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WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Guidelines on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among children, adolescents and adults :
recommendations for a public health approach.
The work was coordinated by Charles Gilks and Marco Vitoria, Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization-
-Acknowledgements.
1.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination - therapeutic use. 2.Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination -
adverse effects. 3.AIDS-related opportunistic infections - prevention and control. 4.Guidelines. 5.Developing
countries. I.Gilks, Charles. II.Vitoria, Marco. III.World Health Organization.
ISBN 92 4 159470 5 (NLM classication: WC 503.2)
ISBN 978 92 4 159470 7
World Health Organization 2006
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6UIDELINE5 0N
C0-TPIH0XAZ0LE PP0PRYLAXI5
F0P RI-PELATED INFECTI0N5
AH0N6 CRILDPEN,
AD0LE5CENT5 AND ADULT5
Reco::e:o~lio:s
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GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
These guidelines could not have been created without the participation of numerous experts.
The World Health Organization expresses its gratitude to the writing committee that developed this document.
Members of the writing committee were Murtada Sesay Bpharm (UNICEF), Rhehab Chimzizi (Lilongwe, Malawi),
Tawee Chotpitayasunondh (Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Bangkok, Thailand), Siobhan Crowley
(Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization), Chris Duncombe (HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand
Research Collaboration (HIV-NAT), Bangkok, Thailand), Wafaa El Sadr (Columbia University, New York, NY, USA),
Robert Gass (UNICEF), Diane Gibb (Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom), Kate Grimwade (City
General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom), Senait Kebede (WHO Regional Ofce for Africa, World Health
Organization) Nagalingeshwaran Kumarasamy (YRG Centre for AIDS Research & Education, India), Sylvia Ojoo
(Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya) and Renee Ridzon (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA,
USA).
This publication was developed through an expert consultation process that took account of current scientic
evidence and the state of the art in co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV infection in the context of resource-limited
settings.
WHO also wishes to acknowledge the comments and contributions by Xavier Anglaret, Amy Bloom, Nguy Chi,
Chifumbe Chintu, Anniek De Baets, Kevin de Cock, Joseph Drabo, Sergie Eholi, Aires Fernandes, Tendani Galoathi,
Julian Gold, Gregg Gonsalves, Stephen Graham, Catherine Hankins, Robert Josiah, Rita Kabra, Jon Kaplan,
George Ki-zerbo, Charles Kouanfack, Maria Grazia Lain, Chewe Luo, Shabir Madhi, Jean Ellie Malkin, Mariana
Mardaresceau, Anaky Marie-France, Antonieta Medina Lara, Jonathan Mermim, Lulu Muhe, Hilda Mujuru, Paula
Munderi, Peter Mwaba, Cheikh Ndour, Ngashi Ngongo, Kike Osinusi, Christopher Plowe, Hak Chan Roeun, Fabio
Scano, Goa Tau, Donald Thea, Valdilea Veloso, Christine Watera, Wilson Were, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Rony
Zachariah and Heather Zar.
WHO also wish to thank the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for supporting the elaboration of these guidelines.
This work was coordinated by Charles Gilks and Marco Vitria, Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization.
ACKN0WLED6EHENT5
3
1. Acronyms and abbreviations ................................................................................................. 4
2. Development of these guidelines .......................................................................................... 5
2.1 Objective of this document............................................................................................ 5
2.2 Target audience............................................................................................................. 5
3. Statement on the strength of the evidence used in the recommendations ........................... 6
4. Introduction............................................................................................................................ 7
5. Background and new evidence ............................................................................................. 8
5.1 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among infants and children .............................................. 8
5.2 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adolescents and adults ........................................ 9
5.3 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in pregnant women ......................................................... 10
5.4 Discontinuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among people
receiving antiretroviral therapy .................................................................................... 10
5.5 Bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole..........................................................................11
5.6 Cross-resistance of co-trimoxazole with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.......................... 12
6. Recommendations on the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among infants and children......... 13
6.1 Initiation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children...................... 13
6.2 Doses of co-trimoxazole in infants and children.......................................................... 15
6.3 Secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children................................... 16
6.4 Discontinuation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children .......... 16
6.5 Discontinuation of secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis.......................................... 18
7. Recommendations on the use of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
among adults and adolescents ........................................................................................... 19
7.1 Adults and adolescents among whom co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
is contraindicated ........................................................................................................ 19
7.2 Initiation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and adolescents ....... 19
7.3 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among pregnant women................................................. 20
7.4 Doses of co-trimoxazole among adults and adolescents ........................................... 21
7.5 Secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and adolescents..................... 21
7.6 Discontinuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and adolescents ................ 21
8. Recommendations common to infants, children, adults and adolescents.......................... 26
8.1 Timing the initiation of co-trimoxazole in relation to initiating antiretroviral therapy........... 26
8.2 Clinical and laboratory monitoring of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis .............................. 26
8.3 Treatment of bacterial and opportunistic infections
among people taking co-trimoxazole prophylaxis ...................................................... 27
8.4 Preventing and treating malaria among people taking co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...........27
9. Operational considerations ................................................................................................. 28
Annex 1. WHO clinical staging of HIV disease in infants and children ................................... 29
Annex 2. WHO clinical staging of HIV disease among adults and adolescents ..................... 31
Annex 3. Criteria for recognizing HIV-related clinical events among adults and adolescents ........ 33
Annex 4. Criteria for recognizing HIV-related clinical events among children living with HIV ......... 42
Annex 5. Grading of adverse drug events............................................................................... 52
Annex 6. Summary of major studies of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis ....................................... 54
References................................................................................................................................. 58
C0NTENT5
4
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
1. ACP0NYH5 AND ABBPEIATI0N5
AIDS acquired immunodeciency syndrome
HIV human immunodeciency virus
PCP Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
(formerly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)
TB tuberculosis
UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
WHO World Health Organization
5
2. DEEL0PHENT 0F TRE5E 6UIDELINE5
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is a simple, well-tolerated and cost-effective intervention
for people living with HIV. It should be implemented as an integral component of the
HIV chronic care package and as a key element of preantiretroviral therapy care.
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis needs to continue after antiretroviral therapy is initiated
until there is evidence of immune recovery (see subsections 6.4 and 7.6).
In May 2005, WHOconvened an Expert Consultation on Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in HIV Infection.
The meeting objectives were to review available data on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, including
operational issues and research priorities, and to exchange regional and country experiences. The
meeting report (1) formulated recommendations for the initiation and discontinuation of co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants, children, adults and adolescents.
2.1 Objective of this document
In high-income countries, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children (both those exposed to HIV
1
and those living with HIV) and adults and adolescents living with HIV has been the standard of care
for many years. WHO and UNAIDS have not produced guidelines for national programmes in
resource-limited settings. In the absence of clear guidelines, countries and programmes have been
slow in adopting co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, a life-saving, simple and inexpensive intervention. The
objective of these guidelines is to provide global technical and operational recommendations for the
use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-exposed children, children living with HIV and adolescents
and adults living with HIV in the context of scaling up HIV care in resource-limited settings.
All HIV-exposed infants born to mothers living with HIV must receive co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis, commencing at 46 weeks of age (or at rst encounter with health
care system) and continued until HIV infection can be excluded.
2.2 Target audience
This publication is primarily intended for use by national HIV/AIDS programme managers,
managers of nongovernmental organizations delivering HIV/AIDS care services and other policy-
makers who are involved in planning HIV/AIDS care strategies in resource-limited countries. It
should also be useful to clinicians in resource-limited settings.
1 Denition of HIV exposure: infants and children born to mothers living with HIV until HIV infection in the infant or child is reli-
ably excluded and the infant or child is no longer exposed through breastfeeding. For those <18 months of age, HIV infection
is diagnosed by a positive virological test (HIV DNA or HIV RNA) six weeks after complete cessation of all breastfeeding. For a
HIV-exposed children >18 months of age, HIV infection can be excluded by negative HIV antibody testing at least six weeks after
complete cessation of all breastfeeding.
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GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
The recommendations contained in these guidelines are based on levels of evidence from
randomized clinical trials, high-quality scientic studies, observational cohort data and, where
sufcient evidence is not available, on expert opinion (Table 1). The strength of the
recommendations is intended to guide the degree to which regional and country programmes
consider the recommendations.
These recommendations do not explicitly consider cost-effectiveness, although the realities of
human resources, health system infrastructure and socioeconomic issues need to be taken into
account when adapting these recommendations to regional and country programmes.
Table 1. Grading of recommendations and levels of evidence
Strength of the recommendation Level of evidence available
for the recommendation
A. Recommended should be followed
B. Consider applicable in most
situations
C. Optional
I. At least one randomized controlled trial
with clinical laboratorial or programmatic
endpoints
II. At least one high-quality study or several
adequate studies with clinical, laboratory
or programmatic endpoints
III. Observational cohort data, one or more
case-controlled or analytical studies
adequately conducted
IV. Expert opinion based on evaluation of
other evidence
Sources: BHIVA Writing Committee on behalf of the BHIVA Executive Committee (2); Task Force on Community
Preventive Services (3); WHO Health Evidence Network (4); EDM guidelines: evidence-based medicine (5).
3. 5TATEHENT 0N TRE 5TPEN6TR 0F TRE EIDENCE U5ED
IN TRE PEC0HHENDATI0N5
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Co-trimoxazole, a xed-dose combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, is a broad-
spectrum antimicrobial agent that targets a range of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative
organisms, fungi and protozoa. The drug is widely available in both syrup and solid formulations
at low cost (a few US cents per day) in most places, including resource-limited settings. Co-
trimoxazole is on the essential medicines list (6) of most countries.
Providing co-trimoxazole has been part of the standard of care for preventing Pneumocystis
jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) (formerly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) and toxoplasmosis since
the early 1990s. Although WHO/UNAIDS issued a provisional statement on the use of co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa in 2000, most countries have not implemented
this intervention widely. The reasons for the slow implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
programmes include the difference in causation and burden of HIV-related infections between
well-resourced and resource-limited countries, the potential for drug resistance and the lack of
guidelines. Until more recently, there has also been concern over the limited evidence base for
the efcacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, particularly in areas with high levels of bacterial
resistance to the drug.
