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Latin language "Roman language" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Romani language, Romanian language, or Romanesco language.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Relevant discussion ma y be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citation s to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 20 13) Latin Lingua latina Rome Colosseum inscription 2.jpg Latin inscription in the Colosseum Pronunciation [la'ti?na] Native to Latium, Roman Monarchy, Roman Republic, Roman Empire, Medieval a nd Early modern Europe, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (as lingua franca), Vatican City Ethnicity Latins Era Vulgar Latin developed into Romance languages, 6th to 9th centuries; the formal language continued as the scholarly lingua franca of Catholic countries medieval Europe and as the liturgical language of the Roman Catholic Church. Language family Indo-European Italic Latino-Faliscan Latin Writing system Latin alphabet Official status Official language in Vatican City Regulated by In antiquity, Roman schools of grammar and rhetoric.[1] Today, t he Pontifical Academy for Latin. Language codes ISO 639-1 la ISO 639-2 lat ISO 639-3 lat Linguasphere 51-AAB-a Roman Empire map.svg Greatest extent of the Roman Empire, showing the area governed by Latin speakers . Many languages other than Latin, most notably Greek, were spoken within the em pire. RomanceLanguages.png Range of the Romance languages, the modern descendants of Latin, in Europe. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, yo u may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. Latin (Listeni/'lt?n/; Latin: lingua latina, IPA: ['li?gwa la'ti?na]; the noun li ngua, "tongue" and "language", and the adjective latinus, latina and latinum in its three genders, "Latin") is an ancient Italic language[2] originally spoken b y the Italic Latins in Latium and Ancient Rome. Along with most European languag es, it is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. It took form as what is recognizable as Latin in the Italian peninsula. Modern Romance langu ages are continuations of dialectal forms (vulgar Latin) of the language. Additi onally many students, scholars, and some members of the Christian clergy speak i t fluently, and it is still taught in some primary, secondary and post-secondary educational institutions around the world.[3][4] Latin is still used in the creation of new words in modern languages of many dif ferent families, including English, and largely in biological taxonomy. Latin an d its derivative Romance languages are the only surviving languages of the Itali c language family. Other languages of the Italic branch were attested in the ins criptions of early Italy, but were assimilated to Latin during the Roman Republi

c. The extensive use of elements from vernacular speech by the earliest authors and inscriptions of the Roman Republic make it clear that the original, unwritten l anguage of the Roman Kingdom was an only partially deducible[clarification neede d] colloquial form, the predecessor to Vulgar Latin. By the arrival of the late Roman Republic, a standard, literate form had arisen from the speech of the educ ated, now referred to as Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin, by contrast, is the name given to the more rapidly changing colloquial language, which was spoken throug hout the empire.[5] Because of the Roman conquests, Latin spread to many Mediterranean and some nort hern European regions, and the dialects spoken in these areas, mixed to various degrees with the indigenous languages, developed into the modern Romance tongues .[6] Classical Latin slowly changed with the Decline of the Roman Empire, as edu cation and wealth became ever scarcer. The consequent Medieval Latin, influenced by various Germanic and proto-Romance languages until expurgated by Renaissance scholars, was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars. Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun ca ses, four verb conjugations, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects, and two numbers. A dual number ("a pair of") is present in Old Lat in. One of the rarer of the seven cases is the locative, only marked in proper p lace names and a few common nouns. Otherwise, the locative function ("place wher e") has merged with the ablative. The vocative, a case of direct address, is mar ked by an ending only in words of the second declension. Otherwise, the vocative has merged with the nominative, except that the particle O typically precedes a ny vocative, marked or not. There are only five fully productive cases, that is, in the few instances of the formation of a distinct locative or vocative, the e ndings are specific to those words and cannot be placed on other stems of the de clension to produce a locative or vocative. In contrast, the plural nominative e nding of the first declension may be used to form any first declension plural. As a result of this case ambiguity, different authors list different numbers of cases: 5, 6, or 7. Adjectives and adverbs are compared, and the former are infle cted according to case, gender, and number. In view of the fact that adjectives are often used for nouns, the two are termed substantives. Although Classical La tin has demonstrative pronouns indicating different degrees of proximity ("this one here", "that one there"), it does not have articles. Later Romance language articles developed from the demonstrative pronouns, e.g. le and la (French) from ille and illa, and su and sa (Sardinian) from ipse and ipsa.