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People vs. Jesus Edualino G.R. No. 119072. April 11, 1997 Padilla, J.

: Facts: On December 23, 1994, the trial court rendered a decision finding accused Jesus Edualino guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of Rape. Edualino wilfully, unlawfully and feloniously have carnal knowledge with one Rowena Nantiza, a pregnant woman, against her will and consent to her damage and prejudice. In the present case, the prosecution's evidence consists mainly of the testimonies of the complainant Rowena Nantiza, Aileen Yayen and Dr. Rogelio Divinagracia. On the other hand, accused-appellant relies on alternative defenses of alibi and consent on the part of complainant. Issue: Whether or not the guilt of accused-appellant has been proven beyond reasonable doubt. Held: Yes. The elements of the crime of rape, as allegedly committed by accused-appellant, are: 1. That the accused-appellant had carnal knowledge of the complainant; 2. That the act was done against the complainant's will; 3. That force and/or intimidation was used in the commission of the act. A person accused of rape can be convicted solely on the testimony of the victim provided the testimony is credible, natural, convincing and otherwise consistent with human nature and the course of things. Besides, even if a medical examination of the victim is not a prerequisite in prosecutions for rape, the testimony of the victim is supported by the findings in the medical certificate which shows that the injuries suffered by the victim are consistent with the charges of rape. In the present case, even if accused-appellant's allegations that the victim was drunk and under the influence of drugs and that she (the victim) cannot be considered a decent and responsible married woman, were true, said circumstances will not per se preclude a finding that she was raped. It should be pointed out that the moral character of a rape victim is immaterial in the prosecution and conviction of the accused. The Court has ruled that prostitutes can be the victims of rape. On accused-appellant's contention that the presence of force and intimidation was not proven, the Court has consistently ruled that force and intimidation should be viewed in the light of the victim's perception and judgment at the time of the commission of the offense. People vs. Leonardo Fabre. G.R. No. 146697, July 23, 2002 Vitug, J.: Leonardo Fabre was adjudged guilty by the Regional Trial Court of Agusan del Sur, of raping his own daughter Marilou Fabre, and he was sentenced to suffer the extreme penalty of death. In the case at bar, the complainant claimed that she was 13 years old at the time of the inciden. Her mother stated, however, that she was 14. The birth certificate of the victim, at least already in her teens, was not presented to ascertain her true age on the bare allegation that the document was lost when their house burned down. No other document that could somehow help establish the real age of the victim was submitted. Issue: Whether or not the imposition of death penalty upon the accused-appellant is proper. No. While the father-daughter relationship between appellant and private complainant has been sufficiently established, the fact of minority of the victim, although specifically averred in the information, has not been equally shown in evidence. These qualifying circumstances of relationship and minority are twin requirements that should be both alleged in the information and established

beyond reasonable doubt during trial in order to sustain an imposition of the death penalty. Neither an obvious minority of the victim nor the failure of the defense to contest her real age always excuse the prosecution from the desired proof required by law. Judicial notice of the issue of age without the requisite hearing conducted under Section 3, Rule 129, of the Rules of Court, would not be considered sufficient compliance with the law. The birth certificate of the victim or, in lieu thereof, any other documentary evidence, like a baptismal certificate, school records and documents of similar nature, or credible testimonial evidence, that can help establish the age of the victim should be presented. While the declaration of a victim as to her age, being an exception to the hearsay proscription, would be admissible under the rule on pedigree, the question on the relative weight that may be accorded to it is a totally different matter. People vs. Rizaldy Guamos alias "Poks" G.R. No. 109662 February 21, 1995 Feliciano, J.: Facts: On September 21, 1990, at around 4:00 o'clock in the afternoon, while Michelle, then a child eight (8) years of age, was on her way from school to her grandfather's house, when she was accosted by Guamos. Guamos dragged her to the poultry house of her grandfather. There in the poultry house, Guamos removed her panty, and inserted his penis into her sex organ. After satisfying his carnal feelings, the accused Guamos warned her not to tell anyone about the incident, otherwise he would strangle her. Two (2) days later, while Michelle's mother was collecting their clothes which needed to be laundered, she discovered traces of blood in Michelle's underpants. She asked her daughter about the traces of blood and Michelle, after a while, admitted that she and been sexually assaulted. She told her parents that it was "Poks" who had sexually abused her. Appellant Guamos raises the defense of denial and alibi. He maintains that he had been working at a construction site near the house of Michelle's grandfather when the alleged rape was committed. After he left his worksite at