Stepinac.doc | Socialist Federal Republic Of Yugoslavia | Josip Broz Tito



(E,H) Stepinac and The View from Washington - by Jeffrey T. Kuhner By Nenad N. Bach | Published 05/9/2005 | Opinions | Unrated (E,H) Stepinac and The View from Washington - by Jeffrey T. Kuhner

Lies about Stepinac
by Jeffrey T. Kuhner Truth & Justice The View from Washington Lies about Stepinac Of all the news accounts regarding Pope John Paul II‘s funeral and Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger‘s accession to the papacy, the most interesting was the American liberal media‘s attempt to once again smear the reputation of Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac. The New York Times published an article saying that the late Pope John Paul had ―incensed‖ his critics by the decision to beatify Cardinal Stepinac in 1998. The article went on to claim that Stepinac was the ―archbishop of Zagreb during World War II, when a Nazi puppet regime ruled Croatia and 700,000 Serbs, Jews and others were sent to death camps.‖ CNN‘s Christiane Amanpour also cited the beatification of Stepinac as one of the most ―controversial‖ acts of John Paul‘s papacy. She scolded the pope for elevating to sainthood a man who was the head of the Croatian Catholic Church at a time ―when the Croatian fascists were almost aligned with the Catholic Church and had had these terrible pogroms against the Serbs during World War II.‖ It is easy to dismiss these claims as ignorant statements from reporters who should know better. But that would be a grave mistake. For the charges leveled by The New York Times and CNN against Stepinac are the culmination of decades of effective propaganda by Yugoslav authorities and Serbian lobbying organizations within the United States. The essence of this smear campaign is the allegation that Stepinac, along with the Croatian Catholic Church, collaborated with Ante Pavelic‘s fascist regime. Moreover, Stepinac‘s critics charge that the archbishop either tacitly supported or at the very least turned a blind eye to the crimes perpetrated by the NDH, such as mass murder, genocide and forced religious conversions. Stepinac is largely viewed by America‘s Serbian community and their political allies as a ―murderer saint.‖ Although many in the U.S. establishment media do not take such an extreme position, they certainly believe that Stepinac was some kind of a fascist collaborator. What is remarkable about the ―Stepinac-was-a-Nazi-quisling‖ myth is that it is entirely false. In fact, the allegations are directly contradicted by the overwhelming historical evidence that has come to light since the collapse of Yugoslavia. The wealth of information that has emerged from the newly discovered archives in Moscow, Belgrade and Zagreb has been especially damaging to Tito‘s communist regime. This is particularly true about Stepinac and the numerous lies propagated against him. Stepinac was not a fascist, nor even an authoritarian right-winger. Rather, he was a principled constitutional liberal who supported Vladko Macek‘s Croat Peasant Party. In 1938, after he became Archbishop of Zagreb, he openly

declared that he had voted for Macek in the elections.Nor was he a Serbophobe as some of his later critics have charged. Instead, the opposite was true. For much of his youth, Stepinac had been a champion of South Slav unity. During World War I, he even volunteered to join the Yugoslav Legion to fight AustroHungarian troops on the Salonika front. But his rapid disillusionment with Royalist Yugoslavia paralleled that of most Croats. It was Belgrade‘s stifling brutality, its numerous pogroms against Croatian peasants, its imprisonment of leading Croatian politicians (Stjepan Radic being the most notable) and exploitation of the Croatian economy that most disturbed him. In fact, no other figure in Croatian history—with the possible exception of Franjo Tudjman— so closely embodied the political evolution of the wider Croatian public as did Stepinac. When he fell under the spell of South Slav unity, so did they; when he reached out for Radic‘s program of home-rule and social democracy, so did they; when he drank from the poisoned chalice of Pavelic‘s pseudo-independent state only to recoil in disgust, so did they; and when he stood up to Tito‘s victorious armies in defense of human rights and national self-determination only to be crushed, so did they. Stepinac‘s major flaw was that he was prone to be naïve about politics (and on this he also reflected the great weakness in the Croatian national character, which sadly continues to this day). Nowhere was this trait more clearly on display than during the first several weeks of the NDH. Following Nazi Germany‘s invasion of Yugoslavia in April, 1941, Stepinac—along with many other Croats—did initially welcome the creation of the NDH. Yet Stepinac‘s reasons were similar to those of many of his fellow countrymen: It was not a fascist state that he welcomed, but the end of Croatia‘s subjugation under Serb-dominated Yugoslavia. However, he quickly realized that Pavelic‘s NDH was an entirely different creature from what he had hoped and expected. The Ustashe almost immediately began to erect a racialist totalitarian state modeled on Hitler‘s Germany and Mussolini‘s Italy. Moreover, the Ustashe quickly lost whatever mass appeal they had when the actual terms of this supposed new ―independent‖ state were made known to the public. Croatia was truncated into several parts, with much of Dalmatia annexed to Italy and German and Hungarian troops exercising ―spheres of influence‖ over large swaths of NDH territory, including Bosnia. In short, rather than securing genuine national independence, Pavelic had transformed Croatia into a colony of Berlin and Rome. He had simply transferred his country from one foreign dictatorship to another; only now it was not the Serbs, but the Germans and Italians who were calling the shots. Pavelic‘s dwindling popularity among most Croats was evident from the summer of 1941 and lasted until the end of the war. His regime had alienated most people in Dalmatia. It was also deeply unpopular in Croatia‘s population heartland of Slavonia, where the overwhelming majority of citizens retained their loyalty to the Croatian Peasant Party (many of whose leaders were imprisoned by the Ustashe). Much of the Zagreb bourgeoisie and intelligentsia were also opposed to him. However, Pavelic‘s lack of support was especially evident in the fact that, throughout his entire tenure in office, he never managed to orchestrate the kind of fascist mass rallies common under Hitler, Mussolini and Franco. The Croatian public quickly understood that Pavelic was not their liberator, but their slave master. Stepinac‘s genius and moral greatness lay in that he realized this and sought to do something about it. In numerous letters and homilies throughout 1941 and 1942, he chastised Pavelic and other senior members of the regime for the mass killings, rapes and state-sanctioned racial laws directed against Jews, Serbs and Gypsies. ―No one can deny that these terrible acts

of violence and cruelty have been taking place,‖ Stepinac wrote to Pavelic in a letter dated Nov. 20, 1941. ―The Croatian nation has been proud of its 1,000-year-old culture and Christian tradition. That is why we wait for it to show in practice, now that it has achieved its freedom, a greater nobility and humanity than that displayed by its former rulers.‖ He later denounced to Pavelic the Jasenovac concentration camp as ―a shameful stain on the honor of the NDH.‖ In a powerful homily delivered from Zagreb Cathedral in the fall of 1942, Stepinac assaulted the anti-human and collectivist ideologies of Nazism, fascism and communism. ―Each nation and each race has the right to life and treatment worthy of man,‖ he said. ―This is why the Catholic Church has always condemned, and is today condemning the injustice and acts of violence committed in the name of theories of class, race and nation.‖ Yet Stepinac did more than speak out against the evils of his time. He also acted, often at the risk of his own life. The Archbishop directly intervened to save thousands of lives—Jews, Serbs and anti-fascist Croats—during the war. Amiel Shomrony, who served under the last Chief Rabbi of Zagreb, Miroslav Freiberger, has testified that Stepinac rescued countless Jews by helping to smuggle them to Hungary and then on to safety in Palestine. Following Stepinac‘s 1946 conviction by Tito‘s Partisans on trumped up charges of collaboration with the Ustashe, Louis Braier, then-president of the Jewish Community in the United States, said that the Archbishop was ―one of the few men who rose in Europe against the Nazi tyranny precisely at the moment it was most dangerous. He spoke openly and fearlessly against the racial laws. After His Holiness, Pius XII, he was the greatest defender of the Jews persecuted in Europe." By the end of the war, Stepinac had become such a staunch opponent of the NDH regime that many of his closest aides urged him to flee to the Vatican for fear that he would be murdered by Pavelic‘s secret police. Until the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1991, the communist authorities sought to cover up the fact that, for much of the Second World War, Tito‘s Partisans frequently incorporated Stepinac‘s speeches in their propaganda, especially his assaults on fascism, racism and Pavelic‘s violation of human rights. Upon coming to power, Tito realized that the Archbishop was his most dangerous opponent. The communist strongman was determined to destroy Stepinac‘s reputation. Tito also sought to smash the principal bulwark to his totalitarian rule: the Croatian Catholic Church. For the Partisans, Stepinac‘s great sin was that he refused to follow the example of the Serbian Orthodox Church hierarchy, which had become co-opted by the new regime. Stepinac, however, spurned Tito‘s demand that Croatia‘s Catholic Church separate from the Vatican, and form its own ―national‖ church with the Archbishop as its head. In the end, the Archbishop refused to be corrupted by power. His greatness lay in the fact that, more than any other individual during post-World War II Yugoslavia, he grasped the entire evil nature of Tito‘s communist empire. Stepinac courageously spoke out against all of the crimes committed by the communists—the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of Croatian dissidents; the confiscation of private property; the restoration of a centralized, Serb-dominated autocracy anchored in Belgrade; the abrogation of basic human rights and democratic freedoms; the expulsion of 700,000 ethnic Germans; the destruction of Croatia‘s economy and environment; and the imposition

of monolithic state control over the media and education. Milovan Djilas, who was Tito‘s right-hand man for much of the 1940s before he became disillusioned with the brutality and mendacity of the regime, later admitted that ―we communists did not want any opposition, none whatsoever.‖ Stepinac understood that Tito‘s Yugoslavia was a genocidal project that sought to eradicate Croatia‘s distinct culture and national identity. And that the Partisans‘ main thrust of attack was to strangle the cradle of Croatian civilization, the Catholic Church. This is why the communists immediately launched a sweeping campaign to persecute the church. Hundreds of priests and nuns were slaughtered. Church property was confiscated. Numerous churches were turned into warehouses and communist ―cultural centers.‖ Compulsory civil marriage was introduced. Most importantly, jurisdiction over education was stripped from the Church and placed into the hands of the state, thereby enabling the Yugoslav authorities to systematically indoctrinate the youth. The schools, along with the media, were the primary vehicles by which the authorities in Belgrade brainwashed the Croatian youth. The result was that it produced generations of self-loathing Croats who were taught to despise their culture, history and religion.The linchpin of this anti-Croatian, anti-Catholic strategy was to portray all Croats who championed national independence as ―fascists‖ seeking to revive Pavelic‘s NDH. As part of this strategy, Tito‘s Communists had to present the Catholic Church as a reactionary, pro-Ustashe organization complicit in genocide and mass murder. And Stepinac, being the most famous symbol of the Croatian Catholic Church and the Croatian national cause, had to be crucified. His 1946 show trial in Belgrade was a complete sham. The ―guilty‖ verdict was decided before the trial even began. Djilas himself confessed that Stepinac was condemned not for any supposed collaboration with the NDH, but for his opposition to Tito. ―He would certainly not have been brought to trial for his conduct in the war … had he not continued to oppose the new Communist regime,‖ Djilas later wrote. ―"To honestly tell the truth, I think, and not only I, that Stepinac is a man of integrity, a firm character, who is impossible to break,‖ Djilas said in 1956. ―He was really unjustly convicted, but how many times has it happened in history that just people were convicted out of political necessity."Only Stepinac‘s international notoriety saved him from a grisly execution. Still, he suffered harsh imprisonment, and then later house arrest and internal exile in his native village of Krasic. Moreover, evidence now shows that he was slowly poisoned to death by Tito‘s secret police. The real tragedy of Stepinac is not that he suffered and died on behalf of his people and his faith. This is the duty of all devout Christians. It is also not that the Croatian media and diplomatic corps has been weak in its defense of this great man against the barrage of propaganda emanating from Belgrade, the Serbian lobby in Washington and their hacks in the U.S. media establishment. No. The real tragedy is that many Croats, especially those on the Mesic-Racan-Pusic Left, actually believe many of the lies told about Stepinac. They are the products of decades of Communist social engineering. And while Tito‘s multinational Yugoslavia may be dead, they continue to share many of its goals and prejudices. For these hard leftists, the Catholic Church, with its opposition to abortion, euthanasia, homosexual marriage and sexual permissiveness, continues to be a reactionary force that needs to be marginalized. They continue to excuse the numerous crimes of communism. They continue to deride Croatian patriotism and the existence of a distinct national identity. And they continue to view themselves as ―anti-fascists,‖ insisting on perpetuating the Titoist myth that cut-throat Ustashes are lurking under every corner in Croatia.

In short, they have retained the self-hating, racist attitudes inculcated by their former communist masters. They genuinely believe that to be a proud and authentic Croat is to be some kind of a fascist. This is why their current political agenda is to de-Tudjmanize and de-Croatianize their country, and to strip it of all national symbols and content. Their hope is for Croatia to again plunge itself into an internationalist project, whether it be a European socialist super state or a reconstituted Balkan union. Stepinac‘s enduring legacy is that he offered a distinctly different vision for Croatia. He understood that God, country and family were the fundamental institutions of a just society. He saw the evils of totalitarianism and imperialism. He championed a democratic and independent Croatia, rooted in its Catholic heritage and based on human rights, social justice and constitutional self-government. Stepinac embodied the very best of Croatia—the Croatia of priests and peasants, princes and poets, knights and kings, professionals and philosophers. His Croatia was not that of gangsters, opportunists and cheap propagandists; it was neither communist Red nor fascist Black. Rather, it was a democratic and patriotic White.It is this inspiring vision, along with his principled defense of human freedom in the face of unimaginable horror, which makes Stepinac one of the giants of the 20th century. He is Croatia‘s saint. - Jeffrey T. Kuhner is communications director at The Ripon Society (, a major Republican think tank based in Washington, D.C. He is also a regular contributor to the Commentary pages of The Washington Times. This essay is adapted from Mr. Kuhner‘s upcoming book, ―Fatal Embrace: The Croat-Serb Conflict in the 20th Century.‖ Mr. Kuhner would like to give special thanks to Danica Ramljak for her invaluable research assistance in the writing of this article. Nadnaslov: Novoobnovljene laĹži o Stepincu plod su srpske propagande u Americi

Glavni StepinÄ?ev 'grijeh' nije bila navodna suradnja s PaveliÄ�em, nego to ĹĄto je bio oporba diktatoru Titu!

