment-rotation frames is

example

research

4. A research with the currently designer and

programme performed on widely basic aim of providing research

used data

connections, that is not the gives behaviour design research this

data usually The obtained available. a better understanding of the connection's to In the this development study bolt reported

contributes out

recommendations. carried approach. on

of relevant herein, the exemplifies

sleeved

connections

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1.5 Sleeved Bolts


Today, used from bolted connections the following

Connection
the Its

connections in the facts:

stand construction

as

one

of

most

extensively stems

field.

popularity

1. Compared with other lot of supervision Ia 2. It can be fastened

types

it does not require of connections, for site conditions. so it is suitable so if will rapid support is to be construction load as soon as the

quickly

the connection achieved, bolts are tightened. 3. The rigidity use of high 4. In its of the

tensile

connection bolts.

is

relatively

high

due to

the

finished

form,

there This

beam lower architectural

soffit.

is no visible is usually in requirements. Figure

protrusion accordance

below the with the

and functional

A sleeved bolt connection shown in in use for a long time, is a typical provides an efficient structural be briefly described as follows:
A group ends, breadth passed brackets opposite hexagonal serve are of of high passed a tensile, through grade mild 8.8

(1.4),

which

had been

It

example of such connections. Its formation can connection.

steel sleeves column. in the

bolts,

threaded through are

both the also steel on a can a

steel

embedded The two pair bolts

reinforced matching

concrete holes (1.4). are end. the

through

drilled Then, held At in this

stiffened of brackets

as shown in sides nut of the

Figure column

position stage,

by tightening each bracket Having within usually its cross

on each bolt's angle the for

as a seat end,

incoming the

beam end. bracket

recessed section.

beam

confines

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1.6 Potential
Figure recessed shown in (1.5)

Failures
shows a typical concrete can bolt

sleeved beam. be

connection failure the

supporting locations, three

reinforced this figure,

Potential in

grouped

following

groups:
I

11.6.1 Potential a) Flexural

Failures

in The Beam: of the longitudinal the beam. This is of flexural cracks tension usually in the

failure

reinforcement

due to the yield in the bottom of formation

the accompanied with beam's bending span. b) Shear failure

characterised at the maximum shear plane, c) Concrete crushing stress at is the

of the concrete by the extending

near the of inclined

beam end.

This

is

towards top face

initiated cracks, the top face of the beam. the beam where maximum

of

compressive d) Yield of

found.

the

longitudinal bearing

reinforcement plate

above the cast-in e) Yield steel f) Failure

provided at the beam end. in the

immediately

of shear reinforcement links or bent-up bars. due to improper links close

provided

form of

either

anchorage

and the steel g) Bearing to occur The above previous failure

of tensile to the beam end. stresses

reinforcing

bars

due to the high local

which acts

Local cracks as an inverted corbel. at the inner edge of the bearing plate. failure modes were

at the beam end are most likely

listed

experimental

and numerical

reported and predicted investigations [41-43).

in It

-12-

was

found

that highly

the

ultimate

load towards of

and the

consequently details of distance and the the

the the of

failure

mode were The amount from the

sensitive

beam end. reaction of

and arrangement full depth

reinforcement, of the beam of

section the

presence

horizontal

loading

affected

behaviour

beam end.

It

was also

found that effective

by adopting

secondary modes of failure beam detailing and meeting

can be excluded the requirements

of bond, anchorage and bearing stresses of Codes of Practice [18,19]. Adequate recommendations on detailing and design of recessed beam ends are given in References [1,3,44].
The serviceability has been the Clark element et al. subject reported They behaviour of the recessed [45]. data the beams In (half this joints) research, by finite behaviour in

of

a recent an extensive concluded

research test that

supported load

analyses.

service

was improved a half effect load. joint. on the

significantly They also service

by providing revealed load that

inclined bearing crack type

reinforcement

had an obvious and failure

strains,

patterns

1.6.2

Potential bearing

Failures

in Steel

Members: loaded if the

a) Yield bearing

of

the bracket's of the bracket's

plate

may occur is exceeded. possible if

strength failure stiffened.

material is also

b) Bending not well c) Fracture parts d) Bearing

of the loaded plate

it

is

of the fillet

of at the steel

welds used in connecting bracket.

the different

of the bolts against the top of the bracket's matching holes. This may lead to a failure if there is insufficient end distance allowing the bolt to split out through the plate.

-13-

load bolt the failure takes the Shear applied place when of e) A critical shear plane is shear capacity. exceeds the bolt's threaded area where the to pass through the bolt's more likely cross These loaded fillet between section area is modes can sufficiently to be reduced. be thick capable of excluded and stiff. transferring by making the bracket's the Also by designing the loads safely

failure plate welds the

connected

have been

studies in structural connection, examined. excellent connections. components accurately 1.6.3

reported have been carried steel welding The lists

The above mentioned failure modes parts. in detail [46,47]. Extensive and discussed out in the field In these frames. of bolted connections details of the studies,

type and arrangement of bolts were effects, [48,49] for is to References referred reader frames with bolted works on steel of published in of this study, failure as modes of they have steel more not particular performance. in The Column: interest

However, are

predictable Failures

Potential

a) Yielding

of the sleeve at its loaded end due to the bearing of the bolt. This is always accompanied with progressive concrete beneath the sleeve's in the cover region directly crushing end. component of surface level. capability the force normal formation to the curved

loaded

b) The horizontal sleeve external below the bolt reducing applied the load.

causes cracks These of cracks the

in the column may develop downwards to support the

connection

looses its tensile c) As the concrete level, tensile start axial stresses links found in this region causing loads.

below the bolt strength to develop in the steel them to yield at higher

-14-

d) Spalling

of the column face immediately result of

below the bolts the high

level

This occurs as a may occur. bearing stress in this area.

developed

both loading the ends of In at of applying unsymmetrical case e) the the connection, causing a bending moment may develop formation
the of

of side

cracks

in the column.
which in addressed the data [21]. be found of recessed exists Moreover, covering such sources the previous two the the or

Despite types steel potential detailing bolt topic

many publications i. e. little in failures

failures,

beam and in regarding no design

members, failures

published the column could the

recommendations Since by study.

the

sleeved is it a

connections. not covered further

behaviour design

connections [1-3,18,19]

current

warranted

1.7 Work Scope is the investigation of symmetrical sleeved bolt loading vertical of

This

study

concerned

with

connections only. varying

under the application four full To achieve this, the number of bolts

out, scale tests were carried as an experimental per joint

This series of tests was used to examine the effect of parameter. failure joint behaviour, bolt density the mode, g. e. overall on strength and stiffness. To assess the effect of concrete strength of a singlecapacity on the load-carrying and its confinement bolted joint, carried another series of tests were subsequently different this test lower In series, strength. concrete out with degrees of concrete It of is well confinement were provided to the joints. details on the

known that concentrations

instrumentation in concrete

stress

used in measuring have a great effect

accuracy models

of the using

results. the finite

Due to this element

apparent problem, numerical method have been developed to

-15-

show the development and distribution also intended that the finite element calibrated the loads. against of the test data joints for at behaviour tested

of

these

stresses.

modelling subsequent both

was method would be use to simulate and ultimate

It

working

1.8 Thesis
In this

Layout
the details in two, three presents finite a Chapter three two of and four the tests

thesis, out This

are

given one,

carried bolts.

on joints is followed

involving in Chapter

sleeved of part the of

Chapter four the with

by a discussion the numerical model of sets of out

experimental the and investigation its

results.

concerning together used for results are the

element description five

development the the finite basic

geometry, package used

element properties The

(ANSYS). numerical and their in

Chapter

modelling comparison six.

concrete those of is

material. obtained concrete examined Finally, formulates

numerical

with

experimentally strength both and its

covered

Chapter

The effect joint

confinement and

on a single-bolted in Chapter

numerically eight

experimentally the general

seven. and

Chapter

summarises for future

conclusions

recommendations

work.

-16-

I--

-1

Prtcast

bean

Steel plate Precast column Steel angle


z:

R. C. Corbet

FIGURE (1.1a)

:A

BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION WITH A REINFORCED CONCRETE CORBEL.

V T C

Applied load Tensile force Compressive force

FIGURE (1.1b)

: SIMPLE TRUSS ANALOGY FOR DESIGNING CORBELS.

Applied Load

As

Yield stress As steel area F ConprYSStve force

FIGURE (1.1c)

: FORCES AND STRESSES AT A COLUMN-CORBEL INTERFACE.

-17-

-1

Precast

beam

Precast Column

` Steel

Uning

Steel

billet

In-situ concrete

FIGURE (1.2a)

:A

BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING A STEEL BILLET.

Applied load 2 Compressive forces

C2 V

C1LC a L1 L2

Load eccentricity Projecting length

Embedment length

FIGURE

(1.2b)

: FORCE SYSTEM FOR A STEEL BILLET

LOADED IN

SHEAR.

-18-

Precast

beam

Precast column '.

Bearing pad

Headed studs

Steel

angle

FIGURE (1.3a)

:A

BEAM-TO-COLUMN CONNECTION USING HEADED STUDS.

V, L vL M

Applied forces Applied moment Embedment length Stud diameter spacing

SI

NMd Aws

Stud

FIGURE (1.3b)

: TYPICAL DESIGN ELEMENTS FOR A HEADED STUDS JOINT.

-19-

Bolt

sleeve

Grout

hole

FIGURE (1.4)

: STANDARD DETAILS OF A SLEEVED BOLTS CONNECTION.

-20-

Ii

L d Oy VC

41

4,

a)
d U 0 -P 0 Z

Er

}"

L V0

h 4.

a u

U Wz

C 0 -P U N C C O U 0) S -F' ci O a) a) 0

9 a d A

d e . wa

d2 5d,

H L".I O G4

ll') '-i

+' 4

C5 > O E N tA -P N

U C5 C+U :3d O U

-Q

-21-

1. i.4!124z49G1

2.1 Introduction
A well design under by known approach of both a structural working for regarding the usually the

proposing is

recommendations to determine This of is

connection and ultimate large

performance achieved and high better

loads. number is

having

a statistically tests. time of

properly associated it leads

devised with to

performed costs and

Such a technique consumption, the on for but

always

nevertheless behaviour. of In

understanding test raised bearing concrete effective less tests number information the

connection the their

The lack sleeved bolt the

of

published

behaviour testing. and testing the

connections local of to be the and the most the of the

need

view

of

high

stresses faces to

developed, spalling, determining

the

susceptibility

was considered load The is to carrying intent assess

way of

capability of the the

of series of

ductile described of bolts

concrete in per this joint

component. chapter, on its

effect

general

behaviour.

The experimental In this

work the

for

this

investigation

was carried

out

in

the Heavy Structural chapter,

Laboratory details

at the University of test specimen, used during

of Southampton. instrumentation the course of

and other the testing

experimental

considerations programme are described.

2.2 Test Programme As can be seen from in Chapter earlier materials. For this the 1, description its the

of formation

connection, given different comprises to expect that

reason it

is not

surprising

-22-

its

performance

can be greatly

affected

by the characteristics

of

these materials. Variables capacity which may have an effect on the can be summarised as follows: spacing and and arrangement spacing of steel connection's ultimate

1. Number, size, 2. Presence, joint. size

of bolts links

per joint. surrounding the

3. Yield

strengths and brackets.

of

steel

members,

i. e.

bolt,

sleeve,

links,

4. Concrete

properties,

i. e. compressive of steel

and tensile brackets,

strengths. as plate

5. Geometrical thickness, distance 6. Size

the mounting holes and the clear edge between the holes and the nearest edge of the plate. fillet welds which are used in forming the steel

properties diameter of

such

of brackets.

When the Bearing the

is under pure shear loading, the load is connection from the bracket transferred to the column through the bolts. of the bolts Thus on the two sleeves then modes transmits of load. the load of They are,
most passes. likely This

to the

concrete.

principal

failure

connection
a) The bolt at will the

are susceptible
may fail threaded if the

to occur at ultimate
sheared where is the strong off

by being portion concrete

completely, plane

shear

happen

enough.

b) The concrete sleeve lateral to

may crush beneath the sleeve sufficiently downward through it move vertically to develop. This force is equivalent

for causing

the a

force

to the

-23-

horizontal external

component sleeve surface

of

the

force

normal

to

the

the stress has a causes a tensile stress value higher than the concrete tensile strength, a vertical crack would appear. This is followed by development of tensile forces at in the links beneath After link the sleeve causing the them to yield cracked would be higher loads. already

as shown in Figure in this If region.

(2.1).

curved Such force

concrete would support inevitable.

yielding, loading no further

and failure

the concrete In either mode of failure, the loaded end becomes crushed locally pressure induced by the bolt shank.
In this test programme the number of To tests. of bolts

beneath due to

sleeve near the high bearing

the

bolts achieve

per

joint this,

was the involved

the test a four

principal programme joint in all detail specimen below the with steps four in

experimental was divided a different of one.

parameter. into four

Each of ranging

these from to is of

number

one to

One test The

specimen of At the the

was designed the the testing last test. joints end

accommodate described test, in the off

joints. the had level to

arrangement section. from of

following be of

each

removed influence

machine

and cut

2.3

Design

of

Test

Specimen

The

test

specimen section shown in

was

reinforced height The

concrete of

column

of

300mm of the

square column base

cross are

and a total Figure wide (2.2).

2740mm. Details had for

column

a rectangular the following

900 x 300mm. This

breadth

was chosen

reasons: 1. To increase process. 2. During testing, the be held in the vertical the the column during its

stability

of

assembly

column

would

-24-

position. distribution

Therefore, area

load to have a larger was required between the column base and the testing it

machine base. 3. This breadth was the maximum allowable curing tank size. possible sides to have an inclination of the

within

restriction

of the available 4-. The 900mm breadth 45 degrees a convenient


To steel four (2.2). tests internal This used value in the account sleeves groups. This to for of

made it

on two opposite

of the column. point


a cast them allow

This angle was

one from the construction


the four different each, spacing adopted joints, were of to

of view.
total in of 10

mild in

300mm length and was

and arranged shown in for the sleeve

The number arrangement out of

are

Figure

required had an

be carried diameter of

as mentioned

earlier.

Each

27.0mm with diameter

a 3.0mm uniform was chosen as

wall the

thickness. bolts to be

internal

tests

had a 24.0mm nominal

diameter.

A minimum between chosen one

vertical

spacing successive any concrete would

of top

500mm was adopted rows in any group. occurred nor

for

the This during

distance value was

any two so that of

cracks neither

which

testing the next

group

sleeves

reach

affect

group.

The steel

column bars. height if

was

reinforced links, value

with at of

four

25mm longitudinal were had occur. used to

deformed along the

8mm steel This . interference

50mm centres, links spacing would

column changed

be slightly bar

with length

sleeves from the

Each main

had a 50mm protruding passed casting. surface smooth through Cutting resulted surfaces. to the

column's accurate flush

squared location with

end which during the

shutter

to

ensure

these in This facilitate

protruding having allowed fixing

lengths bars to of

the

concrete with bars be

uniform holes part

cross

sections in setup these as will

be drilled the test

afterwards

-25-

explained A horizontal

in section

2.5. of 65mm between vertical centrelines of any the column. was kept constant throughout and Curing was white Portland cement, 5mm down fine

spacing sleeves Casting

two adjacent 2.4 Concrete The

concrete

mix

10mm and 20mm coarse aggregate in the ratio 1: 1.48 : aggregate, 0.85 : 1.7, with a water/cement ratio of 0.375. The mix was designed, to give a 28 using the DoE mix design procedure [50],
days target mean strength tends to Four of 52.0 2. N/mm White cement cement in order concrete concrete to and for cast one each was used in the crack as it be better batches than were one as used Portland required 100x200mm control to splitting

detection. Three prism

column.

100mm cubes, were cast were the the

cylinder

500xlOOxlOOmm batch. These

specimens measure the

specimens strength,

ultimate and the

compression flexural

tensile concrete.

strength

strength

for

The

batching

was

done

by weight mixer in the

and

the

mixing

was

done Both

in

a the

O. lm3 capacity aggregate the right

rotary

Concrete in the

Laboratory. mixer mixing three from the first

and the amount for

cement of water

were

placed

and then The The to to the

was added were

as the for

continued. minutes. mixer

ingredients fresh concrete

each

batch

mixed

was immediately tests of were the

transferred out concrete. the slump for

formwork. the

Slump

carried fresh as

two The values

batches concrete were

check had a

workability high

moderately 75mm.

workability

65mm and

The concrete was cast in a wooden mould placed on a baseboard laid horizontally Care was taken to insert the on the floor. These locations sleeves in their exact locations. were carefully timber marked on the baseboard and a set of solid cylindrical dowels were nailed to the centres of these markings. Each piece

-26-

had a diameter slightly and a height of 30mm.


The reinforcement over in the was nailed

less

than

the

sleeve

internal

diameter

placed timber

as

a cage, which

then held

the

sleeves

were each

slotted sleeve to of cross

dowels of

one end of dowels, at in

position. members to

Another connected the

set to

similar mould, were These

timber

nailed the top

the

was provided firmly dowels fixed also sleeves.

sleeves

ensure and

sleeves

position in

during preventing

casting

vibrating. grout from

helped

concrete

passing

into

the

Before treated A set plastic cleaned concrete


The end

casting, with of oil spacers chamfer

the

baseboard

was cleaned

and

the

mould

was

to ensure a good surface was used to ensure edge profiles.

on the concrete. 40mm concrete a consistent

finish

cover along

the column edges. These edges were chamfered by using The control on a vibrating
in the mould top were

and coated with

mould oil.

specimens moulds were As they were filled with fresh table.


the and damp the

they were vibrated


once placed the

concrete of

was vibrated, surface then was moist

and at levelled

casting

concrete and moulds

smoothed. hessian mould crane left for

The formwork and plastic

cured stripped

with from

sheets. day,

The column lifted in at out the

was then by an

the and in

following laid tank up the

overhead tank. when

electrical was

horizontally for 15 days

curing

The column it

the

20 degrees

was removed

setting

tests.

2.5 Test Hardware 2.5.1 Steel Bolts

Each steel bolt used throughout the test programme had a nominal diameter of 24mm and a total length of 390mm. This length, which includes a threaded part of 35mm on each end, was chosen to avoid having the threads in direct inner the sleeves' contact with

-27-

surface tightening

during

testing.

Another

reason

was

to

on each side, after passing back plate. the thickness When assembling of the bracket's was no trace of dirt or rust on the bolts' surfaces. 2.5.2 Steel Brackets

of a nut,

for the allow the bolt through there

The brackets

were made from grade 43 steel plates. dimensions and patterns shows the details of their tests. Each bracket consisted of three parts: plate 27mm holes of the of plate back

Figure used in

(2.3) the

a) A vertical number of dimensions

of 20mm thickness with a specified drilled in it. Number of holes and to the number Care was taken errors. to the worked applied

and arrangement during drilling b) A horizontal vertical

were chosen according tested bolts in the joint. to minimise

the holes

misalignment

of 15 or 20mm thickness was attached one by a full arc weld. This plate penetration plate to allow for the load to be directly

as a seat plate on the joint.


c) Webs, force, plates. which were Apart

were welded

designed to the both

to

carry the

safely

the and pair

applied the of

shear

vertical single-hole

horizontal brackets, 15 or 20mm

from

first

each bracket depending

had two webs. predicted

Web thickness shear force

was either to be carried.

on the

All

welds

welds. capable parts. 2.5.3

these parts together connecting were fillet They were designed in accordance with BS 5950 [51], to be used of transferring the loads safely between the connected

in

Loading

Plates to the joints were transferred from the testing

The loads

applied

-28-

300mm high by 250mm by means of two mild steel plates This thickness was wide by 40mm thick as shown in Figure (2.4). chosen to avoid buckling of of the plates under the application maximum load. Both top and bottom surfaces of the plates were machine machined to provide machine platten top surfaces of uniform regular surfaces and the brackets respectively. the plates were not less applying any direct in contact with the the than In all tests, than 50mm higher

the column top to avoid 2.5.4 Testing Machine

load on the column.

The hydraulic a maximum bottom rollers fixed platten against of dial. the at one

machine capacity could the be top of

used 1500 moved one

in

applying KN. It

the had out

load flat the moved

in

all

tests

had the of and

two of be

plattens, rig by means

in

and

while set is the

could

only a load

vertically the

intervals. moved fixed

To apply

on a specimen the of tested

bottom

vertically, top platten. was

thus At

pressing any stage by the

specimen the value

loading,

applied

load

indicated

machine's

calibrated

2.5.5

Mounting

Frame
to the in of tests,

Having will frame tests positions.

common measurable be seen in Section the

quantities 2.7, raised This measuring by using of the

monitor need could

all

as

having in

a single all four

surrounding for holding This fixed of the

joint. the

frame

be used in

equipments

the steel

required plates, be noted during for

was achieved to the top

two U-shaped column. area It of

6mm thick, that testing. the of top

should concrete

column the

was an unloaded top of the it the that column

Therefore,

provided potential machine. could

an origin

measured the column had

quantities, with two to in the respect slots

i. e. to so

eliminated testing it

movements Each of the

U-plates independently flexibility

be

connected provided into

column

by two 12mm bolts.

The slots

horizontal

adjustment

as each bolt

was bolted

-29-

and tapped in the main column bars. The holes were drilled after having the initially protruding part (approx. 50mm in length) of each bar cut to have the bar ends flush with the column top. Subsequent tests also had the bar ends hole drilled tested the top face after of previously sections with (2.1) (2.5) show column had been cut away. Figure and Plate details of the mounting frame.
An 8mm hole U-plates. connected This to for frame together was drilled Four to steel and tapped rods edges of in each protruding edge of the were (2.5). end used

a 12mm threaded

flush

12mm diameter

and 500mm length see Figure in each

these

by means of

8mm bolts, thread bottom steel

was simply meet the bolts.

done In the

by having the

a female the

rod's were

meantime, to form a closed of

threads frame.

connecting which at was the of

rods the

This

closed bolted rigidity

in

four

6mm steel to increase

plates, both

corners, the whole

was provided mounting

and stability

frame.

2.6

Test

Setup

The bottom platten the position of reference lines.

of the machine was pulled out from the rig and the column base was carefully marked on by to have the This was done as it was important the applied load would be

in the rig so that column centralized divided equally between the brackets. The vertical were held the Effort lowered vertically column top steel over rods, the top connected of the to

the

bottom After

closed the

frame,

column.

column was to

the U-plates position, in the as has been described

in this

were connected previous

of each plate was taken to ensure levelling Then the lower part of the frame was lifted to have the top of the rods connected to the protruding This edges of the U-plates. was followed by adjusting that the and ensuring hold the transducers. the frame in position around the joint whole mounting frame is rigid enough to

section. individually.

-30-

At

up to the column faces and the bolts were passed through the brackets' matching it in bolt hold to holes. Two per used nuts were sleeved brackets horizontally have the taken to Care was position. the nuts. After mounting all the levelled tightening after finger this stage, the could transducers, the two thick steel loading plates

brackets

be offered

were put in crane. The loading plates position with the help of an electrical brackets horizontal the the plates of on vertically were resting from the column face as shown a 60mm load eccentricity creating in Figure (2.4). A 500mm long threaded rod was provided across the top of the plates (passing This was also to stop failure The general of joints. after in Figure setup is shown diagramatically in Plates (2.2) and (2.3). bottom it the the the latter rig. was then The top clear over during testing. the column top) to be

used as a safety from the plates

restraint falling

arrangement for the test (2.4) and photographically Having the column to its

on the original until

pushed back platten was

platten, in position reached

test

nearest possible distance to the thick plates where it could be fixed in position. began to be moved upwards until the top of The bottom platten both thick platten. plates At this came at the same time stage the test into contact with the top was ready to be started.

lowered

2.7 Instrumentation 2.7.1 Transducers


is the one fundamental major for problem such information faced in

The load-deflection required preparing is often for the from this any test

characteristic bolted is connection. that the

data

needed to

deflections To as in in

locations problem, for other vertical

inaccessible some measurements ones.

instrumentation. had is to be taken

overcome

representative measuring the following

actual

This

demonstrated be described

a bolt's section.

deflection

as will

-31-

However, each test was almost identical. some slight changes had to be made to account for the increase in For each bracket, number of tested bolts per joint. a number of linear displacement transducers were positioned on the mounting frame in such a way that the following measured directly, or be determined successive increments of loadings: 1. The downward vertical edges of the bracket's the centreline the plate of mid-span. concrete sideway deflection along both deflection quantities could either from other readings, be at

The instrumentation

for

of

both

the

top

and bottom

back plate. each bolt while

The former the latter

was measured at was measured at

2. The variation sides

of the of the brackets.