around 5:00 p.m., he proceeded to play basketball with his friends. Several witnesses corroborated his story. In addition, Guamos seeks to discredit and exclude the testimony of the rape victim upon the ground that she had not answered the questions posed to her at cross-examination during trial. Issue: Whether or not the guilt of Rizaldy Guamos for the crime of rape had been established beyond reasonable doubt. Held: Yes. The gravamen of statutory rape is carnal knowledge of a woman under twelve (12) years of age. 3 Neither violence nor intimidation is a requisite for finding the offender guilty of statutory rape. Consent or acquiescence on the part of the under-age female provides no defense to the doer. The simple showing, therefore, that the accused had carnal knowledge of eight (8)-year old Michelle Dolorical is sufficient to sustain his conviction for rape. Appellant Guamos also asserts that the testimony of Michelle laying the sexual assault upon her at his feet should not have been admitted because her testimony had not been subjected to crossexamination. In the first place, it is not true that Michelle Dolorical had not been subjected to crossexamination. Counsel for appellant seeks to make much of the fact that Michelle Dolorical did not answer some of the questions of defense counsel on cross-examination. Firstly, this appears to the Court to be a case of failure of Michelle to answer some questions rather than an obstinate refusal to do so. In formulating those questions on cross-examination, defense counsel obviously did not take into account that he was cross-examining a child of tender age, who is susceptible to confusion and probably easily intimidated. The questions posed by defense counsel to Michelle appear to us to have

been long, elaborate and circumlocutious difficult to comprehend even for adults. Thus, at one point, the trial court directed the defense counsel to simplify his questions. Defense counsel, after that directive from the trial court, tried once more but did not succeed in simplifying his questions. Promptly thereafter, defense counsel ceased cross-examination after stating for the record that Michelle was "unable to answer the question propounded by [him]" and that such as counsel would "just leave it to the sound discretion of the honorable court. No further questions." 9 It is clear to this Court that defense counsel exercised no substantial effort to present intelligible questions to complaining witness Michelle Dolorical designed to elicit straightforward answers. We consider that she, in all probability, simply failed to grasp some of the questions put to her on cross-examinations. The defense had made it very difficult if not practically impossible for her to answer those questions intelligently and truthfully. In the total circumstances of this case, we consider that accused Guamos had waived his right to object to the admissibility of Michelle Dolorical's testimony on direct examination upon the ground that she had not answered all of the questioned posed to her on cross-examination. The trial court believed that that failure had not affected the credibility of Michelle Dolorical's direct testimony.
People vs.Jesus Perez. G.R. No. 142556, ebruary 5, 2003 PER CURIAM: For automatic review is the Decision1 dated October 26, 1999 of the Regional Trial Court of Iba, Zambales, Branch 69, in Criminal Case No. RTC-2116-I, finding appellant Jesus S. Perez ("appellant" for brevity), guilty of raping Mayia P. Ponseca ("Mayia" for brevity) and imposing on appellant the death penalty. On January 22, 1997, the Second Assistant Provincial Prosecutor2 of Zambales filed an Information3 charging appellant with the crime of rape "penalized under Article 335 of the Revised Penal Code in relation to Section 5 (b), Article III of Republic Act No. 7610," committed as follows: "That on or about the 17th day of January, 1997 at 12:00 noon at Sitio Baco, Brgy. Macarang, in the Municipality of Palauig, Province of Zambales, Philippines, and within the jurisdiction of this Honorable Court, the said accused, with lewd design and by means of coercion, inducement and other consideration, did then and there, wilfully (sic), unlawfully and feloniously have sexual intercourse with one Mayia P. Ponseca, a minor of 6 years old, without her consent and against her will, to the damage and prejudice of the latter." Upon arraignment, appellant, assisted by counsel de officio Atty. Genaro N. Montefalcon, pleaded not guilty to the offense charged.4 Subsequently, the trial court allowed the withdrawal of Atty. Montefalcon as counsel for health reasons. The trial court appointed Atty. Roberto Blanco as appellants counsel de oficio.5 At the pre-trial, the prosecution and defense stipulated on the following facts: "1. The identity of the accused; 2. The accused was at the time of the incident in the vicinity thereof; 3. The victim in this case, Mayia P. Ponseca, was born on 23 May 1990 as evidenced by her birth certificate; 4. That after the incident, the child was subjected to a medico-legal examination to which a medicolegal certificate was issued by Dr. Editha Divino. The prosecution marked in evidence the birth certificate of the victim Mayia O. Ponseca as Exhibit A, and the medico-legal certificate issued by Dr. Editha Divino as Exhibit B."6 Thereafter, trial ensued. The prosecution presented the following witnesses: the victim, Mayia Ponseca; the victims mother, Hermie Ponseca; the victims father, Osias Ponseca; Virginia Espejo Giron; and Dr. Editha dela Cruz Divino. On the other hand, the defense presented appellant and his employer, Bartolome Tolentino.

