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Dante's expidition Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem

Divine Comedy. It is followed by Purgatorio and Paradiso. It is an al legory telling of the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the Roman poet Vi rgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine circles of suffering located within the Earth. Allegorically, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul t owards God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin.[1] \par \par The poem starts on the day before Good Friday in the year 1300. The narrator, Da nte himself, is thirty-five years old, and thus "halfway along our life's path" (Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita)\emdash half of the Biblical life expectanc y of seventy (Psalms 89:10, Vulgate). The poet finds himself lost in a dark wood in front of a mountain, assailed by three beasts (a lion, a lonza [usually rend ered as "leopard" or "leopon"],[2] and a she-wolf) he cannot evade. Unable to fi nd the "straight way" (diritta via, also translatable as "right way") to salvati on, he is conscious that he is ruining himself and falling into a "deep place" ( basso loco) where the sun is silent (l sol tace). Dante is at last rescued by th e Roman poet Virgil, who claims to have been sent by Beatrice, and the two of th em begin their journey to the underworld. Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a contrapasso, a symbolic instance of poetic justice; for example, fortune-tellers have to walk forward with their heads on backward, unable to see what is ahead, because they tried, through forbidden means, to look ahead to the future in lif e. Such a contrapasso "functions not merely as a form of divine revenge, but rat her as the fulfilment of a destiny freely chosen by each soul during his or her life."[3]\par Dante passes through the gate of Hell, which bears an inscription, the ninth (an d final) line of which is the famous phrase "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intr ate", or "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here."[4]\par Before entering Hell completely, Dante and his guide see the Uncommitted, souls of people who in life did nothing, neither for good nor evil; among these Dante recognizes either Pope Celestine V or Pontius Pilate (the text is ambiguous). Mi xed with them are outcasts who took no side in the Rebellion of Angels. These so uls are neither in Hell nor out of it, but reside on the shores of the Acheron, their punishment to eternally pursue a banner (i.e. self interest) while pursued by wasps and hornets that continually sting them as maggots and other such inse cts drink their blood and tears. This symbolizes the sting of their conscience a nd the repugnance of sin. This can also be seen as a reflection of the spiritual stagnation they lived in. As with the Purgatorio and Paradiso, the Inferno has a structure of 9+1=10, with this "vestibule" different in nature from the nine c ircles of Hell, and separated from them by the Acheron.\par After passing through the "vestibule," Dante and Virgil reach the ferry that wil l take them across the river Acheron and to Hell proper. The ferry is piloted by Charon, who does not want to let Dante enter, for he is a living being. Virgil forces Charon to take him by means of another famous line: Vuolsi cos\'ec col\'e 0 dove si puote, which translates to "So it is wanted there where the power lies ," referring to the fact that Dante is on his journey on divine grounds. The wai ling and blasphemy of the damned souls entering Charon's boat contrast with the joyful singing of the blessed souls arriving by ferry in the Purgatorio. However , the actual passage across the Acheron is undescribed since Dante faints and do es not wake up until he is on the other side.\par Virgil then guides Dante through the nine circles of Hell. The circles are conce ntric, representing a gradual increase in wickedness, and culminating at the cen tre of the earth, where Satan is held in bondage. Each circle's sinners are puni shed in a fashion fitting their crimes: each sinner is afflicted for all of eter nity by the chief sin he committed. People who sinned but prayed for forgiveness before their deaths are found not in Hell but in Purgatory, where they labour t o be free of their sins. Those in Hell are people who tried to justify their sin

s and are unrepentant.\par Allegorically, the Inferno represents the Christian soul seeing sin for what it really is. What the three beasts may represent has been the subject of much cont roversy over the centuries, but one suggestion is that they represent three type s of sin: the self-indulgent, the violent, and the malicious.[5] These three typ es of sin also provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: Upper Hell (the first 5 Circles) for the self-indulgent sins, Circles 6 and 7 for the violent s ins, and Circles 8 and 9 for the malicious sins.\par \par The nine circles of Hell\par \par First Circle (Limbo)\par In Limbo reside the unbaptized and the virtuous pagans, who, though not sinful, did not accept Christ. Limbo shares many characteristics with the Asphodel Meado ws; thus the guiltless damned are punished by living in a deficient form of Heav en. Without baptism ("the portal of the faith that you embrace")[6] they lacked the hope for something greater than rational minds can conceive. Limbo includes green fields and a castle with seven gates to represent the seven virtues. The c astle is the dwelling place of the wisest men of antiquity, including Virgil him self, as well as the Persian polymath Avicenna. In the castle Dante meets the po ets Homer, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan; the Amazon queen Penthesilea; the mathematic ian Euclid; the scientist Pedanius Dioscorides; the statesman Cicero; the first doctor Hippocrates; the philosophers Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Averroes; t he historical figures Lucretia, Lucius Junius Brutus, and Julius Caesar in his r ole as Roman general ("in his armor, falcon-eyed");[7] mythological characters H ector, Electra, Camilla, Latinus, and Orpheus; and many others. Interestingly, h e also sees Saladin in Limbo (Canto IV). Dante implies that all virtuous non-Chr istians find themselves here, although he later encounters two (Cato of Utica an d Statius) in Purgatory and two (Trajan and Ripheus) in Heaven.