Pod 1) Njegova je veliÄ?ina u tomu ĹĄto je, bolje nego itko u poratnoj Jugoslaviji, prozreo svu zloÄ�u Titova komunistiÄ?kog carstva. Stepinac je hrabro istupao protiv svih komunistiÄ?kih zloÄ?ina: masovnih ubojstava stotina tisuÄ�a svojih hrvatskih politiÄ?kih protivnika; konfiskacija privatnog vlasniĹĄtva; povratka centralizirane autokracije uĹĄanÄ?ene u Beogradu i pod prevlaĹĄÄ�u Srba; krĹĄenja temeljnih ljudskih prava i demokratskih sloboda; protjerivanja 700.000 pripadnika njemaÄ?ke manjine; uniĹĄtenja hrvatskog gospodarstva i okoliĹĄa i nametanje monolitne drĹžavne vlasti nad medijima i naobrazbom Pod 2) Hrvatski mediji i diplomacija slabi su u obrani ovoga velikoga Ä?ovjeka protiv propagandne bujice iz Beograda, srpskog lobija u Washingtonu i njegovih plaÄ�enika u najmoÄ�nijim ameriÄ?kim medijima. Prava tragedija je ĹĄto mnogi Hrvati, osobito oni s MesiÄ�-RaÄ?an-PusiÄ�kine ljevice doista vjeruju u brojne laĹži koje su reÄ?ene o Stepincu. One su proizvod desetljeÄ�a komunistiÄ?kog socijalnog inĹženjeringa. I dok je Titova Jugoslavija moĹžda doista mrtva, oni i dalje dijele mnoge

Naprotiv. Ona ga je ukorila ĹĄto je uzdigao na Ä?ast oltara Ä?ovjeka koji je bio poglavarom hrvatske katoliÄ?ke crkve u vrijeme «kada su hrvatski faĹĄisti bili gotovo svrstani s katoliÄ?kom crkvom i provodili straĹĄne pogrome protiv Srba tijekom 2. godine postao zagrebaÄ?kim nadbiskupom. Christiane Amanpour sa CNN-a takoÄ�er je navela StepinÄ?evu beatifikaciju kao jedan od 'kontroverznih' poteza pape Ivana Pavla. Stepinac nije bio faĹĄist pa ni autoritarni desniÄ?ar.njezine teĹžnje i predrasude PiĹĄe: Jeffrey T. Beogradu i Zagrebu osobito je razorno za Titov komunistiÄ?ki reĹžim. Ĺ toviĹĄe. MeÄ�) Hrvati su slijedili Stepinca. kao ĹĄto su masovna ubojstva. OptuĹžbe New York Timesa i CNN-a protiv Stepinca tek su vrhunac djelotvorne promidĹžbe jugoslavenskih vlasti i srpskih lobistiÄ?kih udruga u SAD-u. u vrijeme kada je Hrvatskom vladao nacistiÄ?ki marionetski reĹžim. otvoreno je izjavio kako je na izborima glasovao za MaÄ?eka. zapravo. Tijekom 1. Ĺ˝idova i drugih poslano u logore smrti». New York Times je tako objavio Ä?lanak u kojemu stoji kako je papa Ivan Pavao 'razjario' svoje kritiÄ?are odlukom da 1998. a 700. i izbora kardinala Josepha Ratzingera za novog papu bili su pokuĹĄaji ameriÄ?kih liberalnih medija da joĹĄ jednom okrnje ugled kardinala Alojzija Stepinca. kao ĹĄto su mu neki kasniji kritiÄ?ari predbacivali. Ovo posebno vaĹži za Stepinca i mnogobrojne laĹži koje su se ĹĄirile o njemu. U mitu o Stepincu kao 'nacistiÄ?kom kvislingu' zapanjuje ĹĄto je on potpuno laĹžan. oni zacijelo misle kako je Stepinac bio neka vrsta faĹĄistiÄ?kog suradnika. Istina je suprotna: dobar dio svoje mladosti Stepinac je zagovarao juĹžnoslavensko jedinstvo. svjetskog rata Ä?ak je dragovoljno . godina beatificira kardinala Stepinca. Obilje podataka iz novootkrivenih pismohrana u Moskvi. genocid i nasilno pokrĹĄtavanje. U Ä?lanku se dalje tvrdi kako je Stepinac bio «zagrebaÄ?ki nadbiskup tijekom 2. bio je dosljedni ustavni liberal koji je podupirao Hrvatsku seljaÄ?ku stranku Vlatka MaÄ?eka. StepinÄ?evi kritiÄ?ari tvrde kako je nadbiskup preĹĄutno podupirao ili barem gledao kroz prste zloÄ?inima NDH. Nakon ĹĄto je 1938. Lako bi bilo opovrgnuti ove tvrdnje kao neznanje nedoraslih izvjestitelja da to uistinu nije bila teĹĄka pogrjeĹĄka. proturjeÄ?e neoborivi povijesni dokazi izaĹĄli na svjetlo dana nakon raspada Jugoslavije. Srbi u Americi i njihovi politiÄ?ki saveznici Stepinca uglavnom smatraju 'svecem ubojicom'. SrĹž ove crne legende je tvrdnja kako su Stepinac i hrvatska katoliÄ?ka crkva suraÄ�ivali s faĹĄistiÄ?kim reĹžimom Ante PaveliÄ�a. Kuhner Zanimljiviji od svih medijskih prikaza pokopa Ivana Pavla II. I mada mnogi vodeÄ�i ameriÄ?ki mediji ne dijele takvo ekstremno stajaliĹĄte. Ovim tvrdnjama.000 Srba. svjetskog rata». a ne PaveliÄ�a Stepinac nije bio ni srbofob. svjetskog rata.

samo su sada. kad je pio iz zatrovanog pehara PaveliÄ�eve nazovi-nezavisne drĹžave i zatim ga s gnuĹĄanjem odbio. gazde bile Nijemci i Talijani. uobiÄ?ajene kod Hitlera. kao i veÄ�ina Hrvata. koja. Jednostavno. U brojnim pismima i propovijedima tijekom cijele 1941. StepinÄ?ev genij i moralna veliÄ?ina je u tome ĹĄto je to shvatio i pokuĹĄao neĹĄto poduzeti. ni jedno drugo ime u hrvatskoj povijesti – moĹžda s izuzetkom Franje TuÄ�mana – nije tako rjeÄ?ito utjelovilo politiÄ?ki razvitak ĹĄire hrvatske javnosti kao Stepinac. i ona je to bila. manjak potpore PaveliÄ�u osobito se oÄ?itovao u tome ĹĄto tijekom cijele vladavine on nikad nije uspio orkestrirati onakve masovne skupove. On je. Hrvatska je raĹĄÄ?ereÄ?ena na nekoliko dijelova: veliki dio Dalmacije pripojen je Italiji i NjemaÄ?koj. uhiÄ�enja vodeÄ�ih hrvatskih politiÄ?ara. ukljuÄ?ujuÄ�i i Bosnu. svoju je zemlju iz ruku jedne strane diktature predao drugoj. ustaĹĄe su brzo izgubile i masovnu potporu koju su na poÄ?etku imali kad je javnost upoznala stvarne zasade ove navodno nove 'nezavisne' drĹžave. kad se suprotstavio Titovoj pobjedniÄ?koj vojsci braneÄ�i ljudska prava i nacionalno samoodreÄ�enje.pristupio jugoslavenskoj legiji u borbi protiv austrougarske vojske na solunskoj bojiĹĄnici. Hrvatska javnost brzo je shvatila kako PaveliÄ� nije nikakav osloboditelj nego goniÄ? robova. brzo razoÄ?arao kraljevskom Jugoslavijom. u prvom redu Stjepana RadiÄ�a. Pisma PaveliÄ�u Sunovrat PaveliÄ�eve popularnosti meÄ�u veÄ�inom Hrvata bio je oÄ?it od ljeta 1941. Nakon napada nacistiÄ?ke NjemaÄ?ke na Jugoslaviju u travnju 1941. a maÄ�arska vojska drĹžala je vlast u 'utjecajnom podruÄ?ju' na velikim dijelovima zemlja NDH. godine ĹĄibao je i druge visoke reĹžimske duĹžnosnike zbog masovnih ubojstava. traje do dana danaĹĄnjeg). I velik mu se dio zagrebaÄ?kog graÄ�anstva i inteligencije odupirao. Ona je najjasnije iskazana u prvih nekoliko tjedana NDH. UstaĹĄe su gotovo od poÄ?etka gradile rasistiÄ?ku totalitarnu drĹžavu po uzoru na Hitlerovu NjemaÄ?ku i Mussolinijevu Italiju. Njegov reĹžim odbacivala je veÄ�ina ljudi u Dalmaciji. ali se. Ĺ toviĹĄe. Umjesto da osigura istinsku nacionalnu nezavisnost. umjesto Srba. gdje je velika veÄ�ina graÄ�ana bila i dalje odana Hrvatskoj seljaÄ?koj stranci (Ä?ije su mnoge voÄ�e dopale ustaĹĄkih zatvora). kao i gospodarsko izrabljivanje. Zapravo. a bio je vrlo neomiljen u srcu hrvatske Slavonije. godine i takav je ostao do kraja rata. Ali. meÄ�utim. silovanja i drĹžavno . NajviĹĄe ga je muÄ?ilo sirovo beogradsko nasilje. i 1942. Ali njegove razloge dijelili su mnogi njegovi sunarodnjaci: nisu oni klicali faĹĄistiÄ?koj drĹžavi nego kraju hrvatske potlaÄ?enosti u Jugoslaviji pod srpskim gospodstvom. StepinÄ?eva glavna grjeĹĄka bila je politiÄ?ka naivnost (i u tome je on slika i prilika te velike mane u naravi hrvatskog naroda. godine Stepinac je – kao i mnogi drugi Hrvati – prvotno pozdravio stvaranje NDH. PaveliÄ� je pretvorio Hrvatsku u koloniju Berlina i Rima. Kad je on postao zatoÄ?nikom juĹžnoslavenskog jedinstva. uÄ?inili su to i Hrvati. plativĹĄi to skupo – i Hrvati s bili s njim. Mussolinija i Franca. ubrzo shvatio kako je PaveliÄ�eva NDH potpuno drukÄ?ija tvorevina od one koju je oÄ?ekivao i kojoj se nadao. brojni pogromi hrvatskih seljaka. naĹžalost.

U snaĹžnoj propovijedi u zagrebaÄ?koj katedrali u jesen 1942. «Svaki narod i svaka rasa ima pravo na Ĺživot i postupanje dostojno Ä?ovjeka». uperenih protiv Ĺ˝idova. Ovaj komunistiÄ?ki diktator odluÄ?io je sruĹĄiti StepinÄ?ev ugled pokuĹĄavajuÄ�i ukloniti i glavni kamen spoticanja njegovoj totalitarnoj vladavini: hrvatsku katoliÄ?ku crkvu. Srba i Cigana. Ä?esto dovodeÄ�i u opasnost i vlastiti Ĺživot. Nakon Njegove Svetosti Pija XII.sankcioniranih rasnih zakona. bolje nego itko u . koju je nova vlast vezala uza se. Sve do raspada Jugoslavije 1991. a zatim i do utoÄ?iĹĄta u Palestini. Nadbiskup se tijekom rata izravno zaloĹžio za spas tisuÄ�a Ĺživota – Ĺ˝idova. Za partizane StepinÄ?ev veliki grijeh bilo je odbijanje da slijedi primjer hijerarhije Srpske pravoslavne crkve. tadaĹĄnji predsjednik Ĺ˝idovske zajednice u SAD-u. «Stoga je katoliÄ?ka crkva uvijek osuÄ�ivala pa osuÄ�uje i danas nepravde i nasilja koja se provode u ime klasnih. Amiel Shomrony. s prijezirom odbio Titov zahtjev za odvajanjem hrvatske katoliÄ?ke crkve od Vatikana i stvaranjem vlastite 'nacionalne' crkve s nadbiskupom na Ä?elu. rasnih i nacionalnih teorija». «Hrvatski narod ponosi se svojom tisuÄ�ljetnom uljudbom i hrvatskom tradicijom. Njegova je veliÄ?ina u tomu ĹĄto je. Govorio je otvoreno i neustraĹĄivo protiv rasnih zakona. pak. Louis Braier.: navodi su prijevod s engleskog). Ali Stepinac nije samo propovijedao protiv zala svoga doba. Krajem rata Stepinac je postao tako Ĺžestoki protivnik reĹžima NDH da su ga mnogi najbliĹži prijatelji nagovarali na bijeg u Vatikan iz straha da ga PaveliÄ�eva tajna policija ne ubije. rekao je kako je nadbiskup bio «jedan od rijetkih ljudi koji su se u Europi digli protiv nacistiÄ?ke tiranije upravo u vrijeme kad je to bilo najopasnije. on je bio najveÄ�i branitelj Ĺ˝idova. govorio je. navlastito njegove napade na faĹĄizam. «Nitko ne moĹže zanijekati da se dogaÄ�aju ta straĹĄna djela nasilja i okrutnosti». progonjenih u Europi». Stepinac je. Jedan od najveÄ�ih branitelja Ĺ˝idova Nakon ĹĄto su Titovi partizani 1946. Kasnije je PaveliÄ�u prokazao jasenovaÄ?ki koncentracijski logor kao «sramnu ljagu na Ä?asti NDH». koji je bio suradnikom posljednjeg zagrebaÄ?kog glavnog rabina Miroslava Freibergera. rasizam i PaveliÄ�evo krĹĄenje ljudskih prava.» (op. uvelike tijekom 2. godine komunistiÄ?ke vlasti pokuĹĄavale su prikriti Ä?injenicu da su. Po dolasku na vlast Tito je shvatio kako je Stepinac njegov najopasniji protivnik. faĹĄizma i komunizma. Stoga oÄ?ekujemo da se na djelu pokaĹže. prev. godine osudili Stepinca na osnovi namjeĹĄtenih optuĹžaba za suradnju s ustaĹĄama. godine Stepinac je napao neÄ?ovjeÄ?ne kolektivistiÄ?ke ideologije nacizma. godine. On je na kraju odbio prodati se vlasti. nego ĹĄto su to iskazivali njezini bivĹĄi vladari. studenog 1941. On je i djelovao. danas kad smo postigli slobodu. svjetskog rata. pisao je Stepinac PaveliÄ�u u pismu od 20. viĹĄe plemenitosti i Ä?ovjeÄ?nosti. posvjedoÄ?io je kako je Stepinac spasio bezbroj Ĺ˝idova pomaĹžuÄ�i im u bijegu do MaÄ�arske. Srba i antifaĹĄistiÄ?kih Hrvata. Titovi partizani Ä?esto umetali StepinÄ?eve govore u svoju propagandu.

a crkvena imovina je konfiscirana. Njegovo suÄ�enje 1946. prije nego ĹĄto se razoÄ?arao gruboĹĄÄ�u i podmukloĹĄÄ�u reĹžima. Posljedica su bila naraĹĄtaji Hrvata koji su prezreli svoj identitet. napisao je kasnije Ä?ilas. uljudbu. proustaĹĄku organizaciju. Stepinca je od uĹžasa smrtne kazne spasio samo njegov svjetski glas.poratnoj Jugoslaviji. Ubijene su stotine sveÄ�enika i redovnica. Ĺ kole i mediji bile su glavna sredstva kojima su beogradske vlasti ispirale mozak hrvatskoj mladeĹži.000 pripadnika njemaÄ?ke manjine. Kao dio ove strategije Titovi komunisti morali su predstaviti katoliÄ?ku crkvu kao reakcionarnu. ima novih dokaza kako ga je Titova tajna policija postupno trovala. To je . koji je tijekom Ä?etrdesetih godina proĹĄlog stoljeÄ�a bio Titova desna ruka. kako je Stepinac bio Ä?astan Ä?ovjek Ä?vrste naravi kojega je nemoguÄ�e slomiti». Brojne crkve pretvorene su u skladiĹĄta i komunistiÄ?ke 'domove kulture'. 'faĹĄistima' koji Ĺžele oĹživjeti PaveliÄ�evu NDH. Presuda «kriv je» donesena je joĹĄ prije poÄ?etka suÄ�enja. povratka centralizirane autokracije uĹĄanÄ?ene u Beogradu i pod prevlaĹĄÄ�u Srba. koji su zagovarali nacionalnu nezavisnost. uniĹĄtenja hrvatskog gospodarstva i okoliĹĄa i nametanje monolitne drĹžavne vlasti nad medijima i naobrazbom. Ĺ toviĹĄe. godine bilo je potpuna prijevara. ali u povijesti se Ä?esto dogaÄ�alo da se ljude osudi zbog politiÄ?ke potrebe». katoliÄ?ka crkva. «On je bio doista nepravedno osuÄ�en. A Stepinac. I sam Ä?ilas priznao je kako Stepinac nije bio osuÄ�en zbog navodne kolaboracije s NDH nego zbog oporbe Titu. «Zasigurno mu se ne bi sudilo zbog njegova ponaĹĄanja tijekom rata da se nije nastavio opirati novom komunistiÄ?kom reĹžimu». «Iskreno govoreÄ�i. mislim. povijest i vjeru. Shvatio je kako je Jugoslavija genocidni projekt Milovan Ä?ilas. kasnije je priznao da «mi komunisti nismo htjeli nikakvu oporbu». krĹĄenja temeljnih ljudskih prava i demokratskih sloboda. protjerivanja 700. morao je biti razapet. StepinÄ?eva vizija Hrvatske Stvarna StepinÄ?eva tragedija nije to ĹĄto je stradao i umro za svoj narod i vjeru. Ä?ime je jugoslavenskim vlastima omoguÄ�ena sustavna indoktrinacija mladeĹži. Ĺ to je najvaĹžnije. Upravo stoga su komunisti odmah pokrenuli veliku kampanju njezinog progona. konfiskacija privatnog vlasniĹĄtva. rekao je Ä?ilas 1956. nije ga spasio od teĹĄkog suĹžanjstva. NajjaÄ?e oruĹžje ove protuhrvatske i protukatoliÄ?ke strategije bilo je prikazivanje Hrvata. i ne samo ja. Stepinac je hrabro istupao protiv svih komunistiÄ?kih zloÄ?ina: masovnih ubojstava stotina tisuÄ�a svojih hrvatskih politiÄ?kih protivnika. sudionicu genocida i masovnih ubojstava. Uvedena je obveza graÄ�anskog braka.Stepinac je shvatio kako je Titova Jugoslavija genocidni projekt koji je htio iskorijeniti posebni hrvatski nacionalni identitet i kulturu pa je glavna oĹĄtrica partizanskih nasrtaja bila kolijevka hrvatske civilizacije. kao najslavniji simbol hrvatske katoliÄ?ke crkve i hrvatske nacionalne stvari. a kasnije i kuÄ�nog pritvora i unutraĹĄnjeg izgnanstva u rodnom selu KraĹĄiÄ�u. prozreo svu zloÄ�u Titova komunistiÄ?kog carstva. naobrazba je oduzeta crkvi i dana u drĹžavne ruke. Ali. godine.

