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Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia


Workshop Social Implications o Economic Integration !Managing Cross"#order La$o%r Migration on a Regional Scale&

Published by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Registered offices Bonn and Eschborn, Germany Regional Economic oo!eration and Integration in "sia hina #ffice $a%uan Di!lomatic #ffice &' (iangmahe )outh )treet, haoyang District &*+** Bei,ing, -R hina $ ./+0&*0/123012'' 4 ./+0&*0/123015'' #ffice 6ongolia 7aiman Zo89hi Building )eoul )treet 3& :laanbaatar &'31&, 6ongolia #ffice $hailand &;2<+2 (a9e Ra,ada #ffice om!le= 7e> Ratchada!ise9 Road, ?longtoey Bang9o9 &*&&*, $hailand

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As at 7o8ember 3*&2 Photo credits o!yrights for all !icturesC GIZ o!yright for co8er !ictureC GIZ<:rsula 6eissner Text )tefan Hein, Donas Hum!ert, DrB )ra>ooth -aitoon!ong ($DRI) and GuEnolE #udry (I#6 ambodia) $he findings and conclusions e=!ressed in this documentation are entirely those of the authorsB $hey do not necessarily re!re0 sent the 8ie> of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) or further organising !artiesB $he informa0 tion !ro8ided is >ithout >arranty of any 9indB #n behalf of the German 4ederal 6inistry for Economic oo!eration and De8elo!ment (B6Z)

List of Abbreviations Workshop Agenda 3 4

I. Background II. Introduction III. Welcoming emarks I". Workshop #ummar$ 4.%. &b'ectives and ()pectations of the Workshop 4.* +he ,eed for -anaging .ross/Border Labour -igration on a egional #cale 4.3 #ituation Anal$sis0 .ambodia 4.4 -anaging .ross/Border Labour -igration0 +he ole of egional 1rame2orks 4.5 egional .ooperation on Labour -igration 4.6 ecommendations for .ambodia ". .onclusion eferences &ther 4ublications b$ 5I6 .I

5 6 !

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Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

List of Abbreviations
A7B A(. A#(A, .7 I .(A .L-" .&--I+ .W.. 574 5-# 5to5 :I" IL& I&Lao 47 4B5 -o. -oL"+ -o4 -o4W+ -o 7 -o#"= -o> -oWA ,5& ,#74 .I #+#L# +7 I >, >,IA4 >#7 Asian 7evelopment Bank A#(A, (conomic .ommunit$ Association of #outheast Asian ,ations .ambodian 7evelopment esource Institute .ambodian (conomic Association .ambodia8 Lao 47 8 -$anmar and "iet ,am .oordinated -ekong -inisterial Initiative against +rafficking .ambodian Women9s .risis .enter 5ross 7omestic 4roduct 5reater -ekong #ubregion 5overnment/to/5overnment :uman Immunodeficienc$ "irus International Labour &rganisation International &rgani;ation for -igration Lao 4eople<s 7emocratic epublic 4an Beibu 5ulf (conomic .ooperation -inistr$ of .ommerce -inistr$ of Labour and "ocational +raining -inistr$ of 4lanning -inistr$ of 4ublic Work and +ransport -inistr$ of ural 7evelopment -inistr$ of #ocial Affairs8 "eterans and =outh ehabilitation -emorandum of >nderstanding -inistr$ of Women Affairs ,on/5overnmental &rganisation ,ational #trategic 7evelopment 4lan egional (conomic .ooperation and Integration ,ational .ommittee #ecretariat to Lead the #uppression of :uman +rafficking8 #muggling8 Labour ()ploitation and #e)ual ()ploitation in Women and .hildren +hailand 7evelopment esearch Institute 1oundation >nited ,ations >nited ,ations Inter/Agenc$ 4ro'ect on :uman +rafficking >nited #tates 7ollar

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

Workshop Agenda
1 !1"!2"13# $%n&a' (otel# )hnom )enh# Cambodia
!033 ? @033 @033 ? @0%5 Registration of Participants Welcoming Remarks 7r. Leul A$ale2 -ekonnen8 .hief of -ission8 International &rgani;ation for -igration AI&-B8 .ambodia @0%5 ? @045 @045 ?%3033 Objectives and Expectations of the Workshop Keynote Presentation Social Implications of Economic Integration: The Need For Managing Cross-Border Labour Migration on a egional Scale 7r. #ra2ooth 4aitoonpong8 +hailand 7evelopment esearch Institute 1oundation A+7 IB %3033 ? %%033 Situation nalysis! "ambodia #tock +aking guided b$ the 1acilitators %%033 ? %%0%5 %3045 ? %%0%5 %%0%5 ? %*033 "offee #$ea %reak &roup Photograph and "offee' $ea %reak Keynote Presentation by (uko )amada Managing Cross-Border Labour Migration: The ole of egional Frame!or"s =uko :amada8 #enior egional Labour -igration #pecialist8 International &rgani;ation for -igration AI&-B %*033 ? %4033 *unch #un2a$ :otel 4hnom 4enh %4033 ? %5033 Regional "ooperation on *abour +igration! Lesson Learnt from M#$s Bet!een Thailand and Neighbouring Countries 7r. #ra2ooth 4aitoonpong e%ie! of &ction 'lans $nder the egional Frame!or" =uko :amada %5033 ? %5045 %5045 ? %C033 "offee and $ea %reak Recommendations for "ambodia Joint Discussion guided by the Facilitators %C033 ? %C033 Wrap up and Evaluation