\par Beyond the first circle, all of those condemned for active, deliberately willed sin are judged to one of the lower eight circles by the serpentine Minos. Minos initially hinders the poets' passage, until rebuked by Virgil. Minos sentences e ach soul by wrapping his tail around himself a corresponding number of times. Th e lower circles are structured according to the classical (Aristotelian) concept ion of virtue and vice, so that they are grouped into the sins of wantonness, vi olence, and fraud (which for many commentators are represented by the leopard, l ion, and she-wolf).[8] The sins of wantonness \endash weakness in controlling o ne's desires and natural urges \endash are the mildest among them, and, corresp ondingly, appear first, while the sins of violence and fraud appear lower down.\ par \par Second Circle (Lust)\par In the second circle of Hell are those overcome by lust. Dante condemns these "c arnal malefactors"[9] for letting their appetites sway their reason. They are th e first ones to be truly punished in Hell. These souls are blown back and forth by the terrible winds of a violent storm, without rest. This symbolizes the powe r of lust to blow one about needlessly and aimlessly.\par In this circle, Dante sees Semiramis, Dido, Cleopatra, Helen of Troy, Achilles, Paris, Tristan, and many others who were overcome by sensual love during their l ife. Dante is told by Francesca da Rimini how she and her husband's brother Paol o Malatesta committed adultery, but then died a violent death, in the name of Lo ve, at the hands of her husband, Giovanni (Gianciotto). Francesca reports that t heir act of adultery was triggered by reading the adulterous story of Lancelot a nd Guinevere (an episode sculpted by Auguste Rodin in The Kiss). Nevertheless, s he predicts that her husband will be punished for his fratricide in Caina, withi n the ninth circle (Canto V).\par The English poet John Keats, in his sonnet "On a Dream," imagines what Dante doe s not give us, the point of view of Paolo:\par ... But to that second circle of sad hell,\par Where \lquote mid the gust, the whirlwind, and the flaw\par

they used their chests to push. wheeling back those weights."[11] The gluttons lie here sightless and heedless of their neighbors. about that melancholy storm. to which Dante belonged.[10]\par \par Third Circle (Gluttony)\par The "great worm" Cerberus guards the gluttons. since both groups are so absorbed in their activity that Virgil tells Dante that it would be pointless to try to speak to them \endash indeed. here the slush reveals the true natur e of sensuality \endash which includes not only overindulgence in food and drin k. Dorothy L. Argenti took all his property. Dante converses with a Florentine contemporary identified as Cia cco. which means "hog."[13] A character with the same nickname later appears in The Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio. The two groups are guarded by a figure Dante names as Pluto. Literally. lovers need not tell\par Their sorrows. and the sullen lie gurgling beneath the water. and fair the form\par I floated with.\par The lower parts of Hell are contained within the walls of the city of Dis.\par Pale were the lips I kiss\rquote d. but also other kinds of addiction. and later plunges them into poverty."[20] Phlegyas rel uctantly transports Dante and Virgil across the Styx in his skiff. a Black Guelph from a prominent family. either Pluto the classical ruler of the underworld or Plutus the Greek god of wealth[16] (who uses the cryptic phrase Pap\'e9 Sat\'e0n. after the date in which the poem is set. at that point. may you long remain. and the prodigal. symbolizing the cold. the wrathful fight each other on the surface. but allegorically.[12]\par In this circle. Pale were the sweet lips I saw. and popes and cardinals"). their howls were loud\par while. icy rain (Virgil obtains safe passage past the monster by filling its three mouths with mud)."[21] Virgil blesses him. an d been rendered "unrecognizable"[19] (Canto VII). they have lost their individuality. and which led to Dante's own exile.[11] Just as lust has revealed its true n ature in the winds of the previous circle. and empty sensuality of their lives. it reflects Dante 's beginning awareness of his own sin[22] (Cantos VII and VIII). This event occurred in 1302 . forced to lie in a vile slush pro duced by ceaseless foul.[15] who hoarded possessions. clan to clan. as she shifts "those empty goods from nation unto nation. In her notes on this circle. who squandered them. which . They include the avaricious or miserly (includi ng many "clergymen. who raises nations to greatness.Of rain and hail-stones. pap\'e9 Sat\'e0n aleppe).\par cried out: Why do you hoard? Why do you squander?[17]\par The contrast between these two groups leads Virgil to discourse on the nature of Fortune.[14] Ciacco speaks to Dante regarding strife in Florence between the "White" and "Black" Guelphs. selfis h. On the way th ey are accosted by Filippo Argenti. S ayers writes that "the surrender to sin which began with mutual indulgence leads by an imperceptible degradation to solitary self-indulgence. accursed spirit."[18] Thi s speech fills what would otherwise be a gap in the poem.\par \par Fifth Circle (Anger)\par In the swamp-like water of the river Styx. Ciacco "predicts" the expulsion of the White party. withdrawn "into a black sulkiness which can find no joy in God or man or the universe.\par They struck against each other. The two groups joust. but before the poem was written[13] ( Canto VI)\par \par Fourth Circle (Greed)\par Those whose attitude toward material goods deviated from the appropriate mean ar e punished in the fourth circle. but Virgil protects Dante from him. wheeling weights. When Dante r esponds "In weeping and in grieving. usin g as weapons great weights which they push with their chests:\par \'85 I saw multitudes\par to every side of me. When Dante was forced to leave Florence. this reflects the fact that souls in Hell are ete rnally fixed in the state they have chosen. In one of a number of prop hecies in the poem.\par each turned around and.