eutanaziji. oni i dalje dijele mnoge njezine teĹžnje i predrasude. Kuhner direktor je komunikacija u Ripon Societyju (www. stoljeÄ�a. Zagovarao je demokratsku i nezavisnu Hrvatsku. Upravo ova njegova pobuÄ�ujuÄ�a vizija. Oni doista misle da biti pravi i ponosni Hrvat znaÄ?i biti neka vrsta faĹĄista. Ä?ine Stepinca jednim od divova 20. srpskog lobija u Washingtonu i njegovih plaÄ�enika u najmoÄ�nijim ameriÄ?kim medijima. Ovaj esej je prilagoÄ�eni izvadak njegove knjige Fatalni stisak: hrvatsko-srpski sukob u 20. kao i dosljedna obrana Ä?ovjekove slobode. prava tragedija je da mnogi Oni i dalje opravdavaju brojne komunistiÄ?ke zloÄ?ine. On je hrvatski svetac. katoliÄ?ka crkva. Ne. stoljeÄ�u. beskiÄ?menjaka i jeftinih propagandista. Prije – demokratski i domoljubno kao snijeg bijela i Ä?ista. sa sjediĹĄtem u Washingtonu u SAD-u. osobito oni s MesiÄ�-RaÄ?an-PusiÄ�kine ljevice doista vjeruju u brojne laĹži koje su reÄ?ene o Stepincu. uglednoj analitiÄ?koj skupini ('think tanku') ameriÄ?ke Republikanske stranke. Stepinac je bio izraz onog najboljeg u Hrvatskoj – Hrvatskoj seljaka i duhovnika. zvao se on europska socijalistiÄ?ka naddrĹžava ili obnovljena balkanska unija. koja je u pripremi. ni faĹĄistiÄ?ki crna. homoseksualnim brakovima i spolnoj razuzdanosti i dalje je reakcionarna snaga koju treba ukloniti. nije bila ni komunistiÄ?ki crvena. Gosp. One su proizvod desetljeÄ�a komunistiÄ?kog socijalnog inĹženjeringa. pjesnika i vladara. druĹĄtvenoj pravdi i ustavnom suverenitetu. Jednom rijeÄ?ju. ukorijenjenu u svojoj katoliÄ?koj baĹĄtini i zasnovanu na ljudskim pravima. Njegova Hrvatska nije Hrvatska kriminalaca. StepinÄ?evo trajno naslijeÄ�e je njegova drukÄ?ija vizija Hrvatske. I dok je Titova Jugoslavija moĹžda doista mrtva. suoÄ?ene s nezamislivim strahotama. Stoga je njihov politiÄ?ki program detuÄ�manizacija i dekroatizacija zemlje te uklanjanje njezinog nacionalnog znakovlja i sadrĹžaja. znanstvenika i filozofa. Za ove tvrde ljeviÄ?are. Nadaju se da Ä�e Hrvatska ponovno uroniti u joĹĄ jedan internacionalistiÄ?ki projekt. i dalje doĹživljavaju sebe kao 'antifaĹĄiste' ustrajavajuÄ�i na titoistiÄ?kom mitu kako u Hrvatskoj «ustaĹĄa viri iza svakog busa». i dalje ismijavaju hrvatsko domoljublje i postojanje zasebnog nacionalnog identiteta. sa svojim protivljenjem pobaÄ?aju. Vidio je zla totalitarizma i imperijalizma.riponsoc. zadrĹžali su rasistiÄ?ki stav samoporicanja i mrĹžnje koji su im usadili njihovi bivĹĄi komunistiÄ?ki uÄ?itelji.) . domovina i obitelj temeljne ustanove pravedna druĹĄtva. (Jeffrey T. Kuhner posebno zahvaljuje gospoÄ�i Danici Ramljak na njezinoj dragocjenoj pomoÄ�i u pisanju ovog Ä?lanka. On je znao da su Bog. Redovni je komentator Washington Timesa. Nije ni istina da su hrvatski mediji i diplomacija slabi u obrani ovog velikog Ä?ovjeka protiv propagandne bujice iz Beograda.duĹžnost svih vjernih krĹĄÄ�ana. junaka i kraljeva.

Kent Ž .http://books.. Po avtorjih Peter %22national+church%22+yugoslavia+tito&source=bl&ots=8QRurABiCU&sig=hvcEWnPhF 7IqGig6S1XCHFUWRus&hl=sl&ei=y9h5S9KKFMyB_QatluX7DA&sa=X&oi=book_result &ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBEQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Stepinac%20%22national%20 church%22%20yugoslavia%20tito&f=false izjemno pomembna zadeva!!!! The lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: the Roman Catholic Church and the .

Serbians have traditionally been Orthodox. The "religious war" account. declared: The cross of Christ stands next to the Croatian flag. there is a religious dimension to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. Powers Introduction A history textbook used by high school seniors throughout Serbia blames the outbreak of the current conflict in the former Yugoslavia on the Vatican. The statement of the religious leaders reflects the "manipulation of religion" account of the war. it goes on. by Gerard F. Vol. Powers. the Croatian bishop next to the Croatian minister of state. Roman Catholic and Serbian Orthodox communities in Bosnia stated "emphatically" that "[t]his is not a religious war. and that the characterization of this tragic conflict as a religious war and the misuse of all religious symbols used with the aim to further hatred.questia. National and ethnic divisions correspond closely to differences in religious identity."(1) Josip Beljan. and. Muslim is both a religious and national identity. According to this view. Journal of International Affairs. the leaders of the Islamic. "to prevent a repeat of the genocide they suffered in World War II. Conflict and Prospects for Reconciliation in Bosnia Croatia and Yugoslavia Journal article by Gerard F. the conflict is about nationalism.Serbian and communist. The hundreds of churches and mosques that have ."(3) These three quotes reflect three differing perspectives on the role of religion in the brutal war in the former Yugoslavia.. which "launched a battle against Orthodoxy and Serbs through the catholic Church and its allies.This was truly again a real war for the "honoured cross and golden liberty. The Veritas article provides evidence to support the "ethnoreligious war" account of the conflict.. This explanation acknowledges that religious fears and symbols have been manipulated and abused by cynical ultranationalists for their own ends. not religion per se. Clearly. 50. exemplified by the Serbian textbook. conflict and prospects for reconciliation in Bosnia. but religion has contributed to the rise of nationalist conflicts. The church is glad for the return of its people from the twofold slavery -. but downplays the role of religious differences or religious nationalism in fomenting conflict.qst. Croatians are predominantly Catholic.(2) In November 1992. Croatia and Yugoslavia. must be proscribed and is condemned..http://www. contends that specifically religious divisions give the conflict in the former Yugoslavia a dimension not unlike the religious wars Europe has known all too well over the centuries. in Bosnia.jsessionid=L5bSy5FFSQpPFQvp5vSzdk9P2n22T kGhJhTyhn81yQZ6LwySWdjp!-246448979!-129032011?docId=5000396987" The Serbs fought back." for the return of Christ and liberty to Croatia. writing in the catholic journal. 1996 Journal Article Excerpt Religion. Veritas.

(5) The Serbs felt that a more united Yugoslavia would end years of discriminatory treatment and give them the power and economic well-being commensurate with their numbers. http://www. Serb nationalists. Unable to maintain a Serb-dominated. protect most of the 30 percent of Serbs who live outside of Serbia. Bosnia and Macedonia and hard-line communist-turned-nationalist regimes in Serbia and Montenegro.churchinhistory. a failure in which cultural. most of the other nationalities wanted a more decentralized Yugoslavia. centralized Yugoslavia. However. The genocidal . not ethnic and religious. have fought for a more ethnically pure Greater Serbia that would incorporate and.. and the use of religious symbols in torture are just some of the ways the conflict has been defined according to a complex relationship between national and religious identity. These conflicting claims of self-determination would be difficult to resolve in any situation. his fragile efforts to balance these competing views of Yugoslavia gave way to a process of economic and political decentralization and Serious economic decline coincided with a growing political incompatibility after 1989 between the nascent democratic and nationalist movements in Croatia. retaining the internal borders of the Yugoslav republics. BosniaHerzegovina and Macedonia has been to seek independence. After Tito's CROATIA 1941 . fearing Serb domination. Yugoslavia dissolved in 1991 into a war over competing and mostly incompatible claims of self-determination. the religious leaders are essentially correct in downplaying the religious dimension of this war."(4) The conflict erupted out of the failure of the Yugoslav idea.churchinhistory. political. the ubiquitous appeals to religion in official propaganda." concludes Reverend Peter Kuzmic. Croatia. Nevertheless. president of the Protestant-Evangelical Council of Croatia and Bosnia. Slovenia. backed by a Yugoslav army intent on maintaining its power. "It cannot be overemphasized. None of the six nationalities of the federation was satisfied with the seventy years of the Yugoslav experiment. some Croat nationalists in Croatia and Herzegovina have sought to unite the Croat-majority areas of Bosnia into a Greater Croatia. like their Serbian counterparts.. economic and other types of factors were far more prominent than religious ones. The official position of Slovenia.htm The ChurchinHistory Information Centre www. in their view. "that the genesis of the war was ideological and territorial.been intentionally destroyed.1946 by DENNIS BARTON .

H). 2). Croatian autonomy and the coup 9). The Concordat 8). C). IV 1). A Long History 2). E). . The Serbian Bishops 13). 3). The Ustasha 7). The End of the 1914-18 War 3). I). Eastern Rite Catholics 5). The Kingdom of Serbs. 6). F). Ustasha rule 12).Chapter I INTRODUCTION AND MAPS THE POLITICAL BACKGROUND 1). The Invasion and the NDH 10). Descent into chaos 11). D). 8). G). The Serbian Orthodox Church 4). 4). Croats and Slovenes 6). 7). 5). B). The Croatian Eastern Orthodox Church HOW MANY DIED THE REACTION OF THE CHURCH Archbishop Stepiniv Stepinac and Pavelic The Holy See Forced Conversions Some of Stephiniac's actions The other bishops The Franciscan Order The Jesuit Order Diocesan priests SPECIAL EFFECTS Milan Budek Jasenovac Camp The Jews The Old Catholics The Gypsies The Moslems The Military Vicarate The Sabor II III A).

The Old Catholics In 1923/4 some ex-Catholic priests. 5.000 members ((CF 409 and BK 139-140)). 11). having problems with celibacy. 4). 7). They affiliated themselves to 'The Old Catholics of Utrecht' and in 1931 had 6. V 1). 14). 10). which conducted wedding ceremonies for divorced Catholics. 13). The Gypsies . 8). In February 1942 Mirko Puk. The Yugoslav government gave them more financial support. Stepinac and the political options The 1945 collapse Archbishop Stepinac's Trial Papal Silence The Crusaders (Krizari) The Catholic Press Rebaptisms and Oaths PROPAGANDA The Authors: Manhatten and O'Brien Propaganda Tricks Photography Archbishop Stepinac's Diary A 1943 Report Allied Intelligence Documents The Aksamovic leaflet The Grisogono letter REFERENCES Part 4 4). 15). formed the 'Yugoslav National Church'. in proportion to their numbers. announced the abolition of this church. 5).9). But there is no evidence that the bishops supported any persecution. 12). 2). He asserted that it had been recognised by the Yugoslav government because it created religious and national division within Croatia ((SAB 84-5)). A hint to this effect in the so-called "Stepinac Diary" is not reliable (See propaganda section). Minister of Justice and Religion. 3). The bishops were no doubt pleased that Yugoslav subsidies to these former priests had ceased. 6). than that received by the Catholic Church ((CF 268)).

but many had emigrated during the two years before the census was taken ((DK 110)). the 1931 census recorded the Gypsies as being 60% Catholic. Stepinac specifically referred to them in his sermon of 25th October 1943: . The Gypsies were obviously included in the vow the Pope called Humanity to take at Christmas 1942 (See Papal Silence section). was completely destroyed by the Serbs. Movements into Italy in 1940 and 1941 ((DK 108-110)) would have offset arrivals from Austria after 1938. Most of those living in Bosnia were Moslem or Serbian Orthodox ((NM 116-7)). The NDH government unsuccessfully tried to obtain the release of at least one Croatian Gypsy family from Auschwitz ((DK 155)). such as those with three Gypsy grandparents. ((DK 115)).000 Gypsies were slaughtered in the NDH as part of a 'Holy War' against non-Catholics ((DK 112. the most vibrant Moslem Gypsy village in Bosnia. providing an individual was not loyal to Serbia. while arrivals from Austria would have increased the number of Catholics. with survivors fleeing to the North-West ((NM 118)). Only 1. The reason for the killings was not religious. How can the killing of a mainly Catholic Community be logically described as a: ‗Holy war against non Catholics‘? The repeated calls by the Church for the human rights of everyone to be respected included the Gypsies. A few Ustasha thugs helped the Nazis. In the 1931 census 16.000 (as listed in Chapter II). So the number of deaths in the NDH would have been about 16.000 by 1941. But in the whole of the future area of the NDH. which judged Gypsies as subhuman. So 7080% of those killed in the NDH would have been Catholics.000 Gypsies inhabited the areas that became the NDH ((BK 137141)). There was nothing anti-Gypsy in Ustasha principles. but it would be naive to ascribe all Gypsy deaths to the Germans and their aids. When the gas-vans were returned to Germany in June 1942 from the Zemun camp ((RH 442)). 183)) must be due to the writer having been misled by Chetnik/Communist propaganda. Pogledala. The Gypsies tended to adopt the religion of those amongst whom they lived ((DK 21-2)). The Germans also killed the Gypsies in Serbia.000 declared themselves as Gypsies in the 1948 census. but the European-wide Nazi racial programme. There would have been a natural increase to 17. Many of the Orthodox would have joined the Serbian exodus to Serbia in 1941. Those living in the Italian zone were left in peace.The claim that 28. The Germans also targeted part-Gypsies.000 were killed in the whole of Yugoslavia ((SSJ 68: 43)). 32% Orthodox and 8% Moslem ((BK 137141)). About 27. the German commander boasted that he had: 'Solved the Gypsy problem in Serbia' ((DK 119)).

a non-Ustasha Moslem. The Serbs and Communists destroyed or badly damaged 756 mosques ((NM 196)). together with their deputies were all nonMoslems ((SSJ 6: 7)). In December 1939. The Commissioner for Bosnia was a Moslem ((NM 186)). He made this known in November 1940 ((RP 412)). In July 1941 the Domobran (NDH conscripted army) was formed. following the Serb uprising of June 1941 when over a thousand Moslems were massacred in two villages. During a sermon on the 31st October 1943. And. The Ex-Grand Mufti of Jerusalem visited Bosnia to give his blessing to the Moslem Handjar (Sword) division ((EJ 16: 877)). As with the Croats and Serbs. as is often asserted. the Chief of Staff and the Commanders of the airforce. Pope Plus XII entrusted Stepinac with the function. establish itself as a Catholic state. "Supreme Apostolic Vicar of the army". was Vice-President from November 1941 till the end of the war ((NM 185-6)). much of the fighting in Bosnia was between Moslem and Serb ((NM 176)). The Moslems The NDH did not. like the Catholic bishops. A few facts are required. The Military Vicarate It has been said that Stepinac. was ultimately responsible for all crimes committed by Ustasha army chaplains. but returned to maintain order in Bosnia ((NM 190-1)). cruelty and pillage. they held little real power. 7). The Moslems were not enthusiastic supporters of the NDH but. he defended them under the name of 'Bohemians' and added: "The king in a royal palace is."One cannot extinguish from the face of the earth Gypsies or Jews because one considers them inferior races". The twenty-two generals including the Minister of the Armed Forces. The government proclaimed the new Croatia as a state of two faiths . as a man. Many Moslem administrators were appointed and some became members of the Ustasha. exactly the same as the lowest pauper or gypsy in his tent". Dzafer Kulenovic. It asked for . of Military Vicar of chaplains in the Yugoslav army ((SAB 86)). Despite this Moslem involvement. The government converted a large circular art gallery in Zagreb into a mosque ((FM 168)).Catholic and Moslem ((FS 175)). a small violent element took the opportunity for revenge. although without formal title. ((RP 279)). as. the Moslem religious leaders condemned atrocities committed by members from their own community ((MO 39)). 6). navy and military regions. This was trained to fight in Russia. ((RP 283 and 285)).

