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Main article: Pope Pius XII Persecutions against the Catholic Church took place in virtually all the years of the pontificate of Pope Pius XII, especially after World War II in Eastern Europe, the !!" and the People#s "epu$lic of China% &he Catholic Church 'as under attack in all Communist governed countries and lost most of its e(istence in )l$ania, *ulgaria, +ugoslavia, "omania, Communist China and the !oviet nion ,including Estonia, -atvia and -ithuania.% &his article focuses on the post/'ar persecutions, leaving out the persecutions during World War II in several countries%

) monument to Josyf Cardinal !lipy0 outside the &ernopil Cathedral% Josyf !lipy0 'as from 123451267 in !oviet 8ulags and prisons

Contents
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1 !ummary ; Church diplomacy 7 Persecutions and Church policies o 7%1 China o 7%; !oviet nion o 7%7 Catholic "uthenian and krainian Churches o 7%3 -ithuania, Estonia and -atvia o 7%4 Poland o 7%6 C<echoslovakia o 7%= >ungary o 7%? Jo<sef Minds<enty o 7%2 "omania, *ulgaria and )l$ania o 7%1@ +ugoslavia 3 Persecution of "eligious Arders 4 Becrees of the >oly Affice on Communism 6 Encyclicals of Pope Pius XII on Church persecutions = !ee also o =%1 "eferences
o

=%; Cuotes

!edit" #ummar
Aver si(ty million Catholics 'ere su$0ected to !talinist rule from the El$e river in 8ermany to &ai'an after World War II% Massive deportations of Catholic populations from Eastern Europe to !i$eria and Church persecutions follo'ed from the ne'ly acDuired territories% Buring the Joseph !talin era, the Church e(perienced the most systematic persecutions in its history in these Eastern countries% )ccording to John Corn'ell, the Church 'as faced 'ith an agoni<ing dilemma: compromise 'ith the regimes in order to maintain a structure 'ith 'hich to survive or resist, or confront and risk annihilation% 91: &o save its faithful, the Eatican attempted $oth at varying times% ) fe' years after the death of Joseph !talin, in 1246, the situation improved to varying degrees in Poland and +ugoslavia% In East 8ermany and >ungary, the Church 'as su$0ected to ongoing attacks, $ut 'as a$le to continue some of its activities, ho'ever on a much reduced scale% In )l$ania, *ulgaria, C<echoslovakia and >ungary, persecution continued to the point that the Church faced e(tinction% In the !oviet nion and mainland China, the Catholic Church largely ceased to e(ist, at least pu$licly, during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII% In the last months of his reign, diplomatic feelers from the !oviet nion indicated a possi$le !oviet 'illingness to improve relations 'ith the Eatican%

!edit" Church diplomac


Pius XII 'as a diplomat 'ho valued diplomatic relations in order to keep contact 'ith the local Church% )s previously 'ith 8ermany under the Fational !ocialist government, Pope Pius refused to $reak diplomatic relations 'ith Communist authorities% 9;:

&hus, after World War II, the Eatican kept its nuncios in Poland, >ungary, +ugoslavia, C<echoslovakia, "omania and China, until these countries severed relations, interrupting communication 'ith $ishops as 'ell% &he Eatican responded, $y giving local $ishops unprecedented authority to deal 'ith authorities on their o'n, $ut 'ithout granting the right to define overall relations, vie'ed as the sole privilege of the >oly !ee%97: In encyclicals such as Invicti )thletae, and )postolic letters to C<ech *ishops, Polish *ishops, the *ishops of >ungary, China, and "omania93:, the Pope encouraged local $ishops to $e firm, modest and 'ise in their dealings 'ith the ne' communist authorities% >e e(communicated all those 'ho imprisoned Cardinals and $ishops as in the case of !tepinac, Minds<enty, 8rGs<, *eran, Wys<inski and Pacha% 94: In an attempt to prevent governmental usurpation of ecclsastical offices, &he Eatican threatened to e(communicate anyone 'ho do so, or, illegally grant or receive episcopal ordination% Fevertheless, the Eatican 'as not successful in $locking episcopal enthronements $y the regimes of China and C<echoslovakia% &hese persons 'ere not e(communicated, ho'ever% In his last encyclical )d )postolorum Principis to the $ishops of China, Pope Pius XII e(pressed the opinion, that schismatic $ishops and priests are the final step to'ards total elimination of the Catholic Church in that country% 96: Cuestions 'ere raised as to 'hy the Eatican appointed po'erful $ut often ine(perienced )merican $ishops as nuncios in some Eastern countries, given the anti/)merican, anti/imperialist tendencies in these countries% 9=: While there is no documentation on Eatican motives, a possi$le reason could $e the relative security of ! nationals in foreign countries%