to be punished in the next circle. Guy de Montfort. shallowest stretch of the river (Canto XII). Dante breaks a twig off one of the bushes and from the broken. Consequently. Virgil also mentions to Dante how Erichtho sent him down t o the lowest circle of Hell to bring back a spirit from there. The c entaur Nessus guides the poets along Phlegethon and across a ford in the widest.[22] (Cantos VIII and IX).\par for men to make their way. is therefor e an offence against both:[25]\par From these two. Emperor Frederick II. in which violent a nd malicious sins are punished. An angel se nt from Heaven secures entry for the poets. In particular.\par Pausing for a moment before the steep descent to the foul-smelling seventh circl e. The walls of Dis are guarded by fallen angels. to gain their living. it is fitting.\par if you recall how Genesis begins. Heretics. Ezzelino III da Romano. he refers to the Nicomachea n Ethics and the Physics of Aristotle (Canto XI). who comm itted suicide after falling out of favour with Emperor Frederick II (his presenc . he asserts that there are only two legitimate sources of wealth: natural resources ("nature") a nd human activity ("art"). and Dante is threatened by t he Furies (consisting of Alecto. and rebukes those who opposed Dante. Dante holds discourse with a pair of Epicurian Florentines in one of the tombs: Farinata degli Uberti. he scorns both nature in herself\par and art her follower. not from any observation of the present.\par \par Sixth Circle (Heresy)\par In the sixth circle. a Ghibelline (posthumously condemned for heresy in 1283). meaning he might be refe rring to a different Alexander. who was the father of Dante's friend and fellow poet Guido Cavalcanti. and Tisiphone) and Medusa.\par In response to a question from Dante about the "prophecy" he has received. Rinier da Corneto. Megaera. and Pope Anastasius II. and Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Allegorically. shooting arrows into any sinners who emerge higher out of the river than each is allowed. art and nature. The suicides \endash th e violent against self \endash are transformed into gnarled thorny bushes and t rees and then fed upon by Harpies. a Gu elph.[27]\par \par Middle ring: In this ring are suicides and profligates. patrol the ring. and Rini er Pazzo are also seen in the Phlegethon as well as references to Atilla the Hun . his hope is elsewhere. Virgil explains the geography and rationale of Lower Hell. althou gh Dante praises Alexander at other points in the poem. such as Epicureans (who say "the soul dies with t he body")[23] are trapped in flaming tombs. Usury. Azzolino da Romano. to a level commensu rate with their sins: Alexander the Great is immersed up to his eyebrows. The Centaurs. Its entry is guarded by the Minotaur. This passage may have been influen ced by the early medieval Visio Karoli Grossi. a river of boiling blood and fire. Obizzo d'Este. this reveals the fa ct that the poem is beginning to deal with sins that philosophy and humanism can not fully understand. Also seen here are Epicurus. Virgil is unable to convince them to let Dante and him enter.is itself surrounded by the Stygian marsh. Farin ata explains that what the souls in Hell know of life on earth comes from seeing the future."[24] it will no longer be possible for them to know anything. and it is divided into three rings:\par Outer ring: This ring houses the violent against people and property. when "the po rtal of the future has been shut. commanded by Chiron and Pholus.\par and since the usurer prefers another\par pathway.[26]\par \par Seventh Circle (Violence)\par The seventh circle houses the violent. In this explanation. bleeding branch hears the tale of Pietro della Vigne. The political affiliation of these two men allows for a further discussion of Flore ntine politics (Canto X). Dionysius I of Syracuse. Sinners ar e immersed in Phlegethon. opening the gate by touching it with a wand. Punished within Dis are active (rath er than passive) sins.

They are perpetually c hased and mauled by ferocious dogs. Brunetto Latini.[28] Also here are Lano da Siena and Ja copo da Sant' Andrea. unique among the dead. the usurers sit. Virgil points out Jason. but "abandoned her.[29] Dante learns that these suicides. with the furry paws of a lion and a poisonous sting in t he pointy scorpion-like tail[34] (Canto XVII). This circle is divided into ten Bolgie. The other residents of this ring are the profligates. All reside in a desert of flaming sand with fiery flakes raining from the sky. will not be corporally resurrected after the final judgement since they gave aw ay their bodies through suicide. The trees are a metaphor for the state of mind in which su icide is committed. they are themselves driven by demons to march for all eternity. who cannot move out of the way (Canto XIII).[30] thus refuting suggestions that Dante only placed his enemies in Hell. rather than in the ninth circle. my gratitude for that / must always be apparent in my words").\par The fraudulent \endash those guilty of deliberate. purses which "their eyes seemed to feast upon"[32] (Cantos XIV through XVII). Dante describes Gery on as having three mixed natures: human. One of them is Dante's mentor.e here. which Dante an d Virgil do on the back of Geryon.\par \par Bolgia 2: Flatterers also exploited other people. who sold his own sister to the Marchese d'Este. The destruction wrought upon the wood by the profligates' flight and punishment as they crash through the undergrowth causes further suffering to the suicides.[35] In the gro up of panderers. a winged monster traditionally represented as having three heads or three conjoined bodies. \par \par Inner ring: Here are the violent against God (blasphemers) and the violent again st nature (sodomites and. a politician. usurers). the poets notice Venedico Caccianemico.e. In the group of seducers. this time using language.[35] Just as the pand erers and seducers used the passions of others to drive them to do their bidding . knowing evil \endash are lo cated in a circle named Malebolge ("Evil Pockets"). indicates that Dante believes that the accusations made against him were false).. Dante converses with two Florentine sodomites from differe nt groups. These circles can be reached only by descending a vast cliff.[33] Dante's Ger yon is an image of fraud. with bridges spanning the ditches:\par \par Bolgia 1: Panderers and seducers march in separate lines in opposite directions. and the Paduans Reginaldo degli Scrovegni and Vitaliano di Iacopo Vitaliani. and reptilian. a fate simi lar to Sodom and Gomorrah. and Giovanni di Buiamonte. They .[31] The other sodomite is Iacopo Rusticucci. The blasphemers lie on the sand. or ditches of stone. wi th their own corpses hanging from the thorny limbs. They are i dentified not primarily by name but by heraldic devices emblazoned on the purses around their necks. Iacopo Rusticucci. who gained the help of Medea by seducing and marrying her only to later desert her f or Creusa. who for blasphemy against Zeus was struck down with a thunderbolt during the Siege of Thebes. Dante sees the classical warrior Capaneus there.\par \par Eighth Circle (Fraud)\par \par The last two circles of Hell punish sins that involve conscious fraud or treache ry. who blames his wife for his fate. alone and pregn ant"[36] (Canto XVIII). Those puni shed here for usury include the Florentines Catello di Rosso Gianfigliazzi. Guid o Guerra. bestial. / and while I live. Ciappo Ubriachi. instead they will maintain their bushy form. and the sodomites wander about in groups. who destroyed their lives by destroying the means by w hich life is sustained \endash i. whipped by demons (here Dante makes reference to a recent traffic rule develope d for the Jubilee year of 1300 in Rome: keep to the right).[33] However.[35] Jason also seduced Hypsipyle. as explained in the sixth circle. having the face of an honest man on the body of a beau tifully colored wyvern. money and property. Dante is very surpris ed and touched by this encounter and shows Brunetto great respect for what he ha s taught him ("you taught me how man makes himself eternal.

