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Researches Done So Far In 3d-Printing

3D-Printed Human Cells Will Replace Animal Testing in Five Years, Says Bioengineer Expert

3D-printing could soon bring about an end to animal abuse in drug testing, according to bioengineering expert Alan Faulkner-Jones. Speaking at the 3D Printshow Hospital in London, theHeriot Watt University researcher said that 3D-printed human cells could eliminate the need to test new drugs on animals as soon as 2018.

Using a bio-printer hacked together from a MakerBot printer, Faulkner-Jones demonstrated howhuman stem cells can be printed into micro-tissues and micro-organs. These miniature biological systems, otherwise known as systems-on-a-chip, not only resemble humans genetically, but they also respond as if it is a living miniature organ. This allows for more effective drugs tests that show side effects first hand. Faulkner-Jones believes the technology could replace cruel and often inaccurate animal testingwithin five years. In addition to sparing animals, this technology could mitigate the issue of having to develop medicines that work perfectly on animals before they can be tested on humans, which slows down the process. Whats more, it may also become possible to personalize drugs by testing them with the cells of the person who actually needs them. Creating specific micro-tissues of that person would help doctors replicate their unique response to drugs and other medical treatments.

Urbee 2, the 3D-Printed Car That Will Drive Across the Country
It may look like a bean, but the hybrid car Urbee 2 can get hundreds of miles to the gallonand it's made mostly via 3D printing. In two years, it could become the first such vehicle to drive across the United States.

In early 1903, physician and car enthusiast Horatio Nelson Jackson accepted a $50 bet that he could not cross
the United States by car. Just a few weeks later, on May 23, he and mechanic Sewall K. Crocker climbed into a 20-hp Winton in San Francisco and headed east. Accompanied by Bud, a pit bull they picked up along the way, the two men arrived in New York 63 days, 12 hours, and 800 gallons of fuel later, completing the nation's first cross-country drive. About two years from now, Cody and Tyler Kor, now 20 and 22 years old, respectively, will drive coast-to-coast in the lozengeshaped Urbee 2, a car made mostly by 3D printing. Like Jackson and Crocker, the young men will take a dog along for the ride Cupid, their collie and blue heeler mix. Unlike Jackson and Crocker, they will spend just 10 gallons of fuel to complete the trip from New York to San Francisco. Then they will refuel, turn around, and follow the same west-to-east route taken by Jackson, Crocker, and Bud. Cody and Tyler's father, Jim Kor, beams when he talks about the trip. "The Google time estimate is 44 hours, but it will take a bit longer, I'm sure," says Kor, president of Kor Ecologic and team leader of the Urbee 2 project. "You know, the dog has to pee and whatnot. And we could have a breakdown. But it will be a swift and efficient trip." Jim Kor described this ambitious endeavor at the Manufacturing the Future Summit on Wednesday. Stratasys, a global additivemanufacturing company, hosted the event at its Eden Prairie, Minn., headquarters. PopMech joined a small group of journalists at the meeting, which featured presentations by many early adopters of 3D printing.

The terms additive manufacturing and 3D printing are synonymous. A computer-aided design (CAD) file is
uploaded to a 3D printer, which reads the file and creates the object, using, for example, PolyJet or Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) systems. A PolyJet machine uses liquid resins to build an object one microscopic layer at a time, following the CAD files code, and then cures the material with UV lights. FDM is a similar process, but it uses molten polymers. Printers can be as small as a microwave oven (such as MakerBot's desktop models) or as large as a minivan. The biggest Stratasys model, the Fortus 900mc, is more than 9 feet long and 6 feet tall and weighs about 6600 pounds. It can print objects up to 36 by 24 inches. Stratasys, which went into business in 1994, is growing fast. In August, it acquired MakerBot, the Brooklyn-based leader in desktop 3D printing, for a reported $604 million. It has 1600 employees worldwide, with offices in Israel, Asia, South America, and Europe. Its production arm, RedEye, has factories in Belgium, Turkey, and Australia, and at two other U.S. locations besides Eden Prairie. At Wednesday's press event, RedEye vice president Jim Bartel announced that the company would build production facilities in Shanghai in 2014. Sratasys has clients who testified at the summit about using its technology to make prototyping and producing their wares faster and cheaper. But Jim Kor was the star of the show. He was fidgety when he started his presentation, "Sustainable Cars and the Future of Manufacturing," in front of about 25 people in a ground-floor conference room. "I'm an introvert," he said, nervously stroking his salt-and-pepper beard. "Actually, it's worse than thatI'm a hermit." Kor got over his dislike of public speaking, and during his talk and in subsequent interviews with PopMech, he described the yearslong development of the first Urbee car and the grand plan for Urbee 2's cross-country odyssey.