3. The longitudinal pull-out/drawn-in 4. Bracket side-sway of

deflection movements. (if lateral

of

the

bolts,

i. e.

their

axial

translation for a typical

occurred). joint are shown in

The locations Figure 2.7.2 (2.6)

transducers (2.4).

and Plate

Data Logger Orion data logger was used to The data logger the

A Solatron

record

readings

measured by the transducers.

provided an accurate in ohms to the conversion of the transducers' resistances A total required output in millimetres. of seven input connection cards for the 40 channels were used. All transducers were wired separately to the data logger using four-core insulated copper the to A DC 110 cartridge readings during the test computing tape recorder was used to save all so that the data could be transferred facilities for post-processing.

wires.

the University

-32-

All set

the up

operation

parameters tape.

for

scanning

the

transducers

were and the

and saved on the

Necessary

information of scanning

concerning

the channel numbers, the rate the voltage, output device was input to the program. A built-in

for the all printer gave a hard copy printout readings at each load increment, measurement data. This printed be behaviour joint to the made assessment of allowed a continuous as the test progressed. of Transducers

2.8 Installation The transducers extensively and the According divided to into

had either 10mm or 15mm strokes. They were used the brackets to determine the movement of the bolts, around required groups: the joint the four quantities under the applied to be measured they load. can be

concrete

a) Group 1
This group of transducers deflection above, the were bolt's positioned arms was was of concerned each with measuring back were plate. taken Transducers each the a top bolt of in the the As as

downward have been

vertical described of

bracket's

these vertical

measurements deflection. above against one two bolt,

representative with the back 15mm stroke top row,

vertically compressed than the with joint, two

having When

their there

plate. of cases,

more between aligning

horizontal so that line to of a the

distance in all

65mm was adopted each bolt. positioned i. e., one In was the above one at

transducers centre in

the

corresponding transducer were

single the

bolt bolt,

addition

additional back plate.

transducers

provided,

each edge of

the

both transducers To mount the transducers on a bracket, were fixed bolted to a steel with a purpose-made aluminium channel

-33-

angle. both its

The angle was running

horizontally vertical

between,

and clamped at

ends to, two of the steel of the mounting frame. bottom deflection

rods which were part

of the back plate at its mid-span during for testing. This was recorded each joint was also below the bracket. measured by a transducer positioned vertically to a stand which had a magnetic base This transducer was fitted The central attached b) Group of 15mm. They were used to record the sideway movements of the concrete on both transducers on each side, six were sides of the brackets. from in the top that the second one a spaced such way vertically This group consisted of 24 transducers with strokes was located level. The others were centreline to the positions corresponding of the steel links above and below test the joint. This arrangement was chosen because an earlier [21] showed that the concrete movement above the level of top at the bolt's is small a group compared with those below it. bracket The six transducers an forming aluminium
These it

to the bottom

stiffening

closed

frame.

bolts

on one side of the channel held by the vertical


were to form chosen show after a to

were fixed with mounting frame rods.


the concrete movement movement links. to The allow

positions expected start partially, either with to to

measure

as

was

noticeable yield against of the the or

sideways steel concrete contraction. only

when arms for points the

cracks were

compressed concrete the concrete having

recording of contact

expansion surface

Their

were

25mm away from over the virtually

column fixed

edges column

avoid bars.

them positioned

main

c) Group33 For each bolt in the top row, two transducers were used to

-34-

measure the axial pull-out behind ends were hidden

measurements could not problem, a 6mm deep hole was drilled thin the bolt's end. A T-shaped flat the bolt end by a fixing into this

movements. As the top bolt loading these the vertical plate, be obtained directly. To overcome this or drawn-in and tapped in the centre of steel plate was attached to hole. This allowed the axial

The transducer arm movement of the bolt to be measured remotely. in for movement to be recorded compressed to allow was half bases of the stands used in direction. All magnetic either holding these transducers clamped by C-clamps to the were firmly mounting frame.

d) Group44
In two having both one per of back brackets bracket, the initially were levelled positioned during at the horizontally, to measure They the any were

spite

of

transducers, translation on the

lateral located centreline.

brackets sides,

loading. level of

plate's

bolt's

Transducers using

used in all

four

groups were calibrated

independently

a calibration

micrometer.

2.9 Test Procedure


Before fixed the saved the top data loading platten, logger. was that into the

plates the Then input the

came

contact cards was

with were

machine to the was

connection data logger the tape. were

connected on and

switched

program ensure

loaded all the

from

A final correctly of all

inspection

made to positioned scanned.

transducers initial

and securely transducers were

and then

readings

The test load.

procedure This

consisted

simply

supporting

continued any further

the until load or for

of the gradual application joints were not capable some reason no additional

of of load

-35-

increments in initial of applied was could 50 KN and when the monitored deflections showed large increases, increments indicating the load were onset- of nonlinearity, be applied. The load reduced to 25 KN. The load-deformations inspection Visual each load increment. was carried formation. out throughout the test to data of were the joint recorded for surrounding crack

record

any visible

To record effect, minutes,


After the

due to creep or yielding any changes in deflection the load was maintained over a period of two constant for each load
each frame of

increment,

before

another
the for were and

scan was taken.


loading future plates

end of

test, were

the

transducers, and kept brackets rig

and the the

mounting

removed and the

use while The was the the the

conditions was to lifted

bolts away

examined. meter of off avoid to

column used tested affected difficulty enough

from links

the

test

a cover the level

detect joint.

steel Then a

locations was This specified check a steel the

below for was link, joint,

level

cutting to

column in concrete

section.

done

cutting height

through above failure

and also to be

provide thus

tested,

preventing

any premature

there.

A masonry saw was used to cut the column off at the marked level. in order to head was placed on a moving trolley The saw's cutting have the column laid as shown in cutting on the ground during in a way such that the was positioned through a direction perpendicular machine blade would be cutting to the sleeves axis. Guide wheels were used to have a precise Plate (2.5). The trolley cutting track. Wooden straight edges, orthogonal to the column edges, were also used to guide the wheels. The cutting continued process vertically started towards cutting of its from the one side of the column and

column middle

section.

Cutting

was stopped when the due to the limitation

efficiency radius.

of the blade was reduced

Then the saw was removed and

-36-

the side.
2.10

column

was turned

upside

down for

cutting

from

the

other

Material

Properties

2.10.1

Concrete
twelve one the 100mm cubes each from cured each at the with four the

As-mentioned batches. test Four

earlier, cubes, under

were

cast

from

batch,

were One of

specimen

same conditions. Tests The cubes were

was tested 33,46,53, water-cured with 2.1, BS from and

on the and until

same day as testing. respectively. Testing Results average

carried cubes in

out

73 days, testing.

remaining

were

was conducted are cube shown below

accordance in Table the

1881: 1983. which the

obtained concrete

strengths

for

wet-cured

dry-cured

cubes were 67.00 and 69.125 N/mm2, respectively. that the

Assuming

loads, for water-cured cubes' failing cubes, distributed that a result are normally with only 5% probability below the mean value of these loads. A mean value of would fall 2 61.9 N/mm was obtained for the concrete material.
Cube Age at No. Test (days) Batch No. Curing Type Failing Load (KN) Compressive Strength (N/mm2)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

33 46 46 46 46 46 53 73 73 73 73 73

1 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 4

Dry Water Water Water Water Dry Dry Water Water Water Water Dry

753 646 676 728 659 751 762 679 677 646 627 498

75.5 65.0 68.0 73.0 66.0 75.0 76.0 68.0 68.0 65.0 63.0 50.0

TABLE 2.1

RESULTS OF CONCRETECUBES TESTING.

-37-

All

cylinders were water cured and tested at an age of 46 days. As can be seen from Table 2.2, all four results obtained from indirect tensile tests strength are consistent, an giving 2 average of 4.05 N/mm for the concrete tensile strength. The four prisms of

four

were tested at an age of 60 days. An average 6.22 N/mm2 was obtained for the concrete flexural strength.

Cylinders
No. Test

100 x 200 mm Tensile


Strength Load

Prisms
No. Test

500 x 100 x 100 mm Flexural


Strength Load

Batch Age at Failing (days) 1 2 3 4 46 46 46 46 (KN) 131.0 127.3 126.3 125.2

Batch Age at Failing (days) 1 2 3 4 60 60 60 60 (KN) 21.1 20.1 21.5 20.2

(N/mm2) 4.17 4.05 4.02 3.98

(N/mm2) 6.33 6.03 6.45 6.06

TABLE

2.2

RESULTS

OF CONCRETE CYLINDERS

AND PRISMS TESTING.

2.10.2

Reinforcing tests

Steel

were carried out in accordance with BS 4449 : 1976 to get the yield stress for the deformed bars used as column main bars. Using a Demec strain gauge, a series of strain values The steel proved to have a was obtained up to the yield point.
well tests This defined had to yield point and before of its value was the 448.0 ultimate in 2. N/mm Both be stopped the obtaining the ribbed strength. the testing

Two tensile

was due to

slipping

samples

machine jaws. The 8mm mild steel bars used as steel remarkable high value of yield stress. N/mm2 was determined from four tensile links the column had a An average value of 450.0 in

tests.

-38-

2.10.3

Sleeve Material
the

As

there

was

no

available it the

specification to carry stress

regarding out

sleeve tensile modulus. of

material test Having applying section. in to

properties, determine only a a wall tensile mild the would

was decided relevant yield of without cylinder,

a simple

and elastic was the length, testing the

thickness load steel

3.0mm,

there

a problem sleeve

damaging 50mm in that the

cross

A solid

was fitted machine's early stages

each end of jaws

sleeve not

to make sure crush the sleeve

clamping of loading.

ends

at

The tested 50mm apart, the close


as the

specimen

had a length for

of

300mm. Two punched marks, surface. These marks which were near measurements, stress

were made on the points

sleeve

were used as reference sleeve

strain

to avoid areas of mid-length to the jaws. The scale of the loading


expected yield stress was around incrementally. The strain gauge.

concentration
Then each load load

machine was adjusted


2. N/mm for

250.0

was applied step were step

was measured As the were of used in strain read

by means of taken up to of

a Demec strain three strain

measurements for each with load the the The

manually, the the curve yield

values

load.

The values,

average was

these, in

exclusion, stress-strain yield stress

outlying for the

obtaining (2.7).

material

shown N/mm2.

Figure

was found

to be 274.0

-39-

Bearing stress

leeve urface ensile orces

Steel Links

FIGURE

(2.1)

FORCE DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE CURVED SLEEVE SURFACE AND TN THR.. STRRT. LINKS ARNN) THE InTNT_

2740 19 300 400 140 500 140 500 500 260

.1,11

11

11 11

11

11

CD
-3 r

11 11
If 11

II 11 11
11

11
11

11
11

*I

l 0 0 el

Dimensions are in miltlmetres Diameter of holes = 27.0 mm


FIGURE (2.2) : DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST SPECIMEN WITH SLEEVES
ARRANURMRNT

-40-

160

100

160 65

140

N t o
O Cu Cu
tu cu

20

20

944

+P-

W-=

20

190 65
7-q 6 -( --

100

160 r-65

140

O O
O

44
int

I I II #r tll
20 128 2020

()

Heu
25
15
0 41If

Dimensions are in millimeters Diameter of holes = 27.0 mm

FIGURE (2.3)

GEOMETRICAL DETAILS OF THE STIFFENED STEEL THE TEST PROGRAMME. BRACKETS USED THROUGHOUT

-41-

Machine platten Steel rc

Steel to plate

Steel

br

R. C. Cot

Machine platten

FIGURE (2.4)

GENERAL VIEW OF TEST SETUP ARRANGEMENTEXCLUDING DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERMOUNTING FRAME.

-42-

160

X50

06

CD V) Cl)

C3 7

C31

PLAN VIEW

12nri Bolt
r-SMM Bolt

6mm U-Steel 12mm Steel


to 0 N

plate rod

R. C, Column Steel bracket

'-

6mm Steel plates frame of stiffening

ELEVATION
Dimensions are in mlLtimeters

FIGURE (2.5)

DETAILS OF THE MOUNTING FRAME AROUND A TESTED JOINT.

-43-

II FACE
.-o
-i +

GROUP 1

GROUP2
GROUP 3

X GROUP4

BRAD

KET A

SIDE

FIGURE

(2.6)

:A

TYPICAL

ARRANGEMENT OF TRANSDUCERS AROUND A

TESTED JOINT.

-44-

T Cl

/ O/

Np/

EN
Zp/
Q/ F-

fl

O
/

Lfl
O/

/o

Experimental x ANSYS modelling

without

work

hardening

CD 0 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50

STRAIN

FIGURE (2.7)

STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR THE SLEEVE MATERIAL.

-45-

,.
a . 0% 4K. 7 AL VIt.

-_,.. ,
s ` .. ..

h.

\j

kl

4ik

PLATE (2.1)

: DETAILS OF THE STEEL MOUNTING FRAME USED FOR HOLDING THE TRANSDUCERS IN ALL TESTS.

iru
PLATE (2.2) ILLUSTRATION OF TEST ASSEMBLY FOR A SINGLE-BOLTED JOINT

WITH THE LOADING PLATES IN POSITION.

-46-

PLATE (2.3)

: VIEWS OF TEST ASSEMBLY FOR THREE- AND FOUR-BOLTED JOINTS WITH THE LOADING PLATES REMOVED.

-47-

PLATE (2.4)

: BRACKET CLOSE-UP SHOWING DETAILS

OF THE TRANSDUCERS

ARRANGEMENT FOR A THREE-BOLTED JOINT.

PLATE (2.5)

COLU? THE CUTTING THROUGH SAW MASONRY ' :

AT A MARKED

-48-

DISCVSSIX

OF TEST RESULTS

3.1 Introduction
The main All loads for in the four tests or This obtained initial one joint, in is for in this are

results used

all

are the to

given

chapter. per bolt

figures

discussion allow different direct

end unless

stated

otherwise. results of having forming them. a

comparison Despite by the

to be made between the possibility of bolts

joints. caused load

asymmetry an even are

positions was

distribution negative or axial when

assumed to

between represent

Deflections bolt's are in pull-out

termed and top

positive, movement, referring position Figure is

drawn-in and bottom the

respectively. to their

Bolts location

termed the joint.

Also

bracket in test e. g. At is

consistently A to the number

indicated used of to bolts are

as A or B, as shown earlier define involved a joint in the this or test, joint. findings a

(2.6).

corresponds joint the

number that there

2 indicates end of this

two bolts the

forming important

chapter,

a summary of

given.

3.2 Joint

Behaviour

under Loading behaviour

In view of the test results the structural obtained, tested joint a typical can be described as follows:
3.2.1 Deflections and Rotations

of

During

the

first

load

increments,

the

bedding

of

the bolt

large deflection the sleeve led to relatively values. loading, the bolt became well seated against the sleeve invert in deflection giving rise to a steady increase up to failure.

onto on further

-49-

Just

before

failure,

the

vertical

deflection

rate

reached

its

maximum value. During the bolt was pulled out at stages of loading, continued, a one end and drawn in at its other end. As loading deflection steady increase in the pull-out could be seen. By the time significant bending moment had developed due to the the initial

small load eccentricity from the column face, the rotation of the back increased in a further pull-out plate was obvious and resulted deflection. The maximum value for drawn-in movement at the other end was extremely 3.2.2 small due to the presence of the concrete face.

Developed Stresses forces for a loaded steel the equilibrium of vertical the applied load must be equal to the sum of the forces force by the bolts acting and the frictional at the

Considering bracket, carried

column face as shown Figure (3.1). This force arrangement creates a tensile axial stress in the part of the back plates above the level of load application. 3 and 4, where bottom bolts In joints introduced, below load the are a compressive stress acts application stresses level. At in acting represented by the diagram
on the back

any stage of the back plate

load of

application, joint

the

a typical shown in Figure (3.2).


geometrical the plate, dimensions, thus

axial can be

Depending stresses recorded values to be of so

plate's or at

the

above the

may stretch deflections the net

compress its top of had was

affecting

and bottom. a typical an

However, plate

calculated were found on the

expansion that they This plate.

loaded

small

insignificant to the

effect relatively

recorded dimensions

deflections. of the

due

large

As a result of load eccentricity in tested joints were subjected the applied shear force. This

from the column face, to a tensile combination of force

top bolts

in addition to forces should have

-50-

force / tensile the ratio of the tensile i. e. not large enough to cause a strength per bolt was small, in the joint This was strength. significant reduction ultimate during the tests due to the small load eccentricity maintained compared with Therefore, strength 3.2.3 the back plate height (and thus force its lever arm). the effect of the tensile has been ignored. on the joint ultimate

an influence upon the the range investigated,

joint

ultimate

strength.

However,

within

Friction

Effect
in of the the lower, between the of force attempt to

Friction the back

occurs plate shear the in this,

compressive and the by the column bolts

contact face. at

area

bracket carried of the area

To obtain any stages

actual loading, developed achieve

forces value the the

corresponding has to be were

frictional known. made: In

contact following

assumptions

1.

The moment load is

developed resisted Figure

due

to

the

eccentricity and opposite

of

the forces

applied T and

mainly

by two equal (3.1).

C as shown in

a) T is a tensile

force

carried force

by the top set of bolts. at the lower the plate part width of the back due to the

b) C is a compressive plate. Its presence load. However, stress width.

acting

more webs which attract to simplify the analysis, the compressive is assumed to be uniformly distributed across the plate

magnitude varies across of the bracket stiffening

by both the reactions 2. The applied vertical force is resisted frictional force from the bolts in shear Rb and the tangential is assumed to be a function Rf. The latter of the compressive force C.

-51-

3. The contribution

of

Rb to

the

compared with those provided from the column face. to its small eccentricity All forces

resisting moment is negligible by the above forces. This is due

lengths in Figure (3.1) given are and different defined and described in detail in Appendix I. In this appendix, it by satisfying the moment equilibrium can be seen that for for the developed conditions a loaded bracket, a value compressive Then, from the fundamentals of can be obtained. force could be estimated at friction, a value for the frictional. A value of 0.66 was obtained experimentally any stage of loading. between the concrete for the static coefficient of friction surface
3.2.4

force

and the steel


Asymmetrical

plates

used throughout

Tests

1-4.

Loading

With

the

exception in ensure brackets. at both the that

of test the

Test rig

4,

the

column load

base

was

carefully This was

centralized done the to two

before load

application. shared in

applied the top

was equally difference the

between the axial of As at the have each

However, ends of

recorded bolts

movement

suggests

possibility the test.

asymmetrical described one initial affected end

loading earlier, top

being bolts

developed experienced at

during a pull-out its other

deflection end during might at

and

a drawn-in of

deflection This the leading test.

stages the

loading. of

deflection force

trend

magnitude interface, under each having

frictional to

acting loading load

bracket-column the not two used brackets on of

asymmetrical separate

between were the

Although the

cells reduce

bracket,

following loading in

facts Tests

possibility

asymmetrical

1,2,

and 3.

1. The machine top platten application of the first difference

was denied joints

any free

rotation

after

the

load increment.

between the tested

As a result, any load must be a minimum.

-52-

2. If

the two applied resultant

loads did differ

their

column centre was centralized,

have acted as shown in Figure (3.3). would only

by any significant at a distance, s, Since

amount, from the

the column base

in the positioning experimental errors of the column could have led to an eccentricity of the applied load. The calculation given in Appendix II shows that even if

the resultant eccentricity, s, had a value of 10mm, this value introduce difference load 5.0%. than would not of more a -3. Failure both be seen in this chapter, was not obtained, as will at joints tested test However, simultaneously. results the unfailed Bolt ends at joints these were themselves joints on both on the verge faces of the

showed that of failure.

column exhibited From the facts listed

severe deformation

at the end of the test.

above, the effect of the asymmetry, induced That is, it may at the initial stages of loading, may be ignored. be assumed that each joint carries an equal share of the total load. in Test 4, the non-centralization only applied of the loading as column base has led to an obvious case of asymmetrical will be seen in Section 3.6.

3.3 Test 1 In this test, was tested can be sunanarised as follows: bolt joint failure.

a single

until

The

main observations a) Mode of Failure

shearing off on its end at bracket A. happened with a loud noise at a load of 275 KN per This failure joint. load per bolt end was found to be 210 KN after The failure force Rf as value of the frictional derived in Appendix I. The failed joint is shown in Plate (3.1). failure, the condition After of the bolt was examined and it was that the failure shear plane passed through the reduced clear the calculated deducting

The joint

failed

by bolt

-53-

section distorted

at the root of the in shear.

examination

of the threads. bolt that its

Also other

it

was obvious from the end had been severely

b) Load-deflection

Curves seems that the loadhave the same trend.

it in Figure (3.4), From the graphs plotted deflection curves for both brackets vertical Apart

from an edge curve at bracket B, all other curves for both brackets appear to curve in a similar Plotted deflection pattern. for the bolt bedding onto the values were obtained after allowing By comparing curves of bracket A the ultimate can be seen that equal. Also, the recorded bottom

of testing. sleeve at the start those of bracket B, it with are nearly recorded deflections deflections, throughout the test,

are less than those measured at the same value of load. As there were no the top edge for load in deflection values, a specific sharp increases noticeable value could not be obtained to represent the onset of yielding. in deflection have been a linear across variation back plate. This is confirmed the width of the bracket's since the mid T1 nearly the values represent recorded by transducer throughout values between those recorded by both edge transducers There should values between the the occurrence of small induced in-plane edge curves supports This might have been caused by the of the bracket. rotations loading. bolt the tolerances stages of at early of existence the test. This steady difference in deflection T1 and Tb that curves were compared for each side between their individually.

Assuming

K represents a ratio corresponding load, changes in K values throughout the test values at a certain for both revealed that this ratio, was examined. The examination brackets, bolt brackets attributed continued to increase steadily bedding. At failure, K was found A and 8, after to the occurrence of be 0.84 and 0.92 for K values may be

The change in respectively. facts: to the following

-54-

1. The load plane

eccentricity of the the top to

from the bracket.

column This record

rotation

caused an out-of the transducer allowed values than that

face

connected connected 2. At the

edge to to the bottom edge.

larger

frictional the static resistance of loading, between the back plate and column face can be considered high in the recorded bottom deflection enough to cause a reduction start As the plate the load increased, this resistance and the between continued recorded to move down reducing top and bottom, values at its was overcome the difference i. e. K

values.

approaches 3. In contrast position, base. In stand

unity. T1 was held in to the way in which the transducer to a stand which had a remote magnetic Tb was fitted load step, an initial the first settlement of the have the transducer occurred preventing deflection. bracket's on applying actual continues to deflect from more

might

downwards compressing the its deflection. thus recording This is arm of the transducer, in the Tb curve of bracket A at the first two highly reflected load increments. At bracket bracket B, one edge deflection having lower A curves, the trend of curve, following deflection than those values

the recording load, the plate

it bottom the However, showed readings. only representing increasing deflections up to 115 KN. From that load value and value. This seems to be onwards, it showed a constant deflection that this end as a result of a measurement problem. It is felt continued attached Assuming position reasons: to move downwards but for some reason the transducer (loss of contact). to it did not carry on measuring in that this and remained fixed end stopped sliding at 115 KN does not seem to be true due to the following

-55-

1. No

remarkable

translation to this

transducer,

attached

by the group was recorded bracket, at 150 KN onwards.

between the T1 curve and the other edge curve had 2. The relation followed the corresponding one at face A without a big change. This change would be expected if the other end was fixed. The stiffness load-deflection last the stages stiffness of of the joint, characterised by the slope of the

curve, remained more or less constant up to the loading. At these stages, a gradual decrease in value could be seen. This continued until maximum

load was reached. deflection for the bolt. At shows the axial first load increment, there was hardly movement any axial both ends. Then the bolt was pulled out at face A and drawn in in its other end. As loading a steady increase continued, Figure (3.5) negative deflection could be seen. Just before failure, the for at the the

in more pull-out rotation of the back plate was obvious resulting deflection due to the existence at bracket A. As stated earlier, of the concrete face the maximum value for the drawn-in movement at bracket B was relatively small
c) Bearing Stress

As the

applied

surface of the hole's

increased, the upper curved on the joint hole deformed with the bolt bearing on the bracket's side material. Initially this bearing stress was bolt and the

load

between the concentrated at the point of contact bracket. Further application of load caused yielding of the bracket material, into an area of developing the contact point This allowed for more embedment of the bolt which should contact. have stress. resulted Under distribution a more uniform load, this bearing increasing in of the bearing

stress between the bolt and the top of the hole caused deformation of this part of the hole. has indicated that high bearing Bracket examination

-56-

pressure causing Another

only this type

existed part of

in

a small

area

on the

top

of

each hole

to be ovalized bearing stress

in shape.

has been created by compressing the the sleeve against the concrete beneath its end. As a result, in this area was crushed and some local spalling was concrete observed on the column face after the removal of steel brackets. Movement test, each the bracket. both the

d) Concrete the of

During sides

concrete The

movements were

recorded

at of

one level up the column. As there were no visible cracks around the joint at any stage in the it to have no appreciable test concrete was not surprising This is thought to be movement recorded at any monitored level. at due to the remarkably
A further contribution below steel of the links concrete bolt

concrete could be determined two corresponding transducers

expansion or contraction from the recorded readings

of every

high

concrete
the highly the

strength

obtained.
strength by of joint The high or joint. the is having that the

to was to

concrete reinforced confinement on Chapter have the 7.

region spaced effect

closely The is the

adding

concrete. behaviour value of

confinement in also

investigated steel the yield yielding

experimentally strength of must

delayed, the

even

prevented,

any link

placed

beneath

e) Creep Effect Two reading scans were taken for each load step. Two minutes were in timing between them. The purpose of the second the difference the change in deflections scan was to monitor under sustained load. By comparing the corresponding deflection values in both between every two values, scans, it was found that the difference is of hardly for the same load value, This any significance. trend continued until ultimate load was reached. Just before

-57-

Having test.

increase, a very slight change in the rate of deflection the load-deflection slope remained almost the same throughout the

Compared in Test

with 2 for

the

deflections bolts

obtained (i. e. at

in not the

Test for

1, the

those

obtained as load. the a

individual larger KN they had it

bracket of

whole) However, Test As in which fact could

had at

slightly 150

values

same values and

became nearly

equal

thereafter until load arises failure. value from deflections

1 deflection Test bolt that 1,

increased

much more to deduce This the

rapidly

was difficult had begun. in

a specific

at the

yielding no large near

difficulty rate of

increase failure.

recorded

be found

The axial are movements recorded at both ends of each bolt in Figure (3.7). As in Test 1, from the start of loading, plotted a bolt was pulled at one end and drawn in at its other end. Due deflection, to the dominance of the bracket vertical a relatively the last recorded until deflection the large At stages of loading. values experienced by the bolts' ends at the early stages of loading had in value just before failure. Both ends at this a small reduction had a similar behaviour bracket difference in a slight with small axial rate could bracket B, deflections It seems that positive values. first difference two load steps when a slight took place in the between the loads deflection be

by each bracket might have occurred. At bracket A, the carried developed increased the back plate the rate moment at of deflection as can be seen from load value of 150 KN onwards. It is of interest to note that the maximum recorded negative value 1.45mm occurred deflection vertical of From Figures (3.5) at the bolt's A. end which also had the maximum at bracket

it can be noted that if the bolt and (3.7), deflection end experienced a positive at the start of loading it becomes non-recoverable and the bolt's end will not have any negative recorded value at any stage of the test.