. INTP0DUCTI0N
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GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
5. BACK6P0UND AND NEW EIDENCE
Data on the effectiveness of co-trimoxazole in reducing morbidity and mortality among individuals
living with HIV in resource-limited countries comes from randomized clinical trials, observational
cohort studies and programme analyses from several African countries (with varying levels of
co-trimoxazole resistance), India and Thailand. There are limited data from the Caribbean and
Latin America.
Recently, more data have become available from resource-limited settings on the efcacy of co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis in reducing morbidity and mortality among adults and children living
with HIV.
5.1 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among infants and children
Across a large number of clinical and postmortem studies in all settings, PCP has been identied
as the leading cause of death in infants with HIV infection, accounting for 5060% of AIDS
diagnoses in infants (7,8). The incidence peaks in the rst six months of life (912). Because of
difculty in diagnosing HIV infection in infants, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for
all HIV-exposed children born to mothers living with HIV starting at 46 weeks after birth and
continuing until HIV infection has been excluded and the infant is no longer at risk of acquiring
HIV through breastfeeding.
Data from randomized clinical trials and observational studies demonstrate the
effectiveness of co-trimoxazole in preventing PCP in infants and reducing morbidity
and mortality among infants and children living with or exposed to HIV.
Among children after infancy, a randomized clinical trial conducted in Lusaka, Zambia provided
strong evidence that daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is effective in reducing mortality and
morbidity (7). This was demonstrated despite high levels of in vitro resistance of common bacterial
infections to co-trimoxazole (6080%). In this study, 534 children living with HIV (mean age 4.4
years; 32% 12 years and 15% older than 10 years) were randomized to receive co-trimoxazole
(240 mg daily for children 15 years and 480 mg for children older than 5 years) or matching
placebo. Mortality declined 43% and the rate of hospital admissions 23% in the co-trimoxazole
group versus placebo. No evidence indicated that the effectiveness decreased over a median
follow-up time of 20 months in the trial, and the benet of co-trimoxazole was demonstrated at all
ages and all levels of CD4 percentage. However, most of these children had symptoms (WHO
clinical stages 2, 3 or 4 for HIV disease) at baseline and only 16% had a CD4% >20%. The main
protective effect was the reduction of mortality and hospital admissions due to pneumonia
(presumed to be bacterial). P. jiroveci was not demonstrated as a common causative organism in
these older children (only 1 of 119 nasopharyngeal aspirates positive for P. jiroveci). Of note,
9
malaria is less common in Lusaka than in other countries in the region, and the efcacy of co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria could not be determined in this trial. However, another
study showed that co-trimoxazole reduced malaria in HIV-uninfected children in Mali (13).
5.2 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adolescents and adults
Randomized clinical trials, studies using historical controls and observational cohort studies
have demonstrated the effectiveness of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in reducing mortality and
morbidity across varying levels of background resistance to co-trimoxazole and prevalence of
malaria.
Consistent evidence from all studies that include CD4 cell count supports the effectiveness
of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among people with CD4 counts <200 cells per mm
3
(1416).
Similarly, studies show that individuals with WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 for HIV disease
(including tuberculosis (TB)) clearly benet from co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (8,12,14).
More recently, evidence supports the use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among people with
higher CD4 counts and those with less advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stages 1 and 2).
Two randomized clinical trials from Abidjan, Cte dIvoire (14,17) showed consistent benet in
the reduction of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV with varying CD4 counts
with and without TB. The rst study (14) demonstrated reduction in mortality among people living
with HIV who also had TB across all CD4 counts. The second study (17) showed a signicant
reduction in severe adverse events (dened as death or hospital admission) among all people
living with HIV irrespective of CD4 count.
The LUCOT study (submitted for publication), a recently completed randomized clinical trial in
Zambia, assessed the impact of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in reducing mortality among adults
living with HIV who had newly diagnosed or previously treated pulmonary TB. Overall, there was
a 45% reduction in mortality in the co-trimoxazole-treated group versus placebo during 18
months of follow-up.
A study conducted in an area with high TB and HIV prevalence but with low malaria transmission
in South Africa demonstrated reduction in mortality among adults being treated for active TB
using co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, irrespective of HIV status (18). The ndings of these studies
are consistent with those from randomized clinical trials and from nonrandomized studies, which
have shown benet from prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole in reducing mortality among adults
living with HIV who had newly diagnosed pulmonary TB.
An observational study conducted in Uganda (19) assessed the impact of daily co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis on rates of malaria, diarrhoea, hospital admission and death. In this study, 509
individuals living with HIV-1 and 1522 HIV-negative household members were enrolled and
followed up with weekly home visits. After ve months, participants living with HIV were offered
co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and followed for a further 1.5 years. Mortality declined 45% from all
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GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
causes and morbidity from malaria and diarrhoeal diseases declined after co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis was provided to those living with HIV. This study also demonstrated the benet of
co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among untreated family members uninfected with HIV. Mortality and
the incidence of diarrhoea and malaria among HIV-uninfected children of adults treated with co-
trimoxazole were lower than in the children of untreated adults living with HIV (20). A second
study from Uganda, with a similar study design, also demonstrated a reduction in mortality and
malaria (12).
5.3 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in pregnant women
In a study of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Zambia (21), birth outcomes from
1075 pregnant women living with HIV were analysed before and after co-trimoxazole was
introduced as the standard of care for pregnant women in Zambia. There were signicant
improvements in birth outcomes, with reductions in chorioamnionitis, prematurity and neonatal
mortality following the introduction of routine co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for women living with
HIV who had CD4 cell counts <200 cells per mm
3
. These data suggest that this intervention may
have indirect benets for neonatal and infant health in addition to its direct benets for maternal
health (21).
5.4 Discontinuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
among people receiving antiretroviral therapy
5.4.1 Stopping in infants and children
A few studies have assessed the safety of discontinuing prophylaxis among children living with
HIV. Children younger than one year of age are at risk of opportunistic infections irrespective of
their CD4 percentage (16). For children aged 15 years, age-specic CD4 percentages may be
used to guide co-trimoxazole interruption following immune recovery in response to antiretroviral
therapy. A prospective study from the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (PACTG 1008) reported
no opportunistic infections and no increase in rates of severe bacterial infections among children
stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis following immune restoration in response to antiretroviral
therapy (22). In a retrospective survey conducted at 10 European centres in the Pediatric
European Network on the Treatment of AIDS network (23), 82 children receiving antiretroviral
therapy stopped co-trimoxazole prophylaxis based on age-related CD4 cell count criteria. The
criteria for commencing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis had been primary prophylaxis (72 children)
or secondary prophylaxis (10 children). No episodes of PCP were reported during a median
follow-up time of 4.1 years (range 0.37.7) with no prophylaxis. There are no data from resource-
limited settings on the safety of stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children.
5.4.2 Stopping among adults and adolescents
Randomized clinical trials conducted in well-resourced countries have demonstrated that co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis used for PCP prophylaxis may be safely stopped following immune
11
recovery in response to antiretroviral therapy (24,25). In resource-limited settings, data are more
limited, particularly in the absence of CD4 count monitoring, and there are no randomized trials.
Some experts suggest the use of similar CD4 cell count criteria for stopping co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis as those used in well-resourced countries.
In a small study from India (26), co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was stopped when the CD4 count was
>200 cells per mm
3
, and no participant developed PCP or toxoplasmosis. Similar results were
reported from a study in Thailand (27) in which 179 people who had never received antiretroviral
therapy commenced antiretroviral therapy with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were
followed for 216 weeks. The median time to achieve a CD4 count >200 cells per mm
3
for participants
with a baseline CD4 count of >100 cells per mm
3
was 24 weeks. For those with a baseline CD4 count
<100 cells per mm
3
, the time for CD4 to increase to >200 cells per mm
3
was 96 weeks. There were
no cases of PCP among 169 participants who stopped co-trimoxazole during the 216 weeks of
follow-up from study entry (10 participants did not reach the CD4 cell target of 200 cells per mm
3
).
These studies also reported that some participants with low baseline CD4 counts might never
achieve a CD4 cell count >200 cells per mm
3
.
Data on stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among people receiving antiretroviral therapy in the
absence of CD4 count monitoring are not available. Information from studies of people receiving
antiretroviral therapy and their CD4 cell count response during follow-up may inuence
recommendations on if and when co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should be stopped based on the
duration of antiretroviral therapy in the absence of CD4 count monitoring. The Development of
Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) study in Uganda examined the CD4 response following
commencement of antiretroviral therapy. The median time to achieve a CD4 count >200 cells per
mm
3
was 24 weeks among those who commenced antiretroviral therapy with CD4 counts greater
than 100 cells per mm
3
. Among those with baseline CD4 counts below 50 cells per mm
3
, the
median time to CD4 increase to >200 cells per mm
3
was 72 weeks. These data are comparable
those in the study in Thailand.
The lack of data from randomized clinical trials on stopping co-trimoxazole in the absence of
CD4 count monitoring, the limited number of participants in observational studies and the
absence of a control group in these studies caution against this approach until such data are
available.
5.5 Bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole
Co-trimoxazole has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogens including
Pneumococcus, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Isospora, Cyclospora, Nocardia, Plasmodium
falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and PCP.
Co-trimoxazole has been used widely as treatment for common infections in many resource-
limited settings and, as a result, co-trimoxazole resistance among these pathogens has
increased in these settings. Resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella and Pneumococcus isolates
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GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
to co-trimoxazole has been reported to be 44% and 52% respectively in Uganda (19) and
approximately 80% and 90% respectively in Malawi (28).
The efcacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis has not been affected by the background prevalence
of co-trimoxazole resistance and appears to be similar in geographical areas in which background
prevalence of co-trimoxazole resistance is high (South Africa, Uganda and Zambia) and low
(Cte dIvoire).
The impact of co-trimoxazole use in the evolution of drug resistance is uncertain. There is
concern that implementing wide and prolonged use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis could be
associated with the development of drug resistance in common pathogens, such as increased
penicillin-resistant Pneumococcus (29). Data from Uganda (20) found no signicant changes in
the bacterial resistance patterns of stool pathogens isolated from the family members of
individuals on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis over a two-year period. However, one study from
Malawi (30) showed a signicant increase in resistance of pharyngeal and faecal isolates from
those receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis.