The aha moment came over lunch one day in 1996, at the Sunstone Cafe in Winnipeg, Manitoba, where Kor lives and works. He and a team of seven other designers and engineers had just finished making and testing the Solos personal rapid transit vehicle (also known as a podcar), which ran on rails. It was an efficient design, propelled by a small electric motor and human power, but a rail system would have to be created to support its use. "We should take a version of that vehicle and put it on the road, because the roads are already there," one of Kor's colleagues said. Kor was intrigued by the idea, and began sketching on a paper napkin. "It was a side view of a car that looked like a more aerodynamic Smart car, a two-seater," he says. Within days, conceptualization and design work began on a vehicle intended for urban use, powered by electric motors and a small, ethanol-fueled combustion engine. Those key wordsurban, electric, ethanol gave the Urbee its name, and Kor Ecologic spent more than a decade refining the design. The primary challenge was aerodynamics. In his presentation at Stratasys, Kor mentioned how a sprinting cheetah flattens its ears onto the top of its head and a falcon speeds through the air with its feet held flush with its body. "Nature is my inspiration," he said. By the fall of 2008, Kor and his team had a full computer model and a partial physical model of a hybrid that would get about 300 mpg. The process was smoothKor has worked with the same group of designers and engineers for decades but not without some disagreement. "There were two of us that knew the aerodynamics really well, and two industrial designers," Kor recalls. "The industrial designers kept saying, 'It can't look like a jellybean.' But I was adamant that the design must be efficient first, and then we would design for the look. Most cars are done the other way around they start with how they want the car to look, and then they try to find ways to make it efficient."

Handie prosthetic uses 3D printing and smartphones for much cheaper bionic hands

The main aim of Handie, already a James Dyson award nominee, was to develop an artificial hand that offered a large degree of functionality without the brutal pricesassociated with prosthetics. With the latest model, it apparently skirts below a $400 price tag, substituting a smartphone for previously dedicated processing hardware as well as 3D printing. The use of printable parts makes Handie repairable, meaning it should last as long (or possibly longer) as models that use substantially more expensive materials. Because all the components (aside from the motors) can be printed, it means customization, design improvements and repairs are all possible -- and cheaply too. The team also has a customized mechanism for finger flexing, reducing the number of motors needed to just one per three-segment digit. These single motors are still able to passively change direction of fingers depending on the shape of an object. The heavy thinking is all assigned to a companion app on a nearby smartphone, which cuts the costs once again. The prosthetic makers demonstrated the Handie's capabilities at an early press event for this weekend's Maker Faire Tokyo. After working on prosthetics in college, development has focused on the fact that high functionality might not be the biggest priority, especially for users that may require two hand replacements, bringing us back toHandie's simple aim: "sufficient functions at an affordable price." Compare and contrast the rougher fresh-from-the-3Dprinter model against a glossier Portal-ish version in our gallery below, and check out the full video explanation after the break.

Graphene, Metal Among Advances in 3D Printing

Since the 2010 Nobel Committee awarded the physics prize to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, two researchers who discovered graphene, interest in the material has risen. Earlier this year, Sweden's prestigious Chalmers University of Technology received a 1 billion grant to "take graphene out of the labs and into people's lives." In the US, minerals giant American Graphite Technologies formed a partnership with the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) to research graphene's use in 3D printing. The US/KIPT venture, known as P600, funds the work of eight scientists who plan to focus on graphene's role in nanoelectronics and nanotechnology. Graphene's unique flexibility and strength properties make it attractive for use in flexible touch screens and; its sensitivity to even a single molecule of another substance shows promise in gas monitoring equipment. Graphene is already being used in optoelectronics, solar panels, batteries and capacitors. In North Carolina, university scientists were able to use 3D printing to liquid metal structures. Liquid beads were stacked on top of each other to create wires and connectors for electronic equipment. While liquid metal spheres have a natural tendency to blend together into larger droplets, the NCSU were able to solve that problem. "We've found that a liquid metal alloy of gallium and indium reacts to the oxygen in the air at room temperature to form a 'skin' that allows the liquid metal structures to retain their shapes," said Michael Dickey, an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering, in a statement.

