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Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU

Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 1 -





I. CNG SUT MCH IN XOAY CHIU
1) Biu thc ca cng sut
Cho mch in xoay chiu c biu thc in p v dng in
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
o u u
o i i
u U cos t V U 2cos t V
i I cos t A I 2cos t A

= + = +

= + = +


Cng sut ca mch c cho bi P = U.I.cos, vi =
u

i
l lch pha ca u v i.
Ch : Khi tnh ton cng sut tiu th ca on mch in xoay chiu th ta phi chuyn i cc phng trnh ca
u v i v cng dng vi nhau theo quy tc
2
| |
=
|
\

sin x cos x
2) in nng tiu th ca mch in
in nng tiu th ca mch in l W = P.t, vi t l thi gian dng in chy trong mch, n v giy, (s).
V d 1. Cho mch in xoay chiu RLC ni tip c L = 1/ (H).
Biu thc in p v dng in trong mch l
| |
= +
|
\

| |

= +
|

u 120 2 cos 100t V


6

i 2 2 cos 100t A
3

a) Tnh gi tr ca in tr R.
b) Tnh cng sut tiu th ca mch in.
c) Tnh in nng m mch tiu th trong 1 gi.
Hng dn gii:
a) Tng tr v lch pha ca u, i trong mch l
( )
2
2 2
L C
L C
R Z Z 60 Z 60

Z Z 1

tan
6 3 6
6 R 3

+ = =



| |
= =
= =
|

\

Gii h trn ta c
2 2 2
C L
R 3R 60
R 30 3.
R
Z Z
3
+ =


b) Cng sut tiu th ca on mch l

P UI cos 120.2.cos 120 3 W.


6
| |
= = =
|
\

c) in nng mch tiu th trong 1 gi (hay 3600 s) l W P.t 120 3.3600 432 3 kJ. = = =
V d 2. Tnh cng sut tiu th ca on mch in xoay chiu RLC bit
a)
| |
= +
|
\

| |

= +
|

u 200 2 cos 100t V


3
2
i 2 sin 100t A
3
b)
| |
= +
|
\

| |

= +
|

u 50 6 cos 100t V
4

i 2 2 sin 100t A
2

Hng dn gii:
a) T gi thit, ta chuyn phng trnh i v dng cosin ta c
2 2
i 2 sin 100t A 2 cos 100t A 2 cos 100t A.
3 3 2 6
| | | | | |
= + = + = +
| | |
\ \ \

T ta c
o o

200 2. 2 cos
U I cos 3 3 6
P UI cos 200. 100 3 W.
2 2 2
| |

|
\
= = = = =
b) Ta c ( )
o o

50 6.2 2 cos
U I cos
4
i 2 2 sin 100t A 2 cos 100t A P 50 6 W.
2 2 2
| |
= + = = = =
|
\

Bi ging 4:
CNG SUT MCH IN XOAY CHIU
Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU
Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 2 -

II. H S CNG SUT
1) Khi nim h s cng sut
i lng cos trong cng thc tnh cng sut P = UIcos c gi l h s cng sut ca mch in xoay chiu.
2) Cng thc tnh h s cng sut
a) Theo khi nim h s cng sut ta c
o o
P 2P
cos
UI U I
= =
b) Theo gin ta c = = = =
R
U I.R R R
cos cos , (*)
U I.Z Z Z

(*) l cng thc tnh gi tr ca h s cng sut trong cc bi ton
thng gp.
3) Biu thc tnh cng sut khi mch c R
Ta c
2 2
R U
P UIcos UI. .IR I R P I R.
Z Z
= = = = =