-59-

At

bracket

B, data This

curve

T1

could

experimental transducer. which the trend occurred

as a result was due to from Test

not of having of the start 2, this

be

from produced an error in reading the of curve transducer's testing. should ones in have

the the arm, had T2.

bending

immediately

after

Following

obtained

deflection This Axial

values more than the corresponding is demonstrated by the dashed line curve movements for top bolts are plotted since is small in

curve in the figure. (3.9).

Figure

Two

ends had clear negative deflections As in Test 2, the deflection rate had their is initial deflection of the loading,

the start after

of loading. the bolts' ends This late

a result of

stages leading

vertical the bracket deflection

values at the start of loading. deflection dominance. At the rotation This

to a higher

rate.

became more obvious is highly demonstrated

by the trend KN. It highest pull-out deflection deflection


highly

of plotted was also found, values of deflection.

curves after as in Test

reaching a load level of 125 2, that bolts which had the

deflection also had high values of vertical 2.85mm was the maximum value of the pull-out was the maximum recorded axial

This value at failure. for all tests so far.


stressed regions, level were local

In

concrete after interface column bottom a

spalling brackets' between face, bolt.

below

the

bolt's Also of the

centreline friction marks

was noticeable found at the

removal. the back at visual of

each

bracket below of

and its the this

corresponding level of the

especially The

area

observation high pressure.

region

provided

qualitative

evidence

From both after

the

testing,

and measurement of sleeves these observations can be made : examination

diameters

1. The maximum vertically to value corresponds vertical deflection

measured diameter was 30.70mm, this the bolt at which the maximum recorded at bracket A.

-62-

2. At both

faces,

a difference

the measured diameters in deflection experienced

indicated

that

there

is

by top bolts.

the bottom one at face A had 3. Compared with the top bolts, the least load value as its measured sleeve diameter, carried showed less value than all remaining sleeves. after testing, 3.6 Test 4 From the data obtained failure load for the machine capacity a) Mode of Failure
At both a load the of 1150 KN on the plate the it machine's dial, the the welds connecting at face the for and

it was expected that in the previous test, joint four bolts must exceed the testing is 1500 KN.

which

horizontal

and the test

webs to

back

plate

B fractured. welds the after actual

Therefore, failure, penetrations

was terminated. that the

By examining average of value 8.0

was discovered are 5.94 and

5.00mm instead Plate value, each weld. below calculated (3.3)

10.0mm, failed readings values while III.

as had been designed, bracket. were for the actual To have taken actual values along a

respectively. representative the length are loads of

shows the of 16

a total

The measured in Table 3.1

penetration for weld

listed are

the

in Appendix

Top Weld Measuremen t s (mm) Web Weld Measuremen t s (mm)

4.70 5.64 5.12 4.48

5.30 4.46 5.26 4.60

5.96 5.76 5.18 4.92

5.38 5.42 4.92 5.10

6.34 5.54 4.80 5.28

7.72 8.16 5.08 5.4

5.70 5.86 4.84

7.60 5.60 4.84

55.40 4.80

TABLE

3.1

WELD MEASUREMENTS FOR THE FAILED

BRACKET.

-63-

It

was suggested

provided However, after

might be completed afterwards bracket. that new welds are provided for this particular it was felt to reapply load on the bolts that trying that the test then with reliable to fix failure, the concrete not give difficult crushed beneath it would be measurements. Besides, back in transducers their the already as they were shifted due to the

releasing,

them would extremely

just positions, bracket failure. b) Load-deflection The curves identical, sharing rate, it were far
From the bolts showed This the After in the are

before

Curves Figure that load (3.10), the almost top for each bracket, bolts, in each

shown in indicating bracket

are almost

the

equally.

side, were From the deflection load the bolts

can be seen that from yielding.


start parallel small of loading for

at the maximum recorded

and up to

failure, The bottom in the

the

curves

for

top

each bracket. of to deflection an initial

deflection early load

curves steps. by

very

values

may be remote

attributed holders of

settlement Tb at this bolt, both

experienced stage of loading.

transducers value of

reaching bottom

a load deflections

25 KN per for

a steady brackets.

increase

was recorded

curves, a wide margin can be seen between the bracket B was deflections Throughout the test, of both brackets. faster than bracket A. This was clearly moving vertically local concrete spalling around bracket accompanied by noticeable From the plotted in load B. These observations suggest that there was a difference by both brackets. This difference was due to the values carried non-centralization the deflection that of the column base in the test led to values for both brackets rig. the Comparing conclusion A and B in the friction

the applied load was shared between brackets for the bracket-column ratio of 0.45 : 0.55. Allowing

-64-

and assuming even load distribution among all four bolts, each bolt had a maximum load of 96.0 KN and 120.0 HIV in bracket A effect Deflection and B, respectively. values versus the actual applied loads are plotted Despite as dashed line curves in Figure (3.10). between both brackets, the dashed line the clear load difference curves because showed no apparent bolt has yielding can be seen that linear
for

change in not

stiffness. From

This these loading

is

mainly

occurred.

curves, it the joint's

the asymmetrical

plotted in effect,

range,
the

is not a very
ends of top

significant
bolts are

one.
shown at in Figure end. in is

Axial (3.11). As in

movements

No positive the is previous

deflection joints, for most just

had the of

been

recorded small

either increase This

steady the load the

deflection followed

recorded

increments. failure.

by a big

increase

before

joint

As has been reported bracket which

in the previous

tests,

the bolt's

maximum value of pull-out deflection. indicates that This finding also the maximum vertical the column might have a tendency to rotate about one of its edges due to the compression of the soft board provided to eliminate stress concentration,

had the

end at the had deflection

(3.12). top As the machine's see Figure had to experience more platten was rigid, one of the brackets deflection to compensate for the column rotation. Thus there will in the load eccentricity from its be an increase corresponding column face. and vertical In practice, first beam This deflection increase was reflected end. steel brackets, the in both axial movements of the bolt's

when beams are mounted on the

assembled rotational will cause some sideways deflection However, further sideways deflection of one bracket. be prevented by the very high rotational under imposed load will the deflection Consequently, stiffness of the beams themselves. values likely from these tests should be higher obtained frame. to be achieved in a real building than those

-65-

3.7 Bracket tested the

Vertical joints,

Deflection the vertical deflection curves demonstrated less deflections than testing. stresses developed can be attributed settlement and

In all that those

curves

recorded

by Tb are showing at the top (curves T1 and T2) throughout of the axial in deflection

denoted

to the minimal effect In addition in the back plate, the difference to two reasons,

geometrical 3.7.1
As

transducer namely, support imperfection of the back plates. Support


in

Transducer
been

Settlement
the the top transducers row were fixed of this, in in the the

has

stated

previous the of the bolts back

chapter, in plate. the

positioned direct position plate as

vertically with such as the

above top

contact in

They were deflection to fixed in this the load

a way to the load below to

record is the a

any vertical In

soon

applied. plate

contrast

transducer of a stand

positioned connected the the to

was remotely base, which Due for first to

by means turn way is of

magnetic steel

attached setting

to up,

stiffening stand which

frame. as a support at

acts

transducer step. by may If the lose

becomes prone this settlement

an initial takes a place,

settlement it the giving in Tests will arm of

the

be also the to

experienced transducer

transducer. contact deflections to deflect with

As

result, plate

the

rise

very

small plate and

recorded continues deflection

as was seen downwards the

1 and 4. As the compressed

arm becomes

readings

can be obtained.

3.7.2

Geometrical

Imperfection have had an effect on the difference bottom readings is the geometrical top edge of the back plates. It was were resting against ends were not square.

Another between found

reason which the top found the top and at

might the the

imperfection that had a slightly

edges which transducers sloping face, i. e. the plate

-66-

This
At

slope
start nearly

is towards
loading

the outer
the of

edge as shown in Figure


arm was in plate the contact

(3.13).

the

of at

transducer the to back both

with As

a the

point applied and

halfway

thickness. vertical arm could

load

increases of the the

and due bracket, the

deflection not be in with of different at this In in the

rotation with point

transducer It

contact another edge from point

same point the of

any longer. width the one. of the

came into

contact

across the level

edge. would the

As a result be quite taken not

slope, that would IV, for of

new point Thus, the

the not

initial

reading did this on

be the

same as if

bracket

rotate.

Appendix readings geometrical

an attempt a particular

was made to bracket

calculate depending

difference its

measured

dimensions

and the

deflections

obtained.

3.8 Comparison of Joints

Behaviour

identical, Since the properties of all tested bolts are nominally for a single bolt in a joint the data obtained can be compared in another joint. The specimen and loading with its counterpart being there be any theoretically symmetrical, should not unsymmetrical behaviour. However, or manufacture material or differences in deformations. 3.8.1 imperfections occasionally different tolerances could lead in to

Strength plane passed through the threaded portion of the area based on the reduced diameter must be used in the bolt stress at failure. For a standard 24mmbolt, cross section area is 0.7 times that of the bolt

As the bolt,

shear the

calculating the threaded shank.

loads for the Based on this area and the obtained failure tested bolts, 1 and the bolt shear stresses at failure of joints 2 were 663.1 N/mm2 and 560.5 N/mm2, respectively. The bolt shear stress at the end of Tests 3 was 557.3 N/mm2.

-67-

From the the

obtained

joints' of

failure a joint For the 1.7

loads,

it

can be concluded affected the the by

that the

ultimate of

strength the bolts.

can be greatly two-bolts times that joint, of

density strength Also 2.6 could the times not

ultimate bolt. almost strength to its

was found three-bolts that of

to be about joint the single with

single is of

provided bolt that

a capacity joint.

which

Such values for joint

be compared

recorded

4 due

premature 3.8.2

failure

by a different

mechanism.

Stiffness a joint curve. the differences is The in by the the

The stiffness load-deflection illustrate tested.

of

characterised curves

slope

of

Figure shown in for the four stiffness

(3.14) joints

representing a joint, was obtained by taking joint bolt for deflections the top the considered. an average of The main features of the curves can be summarised as follows: Each curve,
1. Compared lower had further with other at joints, all value the stages at curve the the of single-bolted loading. early joint The joint of showed stiffness loading. deterioration On a

stiffness its maximum loading,

stages continuous

exhibited

of stiffness
2. As expected, stiffer. example, was nearly joint bolt of 4. to the It the This at

up to the point
the is addition well of

of failure.
a bolt to at joint a joint higher 1 its 2 and the should loads. deflection times of the is make it As an

pronounced load that of to of joint

the 3.9 is joint

ultimate times

value that adding increase clear by of of a

4.75 effect with This the

interesting on its number of both slightly

see that

stiffness of bolts

decreases per joint.

original curves is

comparing the latter

joints

3 and 4 where

stiffness

only

higher.

3. Curve for application

joint of

4 showed slight a certain

gain in amount of load.

stiffness

after

the

The probable

reason

-68-

for

this

change having contact of

in the with

stiffness full their number

is of

that

bolt

tolerances forming the

may have joint, the to early

delayed be in

bolts,

mounting

sleeves

during

stages

loading.

3.8.3

Rotational

Rigidity

load, the back plate of each Under the application of a vertical bracket had gone through some rotation out of its original plane that this point is almost It is believed about a certain point. This location was coincident with the bottom corner of the plate. not obtained seems that from readings. this location However, from the following one. concrete in face, the after region Plate facts it is the most likely noticed with on high the

1. The friction testing, close (3.4). 2. By the bottom were

markings developed

intensity

to the bottom

edge of

the back plate

as shown in

time

significant

bending

the corners of the back plate column face which provided a considerable support to the plate along the bottom edge. In consequence, the bracket appears to rotate around this point. pulls

moment had developed, had begun to press into

the

3. Under loading,

out at the top bolts level. from In the meantime, the bottom edge is almost restricted moving outwards by the compressive force acting at the lower part of the back plate. be noted that by having

the bracket

more than two bolts per joint, this position of point of rotation can be changed. The point of for joints 3 and 4 lies rotation somewhere between the bottom corner of the back plate and the centreline of the bolts at the It should bottom part level. The reason for this is force that the bottom bolts take in resisting the compressive developed in this

region.

-69-

Due to

the

eccentricity created the at the plate

of

the

load

from

the to

column

face,

moment is

concrete rotation of rotation

face. tends p,

This

moment which pull out the (3.1)

a is top and

for responsible bolts, creating (3.13). Values

an angle

see Figures

against the induced of * were computed and plotted joint the to represent moment-rotation moment values The M-q curves for the tested joints are presented relationship. in Figure (3.15).

bracket, For a typical M values were given as the product of the by the load eccentricity from applied load per bracket multiplied the column face as shown in Figure (3.1). This was done to avoid between any top pair of bolts. On any uneven load distribution from the recorded the other hand, p values had to be calculated deflections. A problem was faced at this stage as these axial deflection deflections for individual bolts showed a positive at one end and a negative one at the other end. To overcome this it was rotation values, problem and to have more representative decided to use the algebraic sum of deflections at both ends of a single bolt in computing the angle of rotation.
With of the respect plotted to the behaviour of a joint to the under following load, inspection :

M-ip curves

yields

observations

1. As bolts

in

joint per

stiffness, joint has other joint an joints,

the

curves on

show its

that

the

number rigidity. rotational all

of

effect joint

rotational the lowest

Compared rigidity values.

with while

1 has

4 has the

highest

one throughout

load

2. At

the

start

of This a

loading, was

joint bracket before

rotation. indicating rotation

followed just

1 had a gradual by an almost

increase flat

in

region of due

continuous

were found

High values pullout. failure. This was mainly

to the shear yielding

of the bolt.

-70-

3. The small before be the

gap found

between in an

the

back 3,

plate see

and the Figure

column

face might

loading cause of

commenced having

Test

(3.16),

inconsistent 1.15/1000 reduced the

relationship radians. and the thus

between Obviously, bottom bolt

joints as the started the joint

2 and 3 up to load to increased, take rigidity. part

a rotation the in gap is

resisting

moment,

increasing

3.9. Summary
Although that the their effect a limited have of tests it is felt to

only

number indicated bolts

of

were

performed directly

results of results,

some points per joint

related

number the

on its

behaviour.

Based

on these

following

conclusions

can be drawn:

1. As a result strength joints, rather reported This and the than for

of a

having heavy

a remarkably presence mode of failure. of failure

high steel

concrete links

compressive around shear to the

dominant concrete joint

was bolt exception failure mode a joint. of

failure this was

The only a weld a fracture

4 where how total

took failure

place. can

incident affect

showed the

different of

adversely

strength

2. As expected, affected joint, that

the

ultimate number of

load bolts

capacity per

of joint. to

a joint For

was greatly the two-bolts 1.7 adding 2.6 times an times the these

by the the of

ultimate the bolt single

capacity bolt

was found joint.

be about

Furthermore, which joint. be is almost

additional of that

provided by the

a capacity single could failure. bolt not

provided joint as it

Unfortunately compared with

four-bolts values

strength

had a premature

3. Most of the bolts showed a significant shear deformation, at their loaded ends, prior to failure. Examining the bolt shanks testing, the against a flat surface, after also indicated

-71-

occurrence axes, yielded

bending about their longitudinal some plastic It was also clear that most sleeves had see Plate (3.2). of at their ends forming load-deflection of increasing by having ovoid cross sections.

4. The experimental a reliable rotational this proof rigidity

curves for brackets presented both the joint and stiffness more bolts per joint. However, number as the original

became much less effect of bolts increased.


5. Finally, neither around expected. the steel it should

noticeable

be mentioned cracks were nor

that, significant although the

throughout concrete they could

the

tests,

splitting the joint This

expansion have strength by both been of the

observed due to

was mainly and the

high

tensile provided

concrete bracket

strong

confinement steel

and the

surrounding

links.

-72-

} bTT P

PT

T
C '6 d
Stress Block

rz
Ri f C s

Forces in Back Plate

FIGURE (3.1)

: EQUILIBRIUM

OF FORCES AT A LOADED BRACKET

TI! iiJ w. l;

_Lt!
ZH H

STRESS DIAGRAM

FIGURE (3.2)

: AXIAL

STRESSES ACTING IN THE BACK PLATE OF THE

BRACKET.

-73-

420 mm IF
V --W

;r 6Opu

P 1

P 2

le 991

210 mm

1.9

210 MM

11
P 1

R=P+P 12
FIGURE (3.3) : EQUILIBRIUM OF VERTICAL FORCES WRING TEST.

-74-

Z L O O J

0.00

2.00

4.00 6.00 DEFLECTION

6.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

Maximum
C

load

per

bolt

end

210

KN

aI
0
o

CI
0
u
J

o
CO

O
0 J

T
O+

^
0 0 U

Bracket

BO
x

Tb
0 0

0.00

2.00

4.00 6.00 DEFLECTION

8.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

FIGURE (3.4)

: VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS FOR THE SINGLE-BOLTED JOINT.

-75-

-2.40

-1.60

-0. B0

-0.00

0.60

1.6u

4U .

DEFLECTION (mm)

FIGURE (3.5)

: AXIAL

DEFLECTIONS AT BOTH FADS OF THE SINGLE-

BOLTED JOINT.

-76-

Z Y O O J

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

6.00

1U. UU

IL"UU

DEFLECTION (mm)

1
N

Maximum

load

per

bolt

end

177.5

KN

0 0 0 Ui Z

O OJ

0 C;

Bracket
0 0

T2 T, + 00 x Tb

0 0

0010o ' .

2.00 z. oo

' ' 8.00 6.00 4.00 DEFLECTION (mm)

00 1D.

X2.00

FIGURE (3.6)

: VERTICAL DEFLECTIMS

FOR THE TWA-BOLTS JOINT.

-77-

-ve

- Pulled-out

+ve

= Drawn-In

z CD 0
0 0 Cl

Face BA OOe +

Face

Lr)

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

DEFLECTION (mm)

FIGURE (3.7)

: AXIAL JOINT.

DEFLECTIONS AT BOTH ENDS OF THE TWO-BOLTS

-78-

Maximum

load

per

bolt

end

176.5

KN

Z -

OD

Bracket
0

Ti T2 o 00 0 x Tb

0 0
oIII

0.00

2.00

6.00 4.00 DEFLECTION

8.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

---

load Maximum Expected

bolt per deflection

end

176.5

KN

O O

z7

CDOO

T2 Ti
O+

CD O O
i

/*
o

Bracket

o0

C) O
pIIIIIIIIIIii

Tb

0.00

2.00

6.00 4.00 DEFLECTION

8.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

FIGURE (3.8)

: VERTICAL DEFLECTIMS

FOR THE THEE-BOLTS

JOINT.

-79-

-3.00

-2.00

-1.00

0.00

1.00

2.00

00

DEFLECTION (mm)
FIGURE (3.9)

: AXIAL

DEFLECTIONS AT BOTH ENDS OF THE TOP BOLTS

IN THREE-BOLTS JOINT.

-80-

Maximum
0

load

per

bolt

end

96.0

KN

N
0 0

---

Modified

Deflections

LnZ
NZ

-0

g
Brac ket
o u

T1 T2

Oppe

/7/
1111111I11119

Tb

04
CD

0.00

2.00

6.00 4.00 DEFLECTION

8.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

51
0

Maximum

load

per

bolt

end

120.0

KN

N
b9 0 Z

---

Modified

Deflections

0 OO 0
OZJ

T2 i' Bracket B
00

T1

o+ 00

U'
D 0
C3 1111111111111

Tb

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

DEFLECTION (mm)
FIGURE (3.10) : VERTICAL DEFLECTIMS

'

FOR THE F JR-BOLTS JOINT.

-81-

-ve

= Pull-out

01

+ve

= Drawn-in

IcEn

z u
10 Q
0
J0e

Face
BA

Face

-1.50

-1.00

-0.50

0.00

0.50

1.00

1.50

DEFLECTION (mm)

FIGURE

(3.11)

: AXIAL IN

DEFLECTIONS

AT BOTH ENDS OF THE TOP BOLTS JOINT_

THE FOJR-BC)LTS

-82-

rt _

FIGURE (3.12)

: EVERIMENTAL

BEHAVIOUR OF BRACKETS UNDER LOADING.

InttIal Position

Rotated Plate

u Y

h d

I=t+ e

AXIAL DEFLECTION DIAGRAM


FIGURE (3.13) : VARIATICt

BACK PLATE

OF THE UTIWARD DEFLECTION UP THE HEIGHT

OF A BACK PLATE.

-83-

0 0 0

u
fW Y U

m
Q

O O
J

-0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

DEFLECTION
FIGURE (3.14)

(mm)

: LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVES FOR TESTED JOINTS.

-84-

o 0

'

E Z y
I-Z

It

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00 /

8.00 1000

10.00

12.00

ROTATION

FIGURE (3.15)

: MOMENT-ROTATION CURVES FOR TESTED JOINTS.

GAP

FIGURE (3.16)

: INITIAL

GAP BETWEEN CONCRETE FACE AND THE BACK

PLATE IN TEST 3.

-85-

PLATE (3.1)

: FAILED SINGLE-BOLTED JOINT BY BOLT SHEAR YIELDING.

PLATE (3.2)

: LARGE DEFORMATIONS EXPERIENCED BY A BOLT AFTER TESTING.

PLATE (3.3)

: FAILED BRACKET BY WELD FRAC~IURE REPORTED IN TEST 4.

-86-

r 'ss

"w

""
' i -'*

4 I
'

--

PLATE (3.4)

: FRICTION MARKINGS AND CONCRETE SPALLING ON THE FACES OF DIFFERENT TESTED JOINTS.

-87-

NUMERICAL

MODELLING

OF SLEEVED BOLT JOINTS

4.1

Introduction

of precast concrete construction, research to the behaviour of the workers have paid an increased attention different connections used in joining structural members. Until that the experimental recent years it was recognised approach, adopted preceding chapters, was the only way to investigate designed to meet the the behaviour of any connection This proved to be, and still requirement of a specific structure. is, the most popular way. However, due to the high costs involved, acceptable researchers alternatives. alternative. numerical are always looking for modelling less costly that but today this Finite element way for in the

Since the introduction

appears

as an attractive

This arises

from the fact

method has a powerful

the response of studying complex structural systems. Also the rapid increase in the power of digital computers coupled with the decrease of their running cost has supported the selection are well number of of such alternative. known for parameters their highly in

Structural nature adequate

connections and the large

complex their

involved

formation.

As a result, numerous tests would be required before information behaviour was obtained. about a connection's it appears numerical to be more rational and more economical to models in which, one can vary the parameters

Therefore, develop involved

in the connection. Evaluating results obtained from such models would lead to the development of better analysis and design specifications. The accuracy of the numerical models must always be checked against experimental tests. the results of an appropriate number of

-88-

In

this

chapter, to those

modelling tested in

of

single

and double

bolted

joints,

1 and 2, is carried out. For be defined as Model 1 and Model 2, the models will convenience, The general respectively. purpose of these models is to gain information joint about the behaviour of the different components similar Tests loading under vertical with special emphasis on the stresses developed in the steel links around the joint and the development of both cracking and crushing of the surrounding concrete.
A general introduction a brief of types the of on modelling description models elements using of of the its finite main

element features properties is

package given. and the

ANSYS with The details

geometry, are also

material described.

selected

Throughout for dealt


4.2

this

chapter,

the details

both

models. Any variances with in the relevant sections.


Using ANSYS

and discussion are general between the two models will be

Modelling

ANSYS is

finite a general-purpose element package for static, dynamic, buckling It can deal with both and thermal analyses. linear and nonlinear problems. It was developed at Swanson Inc., Houston, Pennsylvania, implementation U. S. A. of [52,53]. Its modular structure models relatively straightforward. for the algorithms

makes the Its solution

main program of

has efficient

and reliable

aforementioned for this study.

nonlinear features,

because Mainly these equations. of it was decided to use ANSYS as the basis

The ANSYS program executed phases, final which data. in

is

constructed that

as a number from

of

phases

which or on to

is

a manner the

progresses or

pre-processor phases, and

input the in

through post-processor the In program this

process phases.

solution is also

There to

a validation or the

phase, conflicting run-time

attempts

identify

any missing of

particular

phase,

an estimate

and

-89-

messages (if any) may be In the input phase, ANSYS has the capability also produced. of data checking during the generation and geometry plotting of data. This allows a rapid verification to of the input data prior sizes given. Warning and error submitting Interactive response terminal to the problem for execution. includes free on format the input interactive model. scaled zooming in

file

is

ANSYS capability prompting and immediate display

commands displayed

of the current structural includes The graphic post-processor automatically deformation perspective mode shape displays, views, facility and arbitrary viewing direction. ANSYS contains a library of over

90 standard elements including many specialised elements which can be used for most of the solid These elements can be used and structural mechanics applications. to solve a large variety of problems such as linear elastic and nonlinear e. g. plasticity and creep

for Capabilities problems. deflection stress stiffening and large analyses can be also included with certain elements. ANSYS is also capable of dealing with problems which involves slip, contact and friction which are generally
In

associated

with

structural
based on the is

connections.
finite into nodes. element a large The method, number nodes the of are

a numerical under which

analysis

structure elements, generally (4.1). elements. set can of be

investigation are in

divided by of

interconnected the corners nodes are

situated However, Loads equilibrium solved

elements be

as shown in introduced and for is is the set the available of in

Figure some a

mid-side and supports and

can specified,

system up, which

compatibility Frontal in of limit

equations solution ANSYS. up are to The

numerically. available a wavefront wavefront

numerical ANSYS freedom.

solution program Details

technique would about run the

500 degrees in Section

given

4.13.

-90-

4.3 Model Development


One of that actual the fundamental should to decisions simulate, which develop realistic components of the taken the

at

planning

stage

was the

the

model

as realistically bolted joint

as possible, could

conditions was to a more

be subjected. which would

The solution allow between was of effects links effect studied. for

a three-dimensional degree the main of joint areas the

model

structural to

interaction This the

different vital of

be reproduced. of interest sleeve In other were and words,

importance, the applied and the joint

as the load

on both

bolt,

steel the be

materials of the

surrounding on its

concrete. overall

components

integrity

was to

4.3.1

Model Geometry
the dual i. e.