Stepinac didn't: "attend all the big Ustasha parades" as has been asserted. It is normal for the bishops to decide which of their priests would be suitable for chaplaincy work. He went on rare occasions when he needed an opportunity to intercede for Jews. Both had joined the Ustasha pre-war but were good men. appoint and control the chaplains ((SAB 86. There were now two Military Vicars . where they came from. The Croatian army's prayerbook was not a sign of the Church praying for all the government's political aims or blessing its sins. 368-9)). Most 'forced conversions' and atrocities occurred in the spring and summer of 1941. but by September few suitable ones had been found ((SAB 86)). and Vucetic to assist him ((RP 131. and was unable to function until early 1942 ((SAB 86)). RP 412-3)). praying that they will rule justly and with compassion. Cecelja was well known for helping the poor and defending Serbs and Jews ((SL 24)). he appointed Cecelja. In most countries the senior chaplain is a bishop. Mark's Square. Stepinac must have consulted the Holy See regarding this developing situation because a month later the Pope appointed Stepinac as Military Vicar ((SAB 157)). His attendance didn't make him an Ustasha. Here was a struggle as to whether Church or State had the right to choose the army chaplains and their bishop. As Stepinac had little time to devote to this work.volunteer chaplains sympathetic to Ustasha ideals ((RP 185)). He 'appointed' Stepinac in place of Vucetic ((SAB 86)). His attendance at a Partisan parade at the end of the war didn't make him a Communist and therefore guilty of Tito's crimes. In October. where sent and what problems they had. Stripe Vucetic as Military Vicar and Fr. but in early 1942 Pavelic gave way without losing face. It was clear that the government intended to select. The twists and turns of this struggle have not been fully researched. Pavelic at a public meeting in St. so the army demanded that Vucetic be consecrated ((RP 359)). Even then the army provided little information as to who were acting as chaplains. Serbs or Communists ((SL 24)).one appointed by Pavelic and the other by the Pope. So Stepinac didn't exercise his function except to discipline any priest who . Stepinac was not appointed as Military Vicar by the Pope till November ((RP 412)). to act as Military Vicar on his behalf. But on 18th September the army sent a curt letter to Stepinac informing him of a meeting where he would be told what was required. Vilim Cecelja as his deputy ((SAB 157)). without consulting the bishops: "announced that he had appointed Fr. Other bishops or Provincials could have agreed to a priest acting as a chaplain in a part of Croatia out of touch with Zagreb. In all countries an army prayer book will include prayers for God's blessing on the country and its leaders.

some Croat Peasant Party leaders. 8). ". . In a circular of 4th February 1942. The Church was not given the right to nominate anyone. So what are the facts? On 24th January 1942 a decree was issued establishing a Sabor (Council of State). ((SL 3)). but he was not offered one in this Sabor ((SL 17)). "No soldier on service gets entangled in civilian pursuits". . The small good that might be derived from the political. It is also relevant to note that when the NDH forces were at their peak in September 1943. he confirmed this policy to Pavelic in a letter. Its members were to be the Croat delegates elected to the 1918 and 1938 parliaments.". But most of these men were not Ustasha. Stepinac was Military Vicar of the chaplains with the conscripted Domobran. activities of the clergy cannot justify the double damages to the Church and State resulting from priests leaving their sacerdotal activities and dedicating themselves to politics in the Peasant Party or in the Ustasha movement . but not of chaplains in the Ustasha units ((MB 83. appointees of the Party of Rights and the Ustasha. . who would normally not have been under his jurisdiction. 2: 4. Stepinac informed his priests that the ban on taking part in politics was still in force ((SL 3)). he quoted St. The Sabor It has been asserted that Archbishop Stepinac.he came to know had been involved in unworthy activities ((SAB 87. . Attracted by double pay and rapid promotion. but he never attended such affairs ((RP 106-7)). Stepinac never softened this policy. Amongst those appointed were eleven Moslems ((NM 185)) and nine Ustasha priests ((EP 167)). On 8th February. ((SL 3)). and representatives of the German minority ((RL 608)). It was his position as Military Vicar that enabled him to suspend a few Franciscan priests and those from other dioceses. two thirds were under German command ((JT 107)). RP 237-8)). Paul in 2 Tim. . A priest who accepted a seat in the Sabor knew that by doing so he became suspended from the priesthood. SL 24)). On 24th September 1943 in a confidential circular to his clergy.000 were recruited ((MTA 153)). There was nothing shameful in Stepinac sending them gifts of cigarettes. similar to an old Croatian institution. 8. bishop Aksamovic and nine priests had seats in the Ustasha Sabor. The Archbishop was accused of having taken part in the departure ceremonies of Croatian vessels heading for the Black Sea to fight the Russians. The Archbishop of Zagreb had had a seat in the traditional Croatian Sabor. The Communists implied that there was something sinister in the Archbishop sending gifts to the 'Ustasha Legion' in Russia. rosaries and religious pictures ((RP 107)).

((RP 352-3)). It was important that they heard certain debates. and behind them the Germans. . Not one of the ten new objectives mentioned religion ((RL 611-2)). whether Royalist. and was later present at the opening of the Partisan's parliament and their theatre ((SAB 152)). Pavelic realised that these words implied that the laws up till that time had been unjust. still held overall control. but Stepinac was not happy ((RP 209)). made him hesitate. . Mark's church when the Sabor opened. irresponsible and not based on the Gospels. Eventually he did agree to take part ((RP 209)). he said that it was not his purpose to give political advice but to: "Proclaim God. In a short welcome to Pavelic and the delegates at the church door. so they could plan their responses. let there be also equal rights .Photographs of Stepinac and the Nuncio in the Sabor do not always make it clear that they were sitting in the visitors' galleries. He accepted the government. to the lawmaking body . But his realisation that his presence at the service could appear to give the present rulers more legitimacy. This would have been normal on such an occasion. in the reconstruction and reformation of our beloved fatherland on the eternal foundations of the principles of the gospels of Christ. As he left. Pavelic was overheard remarking to a colleague: "This greenhorn would not teach him politics. . relations with the Church had become still worse". Although the Ustasha. impress into the hearts of all your coworkers a profound sense of responsibility so that they may successfully assist you. which was de-facto in power. He didn't consider the administration needed assistance to become more just. Stepinac had welcomed Prince Paul. It assisted the trend to neutralise the fanatics." ((AHO 39)). . . Communist or Ustasha. Let the Eternal Judge . . two years previously ((SL 17)). He wished to be involved in this historic event in Croatian life and hoped that the Sabor would help towards moderation." and to another "that because of the sermon. who is the foundation and source of all law. but was far from being representative of the whole Croatian people. the Sabor did enable a wider spectrum of opinion to influence government policy. at that same door. "Let it pass just laws: where there are equal burdens. . It was proposed to hold a religious service in St. the leader of the Independent State of Croatia. Parts of this echoed point 11 of the bishop's statement of the previous November about equality for the Orthodox under the law." ((RP 209)). The Ustasha reformulated its objectives during August 1942.

Rapotec found the Serbs and Jews full of praise for the archbishop. But it had decided to end Croatian autonomy. landed from a British submarine in April 1942 to gather information. So people of good will not only opposed one another. The Ustasha wanted an independent Croatia. As a former student in Zagreb. as he would not have been able to help those who entirely depended on him ((AHO 17. Stepinac and the political options The three political forces in which the Croats were involved had a mixture of positive and negative aspects. representing the government in London. so likely to impose a marxist anti-religious dictatorship. Ten times more Croatian Catholics fought for the Partisans than were in the Ustasha ((CWR March 1992. Stepinac hid him in his own residence until . SAB 93)). Stanislov Rapotec. Stepinac said that the desire for Croatian independence was waning. 101)). had been collaborating with the Partisans. but were influenced by extreme nationalism and depended on Nazi paganism wining the war. Fr. He believed in a post-war Yugoslavia as a federation of nations. Lt. The Partisans opposed the extreme nationalism of the Chetniks and Ustasha. He then used his Romanian and Bugarian diplomatic contacts to obtain passports for Rapotec to escape to Turkey ((SAB 93)). 17)). He had not broken with the NDH and withdrawn to a monastery. As the Ustasha was the de-facto government. When the Ustasha discovered that one of Stepinac's priests. The Church saw the need to be above these political rivalries and to encourage the best elements in each movement. its fighters were drawn from a wide section of society. Although the Communists controlled the Partisan leadership. John Kokot. In Croatia itself 60% of its membership had been baptised Catholic ((SSJ 59: 76)). after the war ((VM 226)). He immediately agreed to Rapotec's request that he transmit Yugoslav humanitarian funds from London sent via Switzerland. to the Belgrade Red Cross ((SAB 94)). he had many contacts in Croatia. the bishops had the most visible contacts with its administrators. The Serb dominated government in London promised to establish a Royal democracy with free elections. but this did not mean that they excluded contacts with the other two forces. Rapotec was secretly introduced to Stepinac by an underground group of Jews and Serbs. but found themselves associating with unatractive colleagues. The archbishop was relieved that he had come and met him four more times during the next two months ((SAB 92)). and promised Croatian autonomy and religious freedom. The Partisans promised autonomy. They wanted the British radio to stop attacking him ((SAB 94. but its leaders were Communists.9).

Stepinac allowed him and other Partisan priests. 10). via his estates manager. At his 'trial'. such as Victor Merz and Auguste Stanzer ((RP 132)). Stepinac sent copies of his sermons. In December 1942 he thanked Stepinac by letter for his very generous help for Polish refugees ((SL 4)). when they occupied Zagreb. The 1945 collapse During the last days of the NDH and the first days of Partisan rule. On Pavelic taking power. On three occasions Pavelic demanded that the Holy See remove him ((RP 353)). Stepinac was active trying to keep suffering and destruction to a minimum. Stepinac was so impartial that in 1943 he said that he expected to be killed by the Ustasha or the Communists ((SAB 95)). He pointed out that during the war there were four groups claiming to be the legal authority: that in London. was a keen supporter of the Yugoslav ideal. General Modkov and Macek plotted to preserve the NDH. according to Croatian tradition. call in foreign troops and ultimately restore the Ustasha ((RP 176-7)). He was unable to give allegiance to them all. Pallua as his deputy. At the end of the war the government appointed Rittig as Secretary of the Religious Affairs Commission with Fr. but believed the Partisans were the only force able to heal Croat-Serb enmity ((SL 68)). But when Pavelic . Stepinac didn't prevent Rittig becoming a Partisan chaplain. He was not a Communist. to enable the Partisans to broadcast extracts over their radios ((SAB 95)). But several of his acts have been used to try to discredit him. Svetozar Rittig. Stepinac. In 1943. where the Partisans were the de-facto administration ((SL 4-5)). Stepinac privately agreed to this ((SAB 116)). He accepted the Communist government from 8th May 1945. In early 1946 Tito informed the Holy See's representative in Belgrade that he desired the Pope to replace Stepinac ((SAB 135)). It was alleged that Pavelic. he moved to the Italian zone.he could get to Partisan territory. Mark's church prior to the war. the Partisans in the woods and the Ustasha in Zagreb. The facts are that. the Archbishop of Zagreb would act as Regent when there was a vacuum of political authority. Mgr. On 23rd November 1943 Stepinac's brother was executed for aiding the Partisans. Before that the Ustasha were in power ((RP 240)). parish priest of St. which were very extensive ((MTA 163)). the one in Cairo. jurisdiction over Catholics in those territories. The family farm was destroyed because his mother supplied them with food. Stepinac was accused of being an enemy of the peoples' authority. Eventually seventy-eight Catholic priests lived with the Partisans of whom 42 were killed ((RJW 62)).

whilst plotting with Stepinac to overthrow the government. had been arrested. which had been mined ((SAB 114)). Using a false name. The Partisans were notified and the archbishop was told to look after them until he received further instructions ((SL 26)). Macek therefore left Zagreb to cross into Austria on 7th May ((SAB 113)). But what happened was that Alajbegovic asked Stepinac to store historically important Foreign Office documents in his palace because government buildings might be bombed. But Stepinac feared the Germans and Ustasha would carry out their threat to defend Zagreb and massacre 40.000 of its anti-Ustasha citizens ((RP 218)). Macek told Stepinac he would stay ((RP 218)).offered Stepinac the regency. This was confirmed in a letter of the 6th. he refused because it would now be a political position. The following day he met Vladimir Bakaric. during the conversation. returned from Austria. Alajbegovic urged Stepinac to ask Macek to assume leadership ((SAA 108)). What occurred was that Eric Lisak. The Archbishop agreed with the proviso that the Partisans would be notified. former police chief. On the 8th. The responsibility to save the city from destruction was now left to Stepinac. It was alleged that Stepinac hid secret Ustasha files in his palace ((SL 26)). General Moskov's offer to escort Stepinac through the guards was accepted. Also he would not take anything from Pavelic ((RP 218)). Stepinac spoke twice. had slept at the archbishop's palace in September 1945 ((RP 55)). Vice-President of the Croatian Peasant Party. He would be the natural leader of a Croatian Republic within a new federal Yugoslavia. It was asserted that an Ustasha leader. he could not be accused of collaborating with the Germans and the Ustasha. but now: 'the city was as quiet as the grave'. Partisan Prime Minister of Croatia and. This showed that the Partisans were not going to share power with nonCommunists and have free elections. So Edo Bulat and the NDH foreign minister. but listened to what he had to say for 20-30 minutes. But the following day he heard that Dr. Macek had been elected before the war as leader of the Croats. In the afternoon the Partisans occupied the city unopposed. Having spent the war period in Jasenovac and under house arrest. On the 13th the government instructed Stepinac where to send them ((RP 413-5)). Although Moskov advised Macek to flee. Stepinac persuaded the Germans and Ustasha not to defend Zagreb nor destroy its electrical plants. The archbishop recognized him. Kosutic. raised the question of the documents. he obtained an appointment with Stepinac. ((SAB 115)). bridges and civic buildings. In April 1941 the Germans had been met by welcoming crowds ((RJW 52)). . The documents were not secret because most had been published already ((SL 26)). Stepinac was arrested on 17th May and not released till 3rd June.