5.6 Cross-resistance of co-trimoxazole with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine
Co-trimoxazole has been shown to be 99.5% effective in preventing malaria versus 95%
effectiveness with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and both have about 80% therapeutic efcacy for
the treatment of malaria (13). Cross-resistance between co-trimoxazole and sulfadoxine/
pyrimethamine is a potential concern when co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is used in areas where
sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is the rst-line agent for treating malaria. Analysis of malaria parasites
from children in Mali who had received at least one month of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis detected
no resistance-conferring mutations. Similarly, the study in Uganda (20) found no signicant
difference between either the proportion of malarial episodes with resistant organisms or the
incidence of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamineresistant malaria before and after co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis was introduced. There is no evidence to date on the efcacy of sulfadoxine/
pyrimethamine in treating breakthrough episodes of malaria among people taking co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis. As co-trimoxazole is 99.5% effective in preventing malaria, adherence to co-
trimoxazole should be assessed if breakthrough episodes occur and the need for adherence
should be reinforced.
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6.1 Initiation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children
6.1.1 Children among whom co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is contraindicated
Children with a history of severe adverse reaction (grade 4 reactions, see Table 7) to co-
trimoxazole or other sulfa drugs and children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
deciency should not be prescribed co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. In resource-limited settings,
routine testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deciency is not recommended.
Dapsone 2 mg/kg once daily, if available, is an alternative. Some children cannot tolerate either
co-trimoxazole or dapsone. No alternative recommendation can be made in resource-limited
settings for children who cannot tolerate either.
6.1.2 HIV-exposed infants and children
In resource-limited settings, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for all HIV-exposed
infants starting at 46 weeks of age (or at rst encounter with the health care system) and
continued until HIV infection can be excluded. Co-trimoxazole is also recommended for HIV-
exposed breastfeeding children of any age, and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should be continued
until HIV infection can be excluded by HIV antibody testing (beyond 18 months of age) or
virological testing (before 18 months of age) at least six weeks after complete cessation of
breastfeeding [A-III]. Programme efforts should focus on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in the rst
six months of life, when the risk of PCP is greatest.
6.1.3 Infants and children documented to be living with HIV
All children younger than one year of age documented to be living with HIV should receive co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis regardless of symptoms or CD4 percentage [A-II]. After one year of
age, initiation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for symptomatic children (WHO
clinical stages 2, 3 or 4 for HIV disease) or children with CD4 <25% (31) [A-I]. All children who
begin co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (irrespective of whether co-trimoxazole was initiated in the rst
year of life or after that) should continue until the age of ve years, when they can be reassessed.
Adult clinical staging and CD4 count thresholds for co-trimoxazole initiation or discontinuation
apply to children older than ve years of age (32).
In some countries with a high burden of mortality and morbidity due to other infectious diseases
(such as malaria and bacterial infections), co-trimoxazole prophylaxis may be offered to children
living with HIV in all clinical stages, including asymptomatic children irrespective of their CD4
level [C-IV]. The universal option of providing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to all children is an
adaptation issue for individual countries. Among children with presumptive symptomatic HIV
disease, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should be started at any age and continued until HIV
infection status can be excluded [A-IV].
. PEC0HHENDATI0N5 0N TRE U5E 0F C0-TPIH0XAZ0LE
PP0PRYLAXI5 AH0N6 INFANT5 AND CRILDPEN
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Table 2. Initiation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children
Situation
Hiv-exposed infants
and children
a
Infants and children conrmed
b
to be living with hiv
<1 Year 14 Years >5 Years
Co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis is universally
indicated, starting at
four to six weeks after
birth and maintained
until cessation of risk of
HIV transmission and
exclusion of HIV infection
[A-III]
Co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis
is indicated
regardless of CD4
percentage or
clinical status
[A-II]
c
WHO clinical
stages 2, 3 and 4
regardless of CD4
percentage
OR
Any WHO stage
and CD4 <25%
[A-I]
Follow adult
recommendations
Universal option: prophylaxis for all infants and children born to mothers conrmed or suspected
of living with HIV. This strategy may be considered in settings with high prevalence of HIV, high
infant mortality due to infectious diseases and limited health infrastructure [C-IV].
a Dened as a child born to mother living with HIV or a child breastfeeding from a mother living with HIV until HIV
exposure stops (six weeks after complete cessation of breastfeeding) and infection can be excluded.
b Among children younger than 18 months, HIV infection can only be conrmed by virological testing.
c Once a child is started on co-trimoxazole, treatment should continue until ve years of age regardless of clinical
symptoms or CD4 percentage. Specically, infants who begin co-trimoxazole prophylaxis before the age of one
year and who subsequently are asymptomatic and/or have CD4 levels >25% should remain on co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis until they reach ve years of age [A-IV].
15
6.2 Doses of co-trimoxazole in infants and children
Table 3. Co-trimoxazole formulations and dosage for infants
and children living with HIV or exposed to HIV
Recommended
daily dosage
a
Suspension
(5 Ml of
syrup
200 mg/
40 mg)
Child
tablet
(100 mg/
20 mg)
Single-
strength
adult tablet
(400 mg/
80 mg)
Double-
strength
Adult tablet
(800 mg/
160 mg)
<6 months
100 mg
sulfamethoxazole/
20 mg trimethoprim
2.5 ml One tablet
tablet,
possibly mixed
with feeding
b

6 months5 years
200 mg
sulfamethoxazole/
40 mg trimethoprim
5 ml
c
Two tablets Half tablet
614 years
400 mg
sulfamethoxazole/
80 mg trimethoprim
10 ml
c
Four tablets One tablet Half tablet
>14 years
800 mg
sulfamethoxazole/
160 mg trimethoprim
Two tablets One tablet
Frequency once a day
a Some countries may use weight bands to determine dosing. Age and the corresponding weight bands (based
on the children with HIV antibiotic prophylaxis trial (CHAP trial (7)) are:
Ages Weight
<6 months <5 kg
6 months5 years 515 kg
614 years 1530 kg
>14 years >30 kg
b Splitting tablets into quarters is not considered best practice. This should be done only if syrup is not available.
c Children of these ages (6 months14 years) may swallow crushed tablets.
16
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6.3 Secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in infants and children
Children with a history of treated PCP should be administered secondary co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis with the same regimen recommended for primary prophylaxis (16) [A-III].
6.4 Discontinuation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
in infants and children
6.4.1 HIV-exposed infants and children conrmed to be HIV uninfected
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can be discontinued when HIV infection has been denitely excluded
by a conrmed negative HIV virological test six weeks after complete cessation of breastfeeding
in an infant <18 months of age or a conrmed negative HIV antibody test in a child >18 months
of age and six weeks after complete cessation of breastfeeding [A-I].
6.4.2 Children living with HIV in the context of antiretroviral therapyrelated
immune recovery
Given that children living with HIV have a high risk of bacterial infections, the general
recommendation is that, among children conrmed to be living with HIV in resource-limited
settings, co-trimoxazole should be continued irrespective of immune recovery in response to
antiretroviral therapy [A-IV].
Data suggest that the risk of developing PCP after immune restoration in response to antiretroviral
therapy is sufciently low to withdraw co-trimoxazole if it was initiated primarily for PCP
prophylaxis (23). Children older than ve years who are stable on antiretroviral therapy, with
good adherence, secure access to antiretroviral therapy and with CD4 and clinical evidence of
immune recovery can be reassessed and consideration can be given to discontinuing co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis in accordance with the recommendations for adults and adolescents
[C-IV]. If children have been prescribed dapsone prophylaxis, the same discontinuation
recommendations apply.
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (or dapsone if the child cannot tolerate co-trimoxazole) should be
recommenced if the CD4 percentage falls below the age-related initiation threshold or if new or
recurrent WHO clinical stage 2, 3 or 4 conditions occur [A-IV].
17
Table 4. Summary of recommendations for discontinuing primary co-
trimoxazole among infants and children
Target population Recommendations
HIV-exposed children
Discontinue co-trimoxazole prophylaxis after HIV infection is
excluded [A-I]
Infants and children
living with HIV
Maintain on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis until age ve years
irrespective of clinical and immune response [A-IV]
Children older than ve years can be reassessed and
consideration can be given to discontinuing co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis in accordance with the recommendations for
adults and adolescents [C-IV]
Severe adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole in children are uncommon, In the CHAP
study (7), 534 children were randomized to co-trimoxazole or placebo. No child on
co-trimoxazole developed rash.
6.4.3 Discontinuation for co-trimoxazole adverse reactions
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis may need to be discontinued in the event of an adverse drug
reaction. Although severe reactions to co-trimoxazole are uncommon, these may include
extensive exfoliative rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or severe anaemia or pancytopaenia.
There are insufcient data on co-trimoxazole desensitization (rechallenge following an adverse
reaction to co-trimoxazole commencing with low doses of co-trimoxazole and gradual dose
escalation) among children to make any recommendations on its use in resource-limited
settings.
Everyone starting co-trimoxazole and their guardians and caregivers should be provided with
verbal or written information on potential adverse effects and advised to stop the drug and
report to their nearest health facility if co-trimoxazole-related adverse events are suspected
(Table 7).
18
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6.5 Discontinuation of secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
The safety of discontinuing secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children living with
HIV has had limited assessment and has been studied only in highincome countries (23). The
general recommendation is that secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should not be
discontinued, irrespective of clinical and immune response to antiretroviral therapy (15) [B-III].
Based on evidence that secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can be safely stopped among
adults and adolescents guided by immune recovery in response to antiretroviral therapy
assessed using CD4 cell count (3337), discontinuation of secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
may be considered among children older than ve years with evidence of immune recovery in
response to antiretroviral therapy in accordance with the recommendation for discontinuation of
primary prophylaxis [C-IV].
19
7. PEC0HHENDATI0N5 0N TRE U5E 0F PPIHAPY C0-TPIH0XAZ0LE
PP0PRYLAXI5 AH0N6 ADULT5 AND AD0LE5CENT5
7.1 Adults and adolescents among whom co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
is contraindicated
Adults and adolescents with a history of severe adverse reaction (grade 4; see Table 7) to co-
trimoxazole or other sulfa drugs should not be prescribed co-trimoxazole prophylaxis.
In situations in which co-trimoxazole cannot be continued or should not be initiated, dapsone
100 mg per day, if available, can be used as an alternative. Dapsone is less effective than co-
trimoxazole in preventing PCP and also lacks the broad antimicrobial activity of co-trimoxazole.