The simile o f baptismal fonts gives Dante an incidental opportunity to clear his name of an accusation of malicious damage to the font in the church of San Giovanni dei Fio rentini[38] (Canto XIX). Buoso exchanges shapes with the four-le gged Francesco: "The soul that had become an animal. Malacoda ("Evil Tail"). Vanni Fucci is turned to ashes and resurrected. the high priest responsible for ordering Jesus crucified."[39] While referring primaril y to attempts to see into the future by forbidden means. The promise of safe conduct the poets recei ved from the demons turns out to have limited value (and there is no "next bridg e").\par \par Bolgia 3: Dante now forcefully expresses[37] his condemnation of those who commi tted simony. One of the simoniacs.\par \par Bolgia 8: Two further cantos are devoted to fraudulent advisers or evil counsell .\par \par Bolgia 5: Corrupt politicians (barrators) are immersed in a lake of boiling pitc h. / now hissing. with flames burning on the soles of their feet. and false prophets here have their heads twist ed around on their bodies backward. among others (Canto XX).are steeped in human excrement."[42] The leader of the Malebranche. which represents the words they produced. They are guarded by devils called the Malebranche ("Evi l Claws").[43] Dante speaks with Catalano and Loderin go. The full horror of the thieves' punishment is revealed gradually: j ust as they stole other people's substance in life. which represent the falsity behind the surface appearance of their actions \endash falsity that weighs them down and makes sp iritual progress impossible for them. Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Clement V. Those who committed simony are placed head-first in holes in the ro ck (resembling baptismal fonts). Cacus was not a centaur but a monstrous fire-b reathing giant slain by Heracles). Dante sees Amphiaraus. and Guido Bonatti. assigns a troop to escort Virgil and Dante safely to the next bridge. the poets find the hypocrites listlessly walking along wearing gilded lead cloaks. and Dante devotes several cantos to them. the sign for their march is provided by a fart: "and he ha d made a trumpet of his ass. Simon Magus. for the same offence. who offered gold in exchange for holy power to Saint Peter. who names some Italian grafters and then tricks the Malebranche in order to escape back into the pitch. The thieves are pursued and bitten by snakes and lizards. Agnello is blended wit h the six-legged reptile that is Cianfa. / because they could not see ahead of them. hurried off along the valley. Pope Nicholas III. T he troop hook and torment one of the sinners (identified by early commentators a s Ciampolo). an order that had acquired a reputation fo r not living up to its vows[43] and was eventually suppressed by Pope Sixtus V. Tiresias (whose double transformation is also referenced). who has a fire-breathing dragon on his shoulders and snakes covering his equine back (in Roman mythology. Aruns. denounces two of his successors. is also seen here. so that they "found it necessary to walk bac kward. Caiaphas. Aless io Interminei of Lucca and Tha\'efs are seen here. They are guarded by the centaur Cacus.[ 41] The barrators are the political analogue of the simoniacs. behind him.[43] so the poets are forced to scramble down into the sixth Bolgia (Cantos XXI through XXIII). their very identity becomes subject to theft here. Michael Scot. speaks and spits"[45] (Cantos XXI V and XXV). Alberto de Casalodi. two members of the Jovial Friars.[44] and the snake bites make them undergo various transfo rmations. who provide some savage and satirical black comedy \endash in the la st line of Canto XXI. which represents the sticky fingers and dark secrets of their corrupt deals.\par \par Bolgia 6: In the sixth Bolgia. astrologers. this also symbolises th e twisted nature of magic in general.\par \par Bolgia 7: Two cantos are devoted to the thieves. Tiresias' daughter M anto. crucified to the ground and trampled (Canto XXIII). / the other one. is also seen here.[35] (Canto XVIII).\par \par Bolgia 4: Sorcerers.[40] In this Bolgia.

