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THIRD EDITION

H.L. ROYDEN

BY

iii – BS MATH CIT Pangasinan State University – Lingayen Campus

5 Open and closed sets of real numbers 2.1 AXIOMS FOR THE REAL NUMBERS .1 Axioms for the Real Numbers 2.7 Borel Sets 2.6 Continuous functions 2.2 The Natural and Rational numbers as subsets of R 2.CHAPTER 2 The real number system In this Chapter: 2.4 Sequences of real numbers 2.3 The extended real numbers 2.

If we have a field. . B2. A7. A5. y P ) x + y P. and in fact these axioms completely characterize the real numbers. xy = yx. (xy)z = x(yz). A3. Any system satisfying the axioms of group A and B is called an ordered field. (x R ) (x = 0) or (x P ) or ( x P ). (x P ) x P. 1 R such that 1 0 and x ∙ 1 = x for all x R. A4. x(y + z) = xy + xz. We thus assume as given the R of real numbers. The second class of properties possessed by the real numbers have to do with the fact that the real numbers are ordered: B. The properties of real numbers are consequences of axioms. A8. (x. The Field Axioms: For all real numbers x. Thus the real numbers are an ordered field. and z we have: A1. A2. such that x + 0 = x for all x R. (x + y) + z = x + (y +z).The real numbers is defined as a Dedekind cut of rational numbers. B4. including the solution of simultaneous linear equations. (x. A. B3. For each x R there is a w R such that x + w = 0. the rational numbers in turn being defined in terms of the natural numbers. the set P of positive real numbers. that is. we can perform all the operations on elementary algebra. The rational numbers give another example of an ordered field. and the functions ‘ + ‘ and ‘ ∙ ’ on R x R to R and assume that these satisfy the following axioms. Axioms of Order: the subset P of positive real numbers satisfies the following: B1. x + y = y + x. Any set that satisfies these axioms is called a field (under + and ∙). A6. y. any system satisfying A1 through A9. y P ) xy P. This gives an elegant construction of the real numbers out of more primitive concepts of set theory.

We shall often denote the least upper bound of S by sup S and occasionally by sup {x: x S}. . and it follows from Axiom C that every set of real numbers with a lower bound has a greatest lower bound. We denote the greatest lower bound of a set S by inf S. Then either L has a greatest element or U has the least element. We can define lower bounds and greatest lower bounds in a similar fashion. Our final axiom for real numbers simply guarantees its existence for such with an upper bound. Before stating this final axiom. Completeness Axiom: Every nonempty set S of real numbers which has an upper bound has a least upper bound. we say that b is an upper bound for S if for each x S we have x b. Clearly.The third axiom group consists of a single axiom. A number c is called a least upper bound for S if it is an upper bound for S and if c b for each upper bound b of S. let us introduce some terminology: if S is a set of real numbers. As a consequence of Axiom C we have the following proposition: 1. Show that 1 . the least upper bound of a set S is unique if it exists. and is this axiom that distinguishes the real numbers from other ordered fields. Proposition: Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L U and such that for each l in L and e ach u in U we have l u. SOLVED PROBLEMS 1. C. Note that inf S = sup S.

we often denote max (x. Now take x P. If x and y are two real numbers. If l0 L. ( x) ( y) = (x y) d. (x y) z = x (y b. Use Axiom C to show that every nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound has the greatest lower bound. Similarly. Prove Proposition 1 using Axiom C. Otherwise.Solutions: Suppose 1 P. Thus l is a lower bound for U and is greater than u0. Thus b is a greatest lower bound for S. y) to be x if x y and y if y x. l0 U and u0 l0. Then 1 P by Axiom B4. U is bounded below so it has a greatest lower bound u0. Solutions: Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L U and such that for each l L and u U we have l < u. and denote it by ‘x y’. Similarly. L is bounded above so it has a least upper bound l0. Solutions: Let S be a nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound. x= 2. b is a lower bound for S and if a is another lower bound for S. it has a least upper bound b. then a is an upper bound for S and b a so b a. Contradiction. y) to be the smaller of x and y. y) by ‘x y’. we define max (x. Show that a. Then ( 1)x P by Axiom B2 so 0 = x + ( x) P. 4. If u0 < l0. z(x y) = (zx) (zy) if z 0. x y + x y = x + y c. then there exists l L with u0 < l. 3. then it is the greatest element in L. we define min (x. Contradiction. Then the set S = { s : s S} has an upper bound and by Axiom C. Hence u0 = l0 so u0 U and it is the least element in U. x y + z = (x + z) (y + z) e. Solutions: .

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