It is therefore desirable to attempt desensitization (section 7.4.3) to co-trimoxazole, if feasible in
the clinical setting, among individuals with a previous non-severe reaction, before substituting
dapsone [A-IV]. However, co-trimoxazole desensitization should not be attempted among
individuals with a previous severe (grade 4) reaction to co-trimoxazole or other sulfa-containing
drugs.
7.2 Initiation of primary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults
and adolescents
These recommendations include a degree of exibility to enable decisions on the most
appropriate threshold of CD4 count or clinical disease stage for initiation of co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis to be made at the country level or even the local level, taking into account variation
in the burden of HIV, disease spectrum and the capacity and infrastructure of health systems.
In settings in which co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is initiated based on WHO clinical staging criteria
only, co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for all symptomatic people with mild, advanced
or severe HIV disease (WHO clinical stages 2, 3 or 4) [A-I]. Where CD4 cell testing is available,
co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for everyone with a CD4 cell count <350 per mm
3
,
particularly in resource-limited settings where bacterial infections and malaria are prevalent
among people living with HIV [A-III].
Some countries may choose to adopt a CD4 threshold of 200 cells per mm
3
below which co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended. This option is especially recommended if the main
targets for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis are PCP and toxoplasmosis [A-I]. However, bacterial
infections are prevalent in individuals living with HIV in all settings, which supports the use of the
350 cells per mm
3
threshold. People with WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 HIV disease (including
people with pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary TB) should, however, still initiate co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis irrespective of the CD4 cell count [A-I].
20
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Some countries may also opt to treat everyone living with HIV (universal option), because of
operational simplicity and data suggesting a reduction of severe events irrespective of CD4
count or clinical stage [C-III]. This strategy may be considered in settings with high prevalence
of HIV and limited health infrastructure. However, lifelong use of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for
all people living with HIV needs to be weighed against the challenges of maintaining long-term
adherence and the potential for emergence of drug-resistant pathogens.
Table 5. Initiation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and
adolescents living with HIV
Based on who clinical staging
criteria alone (when CD4 count is
not available)
Based on who clinical staging and
CD4 cell count criteria
a
WHO clinical stage 2, 3 or 4 [A-I]
Any WHO clinical stage
and CD4< 350 cells per mm
3 b
[A-III]
OR
WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 irrespective of CD4
level [A-I]
Universal option: Countries may choose to adopt universal co-trimoxazole for everyone living
with HIV and any CD4 count or clinical stage. This strategy may be considered in settings with
high prevalence of HIV and limited health infrastructure [C-III].
a Expanded access to CD4 testing is encouraged to guide the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and to monitor the
progress of antiretroviral therapy.
b Countries may choose to adopt a CD4 threshold of <200 cells per mm
3
[A-I].
7.3 Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among pregnant women
Although pregnant women living with HIV widely use co-trimoxazole, there is no
evidence of an increase in co-trimoxazole-related adverse events among pregnant
women versus non-pregnant women (16).
Since the risk of life-threatening infections among pregnant women with low CD4 count or clinical
features of immunosuppression outweighs the theoretical risk of co-trimoxazole-induced
congenital abnormalities, women who full the criteria for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should
stay on co-trimoxazole throughout their pregnancy (38) [A-III]. If a woman requires co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis during pregnancy, it should be started regardless of the stage of pregnancy [A-III].
If a woman living with HIV is receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and resides in a malarial zone,
21
it is not necessary for her to have additional sulfadoxine/pyrimethaminebased intermittent
presumptive therapy for malaria [B-IV]. Breastfeeding women should continue to receive co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis.
7.4 Doses of co-trimoxazole among adults and adolescents
The dose of co-trimoxazole among adults and adolescents living with HIV is one double-strength
tablet or two single-strength tablets once daily: the total daily dose is 960 mg (800 mg
sulfamethoxazole + 160 mg trimethoprim) [A-I].
2
7.5 Secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and adolescents
Adults and adolescents with a history of treated PCP should be administered secondary co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis with the same regimen recommended for primary prophylaxis (10). [A-
III].
7.6 Discontinuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults and adolescents
The discontinuation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among individuals living with HIV may be
considered in the context of drug toxicity and immune recovery in response to antiretroviral
therapy. Discontinuation should be based on clinical judgement, including both clinical and
laboratory parameters.
7.6.1 Discontinuation based on antiretroviral therapyrelated immune recovery
Studies in well-resourced settings have demonstrated the safety of discontinuing co-trimoxazole
as prophylaxis against PCP and toxoplasmosis among people with immune recovery (CD4 >200
cells per mm
3
) in response to antiretroviral therapy. Emerging data in resource-limited settings
have demonstrated similar ndings (24,25). However, no randomized clinical trials have assessed
the safety and timing of the discontinuation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis following immune
recovery in response to antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.
The general recommendation is to continue co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among adults living with
HIV indenitely [A-IV].
Some countries may consider adopting a CD4 countguided discontinuation of co-trimoxazole
as prophylaxis against PCP and toxoplasmosis among people with immune recovery and CD4
>200 cells per mm
3
in response to antiretroviral therapy for at least six months [B-I].
2 There is an option to give one single-strength tablets (480 mg per dose or 400 mg sulfamethoxazole + 80 mg trimethoprim)
taken twice daily, as this may assist in preparing individuals for initiating the twice-daily antiretroviral therapy regimens that are
commonly available in resource-limited settings.
22
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In other situations (in which co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was initiated based on its effect in
reducing morbidity and mortality and the incidence of malaria and bacterial infections),
discontinuation based on CD4 count can be considered among people with immune recovery
and CD4 >350 cells per mm
3
after at least six months of antiretroviral therapy [C-IV].
The same discontinuation rules apply to people who have been prescribed dapsone
prophylaxis.
No consensus was reached on recommendations for discontinuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
in the absence of CD4 count monitoring in response to antiretroviral therapy. However,
discontinuation could be considered among people who have received antiretroviral therapy for
one year without WHO clinical stage 2, 3 or 4 events, good adherence and secure access to
antiretroviral therapy [C-IV].
Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (or dapsone if the person cannot tolerate co-trimoxazole) should be
recommenced if the CD4 cell count falls below the initiation threshold or if new or recurrent WHO
clinical stage 2, 3 or 4 conditions occur [A-IV].
23
Table 6. Summary of recommendations for discontinuing primary co-
trimoxazole among adults and adolescents
Target
population
Recommendations
Adults and
adolescents
living with HIV
CD4 testing
not available
(clinical
assessment
only)
Do not discontinue co-trimoxazole prophylaxis,
particularly in settings where bacterial infections
and malaria are common HIV-related events [A-IV]
Consider discontinuing co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis among people with evidence of
good clinical response to antiretroviral therapy
(absence of clinical symptoms after at least one
year of therapy), good adherence and secure
access to antiretroviral therapy [C-IV]
CD4 testing
available
(clinical and
immunological
assessment)
In countries where co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
is recommended only for preventing PCP and
toxoplasmosis, it can be discontinued among
those with evidence of immune recovery in
response to antiretroviral therapy (CD4 >200
cells per mm
3
after at least six months of
antiretroviral therapy) [B-I]
In countries with a high incidence of bacterial
infections and malaria, discontinue co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis among people with evidence of
immune recovery related to antiretroviral therapy
(CD4 >350 cells per mm
3
after at least six months
of antiretroviral therapy) [C-IV]
7.6.2 Discontinuation based on co-trimoxazole adverse events
Severe adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole are uncommon. If non-severe adverse events occur,
every effort should be made to continue prophylaxis with co-trimoxazole because of its superior
efcacy in preventing PCP and bacterial infections compared with dapsone among adults (39
41). It also protects against toxoplasmosis, malaria and some enteric pathogens. Except in
cases of severe adverse reaction, co-trimoxazole should be temporarily interrupted for two
weeks and then desensitization should be attempted, if indicated and feasible. If using dapsone
is necessary, the dose for adults and adolescents is 100 mg per day. Some people cannot
tolerate either co-trimoxazole or dapsone. No alternative recommendation can be made in
resource-limited settings.
24
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For people in settings with limited laboratory capacity, the potential side effects associated with
co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (skin rash, bone marrow toxicity and hepatotoxicity) can be monitored
clinically [B-IV].
Everyone starting co-trimoxazole should be provided with verbal or written information on
potential adverse effects and advised to stop the drug and report to their nearest clinic if co-
trimoxazole-related adverse events are suspected.
Table 7. Co-trimoxazole toxicity grading scale for adults and adolescents
Toxicity Clinical description Recommendation
GRADE 1 Erythema
Continue co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis with careful and
repeated observation and follow-
up. Provide symptomatic
treatment, such as antihistamines,
if available
GRADE 2
Diffuse maculopapular rash,
dry desquamation
Continue co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis with careful and
repeated observation and follow-
up. Provide symptomatic
treatment, such as antihistamines,
if available
GRADE 3 Vesiculation, mucosal ulceration
Co-trimoxazole should be
discontinued until the adverse
effect has completely resolved
(usually two weeks), and then
reintroduction or desensitization
can be considered
GRADE 4
Exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-
Johnson syndrome or erythema
multiforme, moist desquamation
Co-trimoxazole should be
permanently discontinued
25
7.6.3 Co-trimoxazole desensitization
Given the importance of co-trimoxazole and the lack of an equally effective and widely available
alternative, desensitization is an important component of managing adults and adolescents with
HIV infection. It can be attempted two weeks after a non-severe (grade 3 or less) co-trimoxazole
reaction that has resulted in a temporary interruption of co-trimoxazole. Co-trimoxazole
desensitization has been shown be successful in most individuals with previous hypersensitivity
and rarely causes serious reactions (4244). Desensitization should not be attempted in individuals
with a history of grade 4 reaction to previous co-trimoxazole or other sulfa drugs [B-IV]. It is
recommended to commence an antihistamine regimen of choice one day prior to starting the
regimen and to continue daily until completing the dose escalation. On the rst day of the regimen,
the step 1 dose of co-trimoxazole is given and subsequently increased one step each day. If a
severe reaction occurs, the desensitization regimen is terminated. If a minor reaction occurs,
repeat the same step for an additional day. If the reaction subsides, advance to the next step; if the
reaction worsens, the desensitization regimen is terminated.