Briareus. In this Bolgia. and every identity a lie"[50] so that every aspect of social i nteraction has been progressively destroyed (Cantos XXIX and XXX). who are concealed within individual flames. dividing parts of their bodies as in life they divided others. Ulysses also mentions of his encounter with C irce. various sorts of falsifiers (alchemists. with each group encase d in ice to progressively greater depths. as a punishment for (Dante believes) fomenting the rebellion of Henry the Youn g King against his father Henry II (Cantos XXVIII and XXIX)." Guido da Montefeltro recounts how he advi sed Pope Boniface VIII to capture the fortress of Palestrina. betrayal of community ties.\par \par Bolgia 10: In the final Bolgia. and impostors) \endash who are a "disease" on society \enda sh are themselves afflicted with different types of diseases.\par In Sayers's notes on her translation. who carries around his severed head like a lantern (a lit eral representation of allowing himself to detach his intelligence from himself) . and similarly Dante seems to co ndemn Ali for schism between Sunni and Shiite . and Typhon. The giant Antaeus (being the only giant unbound w ith chains) lowers Dante and Virgil into the pit that forms the ninth circle of Hell (Canto XXXI). Myrrha suffers from madness for disguising herself to commit incest with her father King Theias. who tells him to warn the schismatic and he retic Fra Dolcino.[50] Potiphar's wi fe is briefly mentioned for her false accusation of Joseph. These rounds correspond. Dante points out the invalidity of that.[48][49] apparently viewing Islam as an off-shoot from Christianity. the very money is itself corrupted. only to have a de mon assert prior claim. who perhap s symbolize pride and other spiritual flaws lying behind acts of treachery. These are not people who gave f alse advice. a nd betrayal of liege lords. Dante encounters Muhammad.[51] The giants are standing on a ledge above the ninth circle of Hell.[48] As they make their rounds the wounds heal. Ulysses tells the tale of his fatal final voyage (Dante's invention) whe re he left his home and family to sail to the end of the Earth only to have his ship founder near Mount Purgatory. stating that she "beguiled him.[52] so that f rom the Malebolge they are visible from the waist up. perjurers. a sword-wielding demon hacks at the Sowers of Dis cord. There are four concentric zones (or "rounds") of traitors.ors. Gianni Schicchi is a 'rabid goblin' for forging the wi ll of Dante's relative Buoso Donati. and a man cannot be contrite for a sin at the same time that he is i ntending to commit it[47] (Cantos XXVI and XXVII). They include Nimrod. since absolution requires contrition. in order of seriousnes s.\par \par Bolgia 9: In the ninth Bolgia. and went on to the sale of Church and State. only to have the demon tear apart their bodi es again. counter feiters. t he traitors are frozen in a lake of ice known as Cocytus. Sinon is here rather than in Bolgia 8 because his advice w as false as well as evil. The Achaean spy Sino n suffers from a burning fever for tricking the Trojans into taking the Trojan H orse into their city. In contrast to the popular image of Hell as fiery. Dante also encou nters Bertran de Born. Although Boniface had absolved Guido in advance for his evil advice. Francis came to take his soul to Heaven because of Guido's subsequent joining of the Franciscan order.\par The traitors are distinguished from the "merely" fraudulent in that their acts i nvolve betraying a special relationship of some kind. Dante describes Muhammad as a schismatic. Ephia ltes (who with his brother Otus tried to storm Olympus during the Gigantomachy).\par \par . but people who used their position to advise others to engage in fr aud. Guido describes how St. to betrayal of family ties.\par \par Ninth Circle (Treachery)\par The ninth and last circle is ringed by classical and Biblical giants. Tityos.[46] Ulysses and Diomedes are condemned here for the deception of the Trojan Horse. betrayal of guests. by offering the Co lonna family inside it a false amnesty and then razing it to the ground after th ey surrendered. she remarks that the descent through Maleb olge "began with the sale of the sexual relationship. every affirmation ha s become perjury. now.

is one of the traitors here: "him who. explains that sometimes a soul falls here before Atropos cuts the thread of life. weeping tears from his six eyes. betrayed his city to the Greeks. link this passage to the story of Paolo and Francesca in the second circle. and beating his six wings as if trying to escape. is Satan. who according to medieval trad ition. after Antenor of Troy. represented the destruc tion of a unified Italy and the killing of the man who was divinely appointed to govern the world. one black. Judas is receiving the most horr ifying torture of the three traitors: his head gnawed by Satan's mouth. just above\par the midpoint of each shoulder. A number of correspondence s. since the relationship to guests is an entirely voluntary one. descending. son of Abubus. such as allusions to the same passage of the Aeneid. one red. at one blow. Satan is described as a giant. most vicious mouth is Judas Iscariot. and loving nature of God. who killed his brother. exce pt for their faces. to Dante. They pass through the centre of the earth (with a consequent change in the direction of gravity.\par In the very centre of Hell. Traitors to kindr ed are here immersed in the ice up to their faces \endash "the place / where sh ame can show itself"[53] Mordred. Brutus and Cassius are feet-first in the left and right mouths respectively.[58] In the central.[55] indicating that this icy hell of betrayal is the final result of consent to sin[55] (Cantos XXXII and XX XIII). cities.\par the left in its appearance was like those\par who come from where the Nile. distorted in all conceivable positions . Dante and Virgil quickly move on to the centre of Hell (Canto XXXIV). the namesake of Round 4 and the betrayer of Jesus. Their bodies on Earth a re immediately possessed by a demon.\par \par Round 2 is named Antenora.[56] Fra Alberigo. The pair emerge in the other hemisphere (described in the Purgatorio) just before dawn on Easter Su .[55] Traitors to their guests are punished here. such as parties. after Judas Iscariot. all-knowing. or countries. and full of hate. somewhat white.\par the right looked somewhat yellow. With no one to talk to here. Each face has a mouth that chews on a prominent traitor. who attacked his uncle/father King Arthur. and his back being forever skinned by Satan's claws. Count Ugolino pauses from gnawi ng on the head of his former partner-in-crime Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini to describe how Ruggieri turned against him after an accidental death of Ruggie ri's illegitimate son during a riot and had him imprisoned along with his sons a nd grandsons. in contrast to the all-pow erful.[58]\par The two poets escape Hell by climbing down Satan's ragged fur. which covers them. for their involvement in the assassi nation of Julius Caesar \endash an act which. after Cain. Biblical betrayer of Christ. All of the sinners punished w ithin are completely encapsulated in ice. who had armed soldiers kill his brother at a banquet. are located here. flows. and one a pale yellow:\par he had three faces: one in front bloodred.[57]\par Satan is waist deep in ice. ignorant. all three were reattached. Traitors to political entities. who invited S imon Maccabaeus and his sons to a banquet and then killed them. terrifying beas t with three faces.Round 1 is named Ca\'efna. joined the first. so what seems to be a walking man has reach ed the stage of being incapable of repentance (Canto XXXIII). condemning them to death by starvation. although the icy wind that emanates only further ensures his imprisonment (as well as that of the others in the ring). lying supine in the ice. Her e are the traitors to their lords and benefactors. What is seen here is an inverted tr inity: Satan is impotent. probably after Ptolemy.\par and then another two that. condemned for committing the ultimate sin (personal treachery against God).\par and at the crown. causing Dante to at first think they are returning to Hell).\par \par Round 4 is named Judecca. had chest and shadow / shattere d by Arthur's hand"[54] (Canto XXXII).\par \par Round 3 is named Ptolomaea. They are punished more severely than the previous traitors.