!edit" Persecutions and Church policies


!edit" China

!hishi !acred >eart Cathedral Main article: Pope Pius XII and the Church in China Hor centuries, access to the people of China 'as difficult for the Catholic Church, $ecause it did not recogni<e local Confucian customs of honouring deceased family mem$ers% &o the Chinese, this 'as an ancient ritual, to the Eatican, it 'as a religious e(ercise 'hich conflicted 'ith Catholic dogma% )s a result, the Church made little progress in China% Within month of his election, Pope Pius issued a dramatic change in policies% An Becem$er ?, 1272, the !acred Congregation of the Propagation of Haith issues at reDuest of Pius XII ne' instruction, $y 'hich Chinese customs 'ere no longer considered superstitious, $ut an honoura$le 'ay of esteeming ones relatives and therefore permitted $y Catholic Christians% 9?: &he 8overnment of China esta$lished diplomatic relations 'ith the Eatican in 1237, 'ithin a short interval%

&he Papal degree changed the ecclesiastical situation in China in an almost revolutionary 'ay% 92: )s the Church $egan to flourish, Pius XII esta$lished a local ecclesiastical hierarchy, and, received the )rch$ishop of Peking, &homas &ien Ien/sin, !EB, in to the !acred College of Cardinals% 91@: )fter World War II, a$out four million Chinese 'ere mem$ers of the Catholic faith% &his 'as less than one percent of the population $ut num$ers increased dramatically% In 1232, there e(isted J ;@ archdioceses, J ?4 dioceses J 72 apostolic prefectures J 7@?@ foreign missionaries J ;44= Chinese priests 911: &he esta$lishment of Mao Kedong#s Communist regime in 1232 put these early advances on hold and led to the persecution of thousands of clergy and faithful in China% ) patriotic Chinese Church 'as formed% !ince that time, the persecuted Catholic Church e(ists as a tiny fraction in secrecy and underground only% &he losses 'ere considera$le% Hor e(ample, in 123?, the Catholic Church operated some ;43 orphanages and 126 hospitals 'ith ?16;? $eds% 91;: Catholic clergy e(perienced increased supervision% *ishops and priests 'ere forced to engage in degrading menial 0o$s to earn their living% Horeign missionaries 'ere accused of $eing foreign agents 'ho 'ould turn the country over to imperialist forces% 917: !edit" #o$iet %nion Main article: Pope Pius XII and "ussia "elations $et'een !oviet authorities and the Eatican 'ere al'ays difficult% January ;7, 121?, the !oviet government declared separation of Church and !tate and $egan 'ith the systematic dissolution of Catholic institutions and the confiscation of Catholic properties% &'o years later, in 12;@, Pope *enedict XE issued Bonum Sana 913: in 'hich he condemned the philosophy and practices of Communism% Pius XI follo'ed this line 'ith numerous statements 914: and the encyclicals Miserantissimus "edemptor, 916: Caritate Christi, 91=: and Bivini "edemptoris 91?:

&he !helesto !t Michael#s 'ooden church ,1===. is a classic e(ample of "uthenian architecture%