Table 8. Protocol for co-trimoxazole desensitization among adults and
adolescents
Step Dose
DAY 1 80 mg sulfamethoxazole + 16 mg trimethoprim (2 ml of oral suspension
a
)
DAY 2 160 mg sulfamethoxazole + 32 mg trimethoprim (4 ml of oral suspension
a
)
DAY 3 240 mg sulfamethoxazole + 48 mg trimethoprim (6 ml of oral suspension
a
)
DAY 4 320 mg sulfamethoxazole + 64 mg trimethoprim (8 m of oral suspension
a
)
DAY 5
One single-strength sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim tablet
(400 mg sulfamethoxazole + 80 mg trimethoprim)
DAY 6
ONWARDS
Two single-strength sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim tablets or one double
strength tablet (800 mg sulfamethoxazole + 160 mg trimethoprim)
a Co-trimoxazole oral suspension is 40 mg trimethoprim + 200 mg sulfamethoxazole per 5 ml.
7.6.4 Discontinuing secondary co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
among adults and adolescents
Recommendations for discontinuing and restarting secondary prophylaxis among adults and
adolescents are the same as for the recommendations for primary prophylaxis. These
recommendations are supported by observational studies (3335) and from a randomized trial
in a well-resourced setting (36) as well as a combined analysis of eight European prospective
cohorts (37) [C-I].
26
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8.1 Timing the initiation of co-trimoxazole in relation to initiating
antiretroviral therapy
Since the most common initial side effect of co-trimoxazole and antiretroviral therapy (especially
nevirapine and efavirenz) is rash, it is recommended to start co-trimoxazole prophylaxis rst and
to initiate antiretroviral therapy two weeks later if the individual is stable on co-trimoxazole and
has no rash [A-IV].
8.2 Clinical and laboratory monitoring of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
The safety of co-trimoxazole in long-term use has been established. Drug-related adverse events are
uncommon and typically occur within the rst few weeks of starting prophylaxis. Clinical monitoring
should be carried out regularly, ideally at a minimum of three monthly intervals, with individuals
encouraged to report adverse symptoms as soon as they are noted [A-III].
No specic laboratory monitoring is required among children, adolescents and adults
receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis [A-III].
Particular interest should be paid to skin reactions and symptoms such as nausea, vomiting or
jaundice. Skin reaction is the most common co-trimoxazole-related adverse event and is
diagnosed clinically. Attention should be paid to other medications the person is receiving with
possible overlapping toxicity (such as efavirenz, nevirapine and isoniazid).
Co-trimoxazole and dapsone can induce haemolytic anaemia among people with glucose-6-
phosphate dehydrogenase deciency. These drugs should not be prescribed to individuals,
particularly children, with known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deciency.
Routine testing for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deciency in resource-limited settings
is not recommended.
No specic laboratory monitoring is required in individuals receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis.
If available, laboratory monitoring should be based on symptoms and signs (such as full blood
counts if anaemia is suspected and liver function tests if hepatic dysfunction is suspected) [A-
III].
Six-monthly CD4 count monitoring is recommended, if available, to guide when to initiate
antiretroviral therapy. Once antiretroviral therapy is initiated, monitoring should continue
according to the standard of care for antiretroviral therapy management for the setting involved
[A-III].
8 PEC0HHENDATI0N5 C0HH0N T0 INFANT5, CRILDPEN,
ADULT5 AND AD0LE5CENT5
27
In general, the impact of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on antiretroviral therapy toxicity is minimal.
Among people on zidovudine-containing antiretroviral therapy regimens, the impact of
overlapping blood toxicity with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis is not signicant (except for people
with advanced HIV disease), and no additional laboratory monitoring is needed [B-III].
8.3 Treatment of bacterial and opportunistic infections
among people taking co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
Despite the lack of data, it is recommended to use an alternative antibiotic (where available) for
treating breakthrough bacterial infections among individuals living with HIV receiving co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis, while continuing co-trimoxazole [A-IV]. For toxoplasmosis and PCP
infections, prophylaxis should be suspended and full active treatment initiated according to
national guidelines. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis should be recommenced after the treatment
course [A-III].
8.4 Preventing and treating malaria
among people taking co-trimoxazole prophylaxis
Among children, adults and adolescents receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, breakthrough
episodes of malaria should be treated, if possible, with antimalarial therapy that does not include
sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine [A-III]. There is no evidence to date on the efcacy of sulfadoxine/
pyrimethamine in treating episodes of malaria among people taking co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis.
In malaria-endemic areas, intermittent presumptive therapy for malaria is recommended for
pregnant women. Given the benets of co-trimoxazole in preventing and treating malaria,
intermittent presumptive therapy is not recommended for pregnant women receiving co-
trimoxazole prophylaxis [A-III]. Similarly, sulfadoxine/pyrimethaminebased intermittent
presumptive therapy for malaria is not necessary for infants or children on co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis [A-III].
28
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9 0PEPATI0NAL C0N5IDEPATI0N5
The following are considered key to the successful scaling up of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in
resource-limited settings:
integrating the recommendation for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis into existing HIV-related
treatment guidelines;
implementing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis as an integral part of the chronic care package for
all individuals living with HIV and as a key element of preantiretroviral therapy care and
being part of the monitoring and evaluation process in preparation for initiating antiretroviral
therapy;
developing and implementing explicit policies in countries on the use of co-trimoxazole
prophylaxis for children, adolescents and adults;
giving priority to guidelines for co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for all HIV-exposed infants and
people with TB who are living with HIV;
assessing legal and policy options to secure co-trimoxazole for prophylaxis at reduced cost
or free of charge;
ensuring the availability of appropriate and affordable doses and formulations for children;
ensuring effective and integrated management of procurement and supplies at all levels
(national, district, community and household);
ensuring that programmes to scale up co-trimoxazole prophylaxis are decentralized,
available at the community level and are used to improve the quality of HIV chronic care and
are linked to preparedness for and initiation of antiretroviral therapy; and
establishing surveillance systems to monitor the efcacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis,
bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole and malaria resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.
29
Clinical Stage 1
Asymptomatic
Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
Clinical Stage 2
Unexplained
a
persistent hepatosplenomegaly
Papular pruritic eruptions
Fungal nail infections
Angular cheilitis
Lineal gingival erythema
Extensive wart virus infection
Extensive molluscum contagiosum
Recurrent oral ulcerations
Unexplained
a
persistent parotid enlargement
Herpes zoster
Recurrent or chronic upper respiratory tract infections (otitis media, otorrhoea, sinusitis or
tonsillitis)
Clinical Stage 3
Unexplained
a
moderate malnutrition or wasting not adequately responding to standard therapy
Unexplained
a
persistent diarrhoea (14 days or more)
Unexplained
a
persistent fever
(above 37.5C intermittent or constant, for longer than one month)
Persistent oral candidiasis (after rst 68 weeks of life)
Oral hairy leukoplakia
Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or periodontitis
Lymph node tuberculosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis
Severe recurrent bacterial pneumonia
Symptomatic lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis
Chronic HIV-associated lung disease including brochiectasis
Unexplained
a
anaemia (<8 g/dl), neutropaenia (<0.5 10
9
per litre) and/or chronic
thrombocytopaenia (<50 10
9
per litre)
ANNEX 1. WR0 CLINICAL 5TA6IN6 0F RI DI5EA5E IN
INFANT5 AND CRILDPEN
30
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Clinical Stage 4
b
Unexplained
a
severe wasting, stunting or severe malnutrition not responding to standard
therapy
Pneumocystis pneumonia
Recurrent severe bacterial infections (such as empyema, pyomyositis, bone or joint
infection, meningitis, but excluding pneumonia)
Chronic herpes simplex infection (orolabial or cutaneous of more than one months duration
or visceral at any site)
Oesophageal candidiasis (or candidiasis of trachea, bronchi or lungs)
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Kaposis sarcoma
Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or cytomegalovirus infection affecting another organ,
with onset at age older than one month)
Central nervous system toxoplasmosis (after one month of life)
Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (including meningitis)
HIV encephalopathy
Disseminated mycosis (coccidiomycosis or histoplasmosis)
Disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection
Chronic cryptosporidiosis (with diarrhoea)
Chronic isosporiasis
HIV-associated tumours, including cerebral or B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Symptomatic HIV-associated nephropathy or symptomatic HIV-associated cardiomyopathy
a Unexplained refers to where the condition is not explained by other conditions.
b Some additional specic conditions can also be included in regional classications, such as the reactivation
of American trypanosomiasis (meningoencephalitis and/or myocarditis) in the WHO Region of the Americas,
penicilliosis in Asia and HIV-associated rectovaginal stula in Africa.
Source: World Health Organization (45).
31
Clinical Stage 1
Asymptomatic
Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
Clinical Stage 2
Unexplained
a
moderate weight loss (<10% of presumed or measured body weight)
b
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media and pharyngitis)
Herpes zoster
Angular cheilitis
Recurrent oral ulceration
Papular pruritic eruptions
Seborrhoeic dermatitis
Fungal nail infections
Clinical Stage 3
Unexplained
a
severe weight loss (>10% of presumed or measured body weight)
b
Unexplained
a
chronic diarrhoea for longer than one month
Unexplained
a
persistent fever (above 37.5C intermittent or constant for longer
than one month)
Persistent oral candidiasis
Oral hairy leukoplakia
Pulmonary tuberculosis (current)
Severe bacterial infections (such as pneumonia, empyema, pyomyositis,
bone or joint infection, meningitis or bacteraemia)
Acute necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, gingivitis or periodontitis
Unexplained
a
anaemia (<8 g/dl), neutropaenia (<0.5 10
9
per litre)
and/or chronic thrombocytopaenia (<50 10
9
per litre)
ANNEX 2. WR0 CLINICAL 5TA6IN6 0F RI DI5EA5E
AH0N6 ADULT5 AND AD0LE5CENT5
32
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Stage 4
c
HIV wasting syndrome
Pneumocystis pneumonia
Recurrent bacterial pneumonia
Chronic herpes simplex infection (orolabial, genital or anorectal of more than one months
duration or visceral at any site)
Oesophageal candidiasis (or candidiasis of trachea, bronchi or lungs)
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis
Kaposis sarcoma
Cytomegalovirus infection (retinitis or infection of other organs)
Central nervous system toxoplasmosis
HIV encephalopathy
Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis including meningitis
Disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Chronic cryptosporidiosis
Chronic isosporiasis
Disseminated mycosis (coccidiomycosis or histoplasmosis)
Recurrent septicaemia (including non-typhoidal Salmonella)
Lymphoma (cerebral or B-cell non-Hodgkin)
Invasive cervical carcinoma
Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis
Symptomatic HIV-associated nephropathy or symptomatic HIV-associated cardiomyopathy
a Unexplained refers to where the condition is not explained by other conditions.
b Assessment of body weight among pregnant woman needs to consider the expected weight gain of
pregnancy.
c Some additional specic conditions can also be included in regional classications, such as the reactivation
of American trypanosomiasis (meningoencephalitis and/or myocarditis) in the WHO Region of the Americas
and penicilliosis in Asia.