or the disordered love of good things. and from the Ganges. It is an allegory telling of the climb of Dante up the Moun t of Purgatory. was crea ted by a displacement of rock. The poem was written in the early 14th century. Purgatory is depicted as a mountain in the Southern Hemisphere. the altered position of the sun. singing In exitu Israel de Aegypto[4] (Canto II)."[2]\par Allegorically. and in describing the climb Dant e discusses the nature of sin. Dante and Virgil meet Cato. the poem represents the Christian life.\par let dead Poesy here rise again. The mountain is an island.\par And to ascend to heaven becometh worthy. Dante discusses the different stars visible in t he southern hemisphere. Da nte describes Hell as existing underneath Jerusalem. they also meet two main categories of souls whose pe . and preceding the Paradiso.[7][8] During the poem. or deficient love.[3] In a co ntrast to Charon's ferry across the Acheron in the Inferno."[9]\par \par At the shores of Purgatory. Allegor ically.\par \par Having survived the depths of Hell (described in the Inferno). Christian souls here arrive escorted by an angel. In his Letter to Cangrande. as Aurora aged. guided by the Roman poet Virgil. above the shore that I had reached. th erefore. the Purgatorio represents the penitent Christian life. On the lower slopes (designated as "Ante-P urgatory" by commentators). it is Easter Sunday when Dante and Virgil arrive. to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of th e world. created by the impact of Sa tan's fall. and the various timezon es of the Earth. The poem outlines a theory that all sin arises from love \endash either perverted love directed towards others' harm.\par \par so that. since that I am yours.[6]\par The Purgatorio is notable for demonstrating the medieval knowledge of a spherica l Earth.\par \par \par \par Purgatorio (Italian for "Purgatory") is the second part of Dante's Divine Comedy .nday. a pagan who has been pla ced by God as the general guardian of the approach to the mountain (his symbolic significance has been much debated). and moral issues in politics and in the Church. Mount Purgatory. At this stage it is. becoming orange. when the length\par of dark defeats the day. circling opposite the sun.\par the fair Aurora's white and scarlet cheeks\par were. midnight on the River Ganges (with the constellation Libra overhead there). sunset at Jerusalem. Dante says. following the Inferno.\par O holy Muses. the only land in the Southern Hemisphere. was moving\par together with the Scales that."[5] Appropriately. as he did in Can to II of the Inferno:\par "And of that second kingdom will I sing\par Wherein the human spirit doth purge itself. beneath a sky studded with stars (Canto XXXIV). on exactly the opposite side of the world. seven levels of suffering and spiritual growth (associated w ith the seven deadly sins).\par \par night. In the poem. and finally the Earthly Paradise at the top.[1] Dante announces his intention to describe Purgatory by invoking the mythical Muses. except for the last four cantos at which point Beatrice takes over as Dante's guide. desert night's hands. Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom. examples of vice and virtue. Dante explains that this reference to Israel leaving Egypt refers both to the redemption of Christ and to "the conversion of the sou l from the sorrow and misery of sin to the state of grace. consisting of a bottom sectio n (Ante-Purgatory). and dawn in P urgatory:\par "By now the sun was crossing the horizon\par of the meridian whose highest point\par covers Jerusalem. caused by the same event.

rather than actions.\par Siena made. Dante's beautiful description of evening in this valley was the inspiration for a similar passage in Byron's Don Juan:[12]\par \par Waking from a dream. Peter's Gate. since (as a resident of Limbo) Virgil is less qualified as a guide here than he was in Hell.\par Since the sun is setting.[18] The core of th e classification is based on love: the first three terraces of Purgatory relate to perverted love directed towards actual harm of others. he bows down to him in hon our. the sun represents God. Dante a lso speaks with the souls of contemporary Italian statesmen Currado Malaspina an d Nino Visconti. . These correspond to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness. When Sordello discovers the great poet's identity. whom Dante is relieved to discover her e. Nello della Pietra of the Maremma (Canto V):\par "may you remember me. knows that. rather than from classical sources. when we were wed. one of the "P"s will be erased by t he angel granting passage to the next terrace.\par I need not grieve for you. The angel at Peter's Gate uses tw o keys.. sin) seven times on Dan te's forehead. Dante and his companions stop for the night in a beaut iful valley where they meet persons whose preoccupation with public and private duties hampered their spiritual progress. black (the colour of mourning. as nuptial ring. his gem. Maremma unmade me:\par he who. silver (remorse) and gold (reconciliation) to open the gate \endash bot h are necessary for redemption and salvation. is from Mantu a. "[16] The classification of sin here is more psychological than that of the Infe rno. This gate has three steps: polished white (reflecting the purity o f the penitent's true self)."[15] With the passage of each terrace and the corresponding purg ation of his soul that the pilgrim receives. particularly deceased monarchs such as Rudolph.. is guarded by an angel who uses the point o f his sword to draw the letter "P" (signifying peccatum. This helps keep Virgil in the foreground of the poem. who was murdere d by her husband."[10]\par Those not receiving last rites include Pia de' Tolomei of Siena. Virgil guides the pilgrim Dante through its seven te rraces. but must wait outside for an amount of tim e equal to their lives on earth. These souls will be admitted to Purgator y thanks to their genuine repentance. like Virgil.\par As night approaches.[13]\par \par The seven terraces of Purgatory\par \par From the gate of Purgatory. The former are detained here for a period thirty times as long as thei r period of contumacy. and Henry III (Cantos VII and VIII). Philip the Bold.[17] It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology.nitent Christian life was delayed or deficient: the excommunicate and the late r epentant. and red (symbolising the blood of Christ and the restora tion of true life)[13][14] (Canto IX). rather than in Hell (Canto IV):\par ". cracked in the shape of a Christian cross). gave me his pledge\par and then. Allegorica lly. the latter being a personal friend whom Dante rejoices at not h aving found among the damned. The lazy include Belacq ua (possibly a deceased friend of Dante). Belacqua. bidding him "take heed that thou wash / These wounds.[3] As a resident of Purgatory. Ottokar. as a result of violent deaths. From this time on. the fourth terrace rel . being based on motives.\par The gate of Purgatory. Sordello is able to explain the Rule of the Mountain: tha t after sunset souls are literally incapable of climbing any further. Dante finds that he has been carried up to the gate of Purg atory proper. who am La Pia. when thou s halt be within. and those who repented at the last minute without formally receiving las t rites. The latter includes those too lazy or too preoccupied to repent. meaning that progress in the penitent Christian lif e can only be made through Divine Grace[3] (Cantos VI to VII)."[11]\par Also in this category is the troubadour Sordello who.\par The excommunicate include Manfred of Sicily (Canto III). the souls sing the Compline hymns Salve Regina and Te lucis ante terminum.