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

I! +ackgro%nd
Asia is one of the most diverse regions in the 2orld. +his is particularl$ true 2ith regard to eco/ nomic development. &ver the last three decades8 the region has e)perienced a remarkable eco/ nomic transformation and Asian economies have gro2n at an unprecedented pace. :undreds of millions of people 2ere lifted out of povert$. :o2ever8 Asia still remains a region of enormous disparit$ in income levels and socioeconomic conditions (ADB, 2006a: 2). Whereas Dapan8 #inga/ pore and :ong Eong rank among the richest economies in the 2orld in terms of 574 per capita8 countries such as .ambodia8 the Lao 47 and -$anmar continue to sta$ among the poorest economies (World Bank, 20 !). :ence8 the greatest development challenge the region is facing remains povert$ reduction. B$ regionall$ interconnecting national economies8 regional cooperation and integration A .IB is considered to be one of the ke$ instruments to respond to this challenge and complement ef/ forts to reduce povert$ at the individual countr$ level AADB, 2006a: iii" ADB, 2006b: !). Against the backdrop of continuing and ever/changing process of globalisation8 .I in Asia is e)panding8 bringing 2ith it both benefits and costs (ADB, 20 !a: ). While improved infrastructure and transportation have resulted in deepened trade relations8 providing economic benefits to all countries in the 4an/Beibu 5ulf region A4B5B8 it has also 2idened the gaps bet2een the coun/ tries. In the case of .ambodia this development has resulted in enhanced labour migration8 mainl$ to +hailand8 but also in other secondar$ migration to neighbouring countries and the 4B5 region (ADB, 20 !b: ). 7espite efforts to regulate labour migration from .ambodia to +hailand8 most migrants opt for irregular channels8 2hich prove to be faster and cheaper. As a result8 the$ migrate 2ithout ade/ Fuate information about their destination or proper 2ork contracts8 2hich leaves them vulner/ able to e)ploitation and abuse. &n the other hand8 migrant remittances8 for instance8 are a valu/ able and stable source of foreign e)change for .ambodia. #ome migrant 2orkers learn skills on/ the/'ob 2hich might be difficult to acFuire at home. &thers develop a broader vision of their future during freFuent seasonal migration. :ence8 there is a clear link bet2een migration and development8 2hich has to be managed and facilitated carefull$. +his becomes particularl$ relevant for .ambodia in vie2 of the A#(A, (conomic .ommunit$ AA(. *3%5B scheduled to be launched in *3%5. &nl$ if the .ambodian government is able to manage labour migration on a regional scale8 the establishment of a single market and the free flo2 of goods8 services8 and capital 2ill benefit the econom$ and .ambodia<s future develop/ ment.

II! Introd%ction
* Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

&n %6 &ctober *3%38 the programme G egional (conomic .ooperation and Integration A .IB in AsiaH of 7eutsche 5esellschaft fIr Internationale 6usammenarbeit A5I6B 5mb: in collaboration 2ith the International &rgani;ation for -igration AI&-B convened a 2orkshop on G#ocial $%&li' cations o( )cono%ic $ntegration: *anaging +ross'Border ,abour *igration on a -egional #caleH in 4hnom 4enh8 .ambodia. +he 2orkshop aimed to address the demand for capacit$ development and deepened dialogue bet2een relevant line ministries and ke$ stakeholders engaged in la/ bour migration related issues in .ambodia. +he follo2ing pages summarise the purpose8 main themes and results of this event. +he 2orkshop9s goals 2ere0 to facilitate a dialogue among relevant stakeholders8 to e)change information and e)perience in order to develop and strengthen cooperation among relevant stakeholders8 to gain a better understanding of labour migration management on a regional scale8 particu/ larl$ in vie2 of A(. *3%58 to build the capacit$ to assess and manage labour migration on a regional scale8 to reach a common understanding of social aspects of regional integration8 to develop polic$ recommendations and identif$ ne)t steps in order to meet the challenges of cross/border labour migration in the 4B5.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

Around *3 participants attended the 2orkshop and 'ointl$ discussed the challenges and strate/ gies for managing cross/border labour migration on a regional scale. 4articipants included rep/ resentatives of the follo2ing ministries0 -inistr$ of .ommerce A-o.B8 -inistr$ of Labour and "ocational +raining A-oL"+B8 -inistr$ of 4lanning A-o4B8 -inistr$ of 4ublic Work and +rans/ port A-o4W+B8 -inistr$ of ural 7evelopment A-o 7B8 -inistr$ of #ocial Affairs8 "eterans and =outh ehabilitation A-o#"=B8 and -inistr$ of Women Affairs A-oWAB. -oreover8 representa/ tives from the .ambodian (conomic Association A.(AB8 the .ambodian Women9s .risis .enter A.W..B as 2ell as the .ambodian 7evelopment esource Institute A.7 IB 'oined the event. We are pleased to present in this report the thoughts generated in the various discussions dur/ ing the 2orkshop as 2ell as summaries of all presentations.