Source: World Health Organization (45).
33
ANNEX 3. CPITEPIA F0P PEC06NIZIN6 RI-PELATED CLINICAL
EENT5 AH0N6 ADULT5 AND AD0LE5CENT5
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Clinical Stage 1
Asymptomatic No HIV-related symptoms
reported and no signs on
examination
Not applicable
Persistent generalized
lymphadenopathy
Painless enlarged lymph
nodes >1 cm in two or
more non-contiguous sites
(excluding inguinal) in the
absence of known cause and
persisting for >3 months
Histology
Clinical Stage 2
Moderate unexplained
weight loss (<10% of
body weight)
Reported unexplained weight
loss; in pregnancy, failure to
gain weight
Documented weight loss
<10% of body weight
Recurrent bacterial upper
respiratory tract infections
(current event plus one
or more in last six-month
period)
Symptom complex, such as
unilateral face pain with nasal
discharge (sinusitis), painful
inamed eardrum (otitis
media) or tonsillo-pharyngitis
without features of viral
infection (such as coryza or
cough)
Laboratory studies where
available, such as culture of
suitable body uid
Herpes zoster Painful vesicular rash in
dermatomal distribution of a
nerve supply does not cross
the midline
Clinical diagnosis
Angular cheilitis Splits or cracks at the angle
of the mouth not due to iron
or vitamin deciency that
usually respond to antifungal
treatment
Clinical diagnosis
Recurrent oral ulcerations
(two or more episodes in
last six months)
Aphthous ulceration,
typically painful with a halo
of inammation and a yellow-
grey pseudomembrane
Clinical diagnosis
34
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Papular pruritic eruption Papular pruritic lesions,
often with marked post-
inammatory pigmentation
Clinical diagnosis
Seborrhoeic dermatitis Itchy scaly skin condition,
particularly affecting hairy
areas (scalp, axillae, upper
trunk and groin)
Clinical diagnosis
Fungal nail infections Paronychia (painful red
and swollen nail bed) or
onycholysis (separation of the
nail from the nail bed) of the
ngernails (white discoloration
especially involving the
proximal part of nail plate
with thickening and separation
of the nail from the nail bed)
Fungal culture of the nail or
nail plate material
Clinical Stage 3
Severe unexplained
weight loss (more than
10% of body weight)
Reported unexplained weight
loss (>10% of body weight)
and visible thinning of face,
waist and extremities with
obvious wasting or body
mass index <18.5 kg/m
2
; in
pregnancy, the weight loss
may be masked
Documented loss of more
than 10% of body weight
Unexplained chronic
diarrhoea for longer than
one month
Chronic diarrhoea (loose or
watery stools three or more
times daily) reported for
longer than one month
Three or more stools
observed and documented
as unformed and two or
more stool tests reveal no
pathogens
35
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Unexplained persistent
fever (intermittent or
constant and lasting for
longer than one month)
Fever or night sweats for
more than one month, either
intermittent or constant with
reported lack of response
to antibiotics or antimalarial
agents, without other obvious
foci of disease reported or
found on examination. Malaria
must be excluded in malarious
areas.
Documented temperature
>37.5C with negative
blood culture, negative
Ziehl-Nielsen stain, negative
malaria slide, normal or
unchanged chest X-ray and
no other obvious focus of
infection
Persistent oral candidiasis Persistent or recurring creamy
white curd-like plaques
that can be scraped off
(pseudomembranous) or
red patches on the tongue,
palate or lining of mouth,
usually painful or tender
(erythematous form)
Clinical diagnosis
Oral hairy leukoplakia Fine white small linear or
corrugated lesions on lateral
borders of the tongue, which
do not scrape off
Clinical diagnosis
Pulmonary tuberculosis
(current)
Chronic symptoms: (lasting
less than 23 weeks) cough,
haemoptysis, shortness of
breath, chest pain, weight
loss, fever, night sweats
PLUS either positive sputum
smear
OR
Negative sputum smear and
compatible chest radiograph
(including but not restricted
to upper lobe inltrates,
cavitation, pulmonary brosis
and shrinkage). No evidence
of extra pulmonary disease.
Isolation of M. tuberculosis
on sputum culture on
histology or lung biopsy
(together with compatible
symptoms).
36
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Severe bacterial infection
(such as pneumonia,
meningitis, empyema,
pyomyositis, bone or joint
infection, bacteraemia
or severe pelvic
inammatory disease)
Fever accompanied by
specic symptoms or signs
that localize infection, and
response to appropriate
antibiotic
Isolation of bacteria
from appropriate clinical
specimens (usually sterile
sites)
Acute necrotizing
ulcerative gingivitis or
necrotizing ulcerative
periodontitis
Severe pain, ulcerated gingival
papillae, loosening of teeth,
spontaneous bleeding, bad
odour and rapid loss of bone
and/or soft tissue
Clinical diagnosis
Unexplained anaemia
(<8 g/dl), neutropaenia
(<0.5 10
9
per litre
or chronic (more
than one month)
thrombocytopaenia
(<50 10
9
per litre)
Not presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Diagnosed on laboratory
testing and not explained by
other non-HIV conditions;
not responding to standard
therapy with haematinics,
antimalarial agents or
anthelmintic agents as
outlined in relevant national
treatment guidelines, WHO
Integrated Management of
Adult and Adolescent Illness
(IMAI) guidelines or other
relevant guidelines
37
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Clinical Stage 4
HIV wasting syndrome Unexplained involuntary weight
loss (>10% body weight), with
obvious wasting or body mass
index <18.5.
PLUS either
unexplained chronic diarrhoea
(loose or watery stools three or
more times daily) reported for
longer than one month
OR
reports of fever or night
sweats for more than one
month without other cause
and lack of response to
antibiotics or antimalarial
agents; malaria must be
excluded in malarious areas
Documented weight loss
>10% of body weight
PLUS
two or more unformed stools
negative for pathogens
OR
documented temperature
of >37.5C with no other
cause of disease, negative
blood culture, negative
malaria slide and normal or
unchanged chest X-ray
Pneumocystis pneumonia Dyspnoea on exertion or
nonproductive cough of
recent onset (within the past
three months), tachypnoea
and fever AND chest X-ray
evidence of diffuse bilateral
interstitial inltrates AND
no evidence of a bacterial
pneumonia, bilateral
crepitations on auscultation
with or without reduced air
entry
Cytology or
immunouorescent
microscopy of induced
sputum or bronchoalveolar
lavage or histology of lung
tissue
38
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Recurrent bacterial
pneumonia
Current episode plus one or
more previous episodes in the
past six months. Acute onset
(<2 weeks) of symptoms
(such as fever, cough,
dyspnoea, and chest pain)
PLUS new consolidation on
clinical examination or chest
X-ray. Response to antibiotics
Positive culture or antigen
test of a compatible
organism
Chronic herpes simplex
virus infection (orolabial,
genital or anorectal) of
more than one month, or
visceral of any duration
Painful, progressive
anogenital or orolabial
ulceration; lesions caused by
recurrent herpes simplex virus
infection and reported for
more than one month. History
of previous episodes. Visceral
herpes simplex virus requires
denitive diagnosis
Positive culture or DNA (by
polymerase chain reaction)
of herpes simplex virus
or compatible cytology or
histology
Oesophageal candidiasis Recent onset of retrosternal
pain or difculty on swallowing
(food and uids) together with
oral candidiasis
Macroscopic appearance at
endoscopy or bronchoscopy
or by microscopy or
histology
Extrapulmonary
tuberculosis
Systemic illness (such as
fever, night sweats, weakness
and weight loss). Other
evidence for extrapulmonary
or disseminated TB varies
by site: pleural, pericardial,
peritoneal involvement,
meningitis, mediastinal or
abdominal lymphadenopathy
or osteitis
Discrete peripheral lymph
node Mycobacterium
tuberculosis infection is
considered a less severe form
of extrapulmonary TB
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
isolation or compatible
histology from appropriate
site
OR
radiological evidence of
miliary TB (diffuse uniformly
distributed small miliary
shadows or micronodules on
chest X-ray)
39
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Kaposi sarcoma Typical gross appearance
in skin or oropharynx of
persistent, initially at,
patches with a pink or blood-
bruise colour, skin lesions
that usually develop into
violaceous plaques or nodules
Macroscopic appearance at
endoscopy or bronchoscopy
or by histology
Cytomegalovirus disease
(other than liver, spleen or
lymph node)
Retinitis only: may be
diagnosed by experienced
clinicians. Typical eye
lesions on fundoscopic
examination: discrete patches
of retinal whitening with
distinct borders, spreading
centrifugally, often following
blood vessels, associated with
retinal vasculitis, haemorrhage
and necrosis
Compatible histology
or cytomegalovirus
demonstrated in
cerebrospinal uid by culture
or DNA (by polymerase
chain reaction)
Central nervous system
toxoplasmosis
Recent onset of a focal
nervous system abnormality
or reduced level of
consciousness AND response
within 10 days to specic
therapy
Positive serum toxoplasma
antibody AND (if available)
single or multiple
intracranial mass lesion on
neuroimaging (computed
tomography or magnetic
resonance imaging)
HIV encephalopathy Clinical nding of disabling
cognitive and/or motor
dysfunction interfering with
activities of daily living,
progressing over weeks or
months in the absence of a
concurrent illness or condition
other than HIV infection which
might explain the ndings
Diagnosis of exclusion: and
(if available) neuroimaging
(computed tomography
or magnetic resonance
imaging)
40
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Extrapulmonary
cryptococcosis (including
meningitis)
Meningitis: usually subacute,
fever with increasing severe
headache, meningism,
confusion, behavioural
changes that responds to
cryptococcal therapy
Isolation of Cryptococcus
neoformans from
extrapulmonary site or
positive cryptococcal
antigen test on cerebrospinal
uid or blood
Disseminated
non-tuberculous
mycobacterial infection
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Diagnosed by nding
atypical mycobacterial
species from stool, blood,
body uid or other body
tissue, excluding the lung
Progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy
(PML)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Progressive nervous
system disorder (cognitive
dysfunction, gait/speech
disorder, visual loss, limb
weakness and cranial
nerve palsies) together with
hypodense white matter
lesions on neuroimaging
or positive polyomavirus
JC (JVC) polymerase chain
reaction on cerebrospinal
uid
Chronic cryptosporidiosis
(with diarrhoea lasting
more than one month)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Cysts identied on
modied Ziehl-Nielsen stain
microscopic examination of
unformed stool
Chronic isosporiasis No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Identication of Isospora
Disseminated mycosis
(coccidiomycosis or
histoplasmosis)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Histology, antigen detection
or culture from clinical
specimen or blood culture
Recurrent septicaemia
(including non-typhoidal
salmonella)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Blood culture
41
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Lymphoma (cerebral
or B-cell non-Hodgkin)
or other solid HIV-
associated tumours
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Histology of relevant
specimen or, for central
nervous system tumours,
neuroimaging techniques
Invasive cervical
carcinoma
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Histology or cytology
Atypical disseminated
leishmaniasis
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Diagnosed by histology
(amastigotes visualized) or
culture from any appropriate
clinical specimen
HIV-associated
nephropathy
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Renal biopsy
HIV-associated
cardiomyopathy
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Cardiomegaly and evidence
of poor left ventricular
function conrmed by
echocardiography
Source: World Health Organization (45).