&he pontificate of Pius XII from the very $eginning faced pro$lems, as large parts of Poland, the *altic !tates and their Catholic populations 'ere incorporated into the !!"% )t once, the nited Catholic Churches of )rmenia, kraine and "uthenia 'ere attacked% !edit" Catholic &uthenian and %krainian Churches !oviet attempts to separate the nited Churches from "ome, reflected not only !oviet policy, $ut 'ere a continuation of centuries/old "ussian policies to'ards the Papacy, already vie'ed as anti/"ussian% 912: >e also 'as a'are, that in months preceding the encyclical Arientales Amnes, all Catholic $ishops of the krainian Church had $een arrested% Josyf !lipy0, 8regory Chomysyn, John -aysevkyi, Ficolas Carneckyi, Josaphat Iocylovskyi !ome, including *ishop Ficetas *udka perished in !i$eria%9;@: !u$0ected to !talinist !ho' &rials, they all received severe sentencing% &he remaining leaders of the hierarchies and heads of all seminaries and Episcopal offices 'ere arrested and tried in 1234 and 1236% )fter the Church 'as thus ro$$ed of all its leadership, a Lspontaneous movementL for separation from "ome, and unification 'ith the "ussian Arthodo( Church developed% Mass arrests of priests follo'ed% In -emko, some five hundred priests 'ere 0ailed in 1234 9;1: or sent to a 8ulag, officially called, Lan unkno'n destination $ecause of political reasonsL% 9;;: Church institutions 'ere confiscated and e(propriatedM churches, monasteries and seminaries closed and looted, 9;7: Catholic nited Churches 'ere integrated under the Mosco' Patriarchy, after all residing $ishops and apostolic administrators 'ere arrested% 9;3: &he Catholic Church of the kraine 'as thus liDuidated and its properties turned over to the Arthodo( Church under the Patriarch of Mosco'% )fter Joseph !talin died in 1247, Lpeaceful coe(istenceL $ecame su$0ect of numerous discussions% In his Christmas Message of 1243, Pius XII defined possi$ilities and preconditions for peaceful coe(istence% >e indicated Eatican 'illingness to practical cooperation, 'henever possi$le in the interest of the faithful% &he slo' pace of de/ !talinisation and the !oviet crack/do'n of the >ungarian "evolution did not produce ma0or results, aside from modest improvements in Poland and +ugoslavia after 1246% In January 124?, !oviet Horeign Minister )ndrey 8romyko e(pressed 'illingness of Mosco', to have formal relations 'ith the Eatican in light of the position of Pope Pius XII on 'orld peace and the uses of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, a position, 'hich he claimed 'as identical 'ith Iremlin policy% 9;4: !edit" 'ithuania, (stonia and 'at$ia &he small Catholic Church of Estonia and the Church in -atvia 'ere completely annihilated after the !oviet nion reintegrated these countries into its territory in 1234% )ll Church organi<ations 'ere outla'ed and all $ishops 0ailed% 9;6: In 1272, Pope Pius received the am$assador of -ithuania for a final meeting prior to the !oviet occupation% Catholic -ithuania suffered especially under the ne' !oviet regime% )t the out$reak of World War II there 'ere ?@@ parishes, 14@@ priests, 6@@ candidates for the priesthood in four seminaries% )s a part of the !oviet crackdo'n, the complete hierarchy, a large part of the clergy and a$out a third of the Catholic population 'as deported% 9;=: !edit" Poland

Main article: Pope Pius XII and Poland With the 'ar over, the Pope discontinued his 'ar/time policy of neutrality, stating that he had a$stained from protests during he 'ar, despite of massive persecutions% 9;?: &he communist party of Poland assumed governmental control in 123=, and $egan to confiscate Church properties in the months thereafter% *y late 123=, Catholic educational institutes, kindergartens, schools, orphanages 'ere e(propriated as 'ell% !tarting in 123?, mass arrest and sho' trials $egan to take place against Catholic $ishops and clergy%

!tefan Cardinal Wys<yNski 'as arrested from 1247 to 1246 Pope Pius XII responded 'ith an apostolic letter Flagranti Semper Animi, 9;2:, in 'hich he defended the Church against attacks and !talinist persecution tactics% >o'ever, pressures against the Church increased 'ith the de facto outla'ing of religious meetings and organi<ations% Pope Pius responded 'ith a letter commemorating the 1@th anniversary of the $eginning of World War II, Becennium Bum E(pletur% >e 'rites, that 'hile the Polish people had suffered like no$ody else during the 'ar, ten years after'ards, the suffering continues% Cum Jam -ustri commemorates the death of t'o Polish Cardinals, >lond and !apieha and gives courage to the Church in Poland% In honour of !aint !tanisOa', Pope Pius XII issues Poloniae )nnali$us, giving consolation and again e(pressing his certain conviction, that Christ 'ill 'in and the persecution end% *y 124; some 1@@@ priests are incarcerated, all seminaries of religious orders closed 97@: An Fovem$er 12, 1247, the pontiff addressed the Biplomatic Corps to issue a protest against the incarceration of Cardinal !tefan Wys<ynski% 971: )fter the arrest of the Cardinal, Communist authorities support patriotic priests, 'ho aspire a separation from "ome% )t the 7@@th anniversary of the successful defence of Jasna 8Pra, Pope Pius XII 'rites again to Poland, congratulating the courageous defenders of the faith in his time% 8loriosam "eginam salutes the modern day Polish martyrs and e(presses confidence in victory of the Dueen of Poland% >e salutes Cardinal !tefan Wys<ynski upon his return from arrest in Acto$er 1246% In 124=, Pope Pius addressed 'ith Invicti )thletae in strong 'ords the Polish episcopate, 'hich cele$rated the 7@@th% )nniversary of the martyrdom of !aint )ndre' *o$ola through