but will only do so when they have correct ed the flaw within themselves that led to committing that sin.\par \par Give unto us this day the daily manna\par without which he who labors most to move\par ahead through this harsh wilderness falls back.\par by every creature.\par \par Try not our strength. An example of humility from classical history is the Emperor Trajan. and the last three terraces relat e to excessive or disordered love of good things. son of a great Tuscan: / my father was Guiglielmo Aldobra ndesco"[22]). but set it free\par from him who goads it to perversity.\par The first of these is pride.\par offer their wills to You as sacrifice. On the terrace where proud souls purge their sin. who are bent over by the weight of huge stones on their backs.\par In Canto XIII. The first example is of the Annunciation to the Virgin Mary. may You. Dante and Virgil meet the souls of the proud .[23] Provenza no Salvani. leader of the Tuscan Ghibellines. You who dwell within the heavens\par but are not circumscribed by them out of\par Your greater love for Your first works above.e. with "frank self-awareness." Luke 1:38[20]).\par so may men offer up their wills to You. so easily subdued. benevolent.\par \par Even as we forgive all who have done\par us injury. although he is learning to be more humble[23] ("I / do not know if you have heard his name"[24]). then though we summon all\par our force.\par \par Your kingdom's peace come unto us."[21]\par After being introduced to humility. just as it is seemly\par to offer thanks to Your sweet effluence. where she respon ds to the angel Gabriel with the words Ecce ancilla Dei ("Behold the handmaid of the Lord. whose pride lies in his de scent ("I was Italian.\par Also associated with humility is an expanded version of the Lord's Prayer:\par Our Father.\par \par First terrace (the proud)\par The first three terraces of Purgatory relate to sins caused by a perverted love directed towards actual harm of others. sloth or acedia). a beatitude.\par \par Praised be Your name and Your omnipotence.\par forgive. The first of these souls is Omberto Aldobrandeschi.\par The structure of the poetic description of these terraces is more systematic tha n that of the Inferno. for if\par it does not come. who. Dante points out.ates to deficient love (i. and do not judge us by our worth. and historical and mythological examples of the relevant dea dly sin and of its opposite virtue. is an example of pride in dominati ng others[23] (Canto XI). we cannot reach it of our selves. As they walk ar ound the terrace. according to a medieval legend. they are able to profit from the sculpted examples of humility . Those in Purgator y can leave their circle voluntarily.[16]\par Each terrace purges a particular sin in an appropriate manner. once stopped his journey t o render justice to a poor widow (Canto X). as they sing Hosanna. D ante and Virgil see beautiful sculptures expressing humility.\par \par Just as Your angels. the opposite virtu e.[19] and associated with each terrace are an appropriate p rayer.\par against the ancient foe."[25] that pride is also a serious flaw of his own:\par . Oderisi of Gubbio is an example of pride in achi evements \endash he was a noted artist of illuminated manuscripts.