-e' findings e.pressed in the disc%ssions d%ring &orkshop

-e' problems/
Inabilit$ to afford the cost of legal recruitment is the predominant factor for irregular labour migration in .ambodia. +ime/consuming recruitment processes push migrants to use irregular channels. +he social costs of migration generall$ out2eigh the social benefits of labour migration. +herefore8 policies and measures to reduce the social costs of migration are urgentl$ reFuired. +he concept of labour migration management is Fuite ne2 to .ambodia. +he ,ational 4olic$ on Labour -igration is rather ne2 A*3%3B and failures in its implementation revealed a lack of overall coherence8 a lack of coordination and unclear definitions of responsibilities and mandates. estrictive immigration policies in labour/receiving countries and comple) legal recruitment processes 2ere among the ke$ forces driving 'ob seekers into irregular migration.

4olic$ management at the ministr$ level remains 2eak8 but the issue of labour migration is moving up to the national agenda. +here is no standard emplo$ment contract or pre/departure training curriculum. &n the +hai side8 conflicts of interest at the ground level slo2er labour migration la2 enforcement. Working conditions and access to social services in receiving countries do not compl$ 2ith international standards.

)ossible $ol%tions/
.osts associated 2ith the process of legalising migrant 2orkers should be minimised b$ all means. +he government8 line ministries8 ,5&s8 and civil societies should strengthen the recruitment process and enhance social protection of migrant 2orkers in order to promote regular migration. #upportive programmes for migrant 2orkers should be strengthened through pre/departure training8 information8 standardisation of training and skills8 access to social services8 and portabilit$ of benefits. &fficial remittance transfer channels have to be established in order to unleash the development potential of cross/border labour migration.
,or detailed country-specific policy recommendations please refer to page ./

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

III! Welcoming Remarks

1r! Le%l A'ale& 2ekonnen# Chief of 2ission# I32 Cambodia ()cellencies8 7istinguished 4articipants8 .o/organi;ers and trainers8 Ladies and 5entlemen8 &n behalf of I&- .ambodia and the co/organi;ers8 5I68 I 2ish to e)tend a 2arm 2elcome to all of $ou to this important 2orkshop on #ocial Implications of (conomic Integration0 G-anaging .ross/Border Labour -igration on a egional #caleH. As man$ of $ou kno2 migration has become the megatrend of the *%st centur$. In the $ear *3%38 the 2orld population reached a total of seven billion people and one in ever$ seven persons is a migrant8 that is to sa$8 nearl$ % billion of the 2orld9s C billion people live outside their place of birth. C43 million are internal migrants 2ho never leave their countr$ or cross an international border 2hile *3* million are international migrants living outside their countries of origin. .ompared to other regions of destination8 Asia sa2 the largest increase of international mi/ grants since *333. &ver the past %3 $ears Asia added some *3 million international migrants. #ocio/economic disparities8 degradation of the environment and climate change8 and increased labour demand in fast gro2ing economies in the #outh Alo2 and middle income countriesB and the ageing ,orth Ahigh income countriesB are considered ma'or driving forces ensuring that migration remains in large scale in the future. In the conte)t of globali;ation and increasingl$ interconnected 2orld8 migration becomes an essential imperative to sustaining development and ensuring social 2elfare. 1or instance8 for/ eign born 2orkforce represents more than %3J of 2orkforce in Western (urope. And #outh (ast Asia is not an e)ception. A#(A, region supplies around 6J of 2orld9s migrant 2orkers and at least 33 percent of them migrate 2ithin/A#(A, countries. As much as 63 percent of the 2ork force in #ingapore is foreign born8 for instance. +he main challenges toda$ that countries face in managing labour migration are0 development of sound labour migration policies8 coherent legal and institutional frame2orks8 ensuring re/ spect for human rights of migrant 2orkers and protection of migrants against abuse and e)ploi/ tation. +raditionall$8 polic$ discussions on migration focused on movements of people from lo2/ Kmiddle/income countries to more affluent ones8 in search of a better life. :o2ever8 this trend has significantl$ changed due to the economic do2n turn in the West and increased economical gro2th in the #outh. According to I&-9s World -igration eport of *3%3 2hich 2as published Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia 0