the "ussians% L&he haters of 8od and enemies of Christian teaching attack Jesus Christ and his ChurchL &he Pope asks for endurance and $ravery% &he people and clergy must overcome many o$stacles, and even sacrifices in time and money, $ut they must never give in% 97;: &he Pope urges his $ishops in Poland not to $e over'helmed $y the situation $ut to mi( courage 'ith prudence, and kno'ledge 'ith 'isdom:
o

)ct $oldly, $ut 'ith that Christian promptness of soul, 'hich goes hand in hand 'ith prudence, kno'ledge, and 'isdom% Ieep Catholic faith and unity%
977:

!edit" C)echoslo$akia They can take away your freedom, but they cannot tear the Catholic faith from your hearts. They can turn you into martyrs, but they can never turn you into traitors% 973: In 1234, the C<echoslovakian government e(pelled its >ungarian and 8erman populations e(pelled from C<echoslovakian territories, thus greatly reducing the percentage of Catholics in the country% )fter the Communist coup in 123?, the regime e(pelled the Papal Funcio and closed Catholic seminaries for the formation of priests% Prague outla'ed all religious orders and Catholic associations and gradually suppressed the Catholic press%974: )ttempts 'ere made, to divide the clergy into opposing camps $y creating a peace loving association of priests headed $y *ishop Joseph Plo0har% )rch$ishop Josef *eran and others refusing to participate 'ere su$0ected to pu$lic sho' trials and long incarcerations% In 1232, the governmental LChurch AfficeL assumed all functions of the Catholic Church%

!tatue of Cardinal Minds<enty, Fe' *runs'ick, FJ !edit" *ungar )fter the occupation of >ungary $y the "ed )rmy in 1234, socialist policies gaind only gradually ground in the country% *ut in the follo'ing five years, the Church lost three

thousand and three/hundred schools, numerous hospitals and ne'spapers% 11%4@@ "eligious 'ere asked to leave their convents and monasteries and institutes% 976: &he nuncio 'as e(pelled already in 1234% &he Church attempted to come to agreements 'ith the regime in 124@, 'hen the continuation of a$out ten Catholic schools 'as permitted% &he over'helming e(perience of >ungarian Catholicism 'ere the pu$lic sho' trials and degradations of )rch$ishop Jo<sef 8ros< and Cardinal Jo<sef Minds<enty% &hey resulted in a complete e(clusion of the Church from all pu$lic life and >ungarian society% 97=: !edit" +o)sef ,inds)ent Jo<sef Minds<enty had $een 0ailed $y the 8ermans, freed $y the !oviet army and 'as ordained *ishop in 1233% )fter coup of the communist party in >ungary, a reign of terror $acked $y the !oviet army 'as instituted 91: Pope Pius XII named Mind<enty Primate of >ungary and received him in the College of Cardinals in 1236% L)fter a propaganda campaign, he 'as arrested on changes of colla$oration 'ith the Fa<is, spying, treason, and currency fraud% Fone of the accusations 'ere true% >e 'as tortured, mentally and physically, $eaten daily 'ith ru$$er truncheons until he signed a confession% >is sho' trial 'as condemned $y the nited Fations%%% &he trumped up proceedings, fully reported in the West, gripped and horrified Catholics the 'orld over%L 91: &he Cardinal remained in prison until 1246, 'hen, during the >ungarian "evolution he 'as freed% )fter the failure of he revolution, he lived in the )merican em$assy for the follo'ing 14 years% !edit" &omania, -ulgaria and .l/ania