V d 1: Cho mch in RL. Nu t vo hai u mch in hiu in th 220 V, tn s 50 Hz th cng
hiu dng ca dng in qua mch l 2A, v lch pha so vi in p gc /4.
a) Tm R, L.
b) Tm cng sut tiu th ca mch.
Hng dn gii:
a) Tng tr ca mch l Z = 220/2 = 110 .
lch pha ca u v i l /4 nn
R 1
cos R Zcos 110. 55 2 .
Z 2
= = = =
Mt khc, mch ch c R v L nn u nhanh pha hn i gc /4.
Khi
L L
L
Z Z 55 2 0, 778
tan Z R. tan 55 2 L (H)
4 R 4 100
= = = = = =
b) Cng sut tiu thu ca mch l
1
P UI cos 220.2. 220 2 W.
2
= = =
V d 2 : Tnh h s cng sut ca on mch in xoay chiu c cc thng s tha mn
a) = =
L C
1
U U 2U .
2

b) = =
R L C
3
U U 3U .
3

b) = =
L C
3R Z 2Z .
Hng dn gii:
a) T gi thit ta c
( )
L
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
C R R R
2
2 2
R L C
1
U U
2
1 1 1 U 15U
U U U U U U U U U
4 2 4 16 16
U U U U

| |
= = + = + =

|
\

= +


T ta c
R
R
U 15U 15
U cos .
4 U 4
= = =
b) Ta c
( )
L R
2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 R R
C R R R R R
2
2 2
R L C
U 3U
4U 7U 1 1
U U U U 3U U U U U
3 3 3 3
U U U U

| |
= = + = + =

|
\

= +


T ,
R
R
U 3 3 21
U U cos .
7 U 7 7
= = = =
O

L
U

C
U

LC
U

R
U

I
Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU
Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 3 -

c) Quy cc biu thc cho theo R v s dng cng thc tnh
R
cos
Z
= ta c
( )
L
2
2 2
2 2 2 2
C
2
2 2
L C
Z 3R
3 3 3R 7R R 2 7
Z R Z R 3R R Z R cos .
2 2 4 4 Z 7
Z R Z Z

| |

= = + = + = = =
|
|
\

= +


V d 3 : Cho mch in xoay chiu RLC c U = 220 V, R = 100 , L = 0,5 (H), t C c in dung thay i
c. Dng in c tn s 50 Hz, t c iu chnh c gi tr C = 10
5
(F).
a) Tnh tng tr ca mch.
b) Tnh cng hiu dng ca mch
c) Tm C cng qua mch cc i.
d) Tnh h s cng sut trong hai trng hp trn.
Hng dn gii:
Ta c
L
C
Z L 157
100 rad/s
1
Z 318, 5
C
= =

= =


a) Tng tr ca mch ( )
2
2
L C
Z R Z Z 190. = + =
b) Cng hiu dng
U 220
I 1,16A.
Z 190
= = =
c) T biu thc
( )
2
2
L C
U 220
I ,
Z
R Z Z
= =
+
ta thy I
max
th Z
min
hay mch c cng hng in.
Khi
( )
2 5
L C 2 2
1 1
Z Z 0 LC 1 C 2.10 (F).
L
100 .0, 5

= = = = =
d) H s cng sut ca mch in:
Khi
5
R 100
C 10 (F) cos 0, 526.
Z 190

= = = =
Khi
5
min
R R
C 2.10 (F) cos 1.
Z R

= = = =
III. CNG SUT, H S CNG SUT CA MT S LOI ON MCH IN THNG GP
Mch ch c R Mch ch c L Mch ch c C
c im :
2
0 cos 1 P UI I R = = = =
c im :

cos 0 P 0
2
= = =
c im :

cos 0 P 0
2
= = =
Mch RL Mch RC Mch LC
c im :
2 2
L
2
2 2
L
L
Z R Z
R
cos P I R
R Z
Z
tan
R

= +

= =


c im :
2 2
C
2
2 2
C
C
Z R Z
R
cos P I R
R Z
Z
tan
R

= +

= =


c im :
L C
Z Z Z
P 0

2
=


Mch RL
(cun dy c thm r 0)
Mch RLC (cun dy c thm r 0 )
H s cng sut
o
2 2 2 2
o L L
R R r
cos
R Z (R r) Z
+
= =
+ + +

Cng sut ta nhit trn ton mch l
H s cng sut
o
2 2 2 2 2
o L C L L C
R R r
cos
R (Z Z ) (R r) Z (Z Z )
+
= =
+ + +