Stepinac couldn't see everyone who knocked on the door of the palace. Salic reluctantly provided him with a bed ((SAB 138-140)). Tiso of Slovakia ((RP 119-220)). Stepinac was arrested. visited Rome in 1945. Salic had to make very difficult and quick judgements as to when to provide humanitarian help when it may provide unintentional aid to a political faction. The churchmen refused to negotiate without Stepinac. On 2nd June. the Communists would not permit him to return ((SAB 140)). So when individuals came for humanitarian assistance. Canon Boric found a secondary school student. Tito invited him to a private meeting on the 4th. Boric was sentenced to five years in prison ((SAA 79)). He also suggested 'as a man not as a bishop' that Tito broaden his government by incorporating Croatian Peasant Party members and honest Ustasha. the Vicar General and three Canons. Lackovic. There was little justice for opponents under Tito. a government minister. Lisak said that he was not planning terrorist actions. During his 'trial'. immediately after Stepinac left. The following day he was turned away but eventually spoke to Masucci. The same policy had been followed during Ustasha rule.He asked what had become of the children of the refugees and of Fr. Stepinac agreed and the boy was hidden in the palace ((SL 25)). Two senior Partisan legal officials. Hrncevic and Rankovic. Fr. Dr. as Lisak didn't have a key to his lodgings. He relied on his experienced secretary to know how to deal with suspicious individuals. advice or to provide an opinion. Stepinac was accused of receiving letters from secret Ustasha members ((RP 221)). Although Tito had not yet . so he was released the following day. For his act of kindness. were waiting in an outer office and. It was later discovered that the boy had shot a Partisan captain. who had diplomatic immunity. an army general were executed for trying to contact the Allies as part of a plan to overthrow Pavelic. 11). Stepinac instructed Salic to refuse to admit him again. Rittig (Minister of Religion) and Tito met the two auxiliary bishops. But receipt of a letter doesn't mean a person wishes to receive it or agrees with its contents. the secretary of Macone ((RP 220)). The mother of their young English-speaking helper. He provided shelter over night. Fr. to publish and to administer schools. It was very late when they finished talking and. Stepinac insisted that the Church must have freedom to teach. went in to see Tito. Vladimir Bakaric (Partisan Prime Minister of Croatia). the clergy would not deliver them to the police. exhausted and semi-conscious in Zagreb Cathedral. So the less experienced Fr. asked Stepinac to protect her son. and Ante Vakic. When his secretary. Many people were helped without the archbishop knowing ((SL 27)). Just after the war. Archbishop Stepinac's Trial Nine days after the Communists occupied Zagreb. Lorkovic.

In November 1945. Everyone who had heard Stepinac over the years. meetings and the press. Priests and bishops were attacked physically when visiting parishes. They were guests of honour at a Zagreb parade to celebrate the establishment of a: 'Peoples Government' ((AHO 37-8)). friend and foe. Margetic had permitted some money to be buried inside a church ((SAA 100)). Salic admitted allowing a catechist to bless an Ustasha flag in a small chapel ((SAB 140)). The Prosecution claimed that these acts pointed to Stepinac being at the centre of an Ustasha plot to overthrow the Communist government. Ivan Salic (Stepinac‘s new secretary). an intense government propaganda campaign through radio.decided to hold a trial. Margetic and some minor politicians were brought to Court. After nine months of interrogation. . In it they said they were willing to work with the state for the good of the people. See following page for a sample of these pictures. This was a vague agreement. In September 1945 pictures were published in the Yugoslav press of three Orthodox bishops. the Soviet Military Attaches and the Croatian Communist leaders. Martincic (Franciscan Provincial). his auxiliary bishop Josip Lach. The honoured patriotic prelates had suddenly become traitorous Ustasha plotters guilty of crimes stretching over four years. Fr. The trial was suspended and Stepinac arrested on 18th September 1946. he instructed them to prepare for one so that they would be ready if required. Fr. The reason for this sudden about face and vilification of the Archbishop. Archbishop Stepinac. ((SAB 142)). Within a few days of this parade. they also agreed that their attitude had been influenced by Stepinac‘s sermons. Fr. In neither case was Stepinac implicated. was launched against the Church. but at the same time condemned the anti-religious acts that had taken place ((SL 26-7: SAA 40)). For several months the Archbishop was treated with honour as one of the victors of the war. was the Pastoral Letter issued by the bishops on 20th September. could agree that they had learnt something from the archbishop‘s words and so had been influenced by them.

Milutin Radetic. The prosecution had had fifteen months of open access to captured government and church documents in which to prepare its case. the Soviet Military Attache and the Croat Minister of the Interior. yet 58 witnesses for the prosecution were heard. the new Partisan Minister of Religion ((SAB 169)). Communist ―People‘s Premier‖ of Croatia. so their absence greatly hampered Politeo's researches ((SAB 144)). It was not permitted to read in Court a letter from from Fr. Rittig. The trial recommenced on 28th September with Stepinac included amongst those charged. Politeo was restricted to a one-hour visit to his client and one week in which to collect evidence for the defence. During the war. Archbishop Stepinac. Dr. Salis was subjected to two long police interrogations. even though most were from areas outside Stepinac's diocese ((SAB 153)). During this short period. The auxiliary bishops appointed Ivo Politeo and Dr. the Partisan General commanding in Zagreb. Lach. The Court refused to accept documents produced in Stepinac's defence ((SAB 174)). Hebra. Bakaritch. the Secretary to the Apostolic Visitor: Auxiliary Bishop Dr. Fourteen defence witnesses were not permitted to appear ((SAA 112)).GUESTS OF HONOUR: From left: Three dignitaries of the Orthodox Church. Dr. . Andrus as defence councils. Salis and Slamic knew the diocesan achives well. and Canon Slamic was imprisoned for two days. but the state replaced Andrus with Matko Katicic ((AHO 47)).

((SAB 138)). Glavas had provided the evidence for this. Allegedly. Nearly forty years later Hrncevic. admitted that if Stepinac had agreed to head an independent Catholic Church. This showed the hypocrisy of the claim that the trial of priests and Ustasha agents had exposed evidence which led to Stepinac's arrest. "The indictments were designed rather more for publicity than for legality". Milovan Djilas. the evidence of the few permitted defence witnesses and the attempts to question those of the prosecution ((SAA 95)). Kvaternik. Tito admitted that the trial had been prepared months in advance ((SAA 119)). and sentenced to sixteen years imprisonment. who had proclaimed the NDH.Serbian head of the Zagreb University clinic. the trial would not have taken place ((MTA 180)). he could not be questioned and challenged ((SL 12)). The Prosecutor was seen to 'revise' notes taken by the stenographers ((SAB 148)). Any book that prints that Stepinac was found guilty of war crimes. Some of the notes taken by spectators were confiscated. who at the time had been a member of the inner circle of the Communist leadership. the official who had arranged the 'trial'. The official Yugoslav account (Sudjenje) omitted the speeches by the defence lawyers. wrote in 1983 that if Stepinac had not opposed Tito's regime. was brought as a prosecution witness. On 18th September one hundred and fifty priests of the Zagreb diocese risked arrest by issuing a statement in support of their archbishop ((SL 3)). The trial was held under Communist laws which had not existed during the war ((AHO 50)). He was transferred to house detention in 1951 ((SAB 191)). Papal Silence . Jakov Blazevic. Many of his judges were professional lawyers and had taken an oath to Pavelic. he would not have been brought to Court ((SAB 147)). On 11th October he was found guilty of co-operating with the Ustasha during and after the war. made a Cardinal in 1952 and died in 1960. In November 1946. had been found passing medical aid to the Partisans. His evidence was ignored and he was then dismissed from his post ((SAB 175)). but said that both Pavelic and the Ustasha hated Stepinac ((RJW 57)). As he had been executed. It was said that Ustasha gold was hidden at the Cathedral with the Archbishop's knowledge. something the archbishop had never done ((RP 239)). without mentioning the nature of the trial. His statement was omitted from the transcript and was not reported in the press ((SAB 148)). stated. is providing a distorted view of history. The public prosecutor. Stepinac had intervened to save his life and he now visited Blazevic to intercede for Stepinac. 12).

Even if desirable. are marked down for death or gradual extinction. there can be no place for (1) open or subtle oppression of the cultural and language characteristics of national minorities. . it would have been impossible for him to judge the guilt of individuals from second and third hand accounts concerning incidents in remote countries and far away villages. He continued: "Humanity Awes this vow to those hundreds of thousands who. have in various places remained a dead letter . . He encouraged them and their clergy to be brave but prudent also. Both the guilty and the innocent. was prohibited from being published in the NDH ((AHO 18-19)). whether Nazis." He called on all men of courage and honour to unite in a solumn vow to bring society back to observing the divine law. as something of which the Church should be ashamed. the Pope issued 'Mystici Corporis Christi' (The Mystical Body of . This papal utterance. would have been irresponsible. Even when the guilt of a particular incident may have seemed clear. (2) contraction of their economic capacities. The Holy See received reports. while not doing the same regarding those of the other because its' were hidden. Every side wanted the Pope to endorse their accusations. the Pope said: "In a new order founded on moral principles . by regulating the treatment of occupied countries and of prisoners of war. knew the committing of attrocities was wrong. Italians. Serbs and Russians. distorted stories and lies from all over Europe. The Pope left the bishops free to take whatever actions they judged best to aid and protect victims in their countries. To have condemned crimes committed by one side. Ustasha. Throughout the war the Pope issued firm but general condemnations of sins. rumours." He added that justice would make it easier for a government to demand loyalty of its citizens ((CMC 319)). While he may have had Jews and Gypsies mainly in mind. Chetniks or Partisans." ((PXIIC 18-19)). he complained over the radio: "International Conventions entered upon to make war less inhuman by confining it to combatants. Communists. Six months later. But he refused to be drawn into these thousands of disputed allegations. his words would also have applied to Poles. (3) limitation or abolition of their natural fecundity. there may have been a worse but hidden atrocity committed by the other side. They then point to the absence of any specific condemnation. In his Christmas broadcast of 1941. without any fault. in June 1943. like others. These writers live in an unreal world. At Christmas 1942.Some authors produce evidence that the Pope knew of atrocities committed by the Ustasha. unjust and a contravention of neutrality. . . sometimes only by reason of their nationality or race.

This French attitude indicated that the evidence as to who was responsible was not clear. The NDH was the only area where 'forced conversions' had been reported. They were spoken on the 13th June 1941. Andrya Artukovic. This would have greatly assisted Allied propaganda. While it is true that these words were used. soon after Pavelic had taken office. Osborn asked London for proof of Pavelic's involvement. in discussing Pavelic. had said that he believed him to be a much maligned man and to have had nothing to do with the murder of king Alexander".". 103)). The French Courts lacked firm evidence against him. because that faith without which 'it is impossible to please God' must be a perfectly free 'homage of intellect and will'.Christ). but added: "I am afraid we have no evidence here which is likely to be circumstantial enough to convince the Pope that Pavelic is to all intents and purposes a murderer. This Encyclical. . When discussing how Pavelic reached South America after the war. A fuller version of the ambassador's report to London reads: ". Osborn was pressing the Pope to condemn Pavelic for his alleged involvement in this 1934 murder. since no man believes unless he is willing. had been arrested in Britain and extradited to France. the Pope. a person is compelled against his will to embrace the Catholic faith. Francis Osborn: "Pavelic was a much maligned man". not believing. He claimed that there was an extremely strong presumption of Pavelic being an accomplice and instigator. they were not a judgement on Pavelic's 1941-45 period of rule. they certainly do not become true believers in Christ. they agreed on condition he was not tried for terrorist activities ((IO 17)). . included this passage: "We declare that it is absolutely necessary that this should come about by their free choice. We cannot in conscience withhold Our censure". are constrained to enter a church. The assassin was a Macedonian and the 'League of Nations' indited Hungary as the main author of the plot ((SCA 4)). Wherefore if any persons. it is frequently asserted that the Pope thought highly of him. But his superior admitted that Pavelic had not committed the assassination. . ((PXIIM para. When Stepinac asked Pavelic directly whether he had been . and to receive sacraments. . also suspected of involvement in the assassination. contrary to the unvarying doctrine of this Apostolic See. So when Yugoslavia asked for his extradition. The Pope was making Catholic teaching clear without becoming embroiled in the political sphere by naming any individual or group. to approach the altar. ((FO 371/30219/R7327/162/92)). . while expressing the desire that all should become Catholic. As evidence it is recounted that the Pope told the British Ambassador. Should it therefore at any time happen that.

and that Artukovic was in Britain to make a further attempt if that in France failed ((IO 17)). The Crusaders (Krizari) Claims have been made that leading members of the Catholic 'Crusader' youth movement were supporters of Ustasha crimes. the Domagoj for students. intellectual and sporting activities. There were two Catholic groups. As the Sokols promoted Yugoslavism. The lack of interest in Croatian culture shown by the Communists and Sokols alienated those who were proud of being Croatian. Many had been attracted by the provision of social. it was accused of Serbianising Croatian youth ((RJW 41)). The secular 'Sokol' youth movement also expanded. SAB 44-45)). by volunteering to assist in youth work.involved. an organisation under their tight control ((RJW 44)). In the late 1930s many young Croats were impatient with the failure of the Croatian Peasant Party to gain concessions from the Serbs. In 1937 the bishops were worried at . They also attempted to bring the Domagoj and Crusaders under firmer religious leadership. Following the First World War. around a camp fire. the Communists built a small dedicated movement of youth amongst the students. During king Alexander's dictatorship it enjoyed a state monopoly of youth work ((SSJ 14:29)). Although founded by priests and lay Catholics. The Frankists were illegal but. he replied that his conscience was absolutely clear and that the French had been unsuccessful in trying to implicate him ((SAB 64)). At the age of thirty. In 1936 Stepinac was concerned at Communist and Nazi ideas influencing young Catholics ((RJW 48)). Clarification is therefore required. But in June 1941 neither the Pope nor Britain had the evidence required to prove that Pavelic was guilty. It is now accepted that Pavelic did plan the assassination of the royal dictator. the bishops established 'Catholic Action'.could be very influential. At Christmas 1934. members could transfer to the adult 'seniors' ((RJW 41)). not all their members were religious. A senior leader telling stories of Frankists or other nationalist heroes. they were able to use the Crusaders as a cover for encouraging Croatian nationalism. and the Crusaders (Krizari) for non-students. An indication of this was seen when Stepinac found it neccessary to rule that at least five minutes of each meeting should be devoted to religious instruction or prayer ((SAB 40)). These youths joined the Catholic organisations and thereby gave them a Croatian nationalist flavour as well as a religious orientation ((SAB 43)). A struggle developed between the extreme nationalist elements amongst the 'seniors' and the bishops ((EP 65-66. 13).