The Office of the Solicitor General ("OSG" for brevity) summarized the prosecutions version of the incident in the appellees brief, to wit: FACTS: On January 17, 1997, about noontime, in Sitio Baco, Barangay Macarang, Palauig, Zambales, sixyear old Mayia Ponseca was walking along Sulok on her way to her house in Sitio Camiling when appellant Jesus Sebunga Perez approached her. Appellant introduced himself as "Johnny" and immediately afterwards, strangled her neck and boxed her abdomen. Still in shock, Mayia fell down. At that point, a dog arrived and barked at them. Appellant then proceeded to lower his black denim pants while simultaneously removing Mayias panty. He then inserted his penis inside Mayias vagina. Mayia felt excruciating pain in her private parts but was not able to repel her aggressor whose strength and weight totally engulfed her. Her only recourse was to cry while her young body was being ravished. After satisfying his beastly desires, appellant raised his pants and ran away. Notwithstanding that her vagina was bleeding profusely and her dress now covered with her own blood, Mayia managed to stand up and seek help. She ran to the house of Virginia Giron, which was only fifty (50) meters away from the scene of the crime. In fact, Giron was outside when she heard her dog barking, apparently, it was the same dog barking at appellant while he was consummating his lust on Mayia. Looking at the direction of the noise, she saw a confused Mayia approaching her with blood dripping from her private parts and thighs. When Giron asked Mayia what happened, the latter shouted "ni-rape ako, ni-rape ako. Giron then summoned her husband and other companions to look for Mayias attacker but was unable to find him. Giron then proceeded to Hermie Ponseca and Osias Ponseca, Mayias parents, to inform them of what happened. When her parents asked Mayia if she knew her assailant, the latter answered the name "Johnny." The couple brought their daughter to the President Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Hospital for medical examination. She was examined by Dra. Editha Dela Cruz Divino, who issued a medico-legal certificate. Appellant denied raping Mayia. Appellant testified that on the date of the alleged rape incident, he was working at a fishpond at Macarang, Zambales. On cross-examination, appellant testified that his nickname is not "Johnny" but "Jessie." He testified that on January 17, 1997, at around 12 oclock noon, he left the fishpond and walked home to Barangay Alwa which was about thirty meters from the fishpond. Issue: Whether or not the Court a quo gravely erred in finding that the guilt of the appellant has been proven beyond reasonable doubt. Appellant contends that his identification in open court by Mayia was highly irregular.l^ Appellant points out that the prosecutor had already identified him as the man wearing an orange t-shirt when the prosecutor asked Mayia to identify her alleged rapist. Appellant stresses that when Mayia identified him in open court, she referred to him as a man named "Johnny" and did not give any description or any identifying mark. Moreover, appellant claims he was alone in the cell when Mayia identified him after the police arrested him. Appellant bewails that the identification was not done with the usual police line-up. Appellants contention is untenable. As a rule, leading questions are not allowed. However, the rules provide for exceptions when the witness is a child of tender years13 as it is usually difficult for such child to state facts without prompting or suggestion.14 Leading questions are necessary to coax the truth out of their reluctant lips.15 In the case at bar, the trial court was justified in allowing leading questions to Mayia as she was evidently young and unlettered, making the recall of events difficult, if not uncertain.16 As explained in People v. Rodito Dagamos:17

"The trend in procedural law is to give wide latitude to the courts in exercising control over the questioning of a child witness. The reasons are spelled out in our Rule on Examination of a Child Witness, which took effect on December 15, 2000, namely, (1) to facilitate the ascertainment of the truth, (2) to ensure that questions are stated in a form appropriate to the developmental level of the child, (3) to protect children from harassment or undue embarrassment, and (4) avoid waste of time. Leading questions in all stages of examination of a child are allowed if the same will further the interests of justice." The Court has repeatedly stated that it is highly inconceivable for a child of tender age, inexperienced in the ways of the world, to fabricate a charge of defloration, undergo a medical examination of her private part, subject herself to public trial, and tarnish her familys honor and reputation, unless she was motivated by a strong desire to seek justice for the wrong committed against her.18 Mayias simple, positive and straightforward recounting on the witness stand of her harrowing experience lends credence to her accusation. Her tender age belies any allegation that her accusation was a mere invention impelled by some ill-motive. As the Court has stressed in numerous cases, when a woman or a child victim says that she has been raped, she in effect says all that is necessary to show that rape was indeed committed.22 Mayia had a clear sight of appellants face since the rape occurred at "noontime."23 Her proximity to appellant during the sexual assault leaves no doubt as to the correctness of her identification for a man and woman cannot be physically closer to each other than during the sexual act.24 Thus, even if Mayia did not give the identifying marks of appellant, her positive identification of appellant sufficed to establish clearly the identity of her sexual assailant. Appellants claim that the police improperly suggested to Mayia to