Cng sut ta nhit trn ton mch l
Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU
Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 4 -

2
2 2
L
U
P I (R r), I
(R r) Z
= + =
+ +

Cng sut ta nhit trn R l
2
R
2 2
L
U
P I R, I
(R r) Z
= =
+ +

2
2 2
L C
U
P I (R r), I
(R r) (Z Z )
= + =
+ +

Cng sut ta nhit trn R l
2
R
2 2
L C
U
P I R, I
(R r) (Z Z )
= =
+ +

Ch :
- Cng sut P = UIcos l cng sut tiu th trn ton mch in, cn cng sut P = I
2
R l cng sut ta nhit khi
mch c in tr R, mt phn cng sut ca mch b hao ph di dng cng sut ta nhit cn phn ln l cng sut
c ch, khi
2
= + = +
c ch hao ph c ch
P P P UI cos P I R
M
2
| |
= =
|
\
hao ph
P P
I P R
U cos U cos

T cng thc tnh cng sut hao ph trn cho thy lm gim i cng sut hao ph th ngi ta tm cch nng cao h
s cng sut. V trong thc t th khng s dng nhng thit b m c h s cng sut cos < 0,85.
- Hiu sut ca mch in (thit b tiu th in) l 100 =
c ch
P
H . %
P

V d 1: Mt mch in gm mt cun dy c t cm L = 0,5/
(H), mt t in c in dung C = 10
4
/ (F) v mt in tr thun R
= 50 mc nh hnh v. in tr cun dy nh khng ng k. in
p gia hai u on mch AB c tn s f = 50 Hz v c gi tr hiu
dng U = 100 V.

a) Tnh tng tr v cng sut tiu th ca on mch.
b) Tnh lch pha ca in p gia hai im A v N i vi in p gia hai im M v B.
Hng dn gii:
a) Ta c:
L C
1
100, Z L 50, Z 100.
C
= = = = =
Tng tr ca mch ( )
2
2
L C
Z R Z Z 50 2 . = + =
Cng hiu dng ca mch
U 100
I 2 A
Z 50 2
= = =
Cng sut tiu th ca mch l P = I
2
R = 2.50 = 100 W.
b) lch pha ca u
AN
v i tha mn
AN
L
AN AN u i
Z 50
tan 1
R 50 4 4
= = = = =
lch pha ca in p hai im MB v i tha mn
MB
L C
AN MB u i
Z Z 50
tan
0 0 2 2

= = = =
Theo cng thc chng pha ta c lch pha gia hai im AN vi hai im MB l
( ) ( )
AN MB AN MB
u u u i u i
3

4 2 4
| |
= = =
|
\

V d 2: Mt mch in AB gm mt in tr thun R = 50 , mc ni tip vi mt cun dy c t cm L =
1/ (H) v in tr hot ng r = 50 . in p hai u mch l ( ) =
AB
u 100 2cos 100t V.
a) Tnh tng tr ca on mch.
b) Vit biu thc cng dng in tc thi i qua on mch v biu thc in p tc thi hai u cun
dy.
c) Tnh cng sut ta nhit trn in tr, ca cun dy v ca on mch.
d) Mun cho cng dng in tc thi cng pha vi in p tc thi hai u on mch th phi mc ni
tip thm vo on mch ni trn mt t in c in dung C bng bao nhiu ? Tnh cng sut ta nhit ca
on mch in lc .
Hng dn gii:
a) Ta c cm khng ca mch Z
L
= L = 100 .
Tng tr ca mch ( )
2
2 2 2
L
Z R r Z 100 100 100 2 . = + + = + =
b) Vit biu thc ca i v u
d
Gi biu thc cng dng in trong mch l i = I
0
cos(100t +
i
) A.
Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU
Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 5 -