The pre-war President. Stepinac arranged a meeting with teachers of religion to plan how to resist the penetration of nazi and fascist ideas ((SL 4)). The accusation that the Crusaders were a 'Criminal Organization' was pure invective. But as the foremost Spiritual Assistant of the Crusaders he should logically have been accused of being the 'Chief Criminal' of a 'Criminal Organisation' ((RP 116-7)). yet this does not prevent anti-Catholics making accusations against them. so even the Communists dared not charge him with any crime. was always anti-Nazi ((SL 10)). . Canon Milan Beluhan was well known as a saintly friend of the poor workers. When the Ustasha achieved power.Frankist influence. so closed down the 'senior' Krizari groups. such as: "Mary's Congregation". continued to exert influence ((VM 180. The assertion that Fr. Frankists sent messages of praise to Pavelic in the name of some Crusader branches ((EP 66)). in the homes of Crusaders ((EP 66)). It is these messages which antiCatholic books print so as to imply that all the Crusaders and the bishops were keen Frankist supporters of Pavelic. their years of full-time paid employment in the Youth Services were treated as credits towards their pension ((CF 272)). had replaced Niedzielski as President of the Crusaders. was made president of the Ustasha propaganda office ((AM 59)) is untrue ((SL 15)). The Crusader magazine was banned several times by the NDH government ((SL 12)). Grega Peinoviv. During this same period of 193741. CF 272)). but in 1941 gave up this position with the Crusaders and took an appointment in Bosnian local government ((SL 11 and 15)). In 1938 there was another attempt by the bishops to gain firm control of the Crusaders ((RJW 48)). When captured by the Partisans. several organisers (Frankist and non-Frankist) in the Crusaders were offered posts in the NDH Civil Service. As an inducement. but the Communists still executed him ((RP 116)). the Crusader Director. the Communists were infiltrating the Sokols with varying degrees of success ((SSJ 14: 28-45)). But the Frankists. as individuals. This didn't mean that all who joined the Civil Service were Ustasha. an exemplary Catholic and anti-Nazi ((SL 10)). The Frankists often met under fictitious names. or that all Civil Servants condoned crimes. At a later date. The national leaders of the Crusaders were loyal to the Church. The Ustasha suspected him of being a spy for the Partisans. and Stepinac had to intervene several times on his behalf ((SL 12)). It appears that he joined the Ustasha two and a half years later but did not become a fanatical thug. 850 Serbian Orthodox families appealed on his behalf. Leo Znidarcic. Soon after the German invasion. Felix Niedzielski succeeded him ((RP 116)). He was always ready to protect the persecuted. Ivan Protulipac.

. In June 1934. such as a more just distribution of wealth. In its pre-war editorials it regularly attacked both Nazism and Communism. ((RP 114))... is provided elsewhere on this web site. the worst of heresy . 14). but in several countries political parties developed which wished to combine socialist aims. It also provided statistics of Hitler's victims ((SAB 53)). like most Croats. In 1941 the editors of Catholic publications. were `National Socialists` who spent the war years in London fighting German 'National Socialists'. such as 'Katolicki List'. including some Catholics. But this didn't mean that they supported Nazi paganism or the unchristian acts of Pavelic's government during the following years. asserting that Catholics could be National Socialists. . As an example: the large party of that name in Czechoslovakia was secular. wondered whether they could develop a national socialism to achieve economic social reform whilst at the same time preserving human rights. On 7th December 1941 membership of it and the Ustasha was declared incompatable. and of its alleged fascism. It is necessary to place the quotations into context. where it is beginning to bear fruit". This didn't imply that they had the same beliefs as the 'National Socialists' (Nazis) of Germany.The Catholic Action organisation was composed of dedicated Catholics and under close Church control. welcomed independence and praised Pavelic for achieving it ((SL 17)). liberal and democratic. So Benes and Masaryk. its leaders. and later welcoming the Ustasha to power. An account of how Slovakia became independent. Several called themselves 'National Socialists'. . . an apostacy from Christianity". with national independence. . It is absurd to suggest that such Catholics wished for a Nazi anti-Catholic pagan future. The Archbishop of Zagreb appointed the editor of the weekly 'Katolicki List'. Slovakia obtained autonomy in 1938 and became independent in 1939. The Catholic Press Some books provide quotations from publications with Catholic sounding names. These purport to show that pre-war they published articles praising fascist Slovakia. It was not shameful that some Croats hoped that Croatia might follow a similar path. following a bishop's Pastoral Letter condemning Nazism as: 'an extreme nationalist view . Its policies during the pre-war years were broadly in accord with its Catholic readers. So a few Slovaks and Croats. unemployment and social disorder. it wrote: "Hitlerism is a very poisonous growth in the soil. apathy. Hitler's National Socialists had cured inflation. The early Communists had a vision of a world socialist revolution and government.

We cannot today because it suits us praise the Holy Father. so as to make them 'Croats'. given for the sole purpose of leading men to God". this would be sacrilegious play-acting and indicate a complete disregard for religion amongst the thugs involved. Stepinac's view was made clear in a letter to be communicated to all military chaplains in October 1943. readers were alerted to these passages having been added by the censor ((RP 113)). in May 1945 when the bishops issued their joint Pastoral Letter. Katolicki List was constantly made to refer to Marcone as if he was the Pope's representative to the NDH ((EP 77-8)): Catholic publications had the choice of submitting to censorship and distortion . or closing down ((SL 16)). 'Hrvatski Glas'. ((RP 205)). the whole Croatian press attacked him for: ‗meddling in politics‘. perhaps they do not suit our personal taste. like other papers. and in the streets attack like pagans the orders of the Vicar of Christ given for the purpose of public welfare because. and it probably varied. As an example. She relied on readers 'reading between the lines' when pieces were distorted. but the censors changed this to 'NDH' ((RP 216-7)). It is possible that gangs of thugs poured water over terrified Serbs. was strictly censored. There are different accounts of the setting in which the Ustasha oath was taken. The Church was determined to retain some publications so as to be able to influence thought. . On 29th June 1942 Stepinac openly challenged the censors from his Cathedral pulpit: "We cannot be Catholics in church. the government twice suspended publication of Katolicki List ((RP 357)). It wrote that the killing of Serbs: "Does not concern our religious and Catholic conscience". When there was a similarity of expression and phraseology in diverse publications. When in 1944 Stepinac preached against government atrocities. and tomorrow in the newspapers cross out in red pencil his words and his sermons. but words being added or changed. If so. Katolicki List joined in this attack ((AHO 50)). Rebaptisms and Oaths The word 'rebaptism' is misleading. clearly showing who controlled it. Even so. This not only involved words and phrases being suppressed. 15). So extracts taken from publications with Catholic names or under catholic auspices are completely unreliable for assessing the views of the bishops and loyal Catholics at that time. ((EP 85)). Once a person is baptised he cannot be baptised again. they referred to 'Hrvatska' (Croatia). An item in Katolicki Tjednik of Sarajevo in June 1941 shows how little the smaller publications remained Catholic. 'Katolicki List' was permitted to continue but. Pavelic closed the leading Catholic daily.Within two days of achieving power. and within two months two thirds of the Catholic periodicals had been closed down ((RP 112)).

Enoch Powell. O'Brien was a lawyer born in Austria of Irish parents. Later. So O`Brien`s small book."Since complaints have increased. when Hitler invaded Austria. Propaganda Tricks The statement issued by the bishops in November 1941 which clearly forbad forced conversions. When the Germans invaded Yugoslavia he tried to leave. . He spent the rest of his life using this skill in his warfare against the Catholic Church. It is therefore instructive to see how they have dealt with it. 'Archbishop Stepinac' that witnesses to Stepinac's firm anti-Nazism. but in 1976 he admitted to admiring the British racist 'National Front'. Anthony H. 2). the leading opponent of coloured migration into Britain and Ian Paisley of Northern Ireland ((RHA 317)). O'Brien escaped to Czechoslovakia. many of his falsehoods came from that source. Following pages of pictures. Although a close friend of Marie Stopes. As a friend of Communism. But the Germans demanded his extradition. presents a problem for anti-Catholic authors. The Authors Manhatten and O'Brien Knowledge of an author's background can often assist in deciding his reliability. ((RP 368-9)) CHAPTER V PROPAGANDA 1). He had been in correspondence with Stepinac for over four years. So it is interesting to compare Avro Manhatten with Anthony O'Brien. During the war he was trained by the Allies in Political Warfare ((AM 114)). so became proficient in the production of deceptive propaganda. but was interned with 1. . he then prints on page 100 an . the President of the Episcopal Conference informs you that it is forbidden to administer oaths in front of a dagger and a revolver . so he fled to Yugoslavia. Manhatten mentions the statement and prints an extract from point 1. On page 97 of his 1986 book. that oaths are being taken in front of the Crucifix with a dagger and a revolves alongside it.". she called him a 'murderer' when one of his girl friends had an abortion ((RHA 317)). the pioneer of contraception in England. thus profaning the sanctity and holiness of the Crucifix. He commanded the auxiliary formation which quelled the Nazi Austrian rising of 1934. Manhatten was born in 1915 and hated religion from a young age ((RHA 317)). during the past few days. was authored by a dedicated anti-Nazi. For two of these years he assisted relief work for Catholic Jewish refugees from Hitler ((AHO 10)).000 Jews in an Italian camp on the isle of Korchula ((AHO 12)). For the next two and a half years he had a weekly lunch with him ((AHO 3-9)).

The anti-Catholic writer. At the end of the shortened extract from point 11.6. Dr. This stated the need for each missioner to gain authority from a Church authority. But the part forbidding a 'missioner' being appointed by the civil authorities is omitted. which gave instructions of how priests should prepare people to join the Church.extract from point 2. Edmund Paris. Another trick. completely free. and have entirely fulfilled the ecclesiastical regulations". He writes that Adamic: 'was the Catholic spearhead . a small number is given as if it is a reference to source material. Few may bother to look it up. (See forced conversions section).5. readers could fall into the trap of believing the Church's defence to be weak. yet finds room to print that Stepinac. many readers may not notice that points 7 and 8 have not been given at all. his writings are very unreliable. It omits the statement itself and merely quotes short extracts from Stepinac's covering letter to Pavellc ((MB 125)). most important. in his 1961 book: 'Convert or Die'. And. It may be added that when introducing the bishop's statement. amongst many. but avoids the problem by writing that the bishops were being hypocritical ((EP 144)). . But Adamic was not a Catholic spokesman. led by an interior conviction of the truth of the Catholic faith. If they should notice this. While useful pieces of information may occasionally be found in his books. Manhatten then prints the first two sentences of point 11. Manhatten provides a wrong date.4. used by Manhatten appears in his 1986 book. Yet point 8 is the most important of all. they are likely to presume that they were of little importance. all private actions in destroying the churches and chapels of the Orthodox or the stealing of their property should be severely punished". When he disposed of Adamic's arguments. does list the points. It reads: "Only those may be received into the Catholic Church who are converted without any constraint. Saric and nine members of the Sabor were Jesuits! ((EPA 144-5)). but those who do so will come to pages 227 and 228. Such assertions would be laughable if not about a serious subject. he went to America in 1913 and visited . with the following omitted: "All proceedings contrary to law in regard to Orthodox persons shall be strictly forbidden and they shall be penalized as other citizens through due process of law. In another book he omits mention of this key statement. A Slovene born in 1890. and that the ponderous Catholic machinery was set in motion to promote the Adamic line' ((AM 113)). translated into English in 1994.9 and 10. . This hinders a reader's ability to locate the full text. He implies that Louis Adamic was the main Catholic defender of the Church's record. By breaking up the statement of the bishops in this confusing manner. There the reader will see abreviated versions of points 3. exudes a blind hatred of Croats and Catholics. Milan Bulajic's book.

Manhatten used this ruse to distract attention from the fact that he didn't mention the real defenders of the Church and the evidence they presented. and the Yugoslavs in America. priests and abortionists may be seen together in photographs. even though several may be carrying out abortions daily. which appeared in all the papers ((AHO 50)). it is necessary for the clergy to meet government ministers and local officials.Yugoslavia in 1932. many nuns in Croatia acted as nurses. As in all countries. not its 'spearhead'. Photography Pictures are available of Catholic bishops. At the end of 1944 he told a friend that the: ". such as the presentation of a retirement gift to a nurse. They may even be caught on a film smiling at the same joke. as the spokesman for Yugoslav Communism in America. As he was the Minister of Education ((SL 24)). Throughout its existence the NDH government endeavoured to show that it had Church support. But these pictures are not evidence that the Catholic Church. In anti-Catholic books. He closed his mind to the persecution of the Churches and was highly praised by Tito while visiting Yugoslavia in 1949 ((SSJ 5: 15-30)). Adamic wrote articles for the American Press urging Yugoslavia. He was the man who in November 1943 wrote the long racist and bitterly anti-Stepinac article. It is quite likely that Macanec spent his visit to Visoko arguing with the Franciscans. Pavelic would arrive at the same public functions as Stepinac ((SAB 93)). had to be removed if not wiped out". As in other Catholic countries. Some were awarded service medals. There are photographs of them walking to the front line with Croatian troops. One photograph 'shows' Stepinac having a 'political meeting' with Pavelic and other Ustasha leaders. well meaning liberals and particularly the Catholic clergy. In 1934 he published a book condemning the Serbian dictatorship and called on Eastern Europe to revolt and join the Soviet Union. In business meetings and at official and informal ceremonies. . . So. In Britain. Accompanied by photographers. or the priest shown. to support Communism. captions are added presenting them as evidence of Catholic friendship for Ustasha killers. hospital chaplains converse with doctors. there was nothing surprising or sinister in him visiting a school. emerged as head of the Partisans. advocates or condones the killing of babies. In reality it was taken at the annual Zagreb Fair to which both had been invited ((AHO 38-39)). but this didn't make . There are pictures of Ustasha leader Macanec visiting the Franciscan college of Visoko in Bosnia. 3). backed by Communist intellectuals. but this didn't make them criminals. When Tito. priests and nuns associating with Ustasha leaders and Croatian troops. Adamic was an enemy of the Church. So it was eager to publish pictures of clergy in conversation with government officials.