3D Printing Metal could have massive benefits to a host of applications. Advances in 3D printing have accelerated as research funding pours in. Harvard researchers developed a 3D printing technique that allowed them to print a fully functional lithium ion battery smaller than a grain of sand. The tiny battery would have applications in nanotechnology like miniature medical implants, for example, that need an energy source small enough to fit within the device. Jennifer Lewis, a professor with the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science and co-author of the study, said, Not only did we demonstrate for the first time that we can 3D -print a battery; we demonstrated it in the most rigorous way." Expect continued explosive growth in technological advances using 3D printers and high-tech materials. Two major 3D patents expire in 2014, leaving the field wide open to innovation by scientists and researchers.

The Next Big Thing In Medicine? 3D Printed Bones


3D printing has grown from a niche manufacturing process to a $2.7-billion industry over the past two decades, and now scientists are working to apply 3D printing technology to the field of medicine by printing with living cells. More sophisticated printers and software, and advances in regenerative medicine have made this possible. Kevin Shakeshaff, a professor of pharmacy at the University of Nottingham in England, has been working on technology that can print a custom body part. An image of a jawbone defect can be fed into a computer and a replacement can be printed to precisely fill the defect using the patients own cells, Shakeshaff explains. The tissues of our body are structured at the level of single cells using 3D printing, we can position cells in precise places. To print this type of bone replacement, the 3D bio-printer creates a scaffold in the bone shape and coats it with adult human stem cells, which can develop into many different tissue types. The printers ink consists of a polymer called polylactic acid and a gel-like substance called alginate. This delivers the hard, mechanical strength of bone, along with a cushioning material for the cells. The printed artificial bone can be implanted in the body, where the scaffold will degrade and be replaced by new bone grown by the body within about three months. The first advantage is you get something in the exact shape of the defect youre trying to replace, Shakeshaff says. More subtly, you have the ability to organize where the cells go within the scaffold, which leads to better blood vessel formation and ultimately better bone formation. Researchers at MIT have also developed a new approach to designing and printing artificial bones. By using computer optimized designs of soft and stiff polymers placed in a pattern to replicate nature, they are testing 3D printed artificial bones that are durable, lightweight, and environmentally sustainable. This research is a wonderful example of how 3D printing can be used to fabricate complex architectures that emulate those found in nature, says Jennifer Lewis, professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University. Perhaps a more common need than regenerating a bone, is fixing a broken one. When Jake Evill, a design student at Victoria University in New Zealand, broke his hand it made him think that the whole plaster or fiberglass casting process was woefully outdated. So, he designed an improvement. His idea uses input

from an X-Ray, plus a 3D scan of the broken limb and feeds the dimensions and data into the computer to create an exoskeleton-type cast that looks like it could be part of a Spiderman outfit. The prototype is called theCortex cast and it protects the broken bone with optimal support and an exact fit. To create the cast, the broken limb is 3D scanned and the data is reconstructed into a 3D model. The output from that process is a digital file which then goes to a 3D printer. The resulting cast is ultra-light, hygienic and anatomically accurate. Made from nylon, it snaps together easily and applies the appropriate pressure on the fracture or break point. The Cortex cast is also breathable, lightweight, recyclable and washable. It is less bulky than a regular cast and also lets in plenty of air, which prevents that stuffy, itchy feeling.

Ceramic 3D printing
The Dpz, fabspace of the Academy of Fine Arts Saar, explores the intersections of engineering, media informatics, art, and design. The use of open hard- and software and a structural openness of work across degree programs and studio environments affords the creative and conceptual freedom for projects and events that are implemented in cooperation with xm:lab, the academys institute for experimental education.