Taking loading needed the

an

advantage in

of Tests in

symmetry, only

geometric of each to to

and joint

symmetry to

1 and 2, the

a quadrant This

be idealised of amount z axis the of

analysis. storage A bolt's

was done and coordinate axis the

satisfy save a

limitation

computer CPU time. along the

capacity

substantial where Figure system boundary are the

cartesian longitudinal

system is used.

runs

(4.2) of the

shows single

the

geometry, model.

dimensions Since the

and

coordinate loading, there

bolted

geometry, symmetric,

conditions of

and material symmetry namely,

properties

are

two planes

xY and YZ planes.

Overall those of

dimensions the tested

of

the model were chosen according

to

match

height was The total column cross section. links taken as 240mm to allow for locating a number of steel i. e. below and above the joint level. Plain around the joint, concrete neglected cover to the in the analysis. column vertical reinforcing bars was

-91-

4.3.2

Model Parameters

and Predictions

Based on the experimental carried would out affect

work of this study and a previous test joints (21], the main parameters which on similar behaviour could be divided into two the connection

Firstly groups. geometrical parameters, e. g. bolt and sleeve diameters, thickness, sleeve wall positions and size of steel links. Secondly material such as concrete compressive parameters, bolt, links and tensile strengths, sleeve and steel yield Most values of both groups of parameters, strengths. used as an input data for the model, were provided from the experimental data. for of displacements, applying

Solving result adopted

strains

monotonically a static the

developed as a and stresses increasing loads on the bolt a static analysis was The determination of the

made the problem throughout

one. Therefore,

solution phase. deformations in the critical and stress distributions regions is difficult because of the following and essentially nonlinear, considerations:
1. Under the application deflection load, end. the In bolt the

of at

a vertical its loaded

experiences meantime, In addition As a was it

a vertical has an axial to these of to

and a horizontal it

deflection exhibits

as well.

deflections, these account

may also

some bending. analysis under

result chosen load

deformations, for the bolt's

a large

deflection

deformation

successive

steps.

2. The

nominally point contact problem between the bolt and sleeve inner surface constitutes a major source of nonlinear behaviour under working conditions, i. e. contact or interface

nonlinearity. 3. The loading and and reactions are distributed dispersed through the sleeve and

over various in concrete

regions varying

-92-

Due to the expected high stress concentration patterns. under leading deformation the loaded bolt's to local end, plastic takes place in the critical yielding elements, e. g. sleeve to the nonlinearity elements. This contributes of the problem even before of the joint
4 The behaviour due to the of

high value of load is initiated.

is

reached or overall

yielding

of

reinforced

concrete

is

essentially relation of

nonlinear concrete, bars, i. e.

nonlinear concrete

stress-strain and yielding of

cracking material

reinforcing

nonlinearity.

From the above considerations, nonlinearity be expected stressed the members. cracks

it

is clear

that

the main types

of

are considered in the present model. The model would in the most highly to have a series of cracks It was decided to have a mesh pattern which had region. as the It was also for the diagonal expected crack direction hoped that by doing this, the successive lines as possible.

same trend

would appear as near to continuous

4.4 Mesh Generation It is known that affect the model for the design and fineness

well

of

a mesh may

critically satisfactory

To provide accuracy of the analysis. a the bolted connection analysis, the finite the following properties:

element mesh should 1. Since the highest

exhibit

to occur in stress gradients are most likely the area where the bolt shank is expected to come in contact with the sleeve, the smallest elements should be concentrated in this region.

2. In areas where small uniform stresses are expected, i. e. areas away from the loaded end, mesh elements may be considerably larger, though not to such an extent that the curved surface the bolt or the sleeve is poorly described. of either

-93-

3. For best numerical was recommended element individual

conditioning that aspect should

of the stiffness equations, (height/width) for ratio

it an

be within the range of 1 preferably has been met in most of the mesh to 3 [52]. This condition in the fine mesh region. However, in some elements, especially between fine and coarse regions was places where transition made, it below to keep the aspect ratio possible the required upper limit. The already pre-defined positions of links the steel in around the joint added more difficulty was not this
is

to

satisfying
4. While achieve of larger it

requirement
that

for

certain

elements.
are elements a minimum. phase necessary to to

recognised from their during

wedge of

elements small to

transition elements, appeared of such

regions

regions

use was kept the checking

A warning the

message avoidance

supporting

elements.

To design controlling

a mesh incorporating the geometry

all

these

features, The bolt,

the boundaries

were isolated.

the reinforced mesh pattern and coarse


a) Fine

concrete solid were assessed was developed with two levels

the sleeve and independently. Then a of refinement: fine

as follows:

Region:

This the from of

region concrete the

represented most

both

the

expected under the

sleeve bolt

yield shank.

area It

and

highly-stressed end in Z axis bolt. the while This

starts

bolt's along

loaded the of the

XY plane its

and extends almost

a distance covers is the equal

50.0mm

width

bottom to after of the

surface yield testing.

length on the that

was chosen inverts the of

as it some

surface

observed

sleeves

Observation took place not at

indicated its loaded

maximum deformation decreased

a sleeve

edge and gradually

along

a distance

more than

50.0mm.

-94-

b) Coarse Region: to have lower the elements which were believed in the region -50.0 >z> stress concentrations -150.0mm. The than those of the previous region. size of elements is larger Concrete elements at top and bottom of the model are also region covers included in this region.

This

4.5

Selection

of Main

Element

Types

ANSYS has required the for

a wide each of

selection material this

of zone

element which the of

types. would be

An able

element to

was

predict In this

behaviour

zone up to is given

connection chosen

failure. element

section, in the

a description model with its

each

to be used

corresponding and restrictions

capabilities concerning

and properties. their choice are

Special also

requirements

given.

4.5.1

The Bolt
to have to a 24mm diameter at is one of the its

It

was

required bolt shank

an element of to carrying satisfy as

represent force

steel ends.

capable found

a shear this

The element

condition in and the three

"8-node element

isoparametric library. degrees of The

solid" element per

known has node.

STIF45 nodes,

ANSYS

eight

translational

freedom

A 2x2x2 lattice integration matrix points (4.1). is

of

integration This

points

is used with the

the numerical

procedure.

means that

calculated as the sum of weighted located inside the element suitably

stiffness from 8 contributions as shown in Figure

element

The shape functions displacement field over loading, realistic

used with the element define a linear the element. to shear In addition the element can be subjected to bending. This ensures in flexure. The general shape of modes of deformation

-95-

the element is a cubic one. However, a prism or tetrahedron shape the can be obtained by duplicating one or two nodes when entering in the input data file. Figure (4.3) shows element connectivity the bolt discretisation.
4.5.2

The Sleeve

The element solid the

described It in

material. difference

above can generally was decided to use it, material

be used to model any for after accounting the represent Model 1, is shown to

their

sleeve material in Figure (4.4). 4.5.3

as well.

properties, The sleeve mesh, for

The Concrete
a highly-stressed to it check cracking to it is this

In

modelling

reinforced and crushing of

concrete the

member, For

important reason concrete represent was based [541 who

element.

was obvious solid" the

choose in

the the

"three ANSYS of by

dimensional element the Suidan 20-node

reinforced library to

provided concrete solid.

The choice given

element

by ANSYS

on the introduced To reduce it

recommendations a the three amount

and Schnobrich isoparametric associated having [551 with with a 2x2x2 that minor

dimensional, of the with

element. this lattice such

computations an element work results

element, of

was substituted points. lead

integration would

A previous to numerical

showed only

substitution

differences.

As

in

STIF45, and element are of eight

this

element

which points

is

known used for

as

STIF65

has

eight of of is

nodes the

integration matrix.

the

computation degrees The element

stiffness also cracking

Three with

translational node. in

freedom capable

associated in tension

each

and crushing

compression.

Although reinforcing use this

this

element has the capability bars in different directions, for the following

of accommodating three it was decided not to

facility

reasons:

-96-

1.

The element i. e. This

deals

with into not used

the

reinforcement layer to

as if within represent

it

is the the

smeared, element. actual

distributed is clearly bars

an equivalent an in exact the way

reinforcing

column.

2. Using such facility

in an earlier that the work (41] indicated in this way would highly the reinforcement stiffen provided is increased concrete element. If the steel to concrete ratio will result, behave more similar to a steel element. As a of any of its integration points would occur

the element

crushing at higher loads.


By suppressing represent the this solid

facility, plain

STIF65 concrete.

is

used

in

this

work

only

to

behaves isotropically. The concrete material The most important feature of this element is that it can represent both the linear behaviour of the concrete. In the linear part, the and non-linear concrete is assumed to be an isotropic material up to cracking. In the non-linear and/or behaviour, the concrete creep. The concrete solid shown in Figures (4.5) and (4.6), Steel Links used to a three dimensional may undergo plasticity mesh, for Models 1 and 2, are

respectively.

4.5.4

As STIF65 was only it concrete solid,

represent

to model the reinforcing was required This was achieved by using the three-dimensional separately. spar both the steel links It was used to represent element. and the main vertical steel bar of the column. The element can only be

plain bars

defined by two nodes, each of them has three geometrically degrees of freedom. The element is capable of being subjected to force in either an axial compression or tension as if it is a It is not capable of carrying member in a pin-jointed structure. bending stresses. The stress is assumed to be uniform over the

-97-

entire
Care (4.5) that sides. modelling

element.
was and of taken (4.6), in adding so that steel a link it main links size is in position, not Figures than of its such

see be larger

should coincident

the

concrete is bars.

element the

with of

one

Simplicity of steel

advantage

adopting

4.6 Contact

Area Modelling
before centres in the load bolt to and the the it

Initially, assumed sections Due to is that lie the

and

applying of both

any the

model, sleeve Figure

was cross

same vertical in their

plane diameters, that

as shown in the of the bolt's

(4.7). 0, As a to the

difference at this a level

centre, 0'. due is from be in

located of

1.50mm below in bodies, The size the bolt, centre a of

sleeve, and gap ranges must bolt the

result curved between at with allow the

difference of both

locations, geometrical this where top model of gap it the along the

nature their bottom the for

created 0.00mm contact To where along line

surfaces. edge of to

i. e. the the

sleeve, a zero two similar were

3.00mm at gap in of

surface. invert

length sets

x=0.0mm, the of Z axis contact

nodes

occupying

same space the initial

provided. the bolt

These

nodes

represent

between

and the

sleeve.

Having modelled to allow which it the bolt

both

the bolt

and sleeve

bodies, inside

it

was required

the sleeve through passes. Meanwhile, it was not allowed to have downward bottom surface which vertical nodal displacements on the bolt's nodes on the sleeve inner exceeded that of the corresponding Details as follows: surface. of this can be-explained to act Due to free This certain to the initial existence without causes and to the of the gap, the bolt is at first

independently

deflect

any constraint

imposed

by the

deflection places,

gap size to possibly decrease or close in other

sleeve. increase in Once

places.

-98-

the would this close bolt

load

is

applied

to

the

bolt

body,

its

loaded load size

end at is in

z=O. Omm

experience deflection to the

a downward causes the

deflection. gap to

As the in

increased, the region more

decrease the

loaded to other

end. come words, would

Eventually into contact

gap closes, with the

allowing sleeve load the of bolt

material In

internal initial contact to the by be with

surface. line through sleeve. increasing expected local of

by applying be can size of the developed

an external into an from area load. would in this

contact which the

area the

load the

be transmitted of this

Naturally, the that value such of

would It

increase also

applied in area

should

an increase the sleeve

be accompanied region.

yielding

material

From the information loading

description is obvious.

above, To satisfy

the this

importance

about how this

contact

precise of getting area develops under successive requirement, to special elements mapping of sleeve of the gap. A one-to-one those the

were used to represent the nodes on the bolt internal contact

the geometric external

is used to surface region by these gap 'link'

surface facilitate

on the

modelling

elements.

A gap element a gap closes had come into

is used to connect each two corresponding nodes. If load, this would mean that the bolt under a certain contact with

the sleeve at this particular point, between them. In addition to the zero and a load is transmitted five nodes along the bolt bottom gap along the sleeve invert, the possible contact surface were chosen to represent external area, the each with the This final one being the closest to the bolt centreline. other, was chosen as it was thought two nodes at the centreline at the to have unlikely in contact with

corresponding even

configuration used to the corresponding used to discretise Both bolt locations

the nodal Therefore, maximum load. discretise this part of the bolt is also part of the sleeve.

and sleeve nodes in this around on the interface

X-axis region had identical the bolt shank, see Figure

-99-

(4.8). Having inadequate in the direction information of the about how this Z axis, these

area would propagate

gap elements were introduced all along the bolt shank, i. e. from z =0.0mm to z= the to Additional represent gap were also used elements -150.0mm. remote end. This was done to examine the gap at the bolt's possibility contact with of having the remote end coming up to be in sleeve
in the

direct

the corresponding
the gap elements and act It or in their as if

soffit
model

surface.
caused ones This that gap and all lower edge on the true if

Introducing nodes sleeve they come of the

bolt, to contact.

corresponding tied together.

situated is if only they elements the two

surface, come in in

should

be emphasised where uncoupled no

do not are bodies

contact, the

regions are

introduced, act

displacements

independently.

4.7 Gap Elements The "three-dimensional in the ANSYS element interface" library element which is to was introduced STIF52 to

called the

model

in the previous section. It the gap elements described represent between two is capable of representing discontinuous connection The element surfaces which may come in contact with each other. could be defined by two nodes, each has three degrees of freedom i. e. should translations in the nodal X, Y, and Z directions. be read in a way that a positive gap should Each node belongs element x direction as shown in Figure (4.9). bolt i. e. either to a different or sleeve substructure, as The element has a linear earlier. shape function with explained no integration The element points. can be thought of as three value, independent that linear in the The nodes be in the

springs, each with its own stiffness directions. the normal and tangential

are oriented These springs "connect"

-100-

two

surfaces are

at

directions

nodes. Infinitesimal independent. The element

the

displacements is

in

all

normal force associated with the element two nodes, i. e. the element x direction. value, i. e. compressive force, both the interface displacement

oriented so that the Fn is in line with the When it has a negative and the normal

In other words, a negative value remains in contact. for Fn indicates a gap closure between the two connected nodes. displacement force this the case, normal and respond as a -In linear description spring. A full of the element is given in the ANSYS manuals [52,53].
The associated high gap, typical calculated values forcing value to stiffness create very with stiff to the elements in were the in chosen direction this to be of of the A was

elements move together data for

the

two nodes as

direction. stiffness

used

an input

a spring

as follows:

K=

(E x A) /L

where E is the Young's A is the surface L is the element


It the should model be noted as the differs used in that

modulus of steel. area of an adjacent thickness.


different for area, K have A, (4.10) been used with in gap

element.

values surface

corresponding along the

involved

elements areas interface

z axis. these

Figure stiffness updated

shows different values. For a each

calculating the in force

element, value step,

is to

based

upon

current For the a

displacement certain status load remains

order the

predict is

a new displacement. continued until

iteration for

gap

unchanged

two successive

iterations.

STIF52 has proved to be suitable due to the following reasons: Element

for

gap representation

-101-

1. It

compression in the direction normal to the surfaces which is what is expected in the case under the bolt shank. It of compressing the sleeve material shear (if any) caused by friction can also be used to resist is capable of supporting only in the tangential directions.

2. The

before and after gap status, load, to the contributed much a certain of value --applying be as will under loading, understanding of the gap closure seen later. facility to examine the contact across with the each other the the normal

3. As two nodes come into force can be transferred

gap while

two nodes the

In other words, the contact region move together. discreetly by these springs which modelled displacements and force the nodes to act together.
This nodes initial element having proved different to be successful together, the in joining as long must case the it at

is therefore couple

two

separate had an the

locations them, i. e.

as they not the sleeve

gap between in

two nodes the

occupy

same location edge physical to use (at

space. where before

As this both applying the another

was not the bolt any load

symmetric are possible sleeve to in

x=0.0mm contact

and

load), from the

was not to

STIF52 this

to edge.

transmit Thus, was the

bolt

the

through the is

element

had to

be introduced orientation

model. defined allowed element

STIF12

obvious than

alternative by its to nodal

as its

by an angle the is to two

rather connected

coordinates

[52].

This This

nodes

be initially element which

coincident. works in a

a two that of

dimensional STIF52, of

gap

way similar degrees of

except three

that [53,56].

each node has only

two

freedom

instead

4.8 Final a) Although special

Remarks on The mesh care was taken attention in the model mesh, and described to the areas of interest of the design

was given

-102-

certain simplifications These can be described as follows:


1. As STIF45 (each was edge used was not is for capable by of two accommodating nodes the only), circular

in

section

4.4,

were

unavoidable.

curved a small

boundaries angle 12 with part the

defined

approximating elements. bolt and This the

boundary for the that bottom made

straight-sided of both the flat

was adopted sleeve in a

way

segmented

edge appear

curved.

2. Having steel

modelled the major bracket and the bolt the finite

components of thread

the

joint,

both

the

to minimise b) Along to

element

were omitted idealisation.

from the mesh

the Z axis, of the

the size sleeve

of the bolt to

elements

was set equal stress

that

elements

distribution

to develop
thickness

enable an accurate tinder the bolt shank.


should be kept constant all

c)

The its

sleeve

wall

around by

circumference. two identical apart,

To maintain sets of

this, nodes both in the

thickness cylindrical external

was defined coordinates, and internal

having 3.00mm

representing

diameters,

respectively.

d) No link

elements were used between the sleeve external surface The sleeve was unable to and the first ring of concrete. separate from the concrete surface after deformation.
compatibility was which achieved at The the strain by should making be sure nodes satisfied that and the no between elements are the are left and types

e) The

elements well

connected

joining

nodes

unconnected. concrete of

compatibility as the

between two

sleeve

materials have the

was maintained same shape

different

elements

functions.

f) All

grid

points

are

located

in

the

cartesian

coordinate

-103-

system, specified cross referred 4.9 Material

but for

a the is

local bolt the

cylindrical and sleeve. the

coordinate The centre global of

system the

was

section

origin of level. to as the joint Properties


defined for where to of be

sleeve be axes and will

-Material a linear Poisson's requires controlling bolt, While discussed

properties elastic ratio the v

are

each only

element. Young's a

In

contrast E

to and

analysis, have

modulus

specified, more of

nonlinear

analysis Parameters i. e. the

knowledge the nonlinear steel

several behaviour

parameters. steel members, in this

sleeve those

and

links, the the

are

discussed

section. will be

controlling in

concrete

nonlinearity

separately

following

chapter.

As the values

bolt of

typical steel, was high tensile material 2 205 KN/mm and 0.25 were used for the elastic ratio, respectively. Stress values used. stress

standard

and Poisson's

modulus by specified

BS3692 [57], for grade 8.8 bolts, are also 2 2 N/mm and 784.0 N/mm for tensile yield stress, respectively. data, a simplified

These are 628.0 and ultimate

In ANSYS input the that stress-strain obtained

relationship

the nonlinearity of the material requirement behaviour once it has passed the yield point. Stress-strain curve from tensile tests and its corresponding obtained simple in for was shown earlier sleeve material simplified version Figures (2.7). For lines the the at two

experimentally. for to allow

can be used to represent instead of for a material using This is a simplification of the curve

sleeve

the yield The first point. of these has an elastic modulus equal to that obtained experimentally, 2. i. e. 182.6 KN/Mm As the failure point was not obtained connected

material, together

curve

consisted

of

straight

-104-

experimentally, behaviour after N/mm2 and respectively. Three straight 0.05

there

was not

enough information

concerning

the

yielding. were

As a result, reasonable values of 500 assumed for ultimate stress and strain,

lines

curve for the steel line is assumed to have reduced values see Figure

the stress-strain were used to represent links, The slope of the first up to failure. be 205.0 KN/mm2 while the other two slopes to (4.11). satisfy the requirement of the ANSYS

program,
4.10

Solution

Convergence

It

has

been

mentioned with the

earlier the

that steel

plasticity and concrete

is

a nonlinear It straining converge from until would to A the is

property

associated by

materials.

characterized process. the first This

instantaneous, that the solution

unrecoverable will not is

dictates

iteration. is obtained.

So an iterative However, solution about the to

solution a purely choose

required method would of fail

convergence not be the

iterative as it

suitable

produce mixed total

information incremental-iterative load is

intermediate

stages

loading. in which

technique into load achieved. smaller increment

was essential, increments is

subdivided to each is

and the by for the

solution iterating details

corresponding until of load

obtained 4.12

convergence application.

See Section

For a static in changes

analysis, plastic at

a load step is said increments strain strains all are less integration

to be converged compared with

if

the their

corresponding elastic should be satisfied from one iteration as input data in the

than a preset value. This in the structure points preset value is defined

to the next

one. This

convergence command and was taken as 0.10. It should be noted that this value reflects the most erroneous integration i. e. all other points have the same or less point, by other Convergence can be affected factors error. such as

-105-

deflection

increment

integration or described as follows: 1. A solution deflection iterations is at

type of gap elements, and status of either in These can be points concrete elements.

considered a

unconverged node

if

there

is two limit

a change in successive was taken

particular

between This

which exceeds a certain 2mm. in the input data as 0.1x10 --* 2. If

limit.

2-D or 3-D changes its status a gap element in either iteration, open to closed (or vice versa) during a certain solution needs an additional same value of load.
is any incomplete concrete of if element the

from the the

iteration

to

converge

under

3. Convergence point another, deflection new crack iteration, converged in

the

status changes

of from

an

integration state or to the or a

one limit

regardless increment. appears, then solution. or

plasticity words, crack if

criterion crushing opens is

In other an existing

occurs,

during to

a certain have a

another

iteration

needed

The full

Newton-Raphson

method is

the

iterative

by ANSYS in solving mesh. In this modified computed updating when the to at of take the

the set of nonlinear method, for each iteration the effect

adopted equations created by the the stiffness matrix is

process

integration stiffness

increments, of plastic strain into This successive points, account. leads to a converged solution matrix satisfy load step. the materials' stress-strain of the The general algorithm in References [53,58].

resulting

stresses

relationship at a certain method is described in detail The analysis

load was terminated of the joint at a particular by the program if no convergence was obtained even automatically This situation after a selected maximum number of iterations. was to happen when some regions yielded so much that the

most likely

-106-

does such a termination but means that a to the failure not correspond of the joint, large increment relatively a of load had been imposed. Usually restart of the analysis with a smaller load increment proved to be successful. results It 4.11 Boundary Conditions to boundary to the

diverged.

must be *noted that

It

was required

apply

a system of

supports

those constraints as possible by their techniques. As provided geometry and by the testing degrees of mentioned earlier, each node had three translational freedom, i. e. Ux, Uy and Uz. The boundary conditions to applied models simulating as realistically either
1.

model can be divided


conditions: to account in while for the it

into

the following
boundary e. g. over both

three

sections:
were of

Symmetry imposed the at Also

Appropriate the symmetry,

conditions the the suppression entire

translation x=0.0mm, at z=

X direction is free in

all

YZ face

Y and

Z directions. exists,

translation

where another plane of -150.0mm, in the z direction was suppressed.

symmetry

2.

Support solid, the the

conditions: where the

At expansion provided

both is by were

top

and

bottom to

of

the

concrete due to in in This the may

believed the steel

be negligible translations

confinement

links,

X and Z directions was also precise the axial

suppressed. at in the in the the column the

The translation bottom test, induces Y direction. of face. as the

Y direction be not the at of

suppressed condition of

vertical small

reaction amount shortening was of

bottom

a very

compression as the than the

Concrete the bolt

was ignored rather

absolute relative

deflection one.

interest

3. Control

of

concrete

spalling:

After

testing,

spalling

of

the removal of concrete was observed on the column face after brackets. from the steel bracket Although steel was omitted

-107-

the

mesh, face

it

is

felt

that

its in

restraining the numerical conditions

effect

upon

the This

column was face

had to be included by imposing

analysis. across the

achieved as follows:

boundary

XY

The analysis (excluding

was started with the assumption that the XY face the lowest edge) was free in the Z direction. After

the outward displacements, Uz, at the nodes on this solution, face were checked. A linear variation of Uz along the height as shown in Figure (4.12), of the back plate, was assumed with top node. At each node on the XY a maximum value at the bolt's face, a comparison was made between the computed U values and 'z the the U U had
allowed zz values. If a value exceeded allowed

z, more than the back plate, imposed boundary condition


4.12 Load Application

value

implying

that

the concrete the for value

tended to be pulled

away

of U'z was used as an the next load step.

4.12.1

Model 1 a quadrant of the joint, a shear stress was to act on the bolt's XY plane at z=0.0mm. This type of was not allowed in ANSYS as it allows only a pressure modelled and not parallel to the loaded plane. the bolt shank protruding

Having only required pressure acting

perpendicular

To overcome this out of the

problem without solid, the

having load

to the applied was first force at the bolt's model in the form of a concentrated centre. This proved to be unsuccessful as the load concentration at one increasing the stresses node had the inevitable effect of greatly in the elements connected directly to this node. This led to the concrete These forces acted use of a group of concentrated nodal forces. all in the XY plane to give over nodes on the bolt cross-section Assuming that the shear rise to the mean value of shear stress. is uniformly the nodal stress applied along the loaded plane,
b

-108-

forces

had different of

magnitude associated At higher

corresponding with

magnitudes at a certain value a nodal force equals the value of load times the bolt's to the applied this particular this node. loading technique

of load. shear surface

The

stress area

load

values, load

proved

to

be

had an undesirable effect the rate of convergence. This has led to the use of a on . displacement displacement technique. A vertical value controlled for the bolt nodes in the 'loaded plane' was imposed at each load inefficient as the concentration step. By adopting this technique, about this for applied rapid the load convergence is that loaded was achieved. it assumes an At total any of end. The only disadvantage technique bolt's

high artificial rigidity displacement the value, forces computed reaction The bolt's going typical the to self weight

was taken

as the

at these nodes. was ignored to increment in the the total analysis as it was load. A applied of 0.03of

contribute small

negligibly

imposed displacement value

was of

an order especially

0.05mm. This

was chosen due to the complex effect elements,

nonlinearity of the concrete immediately the sleeve. surrounding 4.12.2 Model 2


displacements 1 were saved for for

those

The predicted bolt in Model

sleeve

nodes used,

in after

contact

with

the for 2.

and later the

accounting in Model

symmetry, This from

as input possible

data to 2.

corresponding the saving with of bolt both zero contact their were

nodes and the storage imposed in

made it the

eliminate Thus,

gap elements capacity horizontal 1 were and

mesh of

model

computational displacement released deflections, those of the in

time. at the

Sleeve initial 2. In load in

nodes line addition, step, the

Model

model at nodes

computed added

horizontal to

every lying

algebraically

same XY plane.