It was the traditional Croatian 'Sahovnica' symbol ((RJD 291)) and became so again in 1990 ((RJD 292)). Edmond Paris wrote a caption under one picture as: 'Stepinac together with his personnel bringing New Year greetings to Pavelic' ((EP 240)). But the design was not an Ustasha invention. did not have uniforms ((HT April 1992)). Milan Bulajic prints this picture in a wider frame ((MB 105)). especially in the early days of the war when most atrocities were committed. Many Ustasha and Chetnik bands. thousands crowded the churches to demonstrate their support for him.them guilty of condoning atrocities committed by undisciplined bands in a different area of the country a few years previously. The Croatian people did not give permission for the Ustasha 'U' emblem being placed above the chequerboard. although not so high nor so stiffly. It doesn't add any factual knowledge about life in NDH. During Archbishop Stepinac's 'trial'. but of a formal gathering of all the main religious leaders with the head of state. It is not possible therefore to determine whether those shown near atrocities were: 'wild Ustasha' or 'wild Chetniks'. It was at that meeting that they demanded that state officials stop 'converting' the Orthodox. So the picture was not of an intimate private Catholic-Pavelic meeting. A photograph of Stepinac leading a group of bishops to meet Pavelic is captioned as an example of their alleged 'frequent conferences with him'. Pictures of clergy showing respect to a chequerboard flag are presented as evidence of their support for the Ustasha. so not 'part of Stepinac's personnel'. In one picture soldiers are shown giving a Nazi-type salute at a funeral. but in general this type of photography merely aims to inflame emotions and distort evidence. Normally 200 Zagreb university students participated in the Easter retreat. and it shows a Moslem wearing a fez just behind Stepinac. So in . But in 1946 this rose to 4. But the bishops were dispersed throughout the country and rarely came together.000 ((RP 50)). But a priest raises his arm. which is rather late for a New Year greeting. A wave by a bishop to someone leaving by train may also look like a low angleded Nazi salute. He dates it as 3rd February 1945. The Communists were desperate to show pictures of anti-Stepinac crowds. In another book we are able to view the whole photograph. This evokes feelings of friendly intimacy. The priest's arm is also raised and the implication in the caption is that clergy eagerly gave this salute. ((AM 94)). yet in a picture this could look like a Nazi salute. showing not only the Moslem leader but also the Metropolitan of the Croatian Orthodox Church ((CF 273)). in order to give a blessing over a grave. The picture appears to have been taken when they met Pavelic at the end of their November 1941 conference. Some pictures could be genuine when concerning a rebel Ustasha priest.

drawn up by himself and members of his household ((CF 420)). Until the diary is made available to international scholars. Anti-Catholic Communist and Serbian authors have printed edited extracts they claim were in the diary. The published extracts conveniently supported the Communist propaganda image of Stepinac. such as secretaries and the Master of Ceremonies ((EP 56. Archbishop Stepinac's Diary Many books print extracts from this diary so as to indicate Stepinac's alleged character and frame of mind. They show him as secretly hating the Serbs. If it were truly unfavourable to Stepinac. The photographers were ready to take pictures of the angry faces and banners. Orthodoxy. demanded the trial and conviction of Stepinac for crimes against the people ((RP 53)). 4). Some documents were merely 'attached' to the diary ((CF 420)).January 1946 the Partisans organised a 'peoples demonstration' against the black market. while Outwardly showing goodwill towards them. But both the Communist and the Serbian Belgrade governments have refused to permit Western scholars to examine it ((RJW 60)). The government did not use them at Stepinac's 'trial'. a few Communists. but this 'diary' is not such a paper. it would have been released many years ago. For example: "The Schismatics are the curse of Europe — almost worse than the Protestants". scrapbook form. CF 273)). It was not a private diary of Stepinac's inmost thoughts as implied. These words do not appear in larger extracts reproduced in other books ((MB 61-3)). would have been a most unlikely place to write down secret evil thoughts. ((FM 162)). So the impression was given of a huge angry crowd of Croatian Catholics having gathered precisely to demand Stepinac's conviction. They cover the period 30th May 1934. Many entries are in the third person ((CF 273)) such as: "The Archbishop had his first meeting". It was an official diary of public events. Most countries refuse to publish classified State Papers. rather than: "I had my first meeting" ((MB 73)). when Stepinac became auxiliary bishop. so that he could write down some of the alleged entries ((SAA 109)). Protestants. to 13th February 1945 ((CF 273)). using the huge numbers as a backdrop. the Old Catholics and the Yugoslav state. The author Falconi was permitted a brief look at it. extracts should be considered as fiction. Letters and other documents were pasted-in ((SAA 109)). including handwriting experts and forensic scientists. How reliable are these alleged extracts? The diary consists of five books about the size of large dictionaries. The Communists claimed to have found them during 1950 in the building which had housed the Foreign Ministry of the NDH ((SAA 109)). This semi-public official diary in. . As it was led past the Archbishop's residence. They could have added them after the war.

The Communists claimed that it was found in the NDH Foreign Ministry. Items were obtained from Chetnik. It also showed Stepinac working for the Ustasha and calling on the Pope to arrange for foreign intervention in Yugoslavia ((RP 211)). When an extract is photocopied from Allied files. yet Stepinac never referred to himself as such. Stepinac would have had the opportunity to remove such an incriminating report. yet Stepinac didn't send copies of his reports there and others were not produced. But Allied agents sent home vast quantities of information. Facts were inter-mixed with rumours. It was not written on diocesan paper. an unwary reader may be deceived into accepting it as coming from an unbiased well informed American or British source. It was in Italian. signature or conclusion. especially as Bosnia was not part of his diocese. It contained detailed information about Bosnia and its history which Stepinac was unlikely to know ((SAA 113)). No just legal system in the world would have accepted this 'Report' as evidence. was without an address. some were mere rumours. Stepinac denied he had sent it ((RP 211-2)). instead of the formalized Latin style normally used by bishops. Yet they were usually merely comments made on the basis of Chetnik or Communist propaganda. with important looking reference numbers. and it is reprinted as factual evidence by antiCatholics authors. It referred to Stepinac as: 'Metropoleta de Croatiae et Slovoniae'. German or Communist sources. It was for the experts in London and Washington to try separate truth from falsehood. The Holy See had sent a letter to Stepinac on June 17th 1943. The Aksamovic Leaflet Copies of a leaflet have been found which claimed to have been produced on the printing press of bishop Aksamovic. This bitterly condemned the Serbs and the Orthodox Church.5). Yet this Communist Court did so. lies and propaganda from all sides. 7). Allied Intelligence Documents These are sometimes used to provide apparently independent evidence of Church support of crimes. the prosecution produced a report allegedly sent by the archbishop to the Pope dated 18th May 1943 ((RP 184)). It was entitled 'Friendly Advice' and signed . 6). Ustasha. As the Foreign Ministry archives were left at the end of the war in the Archbishop's palace. Sometimes an agent would add his own assessment of the partial information he had collected from his area. but the subject matter was completely different to that in the alleged report ((RP 212-5)). Some of this information has now been declassified and it is possible for it to be misused. A 1943 Report During the 'trial' of Stepinac in 1946. if it had existed.

Since the time of the proposed Concordat in 1937 the country had been flooded with alarmist rumours. Most likely an Ustasha militant produced it to frighten Serbs into leaving the country. this would not prove that the bishop was aware of it. Prvislav Grisogono. came into circulation. . Prvislav was dedicated to the unity of Yugoslavia so can not be justly accused of Ustasha sympathies by writing this denial. Signed by such a man. a wellknown Catholic and a respected Croatian politician. his charges could not be explained away as Chetnik propaganda. it was in circulation during May 1941 ((SAB 74. It was addressed to Archbishop Stepinac and condemned the leaders of the Church for permitting priests and monks to kill and torture thousands of Serbs. At a later date. A later and expanded version was dated 8th February 1942 and had the address of the German concentration camp at Zemun ((SSJ 51: 86)). named Aksamovic as one of the three outstanding Catholic bishops upholding Christian values ((SAB 94)). Since the war Prvislav's son Nenad and daughter Vivian. Prvislav Grisogono was in the Gestapo prison at Banjica. There is no proof that it was printed on the diocesan press or authorised by the bishop. The Germans also encouraged its circulation as it promoted hatred between Serbs and Croats ((SSJ 51: 86)). The writer condemned the sending of nuns. Undated. 8). of jars of Serbian eyes. The Grisogono Letter In December 1941 copies of a letter signed by Dr. near Belgrade. On his release he wrote to Stepinac to disown the letter ((SSJ 51: 86)). have both informed historians that the letter was a forgery. It urged Serbs to become Catholics so as to avoid being killed. Rapotee. So this leaflet is valueless as evidence of the bishop's views. 225)). Stepinac's secretary has confirmed that this letter of denial was received ((SL 19)). He gave details of priest-led gangs of thugs. He condemned bishop Aksamovic's threatening leaflet. Even if printed on the press used by the diocese. Although this letter was reprinted in many books after the war. led the defence of Split against German and Ustasha forces ((SSJ 55: 1)). anonymous pamphlets and tendentious articles ((SAA 5)). to convert the survivors.'Friends of the People'. from 1st October 1941 till late January 1942. with a dagger in one hand and a prayer book in the other. A Serb in the Yugoslav government in London ordered the letter to be broadcast from the Middle East over 'Radio Kavageorge' to Yugoslavia ((SSJ 51: 87)). In September 1943. strings of tongues and even greater acts of beastiality. the London Yugoslav government's agent. Nenad. it was a forgery. pro-Partisan leaflets were secretly printed in Stepinac's palace without his knowledge ((SL 27)).

" ((AM 117)). The allegation is sometimes heard that the Holy See helped Ustasha criminals escape to South America at the end of the war.. so it is more logical to consider this allegation in another booklet REFERENCES (Page numbers In text) ADSS. Despite all this evidence..The Vatican's Holocaust by Avro Manhatten. . Edmund Paris prints extracts in his 1961 book ((EP 162)) and Manhatten introduces it in his 1986 book with. Vlastimir Stojanovic. In May 1992 he repeated it in an article in a Serbian publication ((SSJ 51: 86)).Croatia Between the Wars by Boze Covic.. BC. 1995.. "Yet nothing could more eloquently indite his Church than this letter . Knezevic. AK.... In many cases witnesses are unfortunately no longer with us.. Vatican City Press..Remaking the Balkans by Christopher Cviic. anti-Catholic authors still use this forgery. 1947. H.... 1975. CBA..... Both he and his sister remained firm supporters of Yugoslavia and loyal to king Peter throughout their lives so their testimony cannot be ignored.. has endorsed their statements ((SSJ 51: 87)). Adam's political assistant throughout his career.. AM.. ... 1977. CB. Kocovic. This is part of wider allegations concerning what happened to Hitler's supporters who had been active throughout Europe.A Short History of the Croatian Nation by A..Archbishop Stepinac by A... 1986.... 1989...Greece and Crete 1941 by Christopher Buckley. 1991...He then became a minister in the Royal government in London... 1985...Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse by Christopher Bennett. The Serbian son and daughter of Adam Pribiceic have stated that it was their father who forged the letter. .... 1991.Actes et Documents du Saint Siege relatifs a la seconde guerre mondiale. It has not been possible in this booklet to answer all accusations made against Croatian Catholics... O'Brien..Zrtve Drugog Svetskog Rata U Jugoslaviji by B... FINAL POINTS 1.. 2.. AHO... CC... BK... This falsehood has been repeated so many times that even normally reliable authors have thought it to be authentic..

.Disputed Barricade by Fitzroy Maclean..Catholic World Report... Eterovich... vol xxxv: Nov..Secret History of the Jesuits by Edmund Paris...British Foreign Office. M.. C..A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples by Fred Singleton...The Truth About Tito by H.UK DK.The Jesuits by David Mitchell..The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies by Donald Kenrick. 1991.... P018 8AY..... ECR.. post 1961.S...Convert or Die by Edmund Paris. Temperley.. HWH.The Pope Speaks by Charles Rankin. C....... trans.The Fall of the House of Hapsburg by Edward Crankshaw. 1941. CM.. 1972.. Ignatius Press... HT. CWR... London.... IND.. CMA. CMC. FM.......A..A Royal Tragedy by Chedomille Mijatovich..... W... EJ... 1973. 1963....... .. 1957.Croatia: volume II by Frances H.Germany and Yugoslavia by F...... W. HWT. Box 97.Encyclopedia Judaica. 1981... Cianfarra..G.CF.Eastern Churches Review.. FS...The Silence of Pius XII by Carlo Falconi... 1937... 1980.. 20 WIV 5PE. 1970.The Independent..... Littlefield. 1988............The War and the Vatican by C. EPA....Nationalism in Contemporary Europe by Franjo Tudjman... EC. 22. FT.. U..... London..History Today. CR. London.. Public Records Office.. FO. 1945..... FHE... EP. pamphlet. 1985... 1975.Downfall by George Galloway.. DM..S.... GG.. 1907. 1970....History of Serbia by H.... 1953... FCL............Catholic Mind.. Henderson.. 1917...

. JT... by No Omrcanin. ..... Obrknezevic.. 1985.. KCA......Dramatis Personae and Finis of NDH..War Time by Milovan Djilas.. MD..Croatia by M. 1983.. Bulajic. 1986. OC.. Keesings Contemporary Archives..Osservatore Romano...St....The Man for this Moment by M... Chadwick.A Heart for Europe by J & J.. OFM...Role of the Vatican in break-up of Yugoslavia by M.. 1971..IO. NM....Unpublished Franciscan Documents.A Short History by Noel Malcolm......... John of Kronstadt Bulletin. 1989.....Yugo-Slav Ethnic Nightmare by J....... MTA. MR. JFM. off-print XXVIII-XXIX.......... Bath.. OR....All or Nothing by Jonathan Steinberg. PXIIC. 1966.. 1942.Journal of Croatian Studies. MB...Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews by John F...Britain and Vatican During 2nd World War by O... MT. 1977.. New York.. Bogle.. Morley.........The Vatican and Italian Fascism by John F. JJB..Bosnia . MDE... 1994.. Udovicki..)... 1993.Development of Orthodoxy in Croatia by M.. Raymond. JFP.. 1995. PXIIM....New Catholic Encyclopedia.... 1992. 1980.. JKB. 1991. 1975..Tito and The Catholic Church by Michael Derrick (CTS).... (CTS trans...A Paper House by Mark Thompson....Christmas Broadcast by Plus XII (CTS).. 48 BA2 4PJ..Mystici Corporis Christi by Pius XII. Pollard. Tanner.The Chetniks by Joso Tomasevich. JU. NCE..... MO.. 1953...... Rome. trans. JCS. 1994.... JS. 1943......... Rome... 1997. 1979.....

.. 1953. J..Church and State in Yugoslavia since 1945 by S. 4 Church Road. SL..LV Memoirs of a Yugoslav by Vane Ivanovic. RID.....The Cause of Cardinal Stepinac by R... SSJ..Catholics.In The Struggle for Freedom by Vladko Macek.. 1979. As far as possible.. Lapomarde... RJW..A Short History of Yugoslavia by Stephen Clissold. 1977..... SKP.. London... SCB. 1947.. 1987. VAL.. 1977.... The use of a publication as a reference source does not imply that ‗Church in History‘ accepts as reliable all other statements or opinions made in that publication. RHA.. Wolff......... SH. Patee... references have been taken from books in the English language. VI.... 1966.Marie Stopes by Ruth Hall... 1971.. VZ.The Tablet. VM.. circa.. 1989.. SAB....The Tragedy of a Nation by Theodore Benkovic...The Case Against Tito by Stephen Lackovic.Croatian Struggle for Freedom by Stjepan Hefer.Yugoslavia by Stevan K... 1944.... SAA.southslavjournal........ 1979. A. Alexander.. www. Nationalism and Terrorism by S... Pavlowitch.. RL.. 1987....Axis Rule in Occupied Europe by Raphael Lemkin. . 1994. 1993.RH.. SG...J.Donia..... Clissold........The Destruction of the European Jews by Raul Hilberg.. 1947. Alexander.. 1957.......The Jesuits and the Third Reich by V.The South Slav Journal. This enables readers to check quotations if they wish.... the State and the European Right by TAB....... W6 1QZ TB.... RP... 1986.. London.. memorandum.....Yugoslav Manipulations by Vladimir Zerjavic.... 1959. N6 4QT.A Crown of Thorns by Stephane Groueff. 1961.Croat Separatism.....Bosnia and Hercegovina by R.The Triple Myth by S. SCA....