The digital fabrication techniques are a key driver in the radical (and controversial) decentralization of product design. An ongoing research project of the dpz (Digitales Produktionszentrum, Center for Digital Production) at the Academy of Fine Arts Saar, 3D Ceramic Printing explores the extent to which plastic

printing techniques can be used in ceramic design processes. Involving a multi-university team, the interdisciplinary project aims to develop a new ceramic printer.

Ceramic 3D printing

Established methods (coiling) and digital fabrication are combined to develop further existing 3D ceramic printing techniques (unfold). The integrative approach maintains the individuality of objects in a mechanic production process, allowing the generation of type variations, small series, as well as customization such as user modified objects or through user interfaces such as Reactable (another project of Dpz). Because of the particular surface characteristics generated through this process, objects have different aesthetic and haptic qualities.

3D Printed Food To The Rescue?

We love our food to be made in layers. Whether its a tiramisu, lasagne, or a Twix bar, the medley of combined tastes gives a satisfying sensation. Now, thanks to 3D printing, we can take the layers down to the microscopic level. Last week we reported Asda are bringing 3D printing to a store in York, now it seems 3D printing could well supply us all with supermarket ready food in the near future. Its unclear if the word printing will be a turn-off; its difficult to imagine eating something that has been printed. Even the most devoted supplier of cartridges would have to consider if it was a good idea. However, if you head into a well-appointed supermarket youll readily find edible 2D printing you can have any image you like printed onto a cake. All the 3D food brigade are proposing is an extra dimension. You can already order magnificent sugar creations that will garnish any wedding cake with a breathtakingly beautiful (and, incidentally, edible) 3D design. Remember when we were all wowed by those caramelised sugar corkscrews and bird cages? They are going to look very last millennium soon. This is pretty frivolous stuff compared to the life-transforming applications of 3D printing being pioneered by NASA. You may remember the Mars 500 project that was carried out a few years back, where volunteers were isolated in a Moscow facility for 500 days to get a hint as to what the psychosocial effects would be of a round-trip to Mars. On of the immediate conclusions was that humans place great importance on the variety of flavours and textures we have in our Earth-based lives, and that reproducing that in space has wonderful effects on morale. Everything that blasts off from Earth requires fuel, so the absolute minimum of food is required. Volume is an important issue, which is why space food has traditionally been flat-packed, dried, and packaged so the maximum nutritional value can be squeezed into the minimum space. You cant take a crate of apples and some pork chops. But what if you could scroll down a digital menu and choose any meal you like? Thats the potential of 3D food printing. In theory, the possibilities are limitless. As long as you have the basic flavours, the three primary colours, a host of essential nutritional components, and some binding ingredients, anything can be made. Heres what could end up occupying the shelves of your local supermarket.
Bioprinting: The Future?

Something as simple as a piece of fried bacon is a highly complex thing. Take the texture alone: it contains the muscular structure of a naturally grown pig and benefits from the effects of curing and heating the meat, with extra crispiness provided by contact with the frying pan and the hot oil. To reproduce that means going down to the molecular level, something 3D printing is, as yet, incapable of.

Complex texture is still best achieved by growing organically; perhaps the optimum 3D food printer will use a combination of biomass and layers to produce food that most closely resembles that were used to on our plates. However, there are companies such as Modern Meadow who are commercialising bioprinting technologies. These look like having the potential to create nutritional animal products without all the food, water or slaughter. When is meat not meat?

Speaking of meat, there are numerous issues surrounding this key element of the human diet. First, there are ethics. Millions of people opt for a meatfree diet for compassionate reasons; some do purely for health reasons. Adherents to Judaism and Islam forgo any meat from the pig; many Hindus dont eat beef. But what are the ethical issues surrounding pork and beef that are actually a blend of proteins, fats and colourings and have never been part of a living, breathing creature? Whether avoided through respect or disgust, these foodstuffs are beef and pork in name only, and would cease to resemble the meats they emulate if their recipe was tweaked a little. Whether people eat 3D printed or artificially cultivated pseudo-tissue will ultimately be down to the reasons behind any misgivings. Taste Test

A huge part of taste has to do with the aroma of food, a fact scientists are still learning about. What we do know is to successfully emulate familiar foods, or even to create new ones, we cant rely purely on taste, texture, and colour. We need to somehow introduce aroma int o the blend. Whilst some aromas will occur naturally, others will need to be artificially introduced. While some aromas will occur naturally, others will need to be artificially introduced. Were going to need quite a few cartridges in our universal food creation printer, by the sound of things. Will it really catch on?