-109-

4.13 Wavefront As has been

Reduction

in Section 4.2, the frontal mentioned earlier [59] is the solution technique adopted by ANSYS to solve solution the set of the simultaneous equations formed in the pre-processor the sequence in which the elements are phase. In this technique, to minimise the wavefront generated is crucial size of the model. to generate elements in z direction

In Models 1 and 2, it was found that the easiest way elements in the input phase is to generate a group of the XY plane at z=0.0mm then proceed along the then is until z= another group created -150.0mm Although satisfy this was simple enough in the input the wavefront minimise the wavefront
ANSYS has according wavefront a to facility their

So attempts requirement. for the mesh.


which allows for

and so on. phase, it did not had to be made to

element It

re-sequencing that of the the At 500

geometrical reduced centroid wavefront

locations. by reordering locations had reached for

was found all along elements the

was greatly to their

mesh according this stage, the

Z axis. than

final

a value execution.

less

and the

model

was ready

to be submitted

4.14 Preliminary

Runs

Some preliminary the running trials were carried out to verify function types. the From these of different element runs, following features were either added to or deleted from the input data file: 1. A very small the interface that the bolt

force for

was initially

introduced

each gap element. would not be separated

across and along This was done to ensure from the structural model

at early model. value

stage of loading,

The value of which is nearly

i. e. increase the stability of the to a stiffness each force corresponds equal to 10-6 times the normal stiffness

-110-

associated solution

with

the

element

input

data.

would be not affected

by adding

The accuracy of the such small forces.

2. A value of 0.2 was initially of friction used as a coefficient between both bolt and sleeve bodies. However, this proved to have of a great effect on the rate of convergence of the gap elements. smooth, Removing friction, increased the rate i. e. assuming both surfaces of convergence considerably. to be

4.15 Summary in section 4.1, the main objectives As stated of the present of bolted study is to develop realistic models for the analysis joints element package ANSYS. In this section, using the finite the models' The objective main features and properties are briefly summarised.

the different the models is to predict aspects behaviour and internal of the structural such as deformations main components. Also, to gain information stresses for the joint of about the development concrete.
nonlinear properties is sleeve were considered in with links cracking in the Large the the solution plastic It concrete. size of the is

of

both

cracking

and

crushing

of

the

surrounding
Almost phase. all

Material of

nonlinearity the with bolt, the

associated and steel and the the

deformations also included

materials. of

crushing from and

Interface geometric analysis

nonlinearity gap between was also

arises the bolt in

change sleeve.

deflection

adopted

the

solution

phase.

Eight-node the bolt

isoparametric and the the sleeve.

elements A special solid, the steel used

were

used

in

representing

both to

eight-node separate and the

element bar

was used

represent used bars. of the for

concrete

while links

elements main

were steel

simulating

column the

Gap elements contact area

were

extensively the loaded

to model bolt

development sleeve under

between

and the

-111Of

SOG

LIBRARY T' t'/7 OYb t+

successive

loading.

Imposed incremental adopted. applying

displacements at the loaded end was vertical Convergence had to be achieved at each load step before the next one.

-112-

-t3on point nt nodes

13
FIGURE (4.1) :A

Z
TYPICAL EIGHT NODED THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENT.

Y
t 89th

Y
Wktth -vH

ZDX

CD e a

L, 1'

I `i 1

uonm

FIGURE (4.2)

: GEOMETRYAND DIMENSIONS OF THE MODELLED JOINT.

-113-

FIGURE (4.3)

: FINITE

ELEMENT DISCRETISATION

OF THE BOLT SHANK.

FIGURE (4.4)

: FINITE

ELEMENT DISCRETISATION

OF THE SLEEVE.

-114-

====:

2:2:2:2:2

Left Right Top Bottom

: Vertical

section

through

plane

containing

sleeve

axis.

: Face elevation. : Concrete elements. elements.

: Reinforcement

A line

of symmetry is located

at the left

of each view.

FIGURE (4.5)

: FINITE

ELEMENT DISCRETISATION

OF THE CONCRETE

SOLID WITH DETAILS OF REINFORCING BARS 'MODEL 1'.

-115-

Left Right Top Bottom

: Vertical

section

through

plane

containing

sleeve

axis.

: Face elevation. : Concrete elements. elements.

: Reinforcement

A line

of symmetry is located

at the left

of each view.

FIGURE (4.6)

: FINITE

ELEMENT DISCRETISATION

OF THE CONCRETE

SOLID WITH DETAILS OF REINFORCING BARS 'MODEL 2'.

-116-

Ali
1_-o
- Lx

HI
FIGURE (4.7) : INITIAL CONFIGURATION OF THE GEOMETRIC GAP BETWEEN THE BOLT AND THE SLEEVE IN THE XY PLANE.

FIGURE (4.8)

:A

ONE-TO-ONE MAPPING OF THE NODES TO FACILITATE THE MODELLING OF THE CONTACT REGION BETWEEN THE BOLT AND SLEEVE.

-117-

*11

...

GAP

FIGURE (4.9)

:A

THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERFACE ELEMENT VITH ITS BOTH GLOBAL AND LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM.

Coarse

region
P e_. LP A

Fine region 4A1 e Ai Al

eA1
Edge of symmetry Loaded end

FIGURE (4.10)

: PLAN VIEW SHOWING DIFFERENT SURFACE AREAS USED IN CALCULATING SPRING STIFFNESS VALUES.

-118-

N I Z

Ln
EKN/mm
AiSYS
'0.00

modelling

for

steel

link

material
a1.90

0.15

0.30

0.45 STRAIN

0.5 7

10

FIGURE (4.11)

: STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR THE STEEL LINKS

Concrete

solid

U2 Bolt shank

at the bolt's top node

Concrete spnlUng

UZ

at

node j

KU= Concrete soUd

at node K

UZa04

Plane of symmetry (YZ) for

Model I

Assured vnrlntwn of out and defLectton at load step n

FIGURE (4.12)

PROVIDED EFFECT BY THE RESTRAINT THE MODELLING : BACK PLATE UPON THE COLUMN FACE.

-119-

CHAPTER FIVE

AND

ASSESSMENT

OF

CONCRETE

MATERIAL

MODELLING

IN

THE ANSYS PROGRAM

5.1 Introduction
Numerical increasingly research, gaining for the has all It the to

modelling important analysis better last

of

concrete role in

potential of reinforced in use

play

an

areas has

concrete as tool structures works [60-62]. lack for

and

design. into the

been of lists in

insight twenty

behaviour

concrete of

years. modelling

Comprehensive can be found is limited which Moreover, structure input out of to

reported

employing However, of

concrete its

References

applicability accepted

some extent in

by the

a universally

model,

can be used the is

any general prediction to be highly material properties which is

reinforced of the

concrete of

structure. a concrete the chapter basic sets

numerical expected

behaviour towards This to

sensitive properties. with

the of

concrete these STIF65

a summary

reference

the

three-dimensional

element

in the ANSYS program to model the concrete material. by three sample results This is followed the given to calibrate element under the application of loading. 5.2 Concrete Concrete important behaviour, (63]. Also Behaviour Under Axial Loading

incorporated

exhibits tensile its such

complex

structural a

response non-linear

with

various failures by many loading, of

nonlinearities;

namely

stress-strain

and compression cracking crushing behaviour under loading is highly affected as nature of applied and stress, tensile) rate of (compressive

variables mechanical

strengths

and degree

-120-

confinement. multiaxial will, therefore,

Concrete loading is

behaviour

well be discussed

biaxial under axial, [60-62] documented in References briefly in this section.

and and

A typical monotonic curve is

stress-strain uniaxial linearly

for concrete to relationship subjected The compressive load is shown in Figure (5.1). elastic up to 30% of the maximum compressive

stress fc. This limit was proposed by Kotsovos and Newman [64] as the For stresses a limit of elasticity. above this point, to behave nonlinearly concrete starts up to about 70-90% of fc value where the curve bends until the curve Beyond the peak stress, strain softening. reached at the ultimate It is widely is peak stress descends, indicating the to descend until strain eu. value of fc, obtained reached. concrete failure is

The curve continues compressive

common practice either

to use the

from testing the quality

cubes or cylinders

However, this of concrete. to define a complete stress-strain sufficient curve representing behaviour during all stages of loading. the concrete's
The shape of the stress-strain of concrete, strengths to develop curve with [65,66]. a numerical parts of the is more This almost similar brittle

as a measure for assessing value, on its own, is not

for

different behaviour researchers both

grades at higher [67-70]

pronounced fact attracted

many

expression curve.

to describe Naturally, the on the

ascending of of

and descending each of these involved

accuracy number

expressions in its

depends

greatly

parameters

formation.

description A more recent mathematical of the curve proposed by Tsai [71] was found to be appealing because of its simplicity. data obtained by Kupfer et al. [72] was used in this Experimental (5.2). This study to examine its as shown in Figure validity figure represent monotonic demonstrates the that Tsai's formula can successfully behaviour uniaxial of concrete under short term loading. Hence, it was adopted in the present work. In

-121-

Tsai Is formula,

given

below,

the

ratio

Y of

the by

concrete

stress

to the maximum compressive

strength
mX

fc is given

Y=

1+

m-

nxn

n -1

n-

Where X=

the ratio

of the concrete the stress fc ratio the initial

strain

e to the strain

ep at

m=

the

Ec to elasticity the secant modulus E0 at y =1 , see Figure (5.3). of modulus of


factor to part control of the the curve. steepness rate of the

n=a

descending

From

the

above

formula, have

it to

is be for

material

parameters

clear known a given

that in fc.

some controlling to trace a are

advance

complete stress-strain listed below.

curve

These parameters

a) The Initial
In the

Modulus of Elasticity
absence of direct value In

Ec
the Young's a calculation. in of Figure the (5.4). square

measurement of the initial literature, for its

of

concrete modulus, number of

stiffness, Ec, had

a reasonable to be

assumed. were

the

empirical are most of listed of fc.

equations in these, Using for fc, It

proposed [62]

These In root

Reference Ec is the taken

and plotted

to be a function value of 61.90 to vary that

average of

N/mm2, between of

obtained 33.3 1.3 and was

earlier 47.2 taken

values is worth

Ec appeared pointing T in out the

2. KN/mm

a factor provided Based

as a material limit

factor

formula

in on

BS8110 these value

(serviceability values and those

state

requirement). by BS8110,

recommended

a representative

-122-

of

formula. KN/mm2 was chosen to be employed in Tsai's This value of Ec had been also used for an almost similar in a previous reported work [73]. concrete strength 37.0
Strain er

b) The Compressive

The peak strain

stress under short-time value between 0.0015 and

loading 0.002 for

is

attained normal

at

strength

higher strength As relatively concretes exhibit higher strain [60,61], at the peak stress a slightly a value of 0.002 was adopted for the strain ep corresponding with fc. concretes[66].
c) The Ultimate Compressive Strain eu

In fails

concrete

testing,

the

branch of the curve is softening it is test-dependent, viewing as a material property [75). be However, in the present work it will questionable treated as a material representation property to have a better of concrete The strain failure is fc. Visible in the post-peak stress range.

when maximum stress of stress at an increasing [74). Since the observed

nor specimen neither yields is reached; but a gradual decrease is strain, called strain softening,

test

stress, at which value eu and the corresponding defined, have a strong dependence on the value of cracks

were reported to occur at a strain value of 0.0035 [62]. For design purposes, the same value of strain is the degree of crushing failure set by BS8110 to limit allowed in this chapter, ANSYS in the concrete. be seen later As will stress-strain curve Though, a value of n had to be employed in Tsai's modelled. formula to give rise to a curve similar to that reported by Wischers [76] for a similar Figure (5.5) strength. concrete of shows the complete material proposed 'target' stress-strain work. curve for the concrete used in this adopts a stress dependent for the ascending branch crushing the criterion and allows only to be

-123-

At this

fc = 61.90 N/mm2 was taken as the uniaxial The author is aware compressive strength. factor of the fact that a reduction of 0.7-0.9 should have been applied to fc to have a more representative uniaxial compressive i. e. a cylinder than a cube strength. strength, strength rather stage, is worth emphasising that However, it was observed from preliminary trials carried out value of fc led to to

it

element STIF65 that using an unreduced data. much better correlation with the experimental verify Under uniaxial strength. 0.125 of strength splitting the tension, concrete

For practical crushing

has a remarkably low ultimate it purposes, can be taken as 0.08 to [77). In this work, the tensile strength strength of the four cylinder

was taken as the average ft = 4.05 N/mm2 tests,


data indicated 0.15 that and 0.22 for that

Experimental in the range

concrete [60].

Poisson's Since a value [61],

ratio of it

v lies 0.2 was

between

considered in this

quite work.

effective

normal

concrete

was used under all

ANSYS assumes Hence, not

v has a constant increase by the in

value at

stress peak

stages. stress will

any volume be predicted

concrete

and near

element.

Under multiaxial behaviour

different loading, somewhat

combinations concrete different

of exhibits from that

proportional strength under and uniaxial

biaxial stress-strain conditions.

and

A reduction is or dependent

or an increase on the nature

in of

the the

concrete applied

compressive stress (either

strength tension

compression)[72].

5.3 Constitutive 5.3.1 Constitutive

Modelling Model a large

Capabilities

in The ANSYS Program

In

recent

years, to

number of the

proposed

characterise

material behaviour of

models concrete

have been material.

-124-

Nevertheless, which depend

each model has its on the

application, theory Some models are based on the classical stability. elastic (recoverable during are strain unloading) while others (irrecoverable In ANSYS, an elastic strain). plasticity-based hardening model is implemented to represent the behaviour is more general than that This assumption of of concrete. because it takes into account the perfectly plastic material plastic hardening literature, In the

own advantages and limitations, implementation numerical and

material

up to the the peak stress, see Figure (5.6). approach have similar models based on this used [78-81]. theory of plasticity, the the total strain

been successfully Following increments

the incremental are

elastic and plastic strain is by a linear The elastic components. response governed isotropic law while the plastic stress-strain one depends on the hardening and flow rules. function, All of these selected yield are addressed
a) Yield

decomposed into

individually

below.

Function

For

strain-hardening the limiting surface state of stress lies

is the initial concrete, surface yield for concrete elastic behaviour. So if the this surface, within only linear-elastic

constitutive beyond the develop

On continuing straining are applied. equations initial yield surface, subsequent yield surfaces In accompanied by irrecoverable plastic strains. are defined yield surfaces (loading [53]. by the same yield function and subsequent

ANSYS, both the initial surfaces) Figure

shows the projections of concrete yield surfaces in a two-dimensional principal stress space. From this figure, it can be seen that a yield function for any stress exists combination, i. e. biaxial compression, In the biaxial is used to biaxial tension or combined compression-tension. the von Mises yield function compression zone, define the elastic

(5.7)

-125-

limit yield the

and the flow function. function successfully biaxial tension, it is

Previous in concrete

works

[54,82]

used this

numerical

the assumed that failure the Under this surface. surface coincides with manner assumption, concrete behaves in a purely linear elastic deformation. The reader is up to failure without plastic referred used yield b) Hardening to the ANSYS manual [53) functions. for the definitions of all

In analyses. initial yield

Rule

described above, The motion of the subsequent yield surfaces, loading is described by the hardening during rule. plastic ANSYS provides during plastic body in the stress space, maintaining the initial see Figure yield surface,
c) Flow Rule

hardening rule which a kinematic flow the yield translates surface the (5.8). size

assumes that as a rigid and shape of

The

flow

rule

relates stress

the

plastic at a

strain a certain

increments load step. are connected in this

to It

the can

corresponding be either the function rise an

increments or plastic

associated

non-associated, strains is are

depending with work which Also, the as is it in

whether yield it

incremental or to not.

The former

adopted

gives

a symmetrical the

elastic-plastic point with of

matrix view.

more efficient has been

from

computational implemented

satisfactory works

concrete

modelling

many reported

[78,79,83].

Explicit stress 5.3.2

the strain constitutive equations relating manual [53]. are given in the ANSYS theoretical matrix Failure Criterion

to the

The strength

of concrete

under multiaxial

stresses

is a function

-126-

of the state simple tensile

of stress and

by limitations and can not be predicted independently compressive stresses of a failure criterion is

of each

Therefore, other [61]. determine the concrete various for criteria comprehensive In ANSYS, the the

always needed to the interaction strength by considering of Many failure components of the state of stress. concrete review elastic in the proposed of these can be found in References been strain-hardening plasticity-based five parameter have A past. [60-62].

described criterion material

provided main disadvantage computational


To represent defined in

is combined with above, a [84] for a complete characterisation of the concrete behaviour. failure has This particular criterion data [62]. However, its to experimental a very good fit is that it requires a considerable amount of time
the the

model, failure

[80].

failure input

criterion, data. Then These the three conditions

two values are the

must

be explicitly tensile the to and given take

uniaxial generalises

compressive value biaxial of the

strengths. latter

program additional into

creating stress

parameters account.

and triaxial

At

this

stage, element

it

is

will load-carrying element's ultimate these are are accounted for, crushing failures.

concrete

necessary to explain be defined, in the capacity. tensile

that

a failure

of

present work, as the Two types of failures and compression

cracking

5.4 Special
5.4.1

Features

of Element STIF65
Cracking Behaviour

Cracking

and Post

is the most significant factor The cracking that of concrete dominates the behaviour The response of of concrete structures. is assumed to be linear STIF65 under tensile stresses elastic until the cracking surface is reached. This surface is governed

-127-

by the prescribed

concrete

tensile is adopted. cracks

strength

ft.

In this

a smeared crack approach Rashid [85], represents

This approach, as a change in

element, introduced by the material

property of the element over which the the cracks are assumed to be smeared. The distributed is based on representation cracking it maintains discontinuity the concept of a stress the while displacement the continuity across the crack. This concept fits nature continuity A crack of the finite element field displacement remains point ft. method, intact. as the of the displacement appears stress at an

integration the given

tensile

exceeds

to this principal perpendicular stress. direction normal to the crack face, is introduced and the normal stress at the crack drops to zero. With this approach, cracked is assumed to be orthotropic concrete material with principal

any principal is The crack direction A plane of weakness, in a

when

to the crack direction, axes being normal and parallel see Figure (5.9). to the the crack type According strain across of (compressive the status of crack becomes closed or or tensile), open respectively. to be assumed Once a crack for fixed all directly singly is formed, its direction is Cracks phase. to two loading.

subsequent

orientation can be obtained loading Upon further of additional sets

in the post-processor up

cracks orthogonal of directions to the first Crack set at the same integration point. is given in details in the ANSYS manual [53]. representation
As cracked due to the to concrete aggregate reduce of can partially interlock, the 0.5 shear transmit a positive modulus to of the shear shear across retention the crack factor A This realism shear by the had a

cracked element, be formed in might

was used constant value of the

uncracked this

concrete.

value

was used used

achieve [86,87].

reduction. Beside the

was successfully aggregate proved of [60]. to interlock

elsewhere representation,

having difficulties matrix

a reduced caused if it

modulus singularity zero

remove

any numerical

the

material's

constitutive

value

-128-

The major shortcomings listed as follows: 1. As

of

crack

representation

in ANSYS can be

as infinite cracks are represented fissures the across associated area integration their point, exact positions, from the analysis.
propagation to join together. rate of This

numbers with widths

of the

parallel cracked

and spacing

are not available


2. Near ultimate a marked in their

loads,

cracks

increases to fixed

with

tendency initial

may lead by been the

a change crack better

directions, crack [88]. model

predicted would have

model. in this

A rotating aspect

probably

3. The smeared crack approach has been criticised for being a mesh size dependent. 4. Cracked concrete can still carry

by Bazant

[89]

stress in the some tensile direction i. e. to the crack, tension normal stiffening. behaviour was reported to be much improved Numerical predicted by applying the tension to the cracked stiffening stress concrete for as direction, [81]. the In ANSYS, tension modulus stiffening is not accounted to the crack of elasticity, normal drops immediately to zero as shown in Figure(5.10).
offers of the use of a constant shear shear modulus of the retention has been

5. ANSYS only factor. found to

The use offer [90].

a variable realistic

reduced

a more

modelling

post-crack

behaviour

5.4.2

Crushing

and Post Crushing element,

Behaviour

Within

crushing occurs at an integration point when the state of stress is multiaxial compression and the is beyond the von Mises failure level stress surface, shown in a concrete

-129-

Figure this

(5.7).

Under this its

condition,

the material

point

released reflected
A crushed

strength completely and all and distributed among other integration by a drop in the element's equivalent stress.
element whose in all the eight global in (limiting more general associated has been integration stiffness the input value) crushing with reached, with behaviour, points matrix. of

loses

associated with its stresses are This is points.

are

crushed

has no contribution mentioned, there crushing prevent moduli, stresses modulus (5.11). is a major no strain strength the once are value

As previously STIF65 is with that the To

shortcoming criterion to give

combined

simulation. negative the

numerical the peak

difficulty stress in

tangent

unbalanced tangent Figure

released assuming

a stepwise perfectly

fashion plastic

a zero see

5.4.3

Post-Crushing

Stability in the heavily of loading.

Crushing

of some concrete

elements

stressed

region

was expected

to occur at early

stages

to a stress rise redistribution which could locally upset the numerical stability of the model even with To overcome this problem, it was employing small load increments. to keep the crushed elements numerically required effective with due to the It was not possible, a minimum strength capacity. limitations to allocate of the software, to these elements after being crushed. the full problem was to of new material properties

This would give be so high as to

One way of averting elements by taking percentage material direction an infinite (5.12). continues of within only the the

stiffen-up their

the

concrete

advantage

element's element.

A smeared nature. volume was introduced as smeared has strength in its This material

the same stress-strain curve but with much reduced slope beyond the peak stress, see Figure and exhibits the smeared material element gets crushed, load to the surrounding elements. Within an

Thus as the to transfer

-130-

element, three to be

a very orthogonal numerically was

small

percentage

of

the

volume of

was used

in

all

directions

(X, Y, Z).

A value the adding

0.01% was found of 'reinforcing the

satisfactory. improved shortly in

Also, by

ductility this 5.5.

element material'

significantly be seen

as will

Section

5.4.4

Concrete-Steel
behaviour

Interaction

The

of

concrete their

and

steel

materials relationships. were

were

modelled Values for

separately yielding, input not data. modelled

through cracking However, in

stress-strain strengths

and crushing the It

given

as material and steel that there was is

bond between is assumed the and ruled

the in

concrete this work

detail. strong

a sufficiently no relative

bond between of listed the steel below

links the out

and concrete surrounding the adoption

so that concrete of bond

movement The facts modelling.

can occur. detailed

1. In the literature,

or three-dimensional have a similar behaviour

bond has been modelled by using either two linkage elements (91,921. These elements to the gap elements elements the used would in the mean

same space of the the total original nodes. As a result, number of degrees of freedom would increase leading to an increase of the model This increase wavefront. would not agree with the software limitation 2. The use of cracking region this of the wavefront. the smeared-crack region actually appears to be approach which far spreads exceeds the effect

these The adding present work. of introducing additional nodes occupying

of

a large where bond slip over

the localised the use of a detailed [93].

approach

occurs. Therefore, incompatible with

modelling With

of the interaction

between steel

and concrete

the above facts

to be adequately

in mind, the interaction can be considered described by the assumption of perfect bond.

-131-

5.4.5

Creep Effect in Chapter 3, indicated that

Test

results, creep

reported effect

significant that it is analysis.

not necessary

it was observed. As a result, in the numerical to include such effect

no was felt

5.5 Element Verification A previous work [41] had verified element STIF65 in shear through beams with different reinforcement supported properties. In that work,

simply modelling distributions and material

comparing had led the numerical counterpart results with its experimental is to the conclusion that the multilinear relation stress-strain

However, a more realistic way to model plain concrete behaviour. in order to have more confidence in the use of this element under loading, there was a need for more the application of axial the adequacy of STIF65 is verified In this section, verification. by comparing tests numerical data predictions from to those against theoretical and cylinder experimental splitting 5.5.1 obtained standard cube and reported in Chapter 2.

similar Concrete

Kupfer's

Prism
200x200x50 mm tested by Kupfer et al. [72] (5.13).

A plain

concrete with

prism

was modelled A uniform the top

25 mm cubic loading faces in

elements

as shown in to the other. only the top model As little

Figure

uniaxial and were bottom used

was applied towards each

by displacing brush bearing on not are was a very of

plattens the

the. test interface

producing (94],

friction were adopted material shows

concrete-steel in

nodes

restrained based used close the on within

any direction. data elements' between [72].

The material Also volume. predicted curve no

properties reinforcing (5.14) ascending input stress to

Kupfer's the

Figure and the

correlation reported

portion the program).

stress-strain

(which

is peak

Failure

was spontaneous

as soon as the

was reached.