The full texts of three sermons preached by Archbishop Stepinac against racial hatred during 1943. ChurchinHistory 2004 This version: 29th May 2006 http://books. Copyright © 22national+church%22+yugoslavia+tito&source=bl&ots=MeXcqbcOe&sig=NqRVXaK9s2V2KNwE2rR4WVk7pEI&hl=sl&ei=Kx5S9mbHYSisQaAiIzKCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CBAQ6AE wAjgK#v=onepage&q=Stepinac%20%22national%20church%22%20yugoslavia%20tito&f=f alse . are available on this web site.

http://www. 1999 St. in northwestern Croatia. the young man underwent an interior crisis. Aloïs exhibited a strong will despite a discreet and reserved temperament. and unity with the Church under the guidance of the Successor of Peter. because the truth is not an item which can be bargained for. Touched by the example of this saint. The Paschal Mystery of the Death and Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ should be experienced by all Christians. where love and mutual respect reigned as well as charity towards the least fortunate." . he began studies in agriculture which were soon interrupted. A marriage proposal did not work out. one of the most prominent figures of the Catholic Church. In 1917. each one participating in it according to the particular measure desired by God. 1998. the young man decided to consecrate his life to God and entered the "Germanicum" Seminary in Rome. even to the point of forgiveness. in the National Marian Sanctuary of Marija Bistrica (Croatia): "The Cardinal Archbishop of Zagreb. One of his fellow seminarians would say of him: "He burned with love for the Church and was totally faithful to the Holy Father. In 1992. Michael.htm September 29. Sent to middle school at Zagreb. What is more. he would prefer to confront suffering rather than betray his conscience and fail before the words given to Christ and the Church" (Beatification Homily. He knew very well that one could not engage in bargaining when speaking of the truth. 1946. respect for man. His mother was a pious and simple woman who particularly venerated the Blessed Virgin Mary.clairval. Returning home in June 1919. thirty two years after his death. is forevermore entrusted to the memory of his countrymen with the dazzling emblems of martyrdom "Through his human and spiritual journey. the political authorities of his country rehabilitated him in the eyes of men recognizing as unjust the trial and verdict pronounced against him on October 11. In March 1924. Hence. Archangel Dear Friend of Saint Joseph Abbey. 1998) The example of a saint Aloïs Stepinac was born at Krasic. The fifth child of a household of well-off farmers. For Cardinal Aloïs (Louis) Stepinac this measure was abundant. Disgusted by the immorality which surrounded him in the army. after having undergone the atrocities of the Communist system in his mind and body. October 3. Pope John Paul II beatified him on the First Saturday of the month of October. he was glorified not only in Heaven but also on earth. After having followed Christ in His Passion. on May 8. the love of all. a priest who knew him well published a magazine article on Saint Clement-Marie Hofbauer and sent it to him along with a long letter. he grew up in the heart of a profoundly Christian he was called up to serve in the Austro-Hungarian army. after a brief captivity in Italy. a characteristic that would also distinguish her son. 1898. Blessed Aloïs Stepinac gave his people a sort of compass with which they could orient themselves. The cardinal points of this compass are: faith in God.

it is not surprising that God now speaks to the crowds in the only language that they can understand and there is chaos in the land. then as notary of the archiepiscopal curia. and he received priestly ordination on October 26. Thus. authority of the Church over Catholic marriages. On December 7. as well as persecutions against the Jewish and Serb minorities. the destruction of everything. The archbishop held religious life in great esteem and felt that its development was indispensable. renunciation and sacrifice. The Croatian government pressed the Orthodox to convert to the Catholic religion. In 1934. In addition. But it doesn't matter to me. On May 29. Archbishop Stepinac showed the greatest reserve. but the Archbishop of Zagreb kept him on as a master of ceremonies. etc. he founded a daily Catholic newspaper to combat against the influence of the irreligious press. He initiated charitable works in the poor sections of Zagreb and organized soup kitchens. the Croatian nationalists (also known as the Oustachis) proclaimed an independent State at Zagreb. etc. in a word. with humility. they do everything to erase the name of God from the face of the earth. Archbishop Bauer fell gravely ill and requested a coadjutor from the Holy See. Monasteries should become "fortresses of Christ.Aloïs Stepinac completed his doctorate in philosophy." Important missions were entrusted to him." and protect the diocese with the spiritual weapons of prayer. Archbishop Bauer passed away and Bishop Stepinac succeeded him as Archbishop of Zagreb. 1937. "The fruit of an immense selfishness" Archbishop Stepinac announced the Second World War in these terms: "Married couples no longer respect the values of marriage. saying: "I don't know if I will stay here or not. Archbishop Stepinac sent his clergy a confidential note: "When people of the Jewish or . freedom of association. he denounced the violent acts of the Oustachis and condemned racial theories. Among his official actions before the war. and then in theology. It is the fruit of an immense selfishness The first rule.). Returning to Croatia. They destroy all moral values. at the Gregorian University of Rome. it is the only way to peace!" A teaching that still rings true! On April 10. he found the country devastated and exploited by Serbia. fostering good morals. He went on foot to the Marian sanctuary of Marija Bistrica. they no longer worry about children. The prelate recommended that his priests consecrate the best of themselves to their interior life. His desire was to be a country priest. all roads in the service of God lead to Heaven. He accepted. such as bringing peace to conflicts that had erupted in certain parishes. if we wish to see better days. 1941. because of his age (36 years) and of his lack of priestly experience. Along with positive developments (full freedom for the Catholic Church. he was named coadjutor. the horror of war. Jews and Gypsies. the new regime did itself no honor by discriminating against citizens of the Orthodox faith. he published an open letter to all doctors denouncing the "white plague": the development of contraception and abortion. 1930.). Indeed. the Croatian bishops had to fight ceaselessly for recognition of the rights of the Catholic Church (freedom of the schools. He proposed the name of Aloïs Stepinac. to entrust his difficult ministry to Mary. who tried in vain to avoid this duty. after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the German armies. Without outright condemnation of the Croatian State recognized "de facto" by the Holy See. He presented himself as the spokesman for the oppressed and persecuted. is to give to God the respect that is due Him. 36 km from Zagreb. they practice adultery.

the majority of whose parents were Orthodox. He encouraged all the faithful to pray more during those difficult times. The president of the Jewish community in the United States. the prelate reminded them of the sacred duty of parents to demand religious education in the schools.Orthodox faiths come to you in danger of death. and that therefore nobody is to be forced to embrace the faith against his will" (Vatican II. those who have converted out of conviction will be able to remain members of our Church while the others will be able to return to theirs. 1946: "This great personality of the Church was accused of collaboration with the Nazis. We know. but it pained him to see the Communist partisans of Josip Tito come to power. On June 24. since his actions beginning in 1934. On June 3. once the danger is passed. take them in1 in order to save their lives. He distributed entire wagon loads of food to refugees. 10). the ravages occurring among the youth by the atheist propaganda and the immorality favored by the State. All of the bells of Zagreb fell silent and the procession of Corpus Christi was cancelled. In a pastoral letter of September 20." When the bells fell silent During the withdrawal of German forces at the end of the war. and in particular to say the Rosary. The role and the duty of Christians is above all to save people. just at the moment when it was the most dangerous to do so It is thanks to him that the law on the `yellow armbands' was withdrawn After His Holiness Pope Pius XII. Do not seek from them any particular religious knowledge because the Orthodox are already Christians like us. as well as private property. personally cared for orphans whose parents had been interred or who had fled to the countryside." . during those years." Indeed. the Archbishop was surprised and taken to prison. suffered the persecution of Hitler and his henchmen. the Archbishop of Zagreb showered the benevolence of his acts of charity on the unfortunate. and the Jewish faith is the root of Christianity. the Croatian bishops insisted on his liberation before entering into any discussions. rare in Europe. taking no heed of the solemn declaration of the federal government of Yugoslavia according to which freedom of conscience and religion. Louis Breier. in a bulletin sent to all his priests. beginning a period of bloody purification and installing antireligious laws. Tito yielded and liberated Archbishop Stepinac. and they wish to convert to Catholicism. Taking little notice of the rumors according to which he was classified among the war criminals. they solemnly condemned "the materialist and impious spirit that is spreading in our country. who rose up against the Nazi tyranny. that he has always been a true friend of the Jews who. When these days of lies and savagery will have finished. would be respected. would say of him. Then. Before this movement of unexpected resistance. the Archbishop succeeded in preventing the total destruction of Zagreb. the Church teaches the freedom of the act of faith: "One of the key truths in Catholic teaching is that man's response to God by faith ought to be free. Dignitatis humanae. We Jews deny it. 1945. Aloïs Stepinac is one of those men. remarking on the paralysis of the seminaries. Throughout the war. On May 17. Meanwhile the dictatorship was put in place. no matter who they were. Archbishop Stepinac was the greatest defender of the persecuted Jews in Europe. the Catholic bishops of Yugoslavia noted that 243 priests had been killed since the end of the war and that 258 more had been imprisoned or had disappeared. Archbishop Stepinac firmly resolved to stay with his people. 1945. on October 13. and saved 6.700 children from famine and death.

he listened. ensured of the protection of the "Advocate of Croatia. on October 11. who is the most trustworthy witness and the sole judge of our actions. except God. The Archbishop remarked. The Archbishop remained silent. Even when he had been asked to preserve his declining strength. let them do what they want. including my prison. Numerous guards humiliated him. before the Croatian people. Pope John Paul II would say. I fear no one." "My conscience is clear and at peace" Beginning in November 1945. Perfectly calm. and my duty remains the same: to save souls. The day before the attack." the Blessed Virgin Mary. Summoned to follow the police. During his first days at Krasic. Archbishop Stepinac gave complete instructions for administration of the Church in the event of his imprisonment. "How do you feel?"-"Here. On December 17. the militia had threatened the prelate with reprisals if he went through with this visit. Strengthened by a forthright and pure conscience. "In any event. entering his cell at any time. the most faithful of Mothers. The packages of food that he received were exposed several days in the heat or spoiled in order to make them inedible. here I am. I fulfill my duty. before the Holy See. 1951. He transformed his prison cell into a monk's cell of prayer. before the Catholics of this State. passing a great part of his time at the parish church. 1998. in a message to his clergy. "for crimes against the people and the State. Ex 17: 11). under house arrest. by these words which summarized his life and explained his spiritual strength: "My conscience is clear and at peace before God." "To suffer and work for the Church" On December 5." On September 18. the village of his birth. There he carried out his priestly functions. he cleared himself of all the accusations of which he was the object. They took everything from him "except one thing: the possibility of raising his arms towards Heaven like Moses" (cf. the Yugoslav government consented to transfer the Archbishop to Krasic. to the unjust sentence pronounced against him."-"What is your duty?"-"To suffer and work for the Church. he would hear confessions for hours on end. condemning him to imprisonment and forced labor for sixteen years. Archbishop Stepinac did not weaken before the judges." . That is why he was slandered and then condemned." On September 30 a trial began.' He would prefer to remain faithful to the Successor of Peter. "The reason for the persecution he underwent and the sham trial staged against him was his refusal to separate from the Pope and the Apostolic See and take on the leadership of a `national Croatian Church. at 5 o'clock in the morning. He had the good fortune of being able to celebrate Mass on a makeshift altar. saying that the thing that rested him up the most was to hear confessions. 1946. yielding to international pressure. which Pope Pius XII would qualify as "tristissimo" (lamentable). On the last page of his calendar for 1946 he wrote: "Everything for the greater glory of God. a foreign journalist asked him. as at Lepoglava. insults coming out of their mouths. but I will never stop preaching the truth." Incarcerated in Lepoglava. during a pastoral visit. the militia entered the Archbishop's residence and rushed to the chapel where the prelate was in prayer. he answered: "If you lust for my blood." On October 7.In October 1945. Archbishop Stepinac's car was assaulted by Communists and the windows broken with rocks. Archbishop Stepinac shared in the miserable fate of hundreds of thousands of political prisoners." He would later add: "I am prepared to die at any moment. work and holy penance. we only die once.

1998). at the same time. because even if Communism leaves its trace on our people. it is the spirit that will conquer. Hearing one day that a foreign magazine had published a papal statement: "The Cardinal of Croatia is the greatest prelate of the Catholic Church. to cause a rupture between the Croatian Catholics and Rome and to found a schismatic national church. saturated with material goods. we are nevertheless better off than the people of the West. 1953. Thank God that my people have remained faithful to God and to the respect owed to the Blessed Virgin!" During this time. October 3. he desired to stay with his flock. but he refused to seek treatment in a foreign country. Medical treatment was given to him. he had to have an operation on his leg. but suffocating in immorality and practical atheism. he gives away everything. Milovan Djilas. and if our hands are tied by this perfidious ideology and if some of us have failed. at any cost. the following year. Archbishop Stepinac responded: "We must not despair. he announced prophetically: "In this struggle that is unfolding (in Yugoslavia) between the Church and the State. Pope Pius XII elevated Archbishop Stepinac to the dignity of cardinal. The prelate's guards (there were no less than 30 in 1954) insulted and poked fun at him in all possible manner. The parish priest from Krasic said. Thus "he was forevermore entrusted to the memory of his countrymen with the dazzling emblems of martyrdom " (John Paul II." devoted to the regime. He just gave away two pairs of shoes to the poor." The generosity of the Cardinal for those poorer than himself was without limit. "He only has what is absolutely necessary for clothing. which would have been necessary." he lowered his head and murmured: "God alone is great!" At the end of 1952. exhorted the undecided and brought back the wandering sheep. Meanwhile. according to his doctors. In November 1952. with a view to uniting the Croatians to the Serbian Orthodox Church.To visitors discouraged by the misdeeds of Communism. he was diagnosed with a blood disease due. By means of extensive use of mail. More than one priest admitted: "If he hadn't been there. The Archbishop was unable to go to Rome because he feared that Tito's government would not permit him to return to his country. In an interview with a foreign journalist. that his death was a consequence of fourteen years of isolation." Humble. as a good shepherd. we would have loaded him with honors!" "It is the spirit that conquers. the Yugoslav government was searching." bringing together "patriot priests. not matter " On January 12. then. in 1994. Archbishop Stepinac regretted all the publicity that existed about him. Never in the history of mankind has materialism been able to definitively hold sway. to the mistreatment that he had endured. and of sufferings of every sort. the shut-in Archbishop encouraged priests and the faithful. Tito had decided to break diplomatic relations with the Vatican and. To conquer evil by good . gave orders to the police to stop all visits to Krasic. of constant physical and moral pressures. was created to this end. not matter. the methods of the Communist regime did not soften. who knows how we would have turned?" One of Tito's principal henchmen. The year 1953 was marred by government-sponsored violence. An "association of Saints Cyril and Methodus. as we desired. would later admit: "If Stepinac had decided to yield and proclaim a Croatian Church independent of Rome. The long enquiry carried out for his beatification would come to the conclusion.

" In 1958. 1998.. the sufferings of the Cardinal became almost intolerable. that means to not let ourselves be conquered by evil. because man is one thing. In one of his sermons he confided the secret of his hope: "Someone could ask: `And what is our hope based on?' I answer: on faith in . a newspaper. and who makes it rain for those who do good." If we are filled with a deep gratitude towards the Holy Father for this beatification. that means to recognize that even he who has done evil is a brother." he wrote: "I sincerely ask anyone whom I might have hurt in any manner. "To forgive and to reconcile with one another. permission must be requested and obtained through email or through http://www. we thank above all our Lord for having made shine in our eyes such a light and for having given us the example of Blessed Aloïs Stepinac. your deceased and for all your intentions. and I forgive with all of my heart all those who have hurt me Dear sons. On divine omniscience from which nothing escapes. We pray to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary and to Saint Joseph for you. to forgive me." During the beatification of Cardinal Stepinac. love also your enemies. the victory of forgiveness and reconciliation over hate and vengeance. Pope John Paul II observed the triumph of his invincible hope: "We recognize. He was heard to pray for his persecutors and to repeat quietly: "We must not hate. because that is the commandment of God. Such was his motto. the victory of the laws of God and of conscience over violence and harrassment. or to reproduce it on the internet or on a home page. but to conquer evil with good (cf. To the end he persevered in his resolve to grant pardon. Dom Antoine Marie osb. On February 10. and evil is another. To publish the letter of Saint Joseph Abbey in a magazine. Cardinal Stepinac adopted the spiritual attitude commanded by Our Lord Jesus Christ: Love your enemies: do good to them that hate you and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you (Mt 5: 44). because God does not lie. they too are creatures of God. saying these words: "Fiat voluntas tua!" (Thy will be done!) "In te Domine speravi" (In You. of the desire for vengeance. of rancor. Rom 12: 21)." On October 7. I have hoped). as well as for those who do evil." In his "spiritual testament. that means to purify our memory of hate. Lord. Thus you will be sons of the Heavenly Father who makes the sun rise on the good and on the evil.clairval. but the most painful thing for him was to no longer have the strength to celebrate Mass. On the omnipotence of God who is forever Master of all.During all of the years of his forced reclusion. etc. he passed away at Krasic. Pope John Paul II would say. in the beatification of Cardinal Stepinac. the victory of the Gospel of Christ over totalitarian ideologies. 1960. . Don't let the conduct of your enemies distance you from love towards them.

State and Society. Pages 45 – 61 . 1465-3974.The Catholic Church and Croatia's Two Transitions1 Alex J. Issue 1. Bellamy Religion. 2002. Volume 30.

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