last month8 the #outh/,orth migration corridor currentl$ constitutes onl$ 45J of the global migration toda$8 and the remaining are mi) of #outh/#outh A35JB8 ,orth/,orth A%CJB and even ,orth #outh migration A3JB. It is 2orth to note that significant portion of labour migration in #outh (ast Asia is irregular or undocumented. +he causes of irregular migration are man$ and comple)L the push factors in countries of origin are mainl$ chronic povert$8 lack of emplo$ment8 economic hardship8 and length$8 comple) and e)pensive legal recruitment procedures as 2ell as restrictive immigration policies in labour/receiving countries. #ome studies conducted in .ambodia suggest that inabil/ it$ to afford the cost of legal recruitment is a predominant factor for irregular labour migration. In addition8 time and recruitment processes also push migrants to use irregular channels. As 2e all kno2 migrants 2ho use irregular channels often face abusive and e)ploitative situations8 including se)ual and ph$sical harassment and lack of access to legal protection. ural 2omen and $outh are in particular the most vulnerable for such e)ploitative practices. #adl$8 migrant 2orkers 2ho use regular channels are also not immune to e)ploitation and abuse due to mal/ practice of recruitment agencies and lack of robust regulator$ mechanisms. Ladies and 5entlemen8 I&- .ambodia had been 2orking closel$ 2ith the o$al 5overnment of .ambodia over the past t2o decades. 4romotion of safe migration has been one of the core activities of our mission in .ambodia. In *3%38 I&- in close collaboration 2ith -oL"+ developed a pre/departure orienta/ tion manual for migrant 2orkers on #afe -igration. +he underl$ing principle for the develop/ ment of this important manual is that migration e)perience is considerabl$ and positivel$ en/ hanced b$ pre/departure training on safe migration for prospective migrants 2hich 2ill also allo2 them to reach informed decisions. In same $ear A*3%3B I&- also implemented a pro'ect on village based activities in close collaboration 2ith -oWA. +he core ob'ective of the pro'ect 2as to disseminate at communit$ level reliable information about safe migration8 including em/ plo$ment opportunities8 dangers of trafficking8 rights and responsibilities of migrants8 and ac/ cess to assistance from local service providers including the police. I&- also continues to provide assistance to victims of trafficking. I&- .ambodia9s migrant as/ sistance programme has helped more than %8%33 .ambodian victims of trafficking since *33C. -ale victims of trafficking are on the rise recentl$ most of 2hom are trafficked for the fishing industr$ in +hailand. At the beginning of this $ear8 I&- assisted return and re/integration of 3* .ambodian male victims of trafficking from -auritius8 2ho 2ere trafficked to 2ork on +hai fish/ ing boats for $ears in slave/like conditions.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

>niversal instruments such as the >, .onvention on -igrant Workers8 egional frame/2orks such as the A#(A, 7eclaration on the ight of -igrant Workers as 2ell as national strategies such as those stipulated in the .ambodian ectangular #trateg$ and ,#74 offer legal and insti/ tutional frame2ork to facilitate labour migration and to certain e)tent also to protect rights of migrants. :o2ever8 a lot still needs to be done. Irregular cross/border labour migration still e)ists in large scale8 for instance along the long and porous border bet2een .ambodia and +hai/ land. In addition8 human trafficking and smuggling remain to be critical challenges to the gains made so far. I believe8 this 2orkshop 2ill offer a platform for all of $ou to discuss about the opportunities and challenges that labour migration brings in. I also believe that the 2orkshop in particular 2ill allo2 $ou to take stock of substantial achievements made in addressing irregular labour migration in the region8 facilitate a dialogue to develop and strengthen cooperation among $our ministries8 and help build the capacities of .ambodia9s government to assess and manage the challenge of labour migration. 1inall$8 I 2ould like to thank 5I6 for co/organi;ing this important 2orkshop in partnership 2ith I&- and for covering the costs of the 2orkshop. I 2ould like to 2arml$ 2elcome $ou to this important 2orkshop once again8 and I 2ish $ou a successful and fruitful da$. +hank $ou.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia


I5! Workshop $%mmar'

4!1 3b6ectives and E.pectations of the Workshop

As an introduction to the 2orkshop8 participants 2ere asked to introduce themselves and to describe their role and duties at 2ork. 1urthermore8 as a response to the Fuestion GWhat needs to happen in this 2orkshop to make it reall$ 2orth $our timeMH8 each participant shared one ma'or e)pectation 2ith the group. +he results of this session can be clustered in three categories0 .no/ledge sharing and &eer'to'&eer learning /+o e)change kno2ledge8 vie2s and information to better understand the sub'ect. /+o learn from practitioners9 points of vie2. /+o appl$ the ne2l$ learned skills at 2ork. 0nderstanding econo%ic and social i%&lications o( cross'border labour %igration /+o receive the latest information on the topic. /+o gain a better understanding of economic integration Ain particular A(. *3%5B and its impact on labour migration flo2s 2ithin the 4B5. Working out &olicy reco%%endations (or +a%bodia /+o get an idea ho2 to manage labour migration on a regional scale more successfull$. /+o improve political efforts in order to achieve regional solutions. /+o protect rural migrant 2orkers.


Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

4!2 7he 8eed for 2anaging Cross9+order Labo%r 2igration on a Regional $cale
1r! $ra&ooth )aitoonpong# $enior Research :ello&# 71RI# 7hailand In their discussion on social implications of economic integration8 participants 2ere introduced to the topic b$ a ke$note presenta/ tion on #ocial $%&lications o( )cono%ic $ntegration: 1he 2eed For *anaging +ross'Border ,abour *igration on a -egional #cale b$ 7r. #ra2ooth 4aitoonpong from the +hailand 7evelopment search Institute A+7 IB. +he discussion included a comprehensive definition of G(conomic IntegrationH8 the role of regional economic integration on cross border labour migration8 an enumeration of the social implica/ tions of cross/border labour migration8 their nature and e)tent8 as 2ell as a development on the need for managing cross/border labour migration on a regional scale. 4articipants strongl$ noted that the social costs of migration Asuch as an increased e)posure to trafficking8 the interrelationship bet2een health risks and migrationL the risks of human rights violation8 e)ploitation and abuse8 corruption and bad governance8 poor labour standardsL brain drainL the impact of migration on the migrant9s children developmentB generall$ out2eighed the social benefits of labour migration8 Asuch as the impact of remittances on the socio/economic development process in the regions of originL the opportunit$ of transferring skills and tech/ nologies upon returning homeB. +herefore8 policies and measures to reduce the social costs of migration 2ere called for b$ participants. Another issue raised b$ participants of the 2orkshop 2as the increased vulnerabilit$ of migrant 2orkers during the migration c$cle. +his 2as looked at through the e)ample of prevalence rate of :I" in migrant communities. According to participants8 the comparison of prevalence rates bet2een host and sending communities had been seen irrelevant8 as these figures sho2 the re/ alit$ of the sending communities8 2ithout establishing s$stematic links bet2een migration and a higher e)posure to :I". -s. =uko :amada8 #enior egional Labour -igrationK-igration and 7evelopment #pecialist8 e/

I&-8 also reported on the importance of implementing health assessments8 based on the de/ mand formulated b$ most of the developed countries9 governments. +his practice could be seen as a benefit for both the receiving and sending countries.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia


4!3 $it%ation Anal'sis/ Cambodia

In the stock taking session8 participants discussed .ambodia<s current situation regarding re/ gional labour migration management. +he anal$sis began 2ith a Gscaling danceH. +he partici/ pants 2ere asked to define .ambodia<s baseline status regarding the management of cross/ border migration on a regional scale. +hus8 the$ ph$sicall$ positioned themselves on a scale from % to %38 2hich had been marked on the floor of the meeting room A%3 meaning the ideal state and % meaning the absolute oppositeB. +he Nscaling danceN 2as a livel$ e)ercise and gener/ ated man$ responses to the follo2/up Fuestions regarding participants9 assessment of .ambo/ dia9s situation. +he scaling dance 2as follo2ed b$ an interactive presentation b$ 7r. 4aitoon/ pong and -r. .han #ophal from the .ambodia (conomic Association A.(AB. +he assessment provided rich information including the follo2ing0 +he population of .ambodia 2ould start aging b$ *3*!8 considering that a societ$ is aging 2hen the population gets over 63 $ears old. In the .ambodian case in the $ear *3*! this 2ould be more than %3 percent of the entire population. +his characteristic is an advantage in terms of demographic dividend8 2ith the availabilit$ of gro2ing 2orkforceL compared to the population aging situation faced b$ #ingapore8 Dapan or +hailand. +he profile of .ambodian migrants evolved from a ma'orit$ of migrants being refugees A%@!3s/%@@3sB and as$lum/seekers to predominant flo2s of migrant 2orkers for economic reasons A%@@3s8 *333B. .ambodia is a latecomer in the area of labour migration management. +he ,ational 4olic$ on Labour -igration is rather ne2 A*3%3B and failures in its implementation revealed a lack of overall coherence and coordination as 2ell as unclear definitions of responsibilities and mandates. Irregular migration from .ambodia remains an over2helming trend and keeps increasing. eference has been made to a surve$ conducted among 5*6 households in four provinces in .ambodia in *33C Amigrant and non/migrantB8 2hich revealed that most of the migrants there 2ere irregular A@6 percentB. -ostl$8 undocumented migrants tended to face chronic povert$ and migrated to support households.


Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

-ost irregular migrant families have a lo2er economic status than regular migrants and live belo2 the povert$ line. +he causes of irregular migration are manifold8 ranging from chronic povert$8 lack of em/ plo$ment and economic hardship in the communit$ of origin to restrictive immigration poli/ cies in labour/receiving countries and length$8 comple) and e)pensive legal recruitment. +he predominant factor is inabilit$ to afford the cost of legal recruitment. Legal recruitment is e)pensive Aaround >#7 C33 to +hailandB and time/consuming8 informal recruitment takes onl$ a fe2 da$s and reFuires no or fe2 documents. As irregular migration is increasing8 so does the overall trafficking caseload Amen in the fish/ ing industr$8 2omen in the entertainment industr$B. egular labour migrants from .ambodia are estimated accumulativel$ to have been appro)/ imatel$ *38333 up to *33C.

estrictive immigration policies in labour/receiving countries and comple) legal recruitment processes 2ere among the ke$ forces driving 'ob seekers into irregular migration. +hailand displa$s a number of pull factors 2hich make the destination even more attractive than 4hnom 4enh and other ma'or .ambodian urban areas. &n the +hai side8 conflicts of interest at the ground level slo2er labour migration la2 en/ forcement. In addition8 participants discussed the follo2ing ke$ points regarding the barriers and obstacles for a proper implementation of the e)isting -emorandum of >nderstanding A-o>B bet2een +hailand and .ambodia0 4olic$ management at the ministr$ level remains 2eak8 but the issue of labour migration is moving up to the national agenda. ecruitment processes of migrant 2orkers are both uneFual and unfitted to the demand and suppl$ structure on the regional labour market. 4assport issuance in .ambodia is costl$ and time/consuming.

+here is no standard emplo$ment contract or pre/departure training curriculum. Working conditions and access to social services in receiving countries do not compl$ 2ith international standards. In this connection8 the participants recommended that0 1or .ambodia8 passport fees and visa application processing should be revie2ed and an ena/ bling environment for more transparent recruitment processes should be created. &n the +hai side8 opportunities to resort to illegal emplo$ment should be tackled. All costs associated in the process of legalising migrant 2orkers should be minimised b$ all means. Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia 14

4!4 2anaging Cross9+order Labo%r 2igration/ 7he Role of Regional :rame&orks

;%ko (amada# $enior Regional Labo%r 2igration $pecialist# I32# 7hailand After the G#ituation Anal$sis0 .ambodiaH session8 another ke$note presentation 2as held b$ -s. =uko :amada on *anaging +ross' Border ,abour *igration: 1he -ole o( -egional Fra%e/orks. #he reminded the audience that 3 to 5 million people in the region 2ere migrants8 of 2hich 63 percent settled in +hailand. +herefore8 she emphasised that the role of regional frame2orks to manage cross/border labour migration becomes more and more important. +o further underline this point8 -s. :amada sho2ed a countr$/to/ countr$ comparison. #he stated that ne2 regional migration profiles can be observed8 such as increasing flo2s bet2een ,epal and Oatar A4338333 2orkersB8 increas/ ing flo2s to -ala$sia8 Amostl$ domestic 2orkers and female migrantsB. -s. :amada also gave e)amples of national polic$ responses in the field of labour migration management8 such as the case of Bangladesh8 2hich moved from a recruitment process run b$ private emplo$ment agen/ cies to a 5 to 5 ? 5overnment to 5overnment / recruitment process. A ke$ statement made in the presentation 2as that intra/regional migration is e)pected to con/ tinue to increase and intra/regional migration 2ill contribute to regional development. 1ur/ thermore8 though the .oordinated -ekong -inisterial Initiative against +rafficking A.&--I+B and the >nited ,ations Inter/Agenc$ 4ro'ect on :uman +rafficking A>,IA4B led to substantial progress in information sharing on counter/trafficking8 critical gaps remain 2ith regard to the management of such data. #imilar issues are encountered in the field of intra/regional labour migration information sharing. In order to full$ harness the benefits from the A(. and better respond to the subseFuent chal/ lenges8 particular attention needs to be paid on strengthening the registration process and the issuing of identification cards for migrant 2orkers8 enhancing protection and la2 enforcement to promote regular migration8 monitoring and evaluating migration flo2s b$ developing coordi/ nation mechanisms and vigilance taskforces Aimmigration officers8 -oL"+8 ,5&s8 and commu/ nit$ leadersB8 and improving overall governance through pre/departure training8 information packages8 standardisation of training and skills8 access to social services and portabilit$ of bene/ fits8 remittance transfer channels8 and productive returns. -s :amada concluded b$ emphasising the need for coordinated and concerted actions8 as na/ tional policies are not likel$ to solve regional or international challenges in the field of labour migration management. 1* Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

4!* Regional Cooperation on Labo%r 2igration

;%ko (amada# $enior Regional Labo%r 2igration $pecialist# I32# 7hailand 1r! $ra&ooth )aitoonpong# $enior Research :ello&# 71RI# 7hailand