At the moment 3D printed foods are not just viable, they are here, but they rely on purees, solutions, and powders of foods that already exist. Technology is constantly refining, and foods made from the basic building blocks of nutrition carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and various other elements will surely one day be considered normal parts of a healthy, varied and interesting diet. Whether it will still be described as being printed will depend on lexicography and technology. Our current methods of printing food might look to future eyes like stone tablets look to ours a necessary stepping stone, a proof of concept, that can be worked on. Maybe one day after a particularly good meal in a restaurant, well ask the waiter to give our compliments to the printer

Margot Krasojevic's 3D-Printed Orbital Levitation LED Lamp Floats in Thin Air!

You may be familiar with maglev trains but designer Margot Krasojevic just unveiled a 3dprintedLED lamp that brings magnetic levitation to your living room! Krasojevics ethereal Orbital Levitation Lamp hovers above a semi-conducting base and rotates in thin air when gently pushed. The light can also be hung like a static ceiling pendant.

This $2.42 3D-printed sunshade makes Google Glass easier to use and less creepy

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A PR rep who is among the first Google Explorers has created a 3D-printed shade for Google Glass that makes it easier to read and much less obvious to observers. Without the shade, Glass was difficult to read outdoors. I realized pretty quickly that the Glass prism projects transparent graphics, which are heavily and easily diluted against sunlight, Chris Barrett of PRServe says. Outdoors, I found myself frequently using my thumb to cover the back of the prism, to provide the necessary contrast I needed to see Glass clearly. Indoors, I caught myself turning away from windows and staring at walls, just to see what I was doing. (Touching the prism might be one reason why Google Glass is breaking down so frequently.)

To fix the problem, Barrett told me via e-mail, he designed a tiny cover for the prism part of Google Glass where messages actually show up in your visual field. He worked with a 3D printing studio in Philadelphia to develop and print a prototype, which hes been using since September, and today hes releasing the code for Sunshade 1.0 so anyone can print their own shade for Google Glass, almost for free. Yes, physical objects can now be expressed in code, in an STL, Collada, or X3D file, and in case youre wondering what it looks like, its not nearly as exciting as it sounds. Heres a sample:

Not only does SunShade allow Google Glass to function properly in full sun, it also has another side-benefit, especially for those who dont have a lot of time to answer questions from curious strangers.

Jolie O'Dell/VentureBeat

Google Glass

Sunshade allows me to use Google Glass in public without people knowing Im using Glass, Barrett says. When I first received Glass people would notice the prisms light and frequently stop me to ask questions. Sometimes its fun to chat wi th strangers, but [many] other times its not. Sunshade conceals Glass light, so now, when Im wearin g Glass in public, I attract a lot less attention. Thats a double benefit: Your boss wont notice youre checking email while hes pontificating about the government shutdown, and your significant other wont suspect your are secretly surfing Google+ notifications while youre supposed to be deeply engrossed in a conversation about our relationship. Barrett has open-sourced the code for SunShade, and currently it can beprinted at ShapeWays for a ridiculously cheap $2.54. I believe that, when Google Glass is finally released to the public, Sunshades will be as popular as Ray-Bans, Barrett says

3D PRINTED COUTURE TAKES TOP PRIZE AT THE DUTCH DESIGN AWARDS


The stunning collection by conceptual designer Iris van Herpen provides a glimpse at the future of fashion.

Emma Hutchings on October 22, 2013.

Conceptual Dutch fashion designer Iris van Herpen s 3D printed collection Voltage has taken the top prize in the Dutch Design Awards best fashion category. The collection, which was shown during Paris Fashi on Week earlier this year, features two garments made using additive manufacturing.

Iris van Herpen was also awarded the Golden Eye prize at the awards. She collaborated on the designs with architects Philip Beesley and Julia Koerner, and MIT Media Labs Neri Oxman. The jury commented:
With Voltage, Van Herpen gives the world a view into the future of fashion. It is impressive to see how she, at such a young age, succeeds in giving so much body to her work, without any loss of experiment and challenge. Wi th her designs she shows better than anybody else what is going on in the Netherlands at the moment.