-132-

5.5.2

Standard

Cube Test

A 100 mm cube was modelled by 125 cubic elements as shown in Figure (5.15). Boundary conditions were imposed to simulate those in a cube testing. The top of the cube was laterally existing constrained platten displaced response in at to the equally predicted (5.16). simulate in the the friction platten-specimen vertical is numerically The peak top of the stiff effect interface. The top nodes were direction. compared with The stress-strain the target curve

stress obtained numerically 96% of the maximum input This was represented peak stress. at strain obtained value of 0.002 which agrees very well with that given in the input data.
For comparison material to note made up at high it to purpose, is that possible failure. strains It to which the the also curve shown the trace representing in the same the unreinforced It to is the

Figure

concrete interesting elements numerically observed still well

figure. material'

adding to

'reinforcing out the

softening in stress

branch was was this top the

Oscillatory before is failure, suspected high

behaviour while that the stress

convergence cause at of the in

maintained. was due

behaviour boundary cube.

confining the residual

elements

increased

strength

5.5.3

Cylinder

Splitting

Test

symmetry, one quarter was modelled of a 100x200mm cylinder The finite element mesh is shown in with 93 concrete elements. through two stiff Figure (5.17) where the load is applied steel Using elements horizontal forming a half loading Symmetry boundary conditions strip of 8.00mm total width. were imposed at the vertical and

strain analysis planes of symmetry. A plane was i. e. no strain in this in the longitudinal model, adopted direction.. This type of analysis to be adequate as was believed

-133-

previous similar

works

have

demonstrated

its

capability

the material For concrete, behaviour is assumed for the cube model was used while a linear bond was assumed between steel and concrete. Perfect The steel. failed load of 140.0 KN, at which no cylinder at an ultimate solution This could be obtained for a very small load increment. value loading, is 1.12 times the an almost uniform about 0.75 of the diameter 5.6 Concrete
Based in the on the previous enough stages. were

models (95,96].

simulate adopted in the

to

average horizontal

experimental tensile stress

value. existed

During over

as shown in Figure

(5.18).

Input

Data in The Program


the the investigations, input data described was considered during all model

results

of

analytical concrete the

section, for In

reliable loading parameters

estimating the

concrete the

behaviour

program,

following

material

adopted:

1. The ascending represented (5.5). 2. The value 3. A constant 4. A constant


5. Values conditions for

branch

of

as a series

uniaxial stress-strain curve is of four data points as shown in Figure the

of the initial value value


the taken

Young's modulus taken as 37.0 KN/mm2. ratio 0.20. factor 0.50.

for for

Poisson's

the shear retention


and tensile

crushing as 61.90

strengths

under

uniaxial

N/mm2 and 4.05

N/mm2 respectively.

6. A 0.01% of the volume of concrete elements was represented in having similar a smeared fashion, stress-strain curve to that of the concrete but with a much reduced slope beyond the peak stress.

-134-

N
0.31 c

CUF

S5IVE STRAIN (e)

FIGURE (5.1)

: CONCRETE STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP IN UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION.

S
wu
.. r O

0 I<

N
Proposed $crawls 1711

'

I---

Curve after

Rat.

1723

8
. 00 1.00 2.00 STRAIN 3.00 mm/m 4.00

FIGURE (5.2)

: VERIFICATION

OF TSAI FORMULA USING KUPFER DATA.

-135-

CD

SS I VE STRA IN

FIGURE (5.3)

: INITIAL

AND SECANT MODULI OF CONCRETE.

D 0

NQ

U
O British d 00 a
+

Code Cods
Code

Indian

Code 1901
1671

American
European

O Ref.
+ Re;.

oI 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00

2 COMPRESSIVE STI NSTH N/mm

. 00

FIGURE (5.4)

FOR CALCULATING THE INITIAL RELATIONSHIPS PROPOSED : STIFFNESS VALUE OF CONCRETE.

-136-

S
+ Input data points to MEYS

O O Q E

oI 0

E c

37 KN/j m2

0 0.00 10.00 STRAIN 20.00 30.00 / 10000 40.00

FIGURE (5.5)

: MULTILINEAR IDEALISATION

OF THE CONCRETE

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE USED IN THE ANALYSIS.

Ln

STRAIN FIGURE (5.6) : SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR.

-137-

77

Yrbrat

Surf ac

SA YlNd

Ute Surft

FIGURE (5.7)

: YIELD SURFACE OF CONCRETE IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL PRINCIPAL STRESS PLANE.

c r2

Wtsol Yield Surf ace

Subsecpent Y1etd Serf ace

FIGURE (5.8)

: KINEMATIC HARDENING RULE.

-138-

ck con

XY XY

Irttsat rues before Axes nfter cracking

coal

FIGURE (5.9)

: INITIAL

AND TRANSFORMEDAXES FOR A CRACKED

CONCRETE ELEMENT IN SMEARED CRACK MODELLING.

Cracking

strove

----------1'

Lr)
Lr) LLJ

vc

I w 1. i NI

TENSILE STRAIN FIGURE (5.10) : SOLUTION PROCEDUREFOR POST-CRACKING ANALYSIS.

-139-

Strain

rdtninp

E-0'0 \1 -I

Ass Plastic

d Psrfactly Behaviour

. N (11

P.

COMPRESSIVE STRAIN

(a)

FIGURE (5.11)

: SOLUTION PROCEDUREFOR POST-CRUSHING ANALYSIS.

U1

Ln

STRAIN / FIGURE (5.12)

10000

00

: ADOPTED STRESS-STRAIN CURVE FOR THE SMEARED REINFORCING MATERIAL.

-140-

FIGURE (5.13)

: FINITE

ELEMENT IDEALISATION

OF KUPFER PRISM.

0 9

O
\N

EO Ef

z
Ui 0

U,

n
+
C-1

OcLa from Re(.


fisnsrlcsl results

1721

1O

O O
CD 198I1110111

0.00

6.00

12.00 STRAIN /

18.00 10000

24.00

30.00

FIGURE (5.14)

: COMPARISON OF PREDICTED STRESS-STRAIN CURVE WITH KUPFER DATA.

-141-

FIGURE (5.15)

: FINITE

ELEMENT MESH OF A 100mm CUBE WITH BOUNDARY

CONSTRAINTS.

-142-

CD 0

N E N

z
In

Ui

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

STRAIN /

10000

FIGURE (5.16)

: PREDICTED RESPONSES FOR THE CUBE STRENGTH COMPAREDWITH THE TARGET CURVE.

-143-

FIGURE (5.17)

: FINITE

ELEMENT MESH OF A CONCRETE CYLINDER WITH

BOUNDARY CONSTRAINTS.

-144-

Arrow length

represents

stress

magnitude.

FIGURE (5.18)

: PREDICTED TENSILE STRESSES FOR THE CYLINDER AT A TYPICAL LOAD STEP.

-145-

CHAP'T'ER SIX

N[

2ICAL

PRICTIMS

6.1

INTwOwcricx

Having the

discussed

the

main in

features Chapter

of 4,

both the

the

ANSYS program results of

and

models'

components i. e. the in could in singlethis not the links.

basic

Models

1 and 2, are data the

and double-bolted Special

joints is in

respectively, given to the

presented which stresses

chapter. be obtained cross

emphasis

experimentally, of steel

particular, i. e. bolt,

sections

members,

sleeve

and steel

In

the

following for in the detail. sleeve, by

sections, individual Development throughout a in along full the

both

displacement of the area range, the

and models

stress are the

distributions discussed bolt This and is

components of the the

contact

between is

loading of

traced. of

followed

description surrounding steel

propagation The variation to the ultimate

crushing of tensile is

and cracking stresses also

concrete. links, up

the

load,

examined.

To have numerical is

a measure results at care

of

the

models' the end

accuracy,

verification experimental Throughout behaviour its

of

the

against the was at

corresponding of the chapter. the

values the of any

presented

discussion, joint ultimate

taken load

to values

represent related

component loads.

to

experimental

attention of the reader is drawn to the fact that load values, used in this chapter, are twice the sum of computed forces at the nodes with prescribed deflections. This is vertical Finally, the due to the symmetry accounted for in both models.

-146-

6.2 The Bolt The general other joint modelling. behaviour of the bolt, its of it

and consequently the was chief felt goal that

components, represents it For this reason,

effect on the joint would be

to make its appropriate point for the discussion the main to features of attempt ease of parts

results serve as a starting numerical in this chapter. This section highlights the bolt load-displacement direct to curves loading. describe in an For

its behaviour under understand discussion, some terms are defined finite

element mesh. These terms, and the global axes are all shown in Figure (6.1). below. displacement is dealt with separately 6.2.1 Vertical Displacement
deflections the the load from deflection in bolt's values fact at loaded in that the

of the bolt

certain the bolt mesh Each type of

Imposed are

vertical versus of the this

at

end in

Model

plotted

computed arises

Figure it does

(6.2). not face

The only (the with in

importance represent joint that Section

curve

bolt's but

vertical it

column

stiffness) obtained 6.7

can be used The on the

a direct

comparison which is model. given

experimentally. acts as a check

comparison accuracy of

the

From the load-vertical joint loading. the bolt increased, their vertical develop On further yield stiffness

deflection

curve,

it

can be seen that the early stages

the of

maximum value at This was due to the high resistance from both the sleeve and concrete a few sleeve stress, elements reducing addition, elements in the fine the

had its

to movement given to beneath. As the load mesh region to the reached bolt's to

resistance

movement. In in the concrete load increase

minor cracks also immediately beneath

started

the sleeve.

became more extensive. This in this area. Such a caused a reduction of the concrete strength in the form of a gradually decreasing reduction appeared directly slope of the curve. these cracks

-147-

By the

time

more gap elements of over by an area end the deflection the load of the the

reached

a closed load was

status,

a greater i. e. This of was the

distribution distribution accompanied sleeve Thus yield the

transferred area of of both the contact

obtained, solid. and width found the

a larger increase reflecting and its

the the weak

concrete length concrete with found

beneath. moved Each smaller of the

loaded into of of

area

sleeve

steadily application increment nonlinear until

crushed

concrete caused

beneath.

increment sustained concrete model in in the load

a decreasingly as a result This the trend whole

by the and occurred. incremental values

model

behaviour failure the abrupt of

steel. For

continued range of

deflection, and no

trend change

load

was fairly two

regular deflection

between., any

increments

was found. bolt deflection the load joint in in 1, of load is,

The 210.0 This will

experimental

failure

load

of

the

Test value failure

that

KN was obtained load value

at 'a vertical 75% of ultimate

4.20mm. which

represents to as the

be referred

this

chapter.

As expected, of the

the

remote

end kept gap until at

moving it

upward, into

reducing contact equal to

the with 52% of

size the the

corresponding soffit. load. This

came

sleeve ultimate deflection

occurred this

a load gap

value

Following

closure, at the

the

rate

of

vertical

was substantially

reduced

remote

end.

The

variation

of axis, can be

the at

bolt's different that first the increase of

vertical load each zone

deflection values, is curve the shown has

along in two where the

its Figure well the

longitudinal (6.3). It

seen The with zone

plotted covers

pronounced bolt is in of

zones. contact this the values clear due

distance both

sleeve. as the the In

Naturally, load bolt's this bending, zone,

length

and value zone

increases. length

The second where of after the the the

covers

remainder are to positive. the contact

deflection bolt remote is

curvature

induced with

especially

end became in

the

sleeve.

-148-

6.2.2

Axial

Displacement

From the bending the by of

start the

of bolt.

loading,

the

induced the at shown the in

moment bolt top.

caused

an elastic at

As a result, in tension

was in This

compression is demonstrated From

bottom the

edge while

displacement it can are be

contours seen and The line

Figure negative level line the at

(6.4). and of the negative

this

figure, deflections centreline, works lines

that

axial the

positive bolt's

below

above contour

the

respectively. as it a mirror

centreline contour

almost below

reflecting it.

to positive

ones above

Figure loaded values.


a) All

shows the variation of the axial deflection at the diameter for different load end down the bolt's vertical From this figure, the following remarks can be made:
curves that have the the axial form of an inclined varies straight almost Line. linearly This down

(6.5)

shows the

displacement of the bolt.

vertical

diameter

b) Up to 20% of the ultimate

the ratio between both maximum displacement is almost unity. positive and negative values This indicates that the bolt's cross section remained almost load increase, On further the negative plane under loading. started to the to increase at a higher of rate. the This can be spring force gradual shift from the loaded end.

load,

deflections attributed concentration


6.2.3 Lateral

Displacement

Under loading, Lateral

the bolt

displacement

shank experienced a lateral loaded contours of the bolt's

displacement.

load are shown in Figure (6.6). the ultimate is no lateral there displacement can be seen that where the bolt's This is due to elements are in contact with the sleeve.

end at 50% of it From this figure,

-149-

the movement restriction region. Due to the Poisson

provided effect,

by the deformed the lateral flow

sleeve values

in this the

of the bolt's at Compared with deflection had

material creates positive and negative deflection bottom and top right hand corners, respectively. deflections, the vertical the lateral and axial very 6.2.4 small values. and Strain element region strains end. Distributions

Stress

Calculated elastic plastic loaded in

stresses at integration points were in the load, where local up to 60% of the ultimate to form in the bottom elements of the started (6.7) where shows the principal the length of a stress distribution

Figure plots

is directly vector figure, it can be to the stress value. From this proportional in most to the Z direction seen that stress vectors are parallel bending. Tensile and of the bolt shank indicating a uniform vector compressive stresses have been developed along the length of the top and bottom edges, respectively. As expected, high compressive the elements in contact with the sleeve. demonstrates the existence The figure clearly of a transition between the top and bottom edges close to the zone in stresses loaded end. stresses in terms shows the longitudinal stress distribution load. The of contour lines in the YZ plane at 50% of the ultimate is notable. of the stress constancy contours along the bolt in the stress pattern However, a deviation can be seen in the Figure (6.8) area close to the loaded end, where higher values of stress were found. This was expected, into the embeds itself as the bolt bearing stress. This area sleeve invert a high localised creating the load, was found to be bounded which increased by increasing by the the highly of affected concrete stress contours (6.9). as shown in Figure pattern high strains locally were concentrated The constancy elements beneath the bolt. has led to a regular strain In the XY plane, relatively at the lower right corner were found in

-150-

of the loaded

end. of Contact Area

6.3 Development In Model 1,

the computed applied

to the sleeve as the and 3-D gap elements.

load was completely transferred sum of the spring forces in the closed 2-D As the loading increased, more 2-D and 3-D

both the thus increasing gap elements reached a closed status length Due to the surface and width of the contact area. the contact area was of semistatus of shape. Using computed displacement values, elliptical curves gap elements and symmetry, Figure (6.10) shows best fitted curvature and sleeve, drawn increase
From this area

of both bolt

to

represent of loading.
figure, it

the

development

of

contact

area

with

the

can

be seen in the most with against under length the

that early

the

width of

of

the

contact This at the the the by the a Z of a

increased continued end, became of

rapidly until

stages sleeve's In

loading. invert,

increase loaded bolt

of the

the bolt.

came in well sleeve increase

contact seated yielding in the

physical invert.

terms, Also,

the

sleeve was

progress continuous direction. loading, line of

loading of the

accompanied area at any in

contact

As was expected, occurred symmetry. unchanged at the initial a gap the

maximum depth, contact

stage

edge which became closed,

represents its status

Once until

element

remained

ultimate

load

was reached.

6.4 The Sleeve 6.4.1 Sleeve Deformation by at the loaded end was much affected by a This was accompanied concentration. deformation in the area close to this region. section the progress of sleeve at the deformation loaded at Sleeve elements

The sleeve's the Figure different high noticeable

cross stress

sleeve (6.11) shows load

values.

end were

-151-

severely

distorted

at

the

late

stages

of

loading. thickness.

This

was

demonstrated (6.12)

by the reduction shows the

of their variation

original of the

sleeve vertical for Model 1 along the edge of symmetry, i. e. at x= deflection 0.0mm. In this figure, at load values equal to curves are plotted it is clear (6.3). those adopted in Figure From both figures, every deflection. contact,
Figures the 2,

Figure

that

two tied At

nodes have almost

the same value

of vertical in

nodes,

the sleeve
(6.13) and

where bolt and sleeve had insignificant vertical


show vertical concrete plotted at the

were no longer deflection.

and (6.14) the

displacement elements 50% of the of

contours model

for 1 and

sleeve

surrounding were

respectively. loads.

These

corresponding consistency takes line of

ultimate

From these In Model bolt's Model sides 2, 1,

contours, the

displacement of lies

can be seen. place at the In both

maximum value corner which deflection

displacement on values the are

bottom the of lying

symmetry. equal their loading, sleeve combined at

vertical the at sleeve's this

almost with of the the

vertical At the

centreline later stages beneath to

maximum values the and deflection close of to

centreline. at

rate the line

increased of

nodes

symmetry. zones in

This this

was due area.

effect

highly-stressed

In

both

models, values vertical

on

proceeding gradually values

away until

from they the

the

sleeve,

the

deflection Also, the

decrease deflection

become a minimum. joint level were

above

negligible.

Figures the 2,

(6.15)

and

(6.16)

show lateral concrete plotted concrete lateral X axis. sleeve at

displacement elements 50% of of the the

contours models

for 1 and

sleeve

and the

surrounding were of

respectively. loads.

These Expansion

corresponding in model values to pulls the the 1

ultimate is

beneath deflections.

bolt

reflected found

by the close to

positive the at

Negative attributed which

were force

This lower

can

be

concentration

the

elements

-152-

side bolt)

of to

sleeve

downward allowing its adopt a line of reduced the vertical line

nodes

(unconnected and thus

to

the move

curvature

laterally

towards

of symmetry.

a noticeable concrete expansion beneath the sleeve Due was found at both sides of the sleeve's vertical centreline. to the existence free vertical of the right-hand edge, sleeve bottom nodes tended to move laterally towards this edge, creating larger values towards region. Sleeve Yield Area
can be defined than the in the high the as the assumed load elements Figure the the

In Model 2,

of

expansion at the

in

this

expansion, pulled at this 6.4.2

nodes

sleeve's centreline

As a result region. of this horizontal centreline were creating some contraction

the vertical

A sleeve computed sleeve strains end at

yield strain material. started relatively of

element is

element yield

at which strain of

larger Due to

concentration, close to the

plastic loaded the

to

develop low load

values. area,

(6.17) at

shows different

development load yield stress area load is values. area

the

sleeve

yield

shown marked, the in line width.

Closing increases in the

more 3-D gap elements, in depth as well it as

bounding Due to that at the the

the the

spread always

sleeve than

elements, the contact

was found area obtained

yield same

larger

value.

for model 1, at 50% of the principal stress contours load, are shown in Figure (6.18). The stress ultimate contours have a fairly regular pattern with the highest compressive stress the values occurring at the sleeve loaded end. By increasing zone was found to move away from the edge of symmetry. This may be attributed to the closure of more gap elements across the sleeve's curved surface and the formation of weak concrete zones close to that edge. stressed load, the most highly

Sleeve

-153-

1. Up to the ultimate tensile

loads,

all

in their stress insignificant compressive in the YZ plane.


2. In Model attached Then values the at 1, to the the

increasing had a gradually legs lying in the XY plane while stresses were found in those lying

links

maximum values plane of

occurred i. e.

where the

the

members were of links. minimum as at the

symmetry, gradually members.

mid-span it reached expected place

stress the

decreased rightmost of

until This nodes

was took

maximum deflection located vertically

steel the

links bolt.

those

below

3. It

was expected that levels, the different found in links

there i. e. closer results,

be

down be a stress variation stresses with larger values would level. to the bolt However, the would for Model 1,

the suggest that levels below the maximum stress values obtained at successive bolt level, decrease only slowly. This was due to the tendency in the column along the model's symmetry of concrete splitting obtained numerical plane. 4. From the developed centreline, early the highest stages of loading, stresses were in links (a) and (b) of Model 2 at the vertical bolt higher in link (a). On with slightly values centreline, the value of stresses

proceeding away from this decreased for both links. 5. Following in Model increased connected centreline. developed

the expansion trend of concrete 2, the stresses in lower links, notably to the This stress, at their edge elements to vertical edge of can be attributed which caused in this area. a

beneath links

the (b)

sleeve and (c) those column of in

especially symmetry, i. e. the the

accumulation increase substantial

number of cracks

-155-

in the highly stressed zone. At and deformation the early local stages of loading, cracks were discontinuous, deflection. On causing no significant effect on the elastic stresses further loading, they numbers resulting In the XY face, to develop and propagate started in an increase of the bolt's deflection in large rate.

internal

in cracks were initiated almost vertically With further centreline. elements close to the bolt's vertical increase in load, new cracks appeared in adjacent elements. These cracks were found to be at an inclined angle to that vertical centreline. the YZ face, concrete stabilised in their predicted
6.6.2

This

was accompanied to

by the

formation

penetrating

a distance

cover. In the final stages of in the highly-stressed region

equal loading,

of cracks in to half of the

predicted cracks increase and no further

In both models, no cracks were numbers was observed. in concrete elements located above the joint level.
Crushing

Concrete

Below strong

the

joint

level, on its

concrete resistance that the

crushing to the

has sleeve of of the stress. were first

particularly The

influence results to to

deformation. loaded This contact to

numerical subjected crushing the sleeve

showed

region state

end was helped with be

a wholly initiate in this did place crushed increased in

compressive the elements

which the the

in

region. so at at

Although 25% of

element load, the

completely of crushing

crushed took the It

ultimate

onset load edge in the

much lower area under in

value. the depth

As the deformed but

applied sleeve

increased, developed. XY plane propagated models. This

not

only

vertically beneath the for

as well. up to length

The crushed a depth is of

zone immediately 40.0mm in to the plain the

sleeve both

Z direction cover.

equal

concrete

The spalling

of

phenomena created found at this surface.

concrete on the surface by the complete crushing In testing, concrete

can of

be

seen as

the

concrete

elements

spalling

was clearly

-157-

observed

in the region

immediately

beneath

the bolt's

level.

The

in a localised results numerical suggest that spalling occurred in the XY face. level Area of spalling area below the bolt increased with the load increase. However, the associated outward deflections by the upper limits laid by were always controlled back plate. the assumed movement of the bracket's Concrete nodes located Thus, at z< -40.0mm were confined by the steel links. much smaller outward deflections were computed at these nodes. 6.6.3 Stress Distribution
beneath bolt shank. with the loaded by the are

Concrete bearing shown The It of

located the

end

was in

stressed the in of at

Stress in

contours the

XY plane Figure the the

side-by-side

those the

YZ plane stresses been broken the

(6.23). elements. vertical end, the

contours is clear of

represent that

equivalent has not

continuity

edge stress Other above Also

symmetry. values

On proceeding gradually

away until

from they

loaded

decrease of the level stress

become those

a minimum. which are

parts the

concrete proved values

model, to have were the

especially insignificant at

joint

stress

values. at

minimal

found X axis.

elements

located

distance

50.0mm or more below

The whole of the load by bearing. concrete principal equivalent stresses way to

applied As

to the bolt

was transferred

to the

a result, compressive and tensile level in an were developed beneath the joint in an indirect that obtained test. splitting flow inside the concrete solid at an

The compressive inclined angle, the sleeve as stresses

stresses with

maximum values at the elements connected to (6.24). tensile The transverse shown in Figure

for the development and propagation were responsible of However, the adequately cracks in the concrete solid. confined concrete prevented the splitting of the concrete solid, even at load. This fact was numerically the ultimate supported by the development all of axial tensile stresses in the steel links during load stages.

-158-

6.7 Assessment of models


A numerical behaviour is model can be with However, a numerical considered both the reliable expected if its predicted

consistent values. that

and experimentally should assumes previous was given. be made due a perfect

predetermined to the fact and

some allowance model always In the

structure the

homogeneous of the is

materials. numerical made of the

sections, In this

interpretation

results models'

section,

an assessment

accuracy.

6.7.1

Ultimate

Loads
maximum loads were modes. bolt's of the for both to

Once the the the

experimental main

were

reached in 1, in

models, predict vertical

models'

elements failure in the

examined In Model

an attempt the the average XY face this the

corresponding obtained

stress

elements 210.0 bolt

was 496.2 to 0.7 the of

N/mm2 at reduced the which As the bolt's is

a maximum load cross section at

KN. Applying thread rise the to where a stress

value area is

cross only

section

gives than

of

708.85

N/mm2 value. for the of

6.9% higher shank at its was not thread in

obtained in Model

experimental 2, a value

bolt stress

modelled could both not

shear the and

be obtained. revealed that beneath steel above

Examination

concrete crushed the in

elements concrete axial the of

models

weak cracked the sleeve. found the at the

zones

were stresses

developed in From the the

However, to be

tensile

links

were

elastic having

region. a joint

findings,

possibility experimental

concrete out for both

failure models.

maximum loads

was ruled

After to on

carrying models a

out to

the

above

comparison, the of loads at

further which the

load they

was applied would of fail.

both

determine value

reaching in

load

315. OKN, and The links the

extent could

concrete no longer

damage

Model any At of

1 was load

obvious

model

accommodate was 8.20mm. stress values

increase. steel

maximum vertical (a), (b) N/mm2, and (c)

deflection had maximum

failure,

348.0,331.4

and 298.2

respectively.

-159-

In

Model

2, was the

failure

was

obtained by the

at

a load

value of of

of weak cracks

273.0

KN.

Failure zone at the free

characterised symmetry edge steel plane and

development propagation side.

concrete towards was

and the the column up to

column in the

No plastic

strain

developed

links

failure.

6.7.2

Deflections
the are load-vertical (6.25). deflection The former in is and smaller a was

Both curves

experimental shown for

and

numerical in Figure

comparison of both start between

obtained (3.4). difference deflections, the the entire

as the Since in

average the early

T1 curves of the

shown earlier there

Figure clear

loading

values the

experimental being

numerical throughout to

numerical history.

deflection This

loading

difference

can be attributed

following

reasons:

1. Occurrence

under the bolt shank and within the sleeve as soon as the load was applied. This settlement the finite element analysis, which was not modelled within accounts for the early divergence of the curves. of grout settlement
The numerical the face. deflections were ones were represents At higher face computed measured half loads, the at at the column face

2.

while the

experimental This back outside value plate. the

10.0mm away from thickness of the of

bracket's the bolt

shear

deformation for the

column as the

accounts is

curves'

progressive

divergence

maximum load

approached.

