REAL ANALYSIS

THIRD EDITION
H.L. ROYDEN
BY

iii – BS MATH CIT Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus

5 Open and closed sets of real numbers  2.1 AXIOMS FOR THE REAL NUMBERS .1 Axioms for the Real Numbers  2.7 Borel Sets 2.6 Continuous functions  2.2 The Natural and Rational numbers as subsets of R  2.CHAPTER 2 The real number system In this Chapter:  2.4 Sequences of real numbers  2.3 The extended real numbers  2.

If we have a field. . B2. A7. A5. y P ) x + y P. and in fact these axioms completely characterize the real numbers. xy = yx. (xy)z = x(yz). A3. Any system satisfying the axioms of group A and B is called an ordered field. (x R ) (x = 0) or (x P ) or ( x P ). (x P ) x P. 1 R such that 1 0 and x ∙ 1 = x for all x R. A4. x(y + z) = xy + xz. We thus assume as given the R of real numbers. The second class of properties possessed by the real numbers have to do with the fact that the real numbers are ordered: B. The properties of real numbers are consequences of axioms. A8. (x. The Field Axioms: For all real numbers x. Thus the real numbers are an ordered field. and z we have: A1. A2. such that x + 0 = x for all x R. (x + y) + z = x + (y +z).The real numbers is defined as a Dedekind cut of rational numbers. B4. including the solution of simultaneous linear equations. (x. A. B3. For each x R there is a w R such that x + w = 0. the rational numbers in turn being defined in terms of the natural numbers. the set P of positive real numbers. that is. we can perform all the operations on elementary algebra. The rational numbers give another example of an ordered field. and the functions ‘ + ‘ and ‘ ∙ ’ on R x R to R and assume that these satisfy the following axioms. Axioms of Order: the subset P of positive real numbers satisfies the following: B1. x + y = y + x. Any set that satisfies these axioms is called a field (under + and ∙). A6. y. any system satisfying A1 through A9. y P ) xy P. This gives an elegant construction of the real numbers out of more primitive concepts of set theory.

We shall often denote the least upper bound of S by sup S and occasionally by sup {x: x S}. . and it follows from Axiom C that every set of real numbers with a lower bound has a greatest lower bound. We denote the greatest lower bound of a set S by inf S. Then either L has a greatest element or U has the least element. We can define lower bounds and greatest lower bounds in a similar fashion. Our final axiom for real numbers simply guarantees its existence for such with an upper bound. Before stating this final axiom. Completeness Axiom: Every nonempty set S of real numbers which has an upper bound has a least upper bound. we say that b is an upper bound for S if for each x S we have x b. Clearly.The third axiom group consists of a single axiom. A number c is called a least upper bound for S if it is an upper bound for S and if c b for each upper bound b of S. let us introduce some terminology: if S is a set of real numbers. As a consequence of Axiom C we have the following proposition: 1. Show that 1 . the least upper bound of a set S is unique if it exists. and is this axiom that distinguishes the real numbers from other ordered fields. Proposition: Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L U and such that for each l in L and e ach u in U we have l u. SOLVED PROBLEMS 1. C. Note that inf S = sup S.

we often denote max (x. Now take x P. If x and y are two real numbers. If l0 L. ( x) ( y) = (x y) d. (x y) z = x (y b. Use Axiom C to show that every nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound has the greatest lower bound. Similarly. Prove Proposition 1 using Axiom C. Otherwise.Solutions: Suppose 1 P. Thus l is a lower bound for U and is greater than u0. Thus b is a greatest lower bound for S. y) to be x if x y and y if y x. l0 U and u0 l0. Then 1 P by Axiom B4. U is bounded below so it has a greatest lower bound u0. Solutions: Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L U and such that for each l L and u U we have l < u. and denote it by ‘x y’. Similarly. L is bounded above so it has a least upper bound l0. Solutions: Let S be a nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound. x= 2. b is a lower bound for S and if a is another lower bound for S. it has a least upper bound b. then a is an upper bound for S and b a so b a. Contradiction. y) to be the smaller of x and y. y) by ‘x y’. we define max (x. Show that a. Then ( 1)x P by Axiom B2 so 0 = x + ( x) P. 4. If u0 < l0. z(x y) = (zx) (zy) if z 0. x y + x y = x + y c. then there exists l L with u0 < l. 3. then it is the greatest element in L. we define min (x. Contradiction. Then the set S = { s : s S} has an upper bound and by Axiom C. Hence u0 = l0 so u0 U and it is the least element in U. x y + z = (x + z) (y + z) e. Solutions: .