!fQnta &reime "omanian Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral

&he interior of the !fQnta &reime "omanian Catholic Metropolitan Cathedral )fter World War I, "omania inherited large parts of Catholic >ungary including large Catholic populations, 'hich 'ere not al'ays treated 'ell $et'een the 'ars% 97?: &he )postolic Constitution Solemmni Conventione of 127@ includes a concordat $et'een "omania and the Eatican% 972: It allo'ed for four dioceses and free e(ercise of religion 'ithin the country% *ecause of rival interpretations the concordat 'as enacted ten years later in 123@% In 123?, the Communist regime 'ithdre' from the concordat and closed most Catholic institutes% Anly t'o small dioceses 'ere permitted to continue, the others 'ere considered non/e(istent% 93@: &he si( united $ishops and several -atin rite $ishops 'ere 0ailed to long sentences% )ll schools 'ere closed, Catholic activities 'ere outla'ed% 931: 93;: *ulgaria $ecame a People#s "epu$lic on Acto$er 14, 1236% &he ne' constitution of 123= limited religious activities% Massive Church persecution follo'ed% &he Church lost all its $ishops, organi<ations, religious institutes% Most of the priests and religious perished 'ithin five years, 937: many of them in !i$eria% In )l$ania, the communist regime assumed the role of li$erator, since the country 'as under Italian occupation since 1272% &he Catholic Church 'as denounced as the Church of the oppressors% )ll foreign priests and religious 'ere e(pelled% Bomestic $ishops, priests and religious 'ere killed, 0ailed or sent to unkno'n destinations% )s in other countries, a peace/ loving national Church 'as attempted as 'ell% &he government prided itself on having eradicated religion and closed every Catholic Church% 933: !edit" 0ugosla$ia )fter defining relations 'ith the Arthodo( Church in 12;2, Muslims in 1271, Protestants and Je's in 1277, a Concordat 'as signed in 1274 $et'een +ugoslavia and the Eatican% )fter the Arthodo( Church e(communicated all politicians involved in its parliamentary passing, the government 'ithdre' the te(t from final vote in the upper house% Be Hacto ho'ever, the spirit of the concordat 'as accepted and the Church $egan to flourish in the years prior to World War II% 934: &he 'ar 'as difficult for the Church, as the country 'as largely occupied $y Italian and 8erman forces% In Croatia, 'hich declared independence from *elgrade, a nationalistic regime 'as open to the needs of the Church, 'hich led to open colla$oration of several Church officials 'ith Croatian government policies%

)fter the 'ar, the systematic persecution of the Church $egan as it did in all the other socialist countries% !ome 17@@ of the clergy 'as assassinated among them 172 Hranciscan monks, 4@R of the clergy 'as 0ailed% 936: )s in C<echoslovakia and other countries, *elgrade created peace loving organi<ations of progressive priests, in an attempt to divide the clergy% ) ma0or $one of contention 'as )loysius !tepinac, 'ho 'as elevated to the College of Cardinals in 1247% &o President &ito La provocationL, this represented to Pope Pius La 0ust recognition of his e(traordinary merits and a sym$ol of our affection and encouragement for our $eloved sons and daughters, 'ho testify their faith 'ith steadfastness and courage in very difficult times% &he Pope e(plained that he did not intend to insult the +ugoslavian authotities, $ut neither did he agree 'ith any of the un0ust accusations 'hich resulted in the punishment of the )rch$ishop% 93=: !tepinac 'as not permitted to receive the red hat in "ome, and remained under house arrest until his death in 126@% Pope John Paul II $eatified him% )fter his death, relations to the Eatican improved significantly% In 12=3, the Church in +ugoslavia counted 144@@ priests, religious and nuns93?:

!edit" Persecution of &eligious 1rders


Part of a series of articles on

23th Centur Persecutions of the Catholic Church


,e4ico Cristero War 5 IniDuis )fflictisDue !aints 5 JosS !Tnche< del "Uo Persecution in Me(ico 5 Miguel Pro

#pain 32? !panish Martyrs "ed &error ,!pain. 5 Bilectissima Fo$is Martyrs of the !panish Civil War Martyrs of Baimiel *artolome *lanco MarDue< Innocencio of Mary Immaculate

6erman Mit $rennender !orge 5 )lfred Belp )lois 8rimm 5 "upert Mayer *ernhard -ichten$erg 5 Ma( Josef Met<ger Iarl -eisner 5 Ma(imilian Iol$e

China Persecution in China 5 )d !inarum 8entem Cupimus Imprimis 5 )d )postolorum Principis Ignatius Iung Pin/Mei 5 *eda Chang Bominic &ang

Poland !tefan Wys<yNski 1@? Martyrs of World War &'o 5 Policies Poloniae )nnali$us 5 8loriosam "eginam Invicti )thletae 5 Jer<y PopieOus<ko