42
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
These criteria should be used for children younger than 15 years with conrmed HIV infection.
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Clinical Stage 1
Asymptomatic No HIV-related symptoms
reported and no signs on
examination
Not applicable
Persistent generalized
lymphadenopathy
Persistent swollen or enlarged
lymph nodes >1 cm at two
or more non-contiguous sites
(excluding inguinal), without
known cause
Clinical diagnosis
Clinical Stage 2
Unexplained persistent
hepatosplenomegaly
Enlarged liver and spleen
without obvious cause
Clinical diagnosis
Papular pruritic eruptions Papular pruritic vesicular
lesions
Clinical diagnosis
Fungal nail infection Fungal paronychia (painful,
red and swollen nail bed)
or onycholysis (painless
separation of the nail from
the nail bed); proximal white
subungual onchomycosis
is uncommon without
immunodeciency
Clinical diagnosis
Angular cheilitis Splits or cracks on lips at
the angle of the mouth with
depigmentation, usually
responding to antifungal
treatment but may recur
Clinical diagnosis
Lineal gingival erythema Erythematous band that
follows the contour of the
free gingival line; may be
associated with spontaneous
bleeding
Clinical diagnosis
ANNEX . CPITEPIA F0P PEC06NIZIN6 RI-PELATED CLINICAL
EENT5 AH0N6 CRILDPEN LIIN6 WITR RI
43
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Extensive wart virus
infection
Characteristic warty skin
lesions; small eshy grainy
bumps, often rough, at on
sole of feet (plantar warts);
facial, more than 5% of body
area or disguring
Clinical diagnosis
Extensive molluscum
contagiosum infection
Characteristic skin lesions:
small esh-coloured, pearly
or pink, dome-shaped or
umbilicated growths may be
inamed or red; facial, more
than 5% of body area or
disguring. Giant molluscum
may indicate more advanced
immunodeciency
Clinical diagnosis
Recurrent oral ulcerations
(two or more in six months)
Aphthous ulceration,
typically with a halo of
inammation and yellow-grey
pseudomembrane
Clinical diagnosis
Unexplained parotid
enlargement
Asymptomatic bilateral
swelling that may
spontaneously resolve and
recur, in the absence of any
other known cause, usually
painless
Clinical diagnosis
Herpes zoster Painful rash with uid-
lled blisters, dermatomal
distribution, can be
haemorrhagic on
erythematous background
and can become large and
conuent. Does not cross the
midline
Clinical diagnosis
44
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Recurrent or chronic upper
respiratory tract infection
Current event with at least
one episode in the past six
months. Symptom complex:
fever with unilateral face pain
and nasal discharge (sinusitis)
or painful swollen eardrum
(otitis media), sore throat with
productive cough (bronchitis),
sore throat (pharyngitis) and
barking croup-like cough.
Persistent or recurrent ear
discharge
Clinical diagnosis
Clinical Stage 3
Unexplained moderate
malnutrition or wasting
Weight loss: low weight-
for-age, up to 2 standard
deviations from the mean,
not explained by poor or
inadequate feeding and or
other infections, and not
adequately responding to
standard management
Documented loss of body
weight of 2 standard
deviations from the mean,
failure to gain weight on
standard management and
no other cause identied
during investigation
Unexplained persistent
diarrhoea
Unexplained persistent (14
days or more) diarrhoea
(loose or watery stool, three
or more times daily), not
responding to standard
treatment
Stools observed and
documented as unformed.
Culture and microscopy
reveal no pathogens
Unexplained persistent
fever (intermittent or
constant, for longer than
one month)
Reports of fever or night
sweats for longer than one
month, either intermittent or
constant, with reported lack
of response to antibiotics
or antimalarial agents.
No other obvious foci of
disease reported or found on
examination. Malaria must be
excluded in malarious areas
Documented temperature
of >37.5C with negative
blood culture, negative
malaria slide and normal
or unchanged chest X-ray
and no other obvious foci of
disease
45
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Oral candidiasis
(after the rst 68 weeks
of life)
Persistent or recurring creamy
white to yellow soft small
plaques which can be scraped
off (pseudomembranous),
or red patches on tongue,
palate or lining of mouth,
usually painful or tender
(erythematous form)
Microscopy or culture
Oral hairy leukoplakia Fine small linear patches on
lateral borders of tongue,
generally bilaterally, that do
not scrape off
Clinical diagnosis
Lymph node tuberculosis Nonacute, painless cold
enlargement of lymph nodes,
usually matted, localized
to one region. May have
draining sinuses. Response to
standard anti-TB treatment in
one month
Histology or ne needle
aspirate for Ziehl-Nielsen
stain; culture
Pulmonary tuberculosis Nonspecic symptoms, such
as chronic cough, fever,
night sweats, anorexia and
weight loss. In the older
child also productive cough
and haemoptysis. History of
contact with adult with smear-
positive pulmonary TB. No
response to standard broad-
spectrum antibiotic treatment
One or more sputum
smear positive for acid-fast
bacilli and/or radiographic
abnormalities consistent
with active TB and/or culture
positive for Mycobacterium
tuberculosis
Severe recurrent bacterial
pneumonia
Cough with fast breathing,
chest in drawing, nasal aring,
wheezing and grunting.
Crackles or consolidation on
auscultation. Responds to
course of antibiotics. Current
episode plus one or more in
previous six months
Isolation of bacteria
from appropriate clinical
specimens (induced
sputum, bronchoalveolar
lavage, lung aspirate)
46
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
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Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Acute necrotizing
ulcerative gingivitis
or stomatitis, or acute
necrotizing ulcerative
periodontitis
Severe pain, ulcerated gingival
papillae, loosening of teeth,
spontaneous bleeding, bad
odour and rapid loss of bone
and/or soft tissue
Clinical diagnosis
Symptomatic lymphocytic
interstitial pneumonia
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Chest X-ray: bilateral
reticulonodular interstitial
pulmonary inltrates
present for more than two
months with no response
to antibiotic treatment
and no other pathogen
found. Oxygen saturation
persistently <90%. Cor
pulmonale and may have
increased exercise-induced
fatigue. Characteristic
histology
Chronic HIV-associated
lung disease (including
bronchiectasis)
History of cough productive of
copious amounts of purulent
sputum (bronchiectasis only),
with or without clubbing,
halitosis, and crepitations and/
or wheezes on auscultation
Chest X-ray may show
honeycomb appearance
(small cysts) and/or
persistent areas of
opacication and/
or widespread lung
destruction, with brosis and
loss of volume
Unexplained anaemia
(<8 g/dl), neutropaenia
(<0.5 10
9
per
litre) or chronic
thrombocytopaenia
(<50 10
9
per litre)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Laboratory testing, not
explained by other non-HIV
conditions, not responding
to standard therapy with
haematinics, antimalarial
agents or anthelmintic
agents as outlined in WHO
Integrated Management of
Childhood Illness (IMCI)
guidelines
47
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Clinical Stage 4
Unexplained severe
wasting, stunting or
severe malnutrition not
adequately responding to
standard therapy
Persistent weight loss
not explained by poor
or inadequate feeding,
other infections and not
adequately responding in two
weeks to standard therapy.
Characterized by: visible
severe wasting of muscles,
with or without oedema of
both feet and/or weight-
for-height of 3 standard
deviations from the mean, as
dened by WHO Integrated
Management of Childhood
Illness guidelines
Documented weight loss
of more than 3 standard
deviations from the mean
with or without oedema
Pneumocystis pneumonia
(PCP)
Dry cough, progressive
difculty in breathing,
cyanosis, tachypnoea and
fever; chest indrawing or
stridor (severe or very severe
pneumonia as in the WHO
Integrated Management of
Childhood Illness guidelines).
Usually of rapid onset
especially in infants under six
months of age. Response to
high-dose co-trimoxazole with
or without prednisolone. Chest
X-ray: typical bilateral perihilar
diffuse inltrates
Cytology or
immunouorescent
microscopy of induced
sputum or bronchoalveolar
lavage or histology of lung
tissue
Recurrent severe bacterial
infection, such as
empyema, pyomyositis,
bone or joint infection or
meningitis but excluding
pneumonia
Fever accompanied by
specic symptoms or signs
that localize infection.
Responds to antibiotics.