In #ession III on egional .ooperation on Labour -igration8 the facilitators adopted a G.aravanH format to blend participants together for the purpose of an informal brain storming. 1or this8 the room 2as prepared 2ith t2o stations ? called oases. +he first oasis8 ,essons ,earnt (ro% *o0s bet/een 1hailand and 2eighboring +ountries8 2as moderated b$ 7r. 4aitoonpong8 2hereas the second oasis8 -e3ie/ o( Action 4lans under the -egional Fra%e/ork8 2as facilitated b$ -s. :amada. +he participants 2ere divided into t2o 2orking groups AcaravansB 2ho 2orked together throughout the full caravan c$cle. +he e)perts Aoasis o2nerB first introduced the topic and then facilitated a free flo2 of discus/ sions among the participants. After 33 minutes8 participants of the t2o groups s2itched stations. 1ollo2ing the t2o oasis discussions8 the caravan c$cle 2as completed and participants reunited into one group to formulate recommendations based primaril$ on the .aravan discussions. 7r. 4aitoonpong9s presentation on ,essons ,earnt (ro% *50s bet/een 1hailand and 2eighbour' ing +ountries included the follo2ing ke$ points0 +he trends of .L- undocumented migrant 2orkers in +hailand. #tructural causes of +hailand9s registration s$stem failure. A historical perspective on regional cooperation. -o>s9 main principles8 2ith reference to the Bangkok 7eclaration on Irregular -igration. 7escription of the process of importing 2orkers under -o>s. Lessons learnt and results Aassessment of -o> imple/ mentation8 importation and the national verification 4rocess.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

-s. :amada9s presentation on -e3ie/ o( Action 4lans under the -egional Fra%e/ork included the latest developments of the regional regulator$ frame2orks8 including the non/binding agreements8 such as0 +he .olombo process 2hich sets up a coordination mechanism of labour ministers of labour migrant sending countries Aten countries from AsiaB. +he Bali process 2hich sets up a coordination mechanism of la2 enforcement officials to eradicate irregular migration and eliminating trafficking. +he Abu 7habi 7ialogue process 2hich sets up a coordination mechanism of countries of destination A5..B8 established to balance the .olombo process. +he A#(A, Labour -inisters Work 4lan. +he A#(A, 1orum on -igrant Labour8 an annual forum 2hich comprises A#(A, officials8 civil societ$ and ,5&s. +he IL& .onvention %!58 highl$ relevant for .ambodia8 as man$ migrants are emplo$ed in the fisher$ sector. 1rame2orks promoting highl$ skilled migrant 2orker.

$he "olombo process!

$he %ali process!


$he bu 0habi 0ialogue!

http0KK222.gfmd.orgKenKrcpKabu/dhabi http0KK222.iom.intKcmsKenKsitesKiomKhomeK2hat/2e/doKregional/processes/%Krcps/b$/regionKabu/dhabi/dialogue.html

SE 1 *abour +inisters Work Plan!


SE 1 ,orum on +igrant *abour!


2*O "onvention ./3!

http0KK222.ilo.orgKd$nKnormle)KenKfMpQ,& -L(R4>B0%*%330300,&004%*%33PIL&P.&7(0.%!5

Recommended Readings!
Facilitating #a(e ,abor *igration in the 6reater *ekong #ubregion Ab$ A7BK I&-B http0KK222.adb.orgKsitesKdefaultKfilesKpubK*3%3Kfacilitating/safe/labor/migration/gms.pdf 4olicy 5n ,abour *igration For +a%bodia Ab$ -oL"+K IL&B http0KK222.ilo.orgK2cmsp5KgroupsKpublicK///asiaK///ro/bangkokKdocumentsKpublicationK2cmsP%45C34.pdf +ost and Bene(its o( +ross'+ountry ,abour *igration the 6*#0 .ambodia .ountr$ #tud$ Ab$ .7 IB #trategic 1rame2ork and Action 4lan for :uman esource 7evelopment in the 5reater -ekong #ubregion A*3%3?*3%CB Ab$ A7BB http0KK222.adb.orgKsitesKdefaultKfilesKgms/sfap/hrd/*3%3/*3%C.pdf


Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

4! Recommendations for Cambodia

In the closing session on G ecommendations for .ambodiaH8 participants 2ere provided 2ith blank cards. +he$ 2ere given %3 to %5 minutes to 2rite do2n at least one Nke$ recommenda/ tionN. After2ards the facilitators encouraged participants to e)plain their recommendationAsB and clustered them as follo2ed0 .4 $o promote regular migration5 the government5 line ministries5 1&Os5 and civil societies should strengthen the recruitment process and enhance social protection of migrant 6orkers4 %.*. 7espite the fact that a number of policies and regulator$ frame2orks have been established over the last decade to better manage the challenges associated 2ith increasing migration flo2s 2ithin and outside the 5-#8 implementation remains 2eak and inefficient. +hus8 for .ambodia8 the government and other stakeholders should establish concerted and reliable implementation and coordination mechanisms such as the vigilance taskforce instituted in recent $ears in Bang/ ladesh 2hich monitors and assesses migration flo2s and is aimed at promoting and guarantee/ ing the rights of labour migrants. +he taskforce must involve officials and decision makers from line ministries and relevant departments8 including immigration officers8 representatives of the -oL"+8 of the -inistr$ of Women9s Affairs8 as 2ell as communit$ leaders. +he taskforce should be allocated adeFuate po2ers to catch and court offenders and perpetrators8 and sufficient re/ sources to fulfil its mandate. %.3. +he government and stakeholders should improve coordination and establish information sharing mechanisms bet2een e)isting institutions involved in combating counter/trafficking8 under the frame2orks of the .&--I+ and the ,ational .ommittee #ecretariat to Lead the #up/ pression of :uman +rafficking8 #muggling8 Labor ()ploitation8 and #e)ual ()ploitation in Women and .hildren A#+#L#B. %.4. +he participation of sub/national level authorities Aprovincial8 district8 and commune levelsB in the regulator$ frame2ork should be enhanced b$ relevant agencies.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia


%.5. +he government should strengthen or improve protection mechanisms for migrant 2orkers during their sta$ abroad through the appointment of labour attachSs 2ithin the .ambodian em/ bassies and consular established in the receiving countries to enhance the provision of direct services to migrant 2orkers. %.6. +he government should strengthen internal control and monitoring of emplo$ment re/ cruitment agencies8 in compliance 2ith the #ub/decree %@3. It should also establish public re/ cruitment agencies and categorise recruitment processes b$ sectors. It should also attempt8 through appropriate mechanisms8 to transfer the burden of emplo$ment fees from the migrant 2orkers to migrant sending agencies or emplo$ers in receiving countries. %.C. 4assport fees and processing time need to be reduced. +he government should also estab/ lish a net2ork of offices to issue passports both in 4hnom 4enh and in the ke$ provinces. %.!. +he ministries concerned should minimise costs associated 2ith the process of legalising migrant 2orkers Aboth locall$ and overseasB. 74 Supportive programmes for migrant 6orkers can be strengthened through predeparture training5 information5 standardisation of training and skills5 access to social services and portability of benefits5 remittance transfer channels5 and productive return4 *.%. +he government and line ministries should develop literac$ programmes on remittance/ management targeted at female headed households8 train stakeholders from private sectors to develop initiatives and incentives for investment purposesL establish affordable and formal re/ mittance/transfer channels and provide accessible counselling sessions for migrants upon re/ turn to .ambodia. *.*. +he responsible ministries and departments should produce and disseminate in/depth anal$sis on the social costs and benefits of migration and a developed subseFuent plan of action. *.3. +he government should develop sustainable forms and channels for a2areness raising among migrant communities8 through the identification of cost/effective and permanent infor/ mation channels A- .s8 sub/office at the Immigration department8 mediasB8 rather than ad hoc information campaigns. *.4. +he government should produce and disseminate targeted local labour market assessments to identif$ al/ ternative options for prospective migrants Adomesticall$B and identif$ ne2 niches of emplo$ment internationall$. *.5. +he government should develop sustainable tech/ nolog$ transfer mechanisms and promote return of Fualified migrants. 14 Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia

5! Concl%sion
+he 2orkshop stirred a fruitful dialogue on the follo2ing ke$ issues0 A%B developing and strengthening cooperation among stakeholders from relevant line ministries and institutionsK organisations in .ambodia A*B promoting the capacit$ of .ambodia to assess and manage labour migration on a regional scale and A3B reaching a common understanding8 among .ambodian stakeholders8 of social aspects of regional integration. It assembled participants from relevant line ministries8 research institutions and non/government institutions. 4articipants activel$ contributed to the discussion on causes for and conseFuences of illegal labour migration as 2ell as on possible solutions to labour migration problems in .ambodia. +he 2orkshop achieved its goal of mapping the status Fuo and developing concrete and realistic steps for future action. It resulted in a number of sensible recommendations for .ambodia primaril$ aimed at providing social protection for migrant 2orkers from .ambodia.

Regional Economic Cooperation and Integration in Asia


Asian De3elo&%ent Bank (2006a)0 G egional .ooperation and Integration #trateg$H8 -anila8 4hilippines0 Asian 7evelopment Bank8 *336. Asian De3elo&%ent Bank (2006b)0 G egional .ooperation and Integration in AsiaH8 Background 4aper for the Asia *3%5 .onference8 -anila8 4hilippines0 Asian 7evelopment Bank8 *336. Asian De3elo&%ent Bank (20 !a)0 G egional .ooperation and Integration in a .hanging WorldH8 -andalu$ong .it$8 4hilippines0 Asian 7evelopment Bank8 *3%3. Asian De3elo&%ent Bank (20 !b)0 G1acilitating #afe Labor -igration in the 5reater -ekong #ubregion Issues8 .hallenges8 and 1or2ard/Looking InterventionsH8 -andalu$ong .it$8 4hilippines0 Asian 7evelopment Bank8 *3%3. World Bank (20 !)0 G7ata8 574 Acurrent >#TBH8 online cited -a$ *3%38 available from0 http0KKdata.2orldbank.orgKindicatorK,=.574.4.A4.E7MorderQ2bapiPdataPvalueP*3%%U 2bapiPdataPvalueU2bapiPdataPvalue/lastVsortQdesc.


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