(astern (urope Jo<sef Minds<enty 5 Eugene *ossilkov Josef *eran 5 )loysius !tepinac Meminisse Juvat 5 )nni !acri

(l #al$ador Maura Clarke 5 Ignacio EllacurUa Ita Hord 5 "utilio 8rande Borothy Ia<el 5 Ignacio MartUn/*arP !egundo Montes 5 Vscar "omero

6eneral Persecution of Christians Church persecutions 7898:78;< Eatican and Eastern Europe Eatican !!" policies Eastern Catholic persecutions &erri$le &riangle Conspiracy of !ilence

&his $o(: vie' W talk W edit

"eligious orders and institutions are historically visi$le targets in time of conflict and strive% &heir houses, convents or monasteries 'ere looted, $urned or destroyed throughout Europe for centuries in virtually all European countries% &he $eginning of the pontificate of Pius XII coincided 'ith the end of the Civil War in !pain, in 'hich in addition to thousands of faithful, some 31?3 secular priests, ;764 religious and ;?7 female religious 'ere killed 'ithin a three year period% 932: In the follo'ing World War &'o, the "eligious of Poland suffered from an e(ceptionally $rutal 8erman occupation% ) thirteen point Program from 123@ provided that Lall religious institutes convents and monasteries 'ill $e closed $ecause they do not reflect 8erman morality and population policy%L 94@: &he 8erman policy, to treat Poles as su$human L ntermenschen,L 'as especially $rutal against representatives of religious orders% 8estapo raids let to the murdering, assassination and deportation to concentration camps of numerous religious, including the Hranciscan monk Ma(imilian Iol$e%

Chapel of !aint Casimir 'ith his coffin in Eilnius, -ithunania In the Bachau concentration camp alone, some ;?@@ Polish priests and "eligious incarcerated of 'hich appro(imately 1@@@ 'ere killed or died of >unger% In the year 123;, $et'een )pril and Acto$er 4@@ Polish "eligious died in Bachau, in part due to mistreatment, hunger or the gas cham$ers%941: -ong time inmate *ishop Io<lo'iecki reports LWhat a happy day, if I 'as $eaten only once or t'iceL% Especially $rutal 'as >oly Week in 123;% Ane thousand and eight hundred Polish priests and "eligious had to punishment drills and e(ercises uninterrupted from morning to night every day% 941: Pope Pius XII informed the Cardinals in 1234, that among all the horrors, 'hich priests and religious had to endure in concentration camps, the fate of Polish inmates 'as $y far the 'orst% 94;: )fter 1234, Poland 'as resurrected $ut the Polish government continued the attacks against the Catholic Church% )ll religious 'ere forced to leave hospitals and educational institutions, their properties 'ere confiscated% Within seven years, fifty/four religious 'ere killed% Ane hundred and seventy priests 'ere deported into gulags% 947: >o'ever, after a change of government in 1246, the condition of the Church improved% >arassment and persecution of the Church continued $ut religious vocations 'ere permitted and Poland $ecame the only Eastern country 'hich contri$uted in great num$ers religious missionaries to 'orld'ide service% %L 943: In all Eastern countries, after World War II, persecution of "eligious assumed ne' dimensions% )ll religious houses in the kraine 'ere confiscated and its inha$itants either

0ailed or sent home% )ll religious houses 'ere confiscated and closed in -ithuania as 'ell% In )l$ania, all religious orders 'ere forci$ly closed% In *ulgaria and C<echoslovakia, all monasteries and religious institutes 'ere erased after 124@%944: In >ungary, 1@ @@@ mem$ers of religious orders 'ere ordered to leave their residences 'ithin three months% !ome 7@@ 'ere permitted to remain%946: &he >ungarian hierarchy entered an agreement 'ith the authorities, 'hich permitted the reopening of eight Catholic schools 94=: 94?: In +ugoslavia, all orders 'ere closed after the 'ar and properties confiscated% In *osnia, numerous religious 'ere killed, among them 172 Hranciscan priests% >o'ever, as the &ito regime distanced itself increasingly from Mosco', significant improvements 'ere noticed in !lovenia and Croatia during the last t'o years of the Pacelli pontificate% In China and Forth/ Iorea Catholic religious do no longer e(ist% Horeign missionaries 'ere e(pelled, the fate of most domestic religious is not kno'n%942:

!edit" =ecrees of the *ol 1ffice on Communism


&he Eatican, having $een silent during the 'ar on communist e(cesses, displayed a harder line on communism after 1234% Main article: Becree against Communism

!edit" (nc clicals of Pope Pius XII on Church persecutions


&he name of a Papal Encyclical is al'ays taken from its first t'o or three 'ords% >o. 1% ?itle (nglish translation L)ll the Eastern ChurchesL LAn the >oly +earL L&o the Chinese peopleL L!orro'ful eventsL LWe are most pleasedL #u/@ect An the ;4@th )nniversary of "eunion of the "uthenian Church 'ith "ome An a Program Hor Com$ating )theistic Propaganda &hroughout &he World An the !upranationality of the Church rging Pu$lic Prayers for Peace and Hreedom for the People of >ungary "ene'ing E(hortation for Prayers for Peace in Poland, >ungary, and the Middle East -amenting the !orro'ful Events in >ungary, and Condemning the "uthless se of Horce =ate Becem$er ;7, 1234 March 1;, 124@ ?e4t
A(nglishB

'atin rientales mnes Anni Sacri Ad Sinarum !entem "uctuosissimi #ventus "aetamus Admodum $atis %uperrime &nvicti Athletae

;% 7%% 3%

A(nglishB

Acto$er =, A(nglishB 1243 Acto$er ;?, A(nglishB 1246 Fovem$er A(nglishB 1, 1246 Fovem$er A(nglishB 4, 1246 May 16, 124=
A(nglishB

4%

6% =%

LAf the unconDuered An !t% )ndre' *o$ola athleteL

?% 2%

'eminisse (uvat Ad Apostolorum )rincipis

LIt is helpful to recallL

An Prayers for the Persecuted Church

July 13, 124? June ;2, 124?

A(nglishB A(nglishB

L)t the Prince of the An Communism and the )postlesL Church in China

!edit" #ee also


Persecution of Christians in the !oviet nion Persecution of Christians in Warsa' Pact countries

!edit" &eferences
!hide"
vWdWe

Pope Pius XII


7898C78;< *iography Early life 5 Funciature 5 ! visit 5 Election 5 -ate years 5 Illness and death 5 &estament 5 Cause for Canoni<ation

&he >olocaust ,statements on. 5 "oman ra<<ia 5 Accupied dioceses 5 staXe involvement 5 Conversion World War II of Je's 5 Je'ish orphans 5 Pontifical "elief Commission 5 123; Christmas address 5 )lleged kidnapping plot 5 +ad Eashem Horeign relations &heology *eichskonkordat 5 Post/World War II 5 L"atlinesL 5 Persecutions 5 China 5 Eastern Europe 5 Poland 5 "ussia !ocial teachings 5 Mariology 5 Judaism 5 -iturgy 5 Eastern Canon -a' 5 Canoni<ations 5 *eatifications 5 Hatima )postolic constitutions and $ulls 5 Encyclicals ,"ist. 5 )postolic 'ritings 5 Magisterium &isserant 5 Maglione 5 Montini 5 &ardini 5 Arsenigo 5 Muench 5 1236 consistory 5 1247 consistory *ea 5 8alea<<i/-isi 5 Iaas 5 -ehnert 5 -ei$er 5 Fogara 5 !pellman 5 !pia<<i The $eputy 5 )B!! 5 +itler,s )ope 5 ICJ>C 5 -nder +is .ery /indows 5 'yth of +itler,s )ope

Writings )ppointments )dvisers *i$liography

Pope Portal Catholicism Portal Acta Apostolicae Sedis ,))!., "oma, Eaticano 12;;5126@