Ta c
o
o
L
u i i
U 100 2
I 1A

Z 100 2
i cos 100t A.
4
Z 100
tan 1 rad.
R r 100 4 4

= = =

| |
=

|
\

= = = = = =

+

Tng tr ca cun dy
2 2 2 2
d L
Z r Z 50 100 50 5 . = + = + =
in p cc i hai u cun dy l
0d 0 d
U I .Z 1.50 5 50 5 V. = = =
lch pha ca ca u
d
v i tha mn
d d
L
r 1
tan 0, 46rad.
Z 2
= =
M
d d
d u i u d i

0, 46 u 50 5cos 100t 0, 46 V.
4 4
| |
= = + = = +
|
\

c) Tnh cng sut tiu th
Trn in tr R :
2
2 o
R
I
P I R R 25W.
2
= = =
Trn cun dy c in tr r :
2
2 o
d
I
P I r r 25W.
2
= = =
Trn ton mch : ( ) ( )
2
2 o
I
P I R r R r 50W.
2
= + = + =
d) Khi mc thm vo mch mt t c in dung C th lch pha ca u v i tha mn
L C
Z Z
tan
R r

=
+

u v i cng pha th
4
2
L C 2
1 10
0 Z Z LC 1 C (F).
L

= = = = =
Khi th xy ra hin tng cng hng in v cng hiu dng ca dng in t gi tr cc i nn cng sut
ta nhit ca mch cng t gi tr cc i ( )
( )
( )
2 2
2
max max 2
U U
P I R r R r 100W.
R r
R r
= + = + = =
+
+

V d 3: Cho mch in RLC c

= =
4
10
R 100 3 , C (F),
2
cun dy thun cm c t cm L thay i c.
in p gia hai u on mch l u = 200cos(100t) V. Xc nh t cm ca cun dy khi
a) h s cng sut ca mch cos = 1.
b) h s cng sut ca mch =
3
cos .
2

Hng dn gii:
T gi thit ta c Z
C
= 200 .
Ta c cng thc tnh h s cng sut
2 2
L C
R R
cos
Z
R (Z Z )
= =
+

a) Khi
L C L
2
cos 1 R Z Z Z 0 Z 200 L (H).

= = = = =
b) Khi
2 2 2 2 2
L C L C
3 R R
cos 4R 3Z 4R 3R 3(Z Z ) Z Z 100.
2 Z 3
= = = = + = =
T ta tm c hai gi tr ca Z
L
l Z
L
= 100 v Z
L
= 300 , tng ng vi cc gi tr L = 1/ (H), L = 3/ (H).
V d 4: (Trch thi TSH 2010)
t in p xoay chiu c gi tr hiu dng v tn s khng i vo hai u on mch gm bin tr R mc ni
tip vi t in c in dung C. Gi in p hiu dng gia hai u t in, gia hai u bin tr v h s cng
sut ca on mch khi bin tr c gi tr R
1
ln lt l U
C1
, U
R1
v cos
1
; khi bin tr c gi tr R
2
th cc gi
tr tng ng ni trn l U
C2
, U
R2
v cos
2
. Bit U
C1
= 2U
C2
, U
R2
= 2U
R1
. Gi tr ca cos
1
v cos
2
l
A.
1 2
1 1
cos , cos .
5 3
= = B.
1 2
1 2
cos , cos .
3 5
= =
C.
1 2
1 2
cos , cos .
5 5
= = D.
1 2
1 1
cos , cos .
2 2 2
= =
Hng dn gii:
Kha hc Dng in xoay chiu v Dao ng in t BI GING DNG IN XOAY CHIU
Hocmai.vn Ngi trng chung ca hc tr Vit Tng i t vn: 1900 58-58-12 - Trang | 6 -

Do in p hai u mch khng thay i trong hai trng hp ca R nn ta c
C C R R 1 1 2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1 1
2
U 2U ,U 2U C
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
R C R C R C R C1 R1
U
U U U U U U U 4U U 2U
4
= =
= + = + + = + =
1
1 1 1
2 1
R
1
1
2 2
R C R
R R
2
U
R 1
cos
Z U 5
U U U 5U
U 2U
2
cos
U U 5

= = =

= + =

= = =


Vy chn C ng.

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Ngun : Hocmai.vn