Current episode plus one or
more in previous six months
Culture of appropriate
clinical specimen
48
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Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Chronic herpes simplex
infection; (orolabial or
cutaneous of more than
one months duration or
visceral at any site)
Severe and progressive
painful orolabial, genital, or
anorectal lesions caused by
herpes simplex virus infection
present for more than one
month
Culture and/or histology
Oesophageal candidiasis
(or candidiasis of trachea,
bronchi or lungs)
Difculty in swallowing or
pain on swallowing (food and
uids). In young children,
suspect particularly if oral
candidiasis observed and
food refusal occurs and/or
difculties or crying when
feeding
Macroscopic appearance
at endoscopy, microscopy
of specimen from tissue or
macroscopic appearance at
bronchoscopy or histology
Extrapulmonary
tuberculosis
Systemic illness usually with
prolonged fever, night sweats
and weight loss. Clinical
features of organs involved,
such as sterile pyuria,
pericarditis, ascites, pleural
effusion, meningitis, arthritis
and orchitis. Responds to
standard anti-TB therapy
Positive microscopy
showing acid-fast bacilli or
culture of Mycobacterium
tuberculosis from blood or
other relevant specimen
except sputum or
bronchoalveolar lavage.
Biopsy and histology
Kaposi sarcoma Typical appearance in skin
or oropharynx of persistent,
initially at, patches with a
pink or blood-bruise colour,
skin lesions that usually
develop into nodules
Not required but may be
conrmed by:
typical red-purple lesions
seen on bronchoscopy or
endoscopy
dense masses in lymph
nodes, viscera or lungs by
palpation or radiology
histology
49
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Cytomegalovirus retinitis
or cytomegalovirus
infection affecting another
organ, with onset at age
older than one month
Retinitis only.
Cytomegalovirus retinitis may
be diagnosed by experienced
clinicians: typical eye lesions
on serial fundoscopic
examination; discrete patches
of retinal whitening with
distinct borders, spreading
centrifugally, often following
blood vessels, associated with
retinal vasculitis, haemorrhage
and necrosis
Denitive diagnosis required
for other sites. Histology.
Cerebrospinal uid
polymerase chain reaction
Central nervous system
toxoplasmosis onset after
age one month
Fever, headache, focal
nervous system signs and
convulsions. Usually responds
within 10 days to specic
therapy
Computed tomography scan
(or other neuroimaging)
showing single or multiple
lesions with mass effect or
enhancing with contrast
Extrapulmonary
cryptococcosis (including
meningitis)
Meningitis: usually subacute,
fever with increasing severe
headache, meningism,
confusion, behavioural
changes that respond to
cryptococcal therapy
Cerebrospinal uid
microscopy (India ink
or Gram stain), serum
or cerebrospinal uid
cryptococcal antigen test or
culture
50
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
HIV encephalopathy At least one of the following,
progressing over at least two
months in the absence of
another illness:
failure to attain, or loss of,
developmental milestones,
loss of intellectual ability
or
progressive impaired brain
growth demonstrated
by stagnation of head
circumference
or
acquired symmetric motor
decit accompanied by two
or more of the following:
paresis, pathological
reexes, ataxia and gait
disturbances
Neuroimaging
demonstrating atrophy and
basal ganglia calcication
and excluding other causes
Disseminated mycosis
(coccidiomycosis or
histoplasmosis)
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Histology: usually
granuloma formation.
Isolation: antigen detection
from affected tissue; culture
or microscopy from clinical
specimen or blood culture
Disseminated non-
tuberculosis mycobacteria
infection
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Nonspecic clinical
symptoms including
progressive weight loss,
fever, anaemia, night
sweats, fatigue or diarrhoea;
plus culture of atypical
mycobacterial species from
stool, blood, body uid or
other body tissue, excluding
lung
Chronic cryptosporidiosis No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Cysts identied on modied
Ziehl-Nielsen microscopic
examination of unformed
stool
51
Clinical Event Clinical Diagnosis Denitive Diagnosis
Chronic isosporidiosis No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Identication of Isospora
spp.
Cerebral or B-cell non-
Hodgkin lymphoma
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Diagnosed by central
nervous system
neuroimaging; histology of
relevant specimen
Progressive multifocal
leukoencephalopathy
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Progressive neurological
disorder (cognitive
dysfunction, gait/speech
disorder, visual loss, limb
weakness and cranial
nerve palsies) together with
hypodense white matter
lesions on neuro-imaging
or positive polyomavirus JC
polymerase chain reaction
on cerebrospinal uid
HIV-associated
nephropathy
No presumptive clincial
diagnosis
Renal biopsy
HIV-associated
cardiomyopathy
No presumptive clinical
diagnosis
Cardiomegaly and evidence
of poor left ventricular
function conrmed by
echocardiography
Source: World Health Organization (45).
52
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Parameter or
Feature
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4
Blood
Haemoglobin (g/dl)
(age >2 years)
10.010.9 7.09.9 <7.0 Cardiac failure
secondary to
anaemia
Absolute neutrophil
count ( 10
9
per litre)
0.7501.200 0.4000.749 0.2500.399 <0.250
Platelets (cells/mm
3
) 69 999
100 000
50 000
70 000
25 000
49 999
<25 000 or
bleeding
Gastrointestinal
Bilirubin 1.11.9 times
normal
2.02.9 times
normal
3.07.5 times
normal
>7.5 times
normal
Aspartate
aminotransferase
1.14.9 times
normal
5.09.9 times
normal
10.015.0
times normal
>15.0 times
normal
Alanine
aminotransferase
1.14.9 times
normal
5.09.9 times
normal
10.015.0
times normal
>15.0 times
normal
Gamma-glutamyl
transferase
1.14.9 times
normal
5.09.9 times
normal
10.015.0
times normal
>15.0 times
normal
Pancreatic amylase 1.11.4 times
normal
1.51.9 times
normal
2.03.0 times
normal
>3.0 times
normal
Abdominal pain Mild
Moderate
no treatment
needed
Moderate
no treatment
needed
Severe
hospital and
treatment
Diarrhoea Soft stools Liquid stools
Liquid stools
and mild
dehydration,
bloody stool
Dehydration
requiring
intravenous
therapy or
hypotensive
shock
Nausea Mild
Moderate
decreased
oral intake
Severe, little
oral intake
Unable to
ingest food or
uid for >24
hours
ANNEX 5. 6PADIN6 0F ADEP5E DPU6 EENT5
53
Parameter or
Feature
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4
Vomiting
<1 episode/
day
13 episodes/
day or
duration >3
days
>3 episodes/
days or
duration >7
days
Intractable
vomiting
Allergic and Dermal
Allergy
Pruritis
without rash
Pruritic rash Mild urticaria
Severe
urticaria;
anaphylaxis,
angioedema
Drug fever 37.638.4C 38.540C >40C
Sustained
fever: >40
0
C,
>5 days
Cutaneous
Erythema,
pruritus
Diffuse
maculopapular
rash, dry
desquamation
Vesiculation,
ulcers
Exfoliative
dermatitis,
Stevens-
Johnson or
erythema
multiforme,
moist
desquamation
Source: African Network for the Care of Children Affected by AIDS (46).
54
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
ANNEX . 5UHHAPY 0F HAJ0P 5TUDIE5
0F C0-TPIH0XAZ0LE PP0PRYLAXI5
Country of
study
Study
design
Author and
year of study
Co-trimoxazole
Dose
Study
population (N)
Cte dIvoire Randomized
placebo-
controlled trial
Anglaret et al.
1999 (17)
960 mg Adults
n = 541
Cte dIvoire Randomized
placebo-
controlled trial
Wiktor et al.
1999 (14)
960 mg Adults
n = 771
Senegal Randomized
placebo-
controlled trial
Maynart et al.
2001 (47)
480 mg Adults
n = 100
Zambia Randomized
placebo-
controlled trial
Nunn
submitted (48)
960 mg Adults
n = 925
Zambia Randomized
placebo-
controlled trial
Chintu et al.
2004 (7)
<5 years: 240 mg;
>5 years: 480 mg
Children
114 years
n = 534
South Africa Observational
study
Badri et al.
2001 (49)
480 mg daily or
960 mg 3 times
per week
Adults
n = 563
Uganda,
Entebbe
Historical
comparison
before and
after co-
trimoxazole
Watera et al.
2002 (13)
960 mg Adults
n = 806
Uganda Historical
comparison
before and
after co-
trimoxazole
Mermin et al.
2004 (19)
960 mg among
adults
Adults and
children
percentages
not stated
n = 509
55
TB
Co-trimoxazole
resistance
Effect on
mortality
Effect on
morbidity
Adverse
event rate
Some Low No signicant
difference
43% lower 0.6%
All smear
positive
Low 46% lower 53% fewer
admissions
27% fewer
morbid events
<1%
None Intermediate No signicant
difference
No signicant
difference
6%
All smear
positive
High No overall signicant
difference (difference
seen from 618
months)
Not reported 0.3%
Some High 33% lower (all ages
and CD4 ratios)
21% less
hospitalization
6%
Some Not stated 45% lower only
signicant for WHO
clinical stages 3 and
4 and CD4 <200
cells per mm
3
48% fewer
severe HIV-
related illnesses
Not reported
Some High 23% lower No overall
difference
69% less
malaria
3.8%
Some High 46% lower only
signicant for CD4
<200 cells per mm
3
WHO clinical stages
3 and 4
Hospitalization
reduced 31%,
diarrhoea
reduced 35%,
malaria reduced
72%
2%
56
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
Country of
study
Study
design
Author and
year of study
Co-trimoxazole
Dose
Study
population (N)
Malawi,
Thyolo
Historical
comparison
with no co-
trimoxazole
Zachariah et
al. 2002 (30)
960 mg Adults
n = 2986
Malawi,
Karonga
Historical
comparison
with no co-
trimoxazole
Mwaungulu et
al. 2004 (50)
960 mg Adults
n = 717
South Africa Historical
comparison
with no co-
trimoxazole
Grimwade et
al. 2005 (18)
960 mg Adults
n = 3232
57
TB
Co-trimoxazole
resistance
Effect on
mortality
Effect on
morbidity
Adverse
event rate
All High 25% lower Not reported <2%
All High 22% lower across
the programme,
44% lower among
participants living
with HIV
Not reported Not reported
All High 29% lower Not reported <1%
58
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62
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
63
64
GUI DELI NES ON CO-TRI MOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXI S
FOR HI V-RELATED I NFECTI ONS AMONG CHI LDREN, ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS
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