8a$riel )drianyi, LBie Iirche in Ford, Ast und !YdeuropaL, in +andbuch der 0irchengeschichte, EII, >erder Hrei$urg, 12=2 Pierre *let, )ius 1&& and the Second /orld /ar, According to the Archives of the .atican, Paulist Press, Fe' +ork, ;@@@ A'en Chad'ick, The Christian Church in the Cold /ar, -ondon 1227 John Corn'ell, +itler,s )ope, the secret history of )ope )ius 1&&, Eiking, Fe' +ork, 1222 "ichard Cardinal Cushing, )ope )ius 1&&, !t% Paul Editions, *oston, 1242 ictor Bammert< A!*, LArdensgemeinschaften und !ZkularinstituteL, in +andbuch der 0irchengeschichte, EII, >erder Hrei$urg, 12=2, 74457?@ ) 8alter, *otbuch der verfolgten 0irchen, Paulus Eerlag, "ecklinghausen, 124=, )l$erto 8iovanetti, )io 1&& parla alla Chiesa del Silen2io, Editrice )ncona, Milano, 1242, 8erman translation, $er )apst spricht 2ur 0irche des Schweigens, Paulus Eerlag, "ecklinghausen, 1242 >erder Iorresponden< rbis Catholicus, Hrei$urg, 123651261 Pio XII, $iscorsi e *adiomessaggi, "oma Eaticano, 12725124? Jan Alav !mit, )ope )ius 1&&, -ondon *urns Aates [ Wash$ourne -&B,1241 )ntonio !pinosa, )io 1&&, -n )apa nelle Tenebre, Milano, 122;

!edit" Duotes
1% \ a b c Corn'ell 777 ;% E *efore 1272, as !ecretary of !tate, he had de$ated this point 'ith Pope Pius XI% Pacelli argued, that a $reak of diplomatic relations means losing all contacts 'ith the local hierarchy and, eventually, paying a much higher price: o Pius XI asked me, ho' can the >oly !ee keep its nuncio there] &his is against our honour% I ans'ered: +our >oliness, 'hat do 'e do after'ards] >o' do 'e maintain any contacts 'ith our $ishops] >e understood and calmed do'n% ,)ctes et documents Eol II, p%3;3. 7% E -etter of Monsignor &ardini to the )rch$ishop of *elgrad, ; 16, 124;, in >I EII, 124; 33= 3% E C<echoslovakia ))! 123? 77, Poland ))! 1232 ;2, >ungary ))! 124; ;32, China ))! 124; 147, "omania ))! 123=, ;;7 4% E !tepinac 1@%13%1236, Minds<enty 1; ;?,123?, and ; 1;, 1232, 8os< 6 ;2, 1241, *eran 7 1=, 1241, Wys<inski 2 7@, 1247 and Pacha 2 1=, 1241 6% E ))! 124? 6@1 =% E see !tehle, Astpolitik ?% E !mit 1?651?=% 2% E !mit 1?? 1@% E !mit 1??% 11% E 8iovanetti ;7@ 1;% E >erder Iorresponden< 4, ;@1 17% E 8iovanetti ;7; 13% E ))! 1;, 1@;@, 717571= 14% E ))! ;2, 127=, 6= 16% E ))! ;@ 12;? 16451=? 1=% E ))! ;3 127; 1==5123 1?% E ))! ;2, 127= 6451@6 12% E see main article, Pope Pius IX, Pope -eo XIII ;@% E 8iovannetti, 171

;1% E 8iovannetti, 2@ ;;% E !mit, 1=3 ;7% E )drianyi, 41= ;3% E )drianyi, 41? ;4% E 8iovannetti, ?? ;6% E )drianyi, 413% ;=% E )drianyi, 414 ;?% E 8iovannetti, 172 ;2% E January 1?, 123?, ))! 123?, 7;3 7@% E 8iovannetti, 14@ 71% E ))!, 1247, =44 7;% E Invicti )thletae ;2 in ))! 124=, 7;1 ff 77% E Invicti )thletae 73, in ))! 124=, 7;1 73% E ))!, XXXEII, 1234, ;4; 74% E )drianyi, 4;4 76% E )drianyi, 4;?% 7=% E )drianyi 4;2 7?% E )dryani 47@ 72% E ))! 127@, 7?1 3@% E )drianyi,471 31% E )drianyi,47;% 3;% E Arientales Ecclesiae,2 *ulgaria, "umania, 251@, ;@ 37% E )drianyi, 476 33% E )drianyi,476 34% E )drianyi,477 36% E )drianyi,473 3=% E Pio XII Biscorsi, 124;, January 1;, 1247 3?% E >I 12==,71?57;3 32% E Bammert< 7=4 4@% E Bammert< 7=6 41% \ a b >I 126@, ;= 4;% E Pio XII, Biscorsi EII, 1234, "oma, Eaticano, =3 47% E Bammert< 7=? 43% E Bammert< 7=2 44% E Bammert< 7== 46% E Bammert< 7=? 4=% E 8alter, 7345747, 4?% E >erder Iorresponden<, 4, 124@, 77 42% E Bammert< 7=2