Up to

a load

value to to

of

200.0 the

KN,

the

numerical one. the of Then

deflection the

curve

remained them

parallel

experimental due The to

gap between in the end

started

increase

rapid the

increase

experimental contributed

deflection. much to this

yield

bolt's

threaded increase.

experimental

deflection

-160-

The vertical of the gap

deflection,

at end.

the bolt's

remote end, results

had not

been

measured experimentally, at this provided


Although obtained magnitude. smaller. load

leaving

in question

the possible

closing

The numerical question.


has axial at that face a

successfully

an answer to this
the vertical

deflection the deflections

similar deflections

trend

to

that in much the

experimentally, The computed The only at

differ centre is while induced had rate a are that it

the

bolt's be offered

explanation the of column

can in the

was applied

model, The face

had an moment bigger of the at

eccentricity created contribution bolt's the were last pullout by

value this in

60mm in at pullout increased

the the

test. column tendency. by the

eccentricity the bolt's

The

was later of for could loading. the not

bolt relatively in the

thread

yield

stages

As a result, axial deflection in

high the test. due

values Load to the

recorded

eccentricity limitation of

be

included

model

the

ANSYS program.

The numerically edge have very below with the joint

obtained small level

lateral

deflections

However, their values. is positive. This is experimentally.


at section results area stages. the loaded similar

at the column's far trend of expansion in a good agreement

the those obtained


cross to an the of section ovoid numerical sleeve

The sleeve the tests. model Also

end has to that

been

deformed in about with agree loads.

in the the the very

obtained

provided and its

information contact area

development bolt well at with

yield load

intermediate those found

The maximum values at the ultimate

experimentally

6.7.3

Stresses

and Strains the development 60% of these

The

numerical in

strains ultimate

results the bolt

suggested shank after

of

load.

on reaching

reaching load, the ultimate

plastic the joint were

strains

-161-

only portion

limited of the of

to

the bolt

top shank

and

bottom

edges

while In most the axes.

the

central the of

remained testing

elastic. revealed

tests,

examination some plastic

the

bolts about

after their

occurrence

bending

longitudinal

in the steel links strains were not measured, no However, comparison could be made with the numerical results. tensile indicated the elastic stresses computed in the links Since axial development of a lateral
which started

force
in the

beneath
highly

the sleeve.
stressed regions to when the cause with a

The cracks local

concrete

strength of

was exceeded the It joint. is worth

were is

insufficient in compliance out as the that

numerical experimental could covered have those not

collapse findings. be of

This

the

pointing

these

cracks

monitored these

experimentally regions. Crushing which after

steel of

brackets concrete with

most

and spalling correspond

been

predicted

in

areas

reasonably removal.

observed

experimentally

the

bracket's

-162-

?-

=
0

ffl

90)

10 WW

m eO v c

wwa
=dU

UU

to

to a) (k)

a G

0! mW ca OO UH

OO 'C G.

a1 E 0 t4

'.o

14
pG W CC 06

I
M Fa4

-163-

C 0

z u 0 0 J

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

DEFLECTION (mm)

FIGURE (6.2)

: PREDICTED LOAD-DEFLECTION RESPONSE AT THE LOADED END OF THE BOLT.

-164-

E-4

H V W

I
H w

05

(ww

NO 11D31d30

1d 1183A

-165-

Positive Negative

values values

Bolt Bolt -

in tension in compression

I-0.627mm H=0.450mm G-0.273mm F-0.097mm E- -0.087mm D- -0.275mm C- -0.461mm B- -0.648mm A" -0.835mm

FIGURE

(6.4)

: BOLT AXIAL ULTIMATE.

DEFLECTION LOAD_
0 0

CONTOURS AT 50% OF THE

0251

or

intimste ultferote ulttirte ultlnmts

load load load load o 0 CD

501 of + 751 of

X 1001 of

w I
-3.00 -2.00 CoeVression -1.00

IVA
00

Tension
1.00 2.00 3.00

J U Q

1L
AXIAL

d=j
EEFLECT I ON (mm l

FIGURE (6.5)

: VARIATION OF THE AXIAL DEFLECTION AT THE LOADED END DOWN THE BOLT'S VERTICAL DIAMETER.

-166-

Positive Negative

values values

diameter from Moving the vertical away = diameter Moving the towards vertical = A = -0.55E-2mm

B = -0.40E-Zmm C = 0.90E-3mm D = 0.10E-2man


E = 0.12E-2m m

F =

0.13E-2mn

FIGURE (6.6)

END LOADED THE AT CONTOURS DEFLECTION LATERAL : AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

IF7

J--

It 4E' .4,

Arrow length

represents

stress

magnitude.

FIGURE (6.7)

: PRINCIPAL STRESSDISTRIBUTION FOR THE BOLT


SPANK AT 502! O TAP. 111. TTMATF 1.nAn_

-167-

Positive Negative

values values

= Tensile stress - compressive stress

A- -550.0 N2 B--500.0N/mm 2 /f C- -450.0 N2 D- -350.0 N/ E -250.0 N, F- -100.0 N 250.0 N/ G350.0 N, k n2 H450.0 N/1mm I-

FIGURE (6.8)

: LONGITUDINAL STRESS DISTRIBUTION

FOR THE BOLT

SHANK AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

Positive Negative

values values

Bolt = Bolt =

in tension in compression

A- -2.2E-3 B= -1.5E-3 C- -1.0E-3 D- -0.5E-4 E-0.5E-4 F-1.0E-3. G-2.0E-3

FIGURE (6.9)

: LONGITUDINAL STRAIN DISTRIBUTION

FOR THE BOLT

SHANK AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-168-

0 C

I
I 1

of
of of

ultimate
ultimate ultimate ultimate

load
load load load

01 of

Ui
X

J O

7. nn WIDTH MEASLRED AL(TG THE SLEEVE CI EFENCE (mm)

FIGURE (6.10)

: PREDICTED CONTACT AREAS BETWEEN THE BOLT AND THE SLEEVE AT DIFFERENT LOAD VALUES.

-169-

25% of the ultimate

load

the

ultimate

1rAri

FIGURE (6.11)

: DEFORMATION OF THE SLEEVE'S CROSS SECTION AT THE

LOADEDEND FOR DIFFERENT LOAD VALUES.

-170-

At the ultimate

load

FIGURE (6.11)

(CONTINUED)

-171-

O O O

w a
N

"

a w W 0
N Q H I

N '-4 t0

H W

os
(ww NO 11: )31d30 1b I LUBA

-172-

A= B= C= D= E= F=

-2.00mm -1.80mm -1.60mm -1.40mm -1.00mm -0.80mm

FIGURE (6.13)

: VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT CONTOURSAT THE XY PLANE FOR MODEL 1 AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

A= -1.90mm B= -1.70mm C=-1.40mm D= -1.10tnn E_ -0.80mm F= -0.50mm

FIGURE (6.14)

: VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT CONTOURSAT THE XY PLANE FOR MODEL 2 AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-173-

A= -0.075m B= -0.050mm C=0.150mm D=0.200mm E=0.250mm

FIGURE (6.15)

: LATERAL DISPLACEMENT CONTOURSAT THE XY PLANE FOR MODEL 1 AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

A=
B=

-0.30mm
-0.20mm

C= -0. l0Hml D=0.25mm E=0.35tmn

FIGURE (6.16)

: LATERAL DISPLACEMENT CONTOURSAT THE XY PLANE FOR MODEL 2 AT 50% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-174-

Yield

element

50% of the ultimate

load

75% of the ultimate

load

At the ultimate

load

FIGURE (6.17)

OF THE PREDICTED SLEEVE YIELD AREA. : DEVELOPMENT

-175-

As BCDEF-

150.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0

N/ian2 N/ 2 N/n2 N/nm, N/'mm

FIGURE (6.18)

STRESSCONTOURS AT 50% OF THE : SLEEVE COMPRESSIVE


ULTIMATE LOAD.

-176-

103 l0 US

330

4U.

Steeve

Z! I! c__

170 -

Unk a

'167 I41

Unk b

178

94

161

--4
IL Column

Lank c

Stresses

in N/tiWat

100% failure 75Y. failure 50% f allure

load load load

FIGURE

(6.19)

: PREDICTED LINKS

AXIAL

TENSILE

STRESSES

IN

THE STEEL t. nan_

OF MODEL 1 UP TO THE ULTIMATE

-177-

113 IU

MS lL5 IU

11.5

45

Steeve

155

in

Link a

54

Lek b

141

us

90

Unk c
. CotuMn

Stresses

in N/mmeat

100% failure 75X facture 50% failure

load load load

FIGURE (6.20)

: PREDICTED AXIAL TENSILE STRESSES IN THE STEEL LINKS OF MODEL 2 UP TO THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-178-

to

TI to 0
a,

WN
mCC

0 Chi C i6 ""+ y .. ( I do+ w y CL)

nsC y cn". + u

w 0
fop

uo
A 4) U
1

VNClo

333 iA to 0 yy41 CCC 07


.4 WWW

01

rir x::
XN 0 a) 41
w 0 w x a 0 a w w 0

1;

CL) fi
w 0

1-4 N

W C9 M L.

-179-

-o M 0 r-I
a 4J 41

xN
to 0 rf 41

>-

41 rl
J-1

I"

z H
0 1)

t-t LL

-180-

V ra

a, jJ
10

1
W Iz H N W Z O N A W N

a
a
Ali
i .x

COP

0 Ln
X K "X aC

a 0

0 0

N N O W 0 H 1.

I I

>1 II
x

aP

-181-

b
x

CL)

LLI
\\.
K

i1
__

xx

Xx

10 ID 0 r-q a) 41

41 CU
0
COP

x J

X
77

x
. -.

f 'c aC
C

X k
X c X

i+.

-182-

A= 15.0 N/mm2 Bm 25.0 N/mm2


C= 35.0 N/mm2

Dm EFGH-

40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0

N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm

AA 777,

YY

FIGURE (6.23)

: SURFACE COMPRESSIVE STRESS CONTOURSOF THE CONCRETE SOLID OF MODEL 1 AT 25% OF THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-183-

"

L`

Arrow length

represents

stress

magnitude.

FIGURE (6 24)

: PRINCIPAL

STRESS DISTRIBUTION

AT THE COLUMN FACE

OF MODEL 1.

-184-

z
O O J

a a

0.00

3.00

6.00

9.00

12.00

15.00

DEFLECTION

(mm)

FIGURE (6.25)

: COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS AT THE LOADED END.

-185-

CHAPTER SEVEN

NUMERICAL

AND EXPERIMENTAL EFFECT ON A SINGLE

STUDY OF C(X CRETE STRENGTH BOLTED JOINT

7.1 Introduction almost all the tests joints was governed by In in chapter 3, the failure

reported shear

of

the Although of bolts. yielding tests showed no sign that concrete failure was imminent, if the had been much lower such failure might have concrete strength been possible. Also, the strong presence of the steel links below the joint level back is and plates the high bracket's argument prevented by the findings confinement this type of by the provided This of failure.

the numerical analyses in sustaining which showed the effectiveness of the steel links the tensile stresses that could not be sustained by the concrete supported alone. concrete carrying In this strength capacity chapter, to explore an attempt and its on the confinement and failure mode is reported. 3, to was developed joint up to failure. less steel links those the effect of joint's load-

A numerical model, model behaviour of a single-bolted a weaker concrete material

anticipate In this was employed. obtained

the model, A earlier on

with

comparison of the numerical results with from Model 1 was made to clarify the role the joint components' behaviour.
Following single-bolted confinement results Model are 3 is the numerical joints upon the to joint's in view this of the analysis, investigate failure chapter. three

of concrete

strength

tests the mode.

were

carried of of

out

on

influence Details

concrete tests and of

presented given in

Finally, test

an assessment results.

corresponding

-186-

2. Values

of

3.0

2 N/mm and 250.0

N/mm

were stress

tensile concrete strength links, respectively. Figure uniaxial concrete (7.2) the

and yield

assumed for the for mild steel

shows

proposed

concrete elements'

behaviour. volume

curve for stress-strain As in model 1, only 0.01% of

the the

was used as smeared reinforcing had the same in the x, Y and z directions. This material material but that with a much reduced of concrete curve as stress-strain Material nonlinearity reaching the crushing stress. slope after for all joint components was considered in the analysis. set for bond was

limits and boundary conditions, same convergence Model 1, were used in the present model. Also, perfect The assumed between steel 7.3 Numerical
The basic section. that

and concrete.

Results
the discussed are geometry in this twice and

results Load

of values

numerical

analysis the to

are

used the

throughout due

discussion in

obtained

from

analysis

symmetry

loading.

7.3.1 As for

Ultimate

Load

by forcing the model 1, the load was applied incrementally displacement. bolt nodes at the XY face to have the same vertical The computed forces at these nodes were added together at the end This of load was completely to the sleeve as the sum of the transferred forces in the closed gap elements. From load value of 116.0 KN and onwards, computed load increments showed a marked decrease in increment at the loaded value for the same applied displacement step get corresponding applied the displacement end. As a result, load steps. As the vertical following increment was reduced in the displacement value exceeded each load to the load.

-188-

4.0mm, the model became unstable and a converged solution could damage was extending At this not be achieved. stage, concrete level. Thus joint over a substantial area beneath the joint failure value 7.3.2 was assumed and the was taken as 122.0 KN. The Bolt (7.3) Similar early shows the stages load-deflection loading. of curve up to the ultimate had its maximum stiffness at of sleeve elements, loaded end job was terminated. Maximum load

Figure load. the

to model 1, the joint of

The yield

concrete elements in the region caused a gradual decrease in stiffness up to the joint failure. A marked change in the slope was obtained at a load value of 116.0 KN. This was a direct result of having a weak cracking and crushing crushed concrete zone at the column face, end kept the load.
the bolt

i. e. the XY plane. it until of 93% of

The bolt's

remote

came in touch with the joint's ultimate


From the It the initial to

moving upward consistently sleeve soffit at a load value

load, behave

experienced until the strain

an elastic load reached

bending. 65% of in the the in

continued joint's

elastically load.

ultimate bolt's load, the the top

Then plastic at its of bottom plasticity

initiated

compressed ultimate the

elements existence

edge. was

On reaching limited only

zone of

and bottom

edges.

The average vertical loaded end was stress of the bolt at its 2 found to be 400.0 N/mm at failure. This value is much less than the specified ultimate stress for the high tensile steel material even if it were applied on the threaded reduced section of the bolt. This finding case, suggests could that the joint bolt failure particular not be a direct mode, in this shear failure.

-189-

7.3.3

Steel

Links links level in the model, one located

Three the

steel

were provided

above

while the remaining (7.4) shows the development of axial load steps. The plotted at different computed stresses developed in their loading. joint, Axial

joint

two were below it. Figure in the steel links stresses values are the average of

Tensile at adjacent stresses elements. were legs in the XY plane from the early stages of links were in the elastic link load when the first range up below the

stresses in all to 70% of the joint's ultimate i. e. link (b)

86% of the to yield. On reaching started joint's load, link (c) also reached its yield stress. As ultimate (b) continued to behave plastically link the load was increased, in stress in the mid-span area. without much increase values However, link (c) stress an obvious redistribution weak cracked rapid progress loading.
7.3.4

had a stress increase in a reduction

redistribution its rightmost at

which its

resulted

in was This

member. This mid-span.

accompanied with of

in the stress

stress

concrete towards

was mainly due to the existence of a mid-span and its zone away from the link the free column edge at the last stages of

The Concrete

Solid

As was expected, concrete behaviour was the governing behaviour. joint (7.5) the overall Figure shows the crushing propagation at different load values. beneath

factor crack

in and

Inclined

cracks

the sleeve. With started at an early stages of loading increasing both downwards and load, they extended simultaneously towards the free column edge. This crack resulted in a continued in the region of cracks. The stage was stress redistribution reached, redistribution critical progress values at 95% of could and the not joint's maintain ultimate the stress crack load, level when such below the to

therefore

extension

continued

and propagated towards the column edge. At this stage, had to be performed before as many as 15 iterations solution

-190-

joint This led to the inevitable was achieved. convergence failure, failure. Just before some cracks appeared below the lower steel link. At the last and extended stages to of loading, a depth of cracks appeared in the column side in the 30mm. Cracks also existed however, they were not spread over in the region mainly concentrated

level, region above the joint They were a large region. attached
Concrete connected developed direction.

to the plane
crushing to the

of symmetry.
at a very As the load XY face early was as stage in the elements crushing in the Z

started sleeve. in

increased, well as

vertically

7.4 Comparison with Load-vertical

model 1 from both models are obtained it can be seen that both From this figure, stiffness same initial at very low loads. curves pronounced failure, giving a

deflection

shown in Figure (7.6). curves had almost the Then Model 3 nonlinear

more rapidly, reflecting softens behaviour. This trend continued up to gap between 4.0mm, Model 3 predicted increasing value of for Model 1. the

rise to a steadily deflection value of of the corresponding The trend order started of and values those

two curves. At a load value of 60%

obtained

outward displacements for Model 1. However,

were in concrete

the

same the

spalling

end of below the joint

at an earlier loading. Also level

load and became more extensive the concrete had higher values particularly close to the free

towards

of expansion column edge.

Although

plastic

strains

in the bolt load

occur at much earlier the higher deflection the same load value.

to they started were small, than that in Model 1. This is due to by the bolt shank in Model 3 at

experienced

-191-

The depth

less in Model 3 than area was slightly to the in Model 1 at the same load value. This can be attributed concrete damage which occurred at early load stages at and close the sleeve deflection to the XY face. This damage accelerated at of the contact the loaded end, allowing the bolt delaying to bend with the propagation a smaller of the radius contact

of

curvature and thus area in the Z direction.


In the case links the

of weak concrete, below same to the load joint value.

the level The rate stress, reach steel at

developed had higher low of

tensile values

forces than

in

the

steel 1 for

in model strength in

concrete this stress

tensile

contributed addition links contrast found the to link in to the to

the low

increased yield model 1, the

development.

the

the plasticity link

small at

diameter an early joint

made both stage. level stress In was in

present model

above

the

be highly at joint this

stressed point

its

mid-span. to

The axial its

was found its ultimate

be 46% of

yield

stress

when the

reached

load.

Concrete models. extensive the joint

in

the

loaded

end region

was highly

stressed

in

both

However, level

concrete cracking and crushing in Model 3. They also appeared in new areas, and at the column side. Work

were more both above

7.5 Experimental

load, the concrete in the Under the application of a concentrated is confined level the developed region below the joint against bursting Another contribution stresses by the column steel links. to this confinement is provided by the bracket's back plate region. on the joint's out on which becomes compressed against examine the concrete load and failure ultimate To single-bolted joints. the column face at this confinement mode, three joints effect tests

were carried

The tested

were similar

to the joint

-192-

joints modelled above, however, were provided with different degrees of confinement (low, medium and high) at the bracketis given of the description In this section, column interface. the preparation This is followed by a and testing of the joints. discussion findings. For convenience, of the main experimental a letter used to define a test refers to one of the above degrees low degree of that of confinement, e. g. Test L indicates confinement 7.5.1 is employed.

Test Specimens and Hardware specimen was a reinforced concrete column The main section and 1.00m height. of 300mm

Each test square

cross

reinforcement consisted of four bright steel diameter while the links had a 6mmdiameter.
Care level, Model steel was taken to ensure at the that links, above spacings

vertical bars of 16mmnominal

and to for

below match the

the

joint in

were 3.

placed

specified spacing

those remaining

A 150mm vertical The sleeve carefully. at each

was adopted 210mm from timber sleeve.

links.

location, A solid end of

the

specimen was screwed was to of the

top, to

was also the the

marked mould

dowel This

wooden sleeve

the

secure test (7.8).

position details

during of

casting.

Dimensions are given in

specimen

with

reinforcement

Figure

As

in

the

test

setup in the this

described test. For

in

Chapter reason, which

2,

the holes

same mounting were drilled with the

frame and

was used tapped in top. to

this bars holes in

main

column set of

were

flush the

specimen bottom

A similar the main

was made at during

specimen thus

secure

bars

position of

casting,

maintaining

a uniform

concrete

cover

40mm.

In

all

three 2.

tests,

the to

bolts those

and sleeves used in the

were tests

identical reported

in in

geometry Chapter steel

and material Two loading together.

brackets Brackets

plates

were made by welding 15mm mild were designed to have an ultimate

-193-

capacity

larger

than

that

of

the

bolt.

Horizontal

welds were also designed The transducers A 15mm transducer its

to prevent

any premature were as follows: vertically

and vertical joint failure.

used in each test was positioned

above the bolt

with

arm compressed against measure the bolt's vertical Five transducers

the top of the back plate. deflection.

This was to

with

strokes

of

15mm were mounted on each side

of the column to measure the concrete sideway movement. They were vertically spaced in a such a way that the top three transducers level and the steel links correspond to the sleeve's centreline immediately a vertical transducers. above and below this level. spacing of 60mm was adopted Below these transducers, between the two remaining

All

transducers

were

calibrated fixed with and

independently purpose-made fixed to the

using

a calibration channels frame. of No the

micrometer. which remote were fixing

They were later

aluminium mounting settlement

connected

was used, holders.

to minimise

any initial

transducers'

7.5.2

Concrete

Mix Design mean strength of 30.0 cement, 5mm down fine

mix was designed to give a target 7 days. It was white Portland N/mm2 after Concrete

10mm and 20mm coarse aggregate in the ratio 1: 1.59 aggregate, 0.89 : 1.79, with a water/cement ratio of 0.485. Six 100mm cubes with each specimen as control specimens. The concrete was cast in a wooden mould placed horizontally on a vibrating table. to level Its surface was trowelled After after casting. were cast three days, positioned air-cured from specimen was stripped in the rig. The specimens vertically testing. until each the mould and and cubes were

-194-

7.5.3

Cube Testing

of the concrete cubes at an age was planned to test the first by another cube in the of three days. This was to be followed following day and so on, until the target strength of 30.0 N/mm2 It the test Once this value was obtained, was achieved. out in the same day. For Test L, the characteristic
value Tests was found to be 30.5 N/mm2 while it was 33.0 M and H.

was carried strength


N/mm2 for

7.5.4

Details
to

of Confinement
minimise to the spall concrete off confinement under the shown loading, bracket's in Figure uniform in two test steel L and to

In

order the

allow

concrete were face

plates and These

3.0mm thick the plates the the column

introduced at each

between side to as

back

plate

(7.9).

worked

as packing and concrete. could slide

create

an almost

gap between so that vertical the In for plates welding

bracket brackets In

The plates easily adding at of of 0.2 without these the

had smooth affecting plates

surfaces their

movement. frictional this the were case, static

addition,

helped

reducing interface.

force only

developed a value

bracket-column

was obtained The

experimentally back by the

coefficient to eliminate

friction. any curvature

brackets' produced

machined

process. At the time of test preparation, similar 6m to round that steel bars

with

250.0

N/mm2 yield

stress,

assumed in

model

a 3,

were not

As a result, commercially available. steel with higher tests carried yield stress had to be used. From simple tensile stress was found to be out on these 6mm bars, the value of yield in the range of 440-460 N/mm2, i. e. 80% higher than the required value. One way of section overcoming the problem, was to reduce the cross bar until it yielded to at a force similar this

area of

-195-

the parent cross section had a 250.0 N/mm2 yield stress. A segment of the link was removed along the legs cross-section which crossed beneath the sleeve in the stub column. A vertical distance of 2.25mm had to be cut off to provide a satisfactory that cross-section tension, area see Figure and the (7.7). bars were subsequently tested in

if

This links would

modification below have the

was joint

only level, effect

introduced i. e. where on the

in it

the

first

and that

second they

was believed behaviour.

a noticeable

joint's

In

Test

M,

the

above

modification

of

the

steel

links'

cross

section was adopted. However, no steel packing was used between i. e. the machined back plates were the back plates and concrete, initially in direct This gave rise to contact with the concrete. a value of 0.52 for the static coefficient of friction.

In Test H, the cross section area of steel links was not reduced. thermally the back plates were left Also, unmachined and their induced curvature the maximum confinement to possible provided the The static column face below the sleeve. in this case was found to be 0.66. friction Test Procedure test from the mould, it was held and centralized on the base of the testing coefficient of

7.5.5

Once the vertically machine.

specimen was stripped

in position Insulation

board was provided under the column to ensure even stress distribution under the column's squared base in the to form a joint rig. The brackets were introduced at both column faces. A hexagonal nut was finger-tightened at each end. and mounted around the joint. positioned Loading procedure was carried out six days after casting. as soon as the top of the 40mm-thick loading plates came were with the machine's top platten. Constant load

The transducers Testing started in

contact

-196-

increments detected

of

20KN were adopted large

until

evidence then

of

yielding

was

by relatively and cracks

deflections,

they were reduced were recorded,

to 1OKN. At each stage of loading, printed were monitored.

the deflections

Load was stopped when the joints the applied could not sustain load. After testing, the bolt, sleeve, and cracked specimen were examined. 7.6 Test Results a) Failure
In Test applied patterns this side) testing, reached faces about link load shallow the of L,

Modes
load at when the load are of the the joints of the Crack In by

was stopped the in

could 200K in per

not

sustain joint. (7.10). (side

load

maximum the column

obtained faces show no visible a value the of

shown

Figure are

figure, to

and one side extent cracks of could

column crack

shown

the

development. until crack the joint

During load

be observed

180KN when a horizontal The from cracks the were column the joint at top,

appeared

on both of the

column.

a vertical i. e. At just

distance above

245mm measured located increment, angle to immediately both their

below cracks initial

level. and

the

following at a at

lengthened direction,

propagated, together

and joined

column

side.

At

a joint

load centreline

of

190KN, at both

a splitting ends of the

crack

appeared At the At

along the

the

vertical load, of was the

sleeve. to

failure and top it the

these

vertical on each the these

cracks face, joint cracks.

extended see Plate behaviour

almost (7.1). is

base

column that of

this

stage, by

clear

characterised

development

Crushing an earlier

and spalling

of concrete beneath the sleeve initiated at load of 150KN, the 3.0mm At a joint stage of loading.