identify appellant is without basis. True, Mayia did not identify appellant in a police line-up when Mayia identified appellant in his cell. However, appellant, in his testimony admitted that he had two other companions in his cell.25 Moreover, the Court has held that there is no law requiring a police line-up as essential to a proper identification. Even without a police line-up, there could still be a proper identification as long as the police did not suggest such identification to the witnesses.26 The records are bereft of any indication that the police suggested to Mayia to identify appellant as the rapist. Mayias identification in open court of appellant as her rapist dispels any doubt as to the proper identification of appellant. Mayia positively identified and pointed to appellant as her rapist. We are satisfied that her testimony, by itself, is sufficient identification of her rapist. As held in People v. Marquez:27 "xxx. Indeed, the revelation of an innocent child whose chastity was abused deserves full credit, as the willingness of complainant to face police investigation and to undergo the trouble and humiliation of a public trial is eloquent testimony of the truth of her complaint. Stated differently, it is most improbable for a five-year old girl of tender years, so innocent and so guileless as the herein offended party, to brazenly impute a crime so serious as rape to any man if it were not true." In his Reply Brief, appellant contends that even assuming that the guilt of appellant has been proven beyond reasonable doubt, the trial court erred in imposing the death penalty. Appellant maintains that the death penalty cannot be imposed on him for failure of the prosecution to prove Mayias age by independent evidence. Appellant points out that while Mayias birth certificate was duly marked during the pre-trial, it was not presented and identified during the trial. Appellant asserts that Mayias minority must not only be specifically alleged in the Information but must also be established beyond reasonable doubt during the trial. 1awphi1.nt Appellants argument deserves scant consideration. At the pre-trial, the parties mutually worked out a satisfactory disposition of the criminal case. Appellant, assisted by counsel, signed a Pre-Trial Agreement28 which, as incorporated in the Pre-Trial Order, stated that: "x x x.

3. The victim in this case, Mayia P. Ponseca was born on 23 May 1990 as evidenced by her birth certificate; x x x." (Emphasis supplied) During the pre-trial, the prosecution marked in evidence Mayias birth certificate as Exhibit "A". 29 The prosecution submitted its Offer of Evidence30 which included Exhibit "A", a certified true copy of Mayias birth certificate. The trial court admitted Exhibit "A"31 without any objection from the defense. The purpose of pre-trial is to consider the following: (a) plea bargaining; (b) stipulation of facts; (c) marking for identification of evidence of the parties; (d) waiver of objections to admissibility of evidence; (e) modification of the order of trial if the accused admits the charge but interposes lawful defenses; and (f) such matters as will promote a fair and expeditious trial of the criminal and civil aspects of the case.32 Facts stipulated and evidence admitted during pre-trial bind the parties. Section 4, Rule 118 of the Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure33 provides: "SEC. 4. Pre-trial order. - After the pre-trial conference, the court shall issue an order reciting the actions taken, the facts stipulated, and evidence marked. Such order shall bind the parties, limit the trial to matters not disposed of, and control the course of the action during the trial, unless modified by the court to prevent manifest injustice." (Emphasis supplied) Moreover, Mayia herself testified in open court as to her age. During the trial on December 15, 1998, which was about twenty-three (23) months after the rape incident occurred on January 17, 1997, Mayia testified on cross-examination that she was "8 years old last May 23."34 Thus, by deduction, since Mayia was born on May 23, 1990 as shown in her birth certificate, she was about six (6) years and seven (7) months old on January 17, 1997, the day the crime took place. We rule that the prosecution has indisputably proven that Mayia was below seven years old at the time appellant raped her.1a\^/ Finally, the trial court was correct in imposing the death penalty on appellant. Under Article 33535 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended by Section 11 of Republic Act No. 7659,36 the death penalty shall be imposed if the crime of rape is committed against a child below seven (7) years old. Mayia was six (6) years and seven (7) months old when appellant raped her. If rape is qualified by any of the circumstances37 warranting the imposition of the death penalty, the civil indemnity for actual or compensatory damages is mandatory.38 Following prevailing jurisprudence, the civil indemnity is fixed at P75,000.00. In addition, moral damages of P50,000.00 should also be awarded to the rape victim without need for pleading or proving it.39 WHEREFORE, the Decision dated October 26, 1999 of the Regional Trial Court of Iba, Zambales, Branch 69, in Criminal Case No. RTC-2116-I, finding appellant Jesus S. Perez guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of qualified rape, sentencing him to suffer the death penalty,40 and ordering him to pay the victim Mayia P. Ponseca the amount of P75,000.00 as civil indemnity and P50,000.00 as moral damages, is AFFIRMED in toto. In accordance with Article 83 of the Revised Penal Code, as amended by Section 25 of the Republic Act No. 7659, upon the finality of this Decision, let the records of this case be forthwith forwarded to the Office of the President of the Philippines for possible exercise of the pardoning power. SO ORDERED.