-197-

faces were closed by the spalled concrete. the After bracket's zone extended removal, it was found that the spalling to a depth of 90-100mm below the sleeve soffit at both faces. plastic deformations at both ends. This was expected as the maximum load for the allowing per' bolt end was found to be 185 KN after friction interface. This load value at the bracket-column effect represents Chapter 3.
joint failed by a bolt plane with to 3. failure through noise. a joint threads failure equal

gap at both

Examining

the

bolt

shank

after

testing

revealed

large

88% of

the

bolt's

ultimate

load

reported

earlier

in

In load and load to

Test

M,

the of

shear passed a loud

at the The almost

value the per that

256 KN. The shear was end, accompanied

failure bolt reported

which

was found in Chapter

be 208 KN, is

earlier

In joint load

Test

H,

another of

typical

bolt

shear

failure gave

was obtained rise to in of

at

load of

230 KN. This bolt end.

ultimate This

load slight to the to

a failure the the bolt's bolt's of

175 KN per capacity force.

reduction increase the the bracket's upward bolt's

ultimate tensile the which

may be attributed This increase

was due force

movement centreline

confining resulted

compressive from the

towards of the

curvature

back plate.

In

Tests

column localised Also,

the removal revealed and sleeve areas, high friction crushing in shear. the bolt ends were highly distorted loads

M and H, no visible faces after brackets'

cracks

were

found.

Examining

the

existence of deformation.

The above ultimate confinement

effect plays than was originally capacity column face by the brackets, to the concrete in the critical

that the emphasise the fact role in the joint a much larger anticipated. The constraint

concrete ultimate at the

provided a significant enhancement capacity, which delayed its cracking and crushing In zone. This led to a different mode of failure.

-198-

contrast, about

there

seems to

be no definite

experimental

evidence

the dependence of joint on the concrete strength capacity from Tests M and H were generally loads obtained and ultimate to that obtained in Test 1. similar
b) Deflections

For were

the

three

tested

joints,

the

load-vertical branch a up to

deflection failure.

curves As the in the was

characterised loads took of for for the both tested

by an ascending were place, tests, brackets. brackets approached, with an the almost The are

failure deflections majority obtained obtained

considerable

increase For rate

same load steady

increment. deflection deflection

load-vertical shown in Figure

curves

(7.11).

In

Test

L, as

sudden soon as

large

deformations took

were place.

recorded A below

at

the value

column for level. column

sides concrete

cracking of 1.76mm

maximum the along shows for it both

expansion that the

occurred varies

joint the

Assuming sides shape the

deflection

linearly (7.12)

between of the stages

measurement concrete of

points,

Figure distribution

a general sides at

expansion

last

loading. were in

From this recorded value the below joint at

figure, the the level

can be seen that side. level. These The

higher deflections vertical expansion

deflections decrease crack at formed this

cracked first link

above

caused

some concrete

level.

In tests This joint

M and H, insignificant as there

concrete

expansion

were recorded. around the

was expected

were no visible

cracks

at any stage of loading.

7.7 Model Assessment Despite the fact that the bolt in Test load L reached a failure load predicted by Model 3, fact should not be used

failure in excess of the corresponding it is believed that this i. e. 52% higher,

-199-

solely follows:

to assess

the model.

The reason

for

this

can be given

as

Once a joint

value of 150KN was reached, the deterioration of the column faces was obvious. As mentioned earlier, concrete spalling at this stage closed the 3.0mm initial gap between the back plate It and column face. should be noted that after bolt load is for the frictional force, the corresponding allowing 138KN which is only 13% higher than

load

failure load. the predicted to From the numerical analysis point of view, it is not possible obtain a converged solution with such high outward deflection the already values taking concrete crushed state into account. the concrete from this load value onwards Furthermore, confining in the test, allowed each joint to carry an additional load of 50KN.
deflection presented seems that initial for all from Figure slight value the can of joint be from

Load-vertical Model figure, value of 3 are it

curves

obtained in

Test (7.13).

L and

comparison curves have

From this in the the and should contributed by the earlier, model of a be

differences

stiffness.

From load

80KN onwards, stiffness

numerical more noted

prediction decrease bolt

underestimates in its at high of taken value its

gradual that the the thread the

seen. ends had

It

yielding

threaded

much to joint the due at bolt to

remarkably last

deflection loading. into

values

experienced

stages

As was explained in the a numerical

was not software at the

account

limitation. last stages

Therefore, can not

comparison

deflection

values

be performed.

level was successfully by the above the joint predicted model at a lower load value. The model showed a tensile region in the concrete elements close to the plane of symmetry. Side cracks Cracking predicted by the at model one at side the of free the edge were also observed experimentally the However, column. experimental cracks propagated to a greater depth. At the column face, two major cracks were obtained in the test, i. e. horizontal

-200-

and

vertical

cracks.

In

contrast,

inclined The predicted towards

cracks cracks

below

the

the column side. During it was not possible the test, to check the formation of such due to the cracks in the modelled region as it was inaccessible brackets bracket's presence. After removal, most of this region was found to be crushed. It to is worth that mentioning at this stage, that a crack trend similar by the model was obtained in an earlier test predicted by the author elsewhere [21]. In this particular test, a failure joint loaded at was obtained for a four-bolted ends. spalling shows the developed cracks on the column face after bracket's removal. Plate of the sleeve ends deformation. after The testing measured (7.2) and

were predicted numerically. downwards and took diagonal paths

sleeve

extended

reported concrete one of concrete The

its

examination indication of

gave vertical

an

obvious

diameters, deflection predicted

in Test L, were 31.86 and 32.7mm giving rise of 4.86 and 5.7mm which are still comparable maximum deflection of 4.0mm.

to a net with the

7.8 Summaa from the tests, described in this chapter, that was evident failure is prominently due to the bolt shear yielding. Concrete failure i. e. minimum occurred only under certain conditions, failure this type can be As a result, concrete confinement. It conveniently The effect was found should surface prevented. concrete strength to be less susceptible that of on the than joint

ultimate

be ensured spalling

a reasonable at low loads.

anticipated. is used to obviate strength

strength it However,

The conservative model showed

by the numerical ultimate strength predicted the importance the connection of including all

-201-

components back plate proved capacity. to

in

the

analysis.

For

example,

the

modelling

of

the

would give more realistic be a critical factor for

confinement the joint's

estimate which load-carrying

-202-

Left Right

: Vertical

section

through

plane

containing

sleeve

axis.

: Face elevation.

Top Bottom A line

: Concrete

elements. elements. at the left of each vier.

: Reinforcement

of symmetry is located

FIGURE (7.1)

: FINITE

ELEMENT DISCRETISATICN

OF THE CCNCRETE

3'. 'MODEL BARS REINFORCING OF DETAILS SOLID WITH

-203-

S
+
N

Input

data

points

in

MEYS

LN

0 0 0.00

E" cI

27 IW/irm

10.00

20.00

30.00

STRAIN /

10000

FIGURE

(7.2)

: MULTILINEAR STRESS-STRAIN

IDEALISATICJN

OF THE CONCRETE THE ANALYSIS_

CURVE USED IN

C 0

_8

0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

DEFLECT 1D

(mm )

FIGURE (7.3)

: PREDICTED WAD-DEFLECTION

RESPONSE AT THE LOADED

END OF THE BOLT FOR MODEL 3.

-204-

lox I" L1

l L5 -1 'L -1

4 54

102

Unk a
a d in

I, Sleeve
834 214 0

Unk b

O Ui N

1225
143 ---=-

me
UB

Unk c I. Column Stresses in N/rsml at 100%.foilure 7S/. failure 50% f azure toad load load

-`-

FIGURE (7.4)

: PREDICTED AXIAL TENSILE STRESSES IN THE STEEL LINKS OF MODEL 3 UP TO THE ULTIMATE LOAD.

-205-

b 0 m 41

41 a, w 0

E z H
V1 CC 41

c) -z Oy "a O r y ".4 L c. ea Lb a) C+ vy 4) =c
Ga N "4

. L+ C a%0

iv

MI

- .4 La po u 0) 4) bN UO t0 4) L4 14 U

>-

Utl)co 4.) J.) 4J 333 NNN

10 to 0 4J
4J

ccc
a) ci

www
X" .. w 0

I
H W

-206-

'v io 0 a

>-

"v rt 0 W

., v

. w

-207-

D 0

0 0 J
W_

0.00

1.50

3.00

4.50

6.00

7 . 50

DEFLECTION (mm)
FIGURE (7.6) : PREDICTED LOAD-DEFLECTION CURVES FOR DIFFERENT CONCRETE STRENGTHS.

emove d area

FICJRE

(7.7)

: CROSS SECTIt

AREA REDUCTION FOR THE STEEL LINKS.

-208-

16i'

surf

bar m fetale threod

300 .n

300

I
300 wn
0 a

IKd stet{

st

ve

End amass section

teet bim vith reduced area

f
im+ rtw links

skit

Flrva4am

FIGURE (7.8)

: DIMENSIONS OF THE TEST SPECIMEN WITH DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT.

LoQcbnp

ao
3mm stee{ plates

FIGURE (7.9)

:A

SIDE VIEW SHOWING THE INITIAL BACK PLATE AND COLUId FACE IN

GAP BETWEEN THE 'TEST L'.

-209-

v 0 rm V Hl

0' fU

Va

F' v V
IL.

u d
N

WWS*Z

Rri

W A H y WWOLa

z M

04

C) r al U d LA.

-210-

z Y
0 O J

0.00

2.00

4.00 6.00 DEFLECTION

8.00 (mm)

10.00

12.00

FIGURE (7.11)

: EXPERIMENTAL VERTICAL DEFLECTIQVS FOR ALL TESTED BRACKETS.

-211-

II

IIIIII

Face (A)

III
111

li
Face (B)

E--mac 190KN =-" 195KN 200KN o--

FIGURE (7.12)

: CONCRETE TRANSVERSE EXPANSION DISTRIBUTION STAGES OF LOADING 'TEST L'.

AT THE LAST

-212-

w 0

En

ao

r-1

-2.14-

. . J .

k. .
.r

r% +'
.

; ",. ,

Vii"

PLATE (7.2)

OF DEVELOPMENT THE BY CHARACTERISED FAILURE : CONCRETE INCLINED CRACKS [21].

-215-

CHAPTER EIGHT

ca

c usICN

AND FUTURE WORK

8.1 Siimma
Sleeved industry present information reported of a in better of bolts for connections many years, and have for been used distinct experience under in the precast concrete However, limited The with study aim the

their

advantages. supply loading. only

knowledge

research their

concerning the preceding

behaviour chapters of vertical

was undertaken, their loading. behaviour

the

understanding symmetrical

under

application

Through connection, the of

systematic an of

variation study

of was

the

number

of to

bolts investigate

per

experimental bolt density bolts in

conducted load

influence connections.

on the were

ultimate loaded

and stiffness and to their failure and

The in shear Test governing

statically

monotonically longitudinal was the

the

direction showed of also to

perpendicular that bolt The to be shear

axis. common of

results mode were

failure. found the

strength substantially

stiffness increased

a connection

by introducing

more bolts

connection.

The complex connection experimental using the

influences formation work,

of and

the the the

various difficulties need to This

parameters associated a numerical was achieved

involved with

in the

created Element

simulation

by using the numerical package ANSYS. Sample solutions were carried out in the process of verification of the elements implemented in ANSYS. The in was needed to increase the degree of confidence verification the elements before the execution of the numerical analysis. Finite Method.

-216-

Using models provide were

the

finite

element to

modelling check up to due the

technique, test

three-dimensional observations load. of and to

were

developed

complete essentially materials. of

information nonlinear Also, were

the to

ultimate the nature crushing to and give

The models steel and and

concrete cracking concrete adopted numerical in

compression considered Geometrical

tensile realistic

concrete

a more

representation. the models. test

material input

parameters data for the

programme

were

used

as

The

numerical

models, were verified

simulating

the

singletheir

and results

double-bolted with a their good

connections, experimental agreement presented of

by comparing The results. the extent steel

counterparts. between an insight stress the bolt the to in shank

comparison Moreover, of the

indicated numerical damage, the the

results nature and

concrete links and

developed of

the at

bending stages.

yielding

intermediate

loading

After

carrying

out

the was

verification performed

of on

the the

above

models,

further model, tensile analysis

numerical whilst strength was to mode the

analysis concrete

single-bolted link this

crushing were of As load to

and tensile reduced. effect a result, capacity. be conservative

strengths, The aim of

and

confinement the extent load. lower found

determine and ultimate at a were

on the a

connection's"failure concrete model's as they failure was

predicted predictions assessed

The

numerical were later

experimentally.

Tests degrees

were of

carried concrete

out

on single-bolted below confinement

joints the

with different joint level. The

experimental results showed that the confinement, provided by the brackets, had a significant steel effect on both the ultimate load and failure mode of the joint.

-217-

8.2 Conclusions On the basis the investigations the following

and numerical experimental carried out and described in the previous chapters, can be made: conclusions of 1. The joint, that of increase of the in joint strength bolts per has been

achieved For the

by

the

increase

number of

joint.

two-bolts

the ultimate an ultimate

capacity

single-bolt

was found to be about 1.7 times joint joint. the three-bolts Also, which is almost 2.6 times that

provided

of the single-bolt
2. By comparing was found the that of to the

strength joint.
data

test the a joint.

obtained

for

different and

joints,

it

load-deflection joint can be

moment-rotation by introducing

characteristics more bolts

improved

3.

In

the

case of

having

a high

strength

concrete, bolts by the the

the

joints in links

failure

mode was mostly

governed

by the

yielding steel

shear. The strong joint beneath the splitting crack

confinement provided level eliminated In these

formation.

tests,

of most of the bolts

possibility

showed a significant to failure. prior forming


4. the

at their loaded ends, shear deformation, Sleeves had also yielded at their ends sections.
concrete, the in with joint this high minimum were region enough evidence confinement, for

ovoid
case

cross
of

In the its to

a weaker

cracks failure. tensile

developed Steel stresses there

beneath links which found

responsible were to to

subjected their that

were

cause suggest

yield.

However, the this

was a strong for i. e.

increasing can alter obtained.

confinement, failure mode,

a similar a bolt

concrete shear failure

strength, can be

-218-

5.

in edge of the the bracket tends to embed itself face as the bracket the concrete This edge then rotates. develops significant friction load into the which transmits to that transferred through the bolt. column face in addition Examination brackets, attempt developed to of the concrete strong the net forces face, after this by removal friction. the bolt, of the In the provided obtain frictional of evidence force carried were quantified.
able to predict useful In bolt stressed the joints

The lower

6.

Finite behaviour which the

element up to not

models failure. be of of

were

They

provide

information particular, and sleeve, zones.

could

obtained contact stresses

experimentally. area in between the highly the

development

and distribution

7.

The

numerical

results than likely of to of was the testing, this the

showed

a parallel in of the

but tests within bolt

lower for the

vertical a given at have shear not at

displacement, load. the More start

observed

presence into difference. bolt

grout

sleeve

which

settlement the was values

contributed deformation modelled, the last

Furthermore, part, which

threaded experimental

provided stages of

large loading.

deflection

8.

Throughout as the levels

the analysis, axial tensile in the steel links beneath the joint. concrete beneath cracking joint the

were computed The stresses increased At all values gradually

stresses

and crushing progressed. level, maximum stress mid-span and decreased

occurred at the links' towards the edges. 9. Bending stresses of the bolt

were

found

was at its occurring

numerically top edge,

proved

as

tensile to

compressive

stresses

with a transition at the bottom edge.

-219-

10. The predicted Predicted reasonably

numerical patterns with

results and

proved sleeve

to

be conservative. zone ones. agreed

crack well

yield observed

the experimentally

joint, there was a clear trend 11. In the case of a double-bolted in the region close to the plane of of stress accumulation in developed this A concrete of crushed symmetry. weak zone area. steel
12. The proved of

This links.

was accompanied

with

a stress

increase

in

the

confinement to

effect

upon This

the fact

joint highlighted

ultimate the in the

strength importance numerical

be critical. all the

including if

joint

components are

analysis

more realistic

results

required.

13.

The

finite

element of those the

method zones with

can

be

used

to

predict in in

the areas this

performance such as

stress

concentration bolts described of the

beneath the

the

sleeved

research. when is there

However, are such

accuracy

demanded non-linear

solutions responses

extensive by the

material power

even now limited

computational

available.

8.2 Suggestions the light the

for

Future

Work listed this it can be two

In

of

the

concluding

remarks of

above, study

seen that directions.

possible

extensions

can take

These are:

1. Experimental Through a systematic variation influence their on the joint's The following a) Vertical the parameters of the principal load ultimate joint

parameters,

are suggested

can be quantified. to be varied in the tests:

bolt This is to determine and horizontal spacings: and the minimum allowed spacing to optimum bolt pattern

-220-

avoid b) Bolt

a joint diameter:

premature Standard

failure. diameters their

employed in similar on its capacity.

commercial bolt joints to investigate

should be direct effect

c) Type of applied load: in this work, only symmetrical vertical to perform a loading was considered. it would be appropriate loading, to examine cases of unsymmetrical series of tests existence applied 2. Numerical
a) To reduce developed parameters achieved by

of

high

tensile

force

and/or

bending

moment

by the beam to the joint. Modelling


the full carry tests, the

number

of to the one

scale out

models survey This

already on the may be material

may be used affecting changing

a systematic of of the the joints.

behaviour or more

associated

and geometrical

properties.

b) Also

it

should be possible of the three with those

behaviour correspond
c) Further the bolt

to use these models to simulate the joints. These should and four bolted in this work.
i. e. consideration of

tested

model thread

verification and the

can be made, steel bracket.

-221-

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lT4

Calculation At loading, satisfy

of Frictional the set the

Force forces equilibrium shown in of the

any

Figure

stage (3.1)

of

of

vertical

should

statical

loaded bracket.

This means that: Rb + Rf (1)

Where P Rb Rf

is the vertical applied load. is the bolt reaction at the point of inside material of the bracket hole. is the frictional force at the bracket

contact

with

the

bottom edge.

From moment equilibrium Pxe=Txz=Cx Where C is T is e is z is d is the developed the tensile force (d - 0.45x) compressive force at the lower part (2)

of

the bracket. in the top set of bolts. from the column face. the load eccentricity lever arm. and

the internal

the vertical spacing between the top set of bolts bottom of the face of the bracket. axis depth. x is the neutral load, C can be expressed as (0-67F At the ultimate xbx0.9x) CU therefore where b is the width of the back plate; Pxe-0.67 Fcu xbx0.9 xx (d - 0.45x)

load At the ultimate x is the only unknown in the above equation. loading joint, following bolt the the and geometrical single of data were used to find a value for x.

-234-

P= FC = d

275.0 61.90 175.0

KN km2 N, wt to be 16.48

e b-

60.0 160.0

nan mm

x was found 98.42 KN.

mm leading

to a compressive

force

C of

From the fundamentals


Rf

of friction,
p. C

Rf can be expressed

as: (3)

Where N

is

the

coefficient

of

friction

between test,

the

concrete a value of

For this particular surface and the steel plate. 0.66 was obtained experimentally for p. Rf From equation Using (1), 0.66 x 98.42 Rb is equal 65.0 Fgt

to 210.0 KN.

the above procedure, the depth of compression block x was found to be 29.18 mm, 46.50 mm, 32.4 mm, and 40.56 mm for joints 2,3,4A These values are in compliance and 4B, respectively. the friction markings, (3.4), Plate found in the highly which stressed regions bracket's

with

were measured after removal. The measured values were in the range of 30-60 mm. After deducting frictional force for each joint, the calculated the following Rb for Rb for shear forces joint joint 2= 4A S Rb were obtained as follows: joint joint 3a 4B 529.5 KN 480.0 K

and shown in

355.0 KN 384.0 KN to be dependent

Rb for Rb for

N values

were found

on the nature

of both

steel

and concrete surfaces, e. g. p had a value back plates were machined.

of 0.52 when the steel

-235-

DDCA

lT4

TT

Calculation

of Brackets'

Load Difference

Assuming joints, forces, loading,

between the tested a load difference be divided into two vertical the total applied load will i. e. P1 and P2 as shown in Figure (3.3). At any stage of there the

that

is

force R, acting at the column base, must resultant be equal to the sum of these two vertical forces. The resultant force will act at a distance s from the base centreline. From the principles
P1 xLRx

of equilibrium:
(0.5L - s)

Where L is

the

horizontal plates.

distance

between

the

centres L=

of

the

loading P1 x 420 Assuming that

From the test

geometry,

420mm.

= (P1 + P2) x (210 - 10) the s, is 10mm. This will

resultant eccentricity, lead to the following relationship.

P1

0.475

(P1 + P2)

Thus the applied load is divided between both brackets. Smaller expected in the tests,

the ratio for s, values

into

of 0.475

would lead to less

which load difference.

: 0.525 should be

-236-

APPENDIX III

Calculation

of Weld Loads

L
4-A,

T
1 22

dl

tl1tlI1
lV HH w

iC
f Y

In

this

appendix,

capacity The

an estimate which caused fracture

made of the actual at bracket B in Test 4.

is

weld

load

bracket

together

was made of grade 43 mild steel plates welded with fillet welds marked 1,2 and 3 as shown in the The shape of welds were triangular by the leg length. Such sizes the load applied between load. the connected sizes were designed to parts under the and their

above sketch. were specified safely transfer anticipated

maxim=

Due to the eccentricity of the applied load, a value of moment M is created at the back plate. M, which has a value of the applied load P times the value of eccentricity by e, is mainly resisted two parts, namely

-237-

1. The welds marked 1 of the top plate. 2. The shaded areas of the webs. In the meantime, the shear force at the back plate by the web welds marked 2. resisted From the at a above force value diagram, of satisfying load P leads interface is

certain

the moment equilibrium to the following two

equations:
M= Pxe= CxdI

2x0.5fyxyxtW

where C dl
y

the compressive the bracket. is the internal


is the effective is developed.

is

force

developed

at the lower

part

of

lever

arm = d - (y/3).
of the webs where compressive

depth

stress

fy is

the yield

stress

for

the steel web. equation

material.

tw is the width From both Note that bracket equations, y is the the

of a single a quadratic only

failure,

unknown variable loading corresponding

in y can be obtained. in this equation. At and geometrical data

were as follows: P= L= d d= 632.5 190.0 115.0 125.0 632.5 KN mit nun mm 40 KN. mm - 25300 C( 125 - 0.33y 1 -238e tW fy = 40.0 20.0 265.0

mm nun N/mn2

(1)

C2x0.5 From (1) and (2) y 43.1

x 265 xyx

20

- 5.3 y

KN

(2)

mm

C-T-

228.4

a) Check of the top plate Both weld lengths

weld

in resisting the marked 1 should be effective distance between both value of the force T. The clear horizontal the weld load f can be directly Therefore, webs is 128.0m. obtained as follows: f 228.4 190+128 is much less 0.72 KN/mm

1.2 KN/nmi which is the 8mm fillet maximum allowable strength of the specified weld [51). However, from the measured values, given in Table 3, it was found This value of strength than that of the the average top plate value weld, of the actual top weld, along the length is 5.94mm. Assuming that the fracture

this value may occurred at the mid-thickness of the leg length, be taken as a representative of the actual leg length of the weld to note that f is also less than the used. It is of interest strength of a 6mm fillet weld which is 0.92 FBI/mm.

b) Check of the web welds Having two webs, each of them had two side welds, made the total length equal to four times the web height. This length was to resist At failure, the total through shear force transferred the weld length f can be calculated as: the

weld designed bracket.

-239-

632.5 4x 115

1.375 KN/mm

As

is less than 1.5 KN/nm which is the value for a 10mm fillet strength weld [51]. The actual value obtained listed as an average of the corresponding values in Table 3 is 5.00mm. This value gives a strength of 0.75 KN/Immwhich is much this than the above calculated
the strength is added of to the the top

before,

less

load value.
plate welds weld to which strength, is not then required the in

If

tension shear

vertical

design

strength

would

be extended

0.75 + (0.92-0.72)

x (190+128) = 0.89 KN/mm 4x 115 1.375

less than value is still bracket would be expected to fail This

KN/mm and therefore

the

in shear.

-240-

sIIDGa]hT4

TV

Effect In this

of Geometrical is

Imperfection

the effect of made to evaluate the slope of the top edge of the back plate on the measured deflections vertical at that edge. All notations used here are defined in accordance with Figure (3.13). appendix, an attempt

te is the thickness d

of the back plate

which

is 20mm.

is the vertical distance bottom of the plate. is the recorded axial

between the bolt's

centreline

and the

u *

elongation

of a bolt

at a load step.

is the angle of rotation '= is the height is difference

measured at the bottom of the plate. tan-' (u/d)

between both top edges. to the

the

vertical

deflection

component

corresponding

slope

effect.

From the axial deflection

deflection

diagram,

it

is assumed that

has zero value at the extreme point where the plate of the back plate presses linearly This outward deflection varies concrete. up the height it reaches its maximum value at the top edge. of the plate until Knowing the height of the bracket h, and using the recorded value of u at any stage of loading, an estimated value of u' can be calculated.

the outward of the bottom edge hard against the

-241-

u' :ux Using measured values

(h/d)

the slope

of y and knowing of the edge i, can be obtained. i= (Y/te) + 1P

the

plate

thickness

tel

Due to

which deflection top

such a slope, i times equals

edge.

has a downward vertical component v, in the This component is included u'. at the positioned which is measured by the transducers As a result, values of v should have been added to u' representation of the load-deflection curves.

obtain

a better

To check the effect of v, the top of back plates of brackets used in joint 1 were measured. A number of readings were taken across the width of the plate by means of a metric vernier. It was also assumed that the transducer arm was positioned exactly at the the test. Calculated edge throughout values of v were so small that they had an insignificant effect in those already recorded by the transducers. mid-thickness of the top

-242-

TX

Stresses

in Steel

Links

of Plodels 1 and 2

In this

appendix,

the axial

tensile

value In obtaining and 2 are presented. for the links' cross section area was employed. The stresses are load the load to experimental maxim= value equal at a plotted per bolt end(s).

predicted the correct these values,

stresses

by Model 1

1Q3 10. s 11.5

45.0

Steeve

Unk a

Model 1

Unk b

Unk c

qL I..vtunn

S-bwses -243-

we in W

UA

lu

lu

10

so

11.5

<SO

Sleeve

Unk e

Model 2

Unk b

Unk c
vvswrn

st-asses

ore in wm'

-244-