\par As the poets ascend to the next terrace." Matthew 5:3[27]) (Canto XII). grows wider. as in all th e other terraces.\par The souls of the envious include Guido del Duca.[32] mentioned h ere not for his act of fratricide.\par ill-fated and accursed. it flows on."[29]\par On entering the terrace of the envious. the opposite virtue. it comes on curs\par that. Arachne. an angel brushes Dante's forehead with his wings. though their force is feeble. a nd others. The sculptures show Satan (Lu cifer). the sc ene from the Life of the Virgin is the Wedding at Cana.\par \par Then. The classical example is Ag lauros. snap and snarl.\par scornful of them. in which she expresses h er joy for the newly married couple and encourages Christ to perform his first m iracle. the dazzling light of the terrace's angel causes D ante to reveal his scientific knowledge.\par \par Third terrace (the wrathful)\par On the terrace of the wrathful. this time illustrating pride itself. downward.[28] This results in audible. are g . this time. the excessive desire to have thi ngs like money.[16]) As one of the envious souls on this terrace says:\par "My blood was so afire with envy that.\par my soul is anxious. examples of meekness. There is also Jesus' saying "Love your enemies. more and more. who (according to Ovid) was turned to stone because she was jealous of H ermes's love for her sister Herse. who speaks bitterly about the e thics of people in towns along the River Arno:\par "That river starts its miserable course\par among foul hogs. but for the jealousy that led to it (Canto XI V). erasing the letter "P" (peccatum) corresponding to the sin of pride. King Rehoboam. an episode from the life of the Virgin Mary. and Dante hears the beatitude Beati pauperes spiritu ("Blessed are the poor in s pirit."[31]\par The voices on the air also include examples of envy. Dante and Virgil first hear voices on th e air telling stories of generosity. rather than visual. resembling the way a falconer sews shut the eyes of a falcon in order t o train it.[28] (This in contrast to covetousness. observing that the angle of incidence i s equal to the angle of reflection[33] "as theory and experiment will show"[34] (Canto XV).\par it comes on foxes so full of deceit\par there is no trap that they cannot defeat."[30] A classical story s hows the friendship between Orestes and Pylades. examples here (Cant o XIII). in suspense. and when that ditch.\par As he is leaving the terrace. There is.[28]\par The souls of the envious wear penitential grey cloaks. the building of the Tower of Babel. Dante notes further sculptures on the pa vement below."I fear much more the punishment below. it\par finds. it swerves its snout away. the dogs becoming wolves. already\par I feel the heavy weights of the first terrace"[26]\par After his conversations with the proud.\par \par And.\par when I had seen a man becoming happy. taking every opportunity to run them down or deprive them of their hap piness".\par \par Descending then through many dark ravines. The Biblical example is Cain. more fit for acorns than\par for food devised to serve the needs of man.\par \par Second terrace (the envious)\par Envy is the sin that "looks with grudging hatred upon other men's gifts and good fortune. as that stream descends. King Saul.[28] and their eyes are se wn shut.\par the lividness in me was plain to see. the opposite virtue.

th e wife of Peisistratos wanted a young man executed for embracing their daughter. sin ce there is no point being angry with someone who has no choice over his actions [38] (Canto XVI). In a classical example. are called out by these souls as they run around the t errace... angrily. despite the torture. The scene from the Life of the Virgin in t his terrace of purgation is the Finding in the Temple.\par to pardon those who were his persecutors. when he is outdone.\par as overcast by clouds as sky can be. sloth or acedia. honor. These examples also include episodes from the lives Julius Caesar and Aeneas. Since the formerly slothful are no w too busy to converse at length. grant us peace") (Canto XVII). dona nobis pacem" ("Lamb of God. This activity al so replaces a verbal prayer for this terrace."[37]\par The souls of the wrathful walk around in acrid smoke. A scene from the life of the Virgin outlined in this terrace is the Visi tation. to which Peisistratos responded: "What shall we do to one who'd injure us / if one who loves us earns our condemnation?"[35] Saint Stephen provides a Biblical example.. its opposite virtue. \par \par Fourth terrace (the slothful)\par On the fourth terrace we find souls whose sin was that of deficient love \emdash that is. drawn from Acts 7:54\endash 60[36] (Canto XV):\par Next I saw people whom the fire of wrath\par had kindled. miserere nobis.. / fears his own loss of fame.\par \par Praying to his high Lord.\par sink to the ground. as they stoned a youth and kept\par on shouting loudly to each other: Kill!\par \par Kill! Kill! I saw him now. you who take away the sin s of the world. for they will be comforted. this section of the poem is a short one. power. The three terr aces they have seen so far have purged the proud ("he who. favor. and the wrathful ("he who.\par . r esentful.[39]\par Marco Lombardo discourses with Dante on free will \endash a relevant topic. under meager skies.\par Allegorically. with Mary going "in haste" to visit her cousin Elizabeth. or misdirected love.\par \par had never served to veil my eyes so thickly\par nor covered them with such rough-textured stuff\par as smoke that wrapped us there in Purgatory."[42 ]).\par \par my eyes could not endure remaining open.\par The prayer for this terrace is the Agnus Dei: "Agnus Dei. Since they had failed in life to act in pursuit of l ove. / his sadness loves misfortu ne for his neighbor. qui tollis peccata mun di. through abasement of another.\par his look was such that it unlocked compassion." Matthew 5:4[44]) (Canto XVIII and XIX). The examples of sloth and of z eal.\par At this point Virgil is able to explain to Dante the organization of Purgatory a nd its relationship to perverted. seeks out another's harm. / hopes for supremacy"[40]).iven to Dante as visions in his mind. weighed down by death. Deficient and misdirected loves are about to follow (Cantos XVII and XVIII). over injury / received. have mercy upon us. although his eyes were bent\par always on Heaven: they were Heaven's gates. such as Haman and Lavinia."[41]). Whereas most parents woul d be angry at their child for worrying them. for revenge grows greedy / and. here they are engaged in ceaseless activity. deficient. spiritual laziness and lack of caring lead to sadness.[43] and so the beatitude for this terrace is Beati qui lugent ("Blessed are those who mour n. the envious ("one who. Dante also sees visions with examples of wrath. Mary is loving and understanding of Christ's motives behind his three day disappearance. which symbolises the blind ing effect of anger:[38]\par Darkness of Hell and of a night deprived\par of every planet.

Their pray er is Adhaesit pavimento anima mea.\par \par \par Sixth terrace (the gluttonous)\par On the sixth terrace are purged the gluttonous."[47]\par These events include Charles II of Naples selling his daughter into marriage to an elderly and disreputable man.\par \par And I see the new Pilate. used here to counter the sin of avarice. who di rects the poets on their way. his guidance will supplement Virgil's[49] (Canto XXI). whom Dante presents (on no obvious basis) as a convert to Christianity. Christ made prisoner. my house is now your captive:\par it traffics in the flesh of its own children\par what more is left for you to do to us?\par \par That past and future evil may seem less.\par In a scene that Dante links to the episode where Jesus meets two disciples on th e road to Emmaus. w hich freed Philip from debts he owed to the order (Canto XX). is an e xample of the virtue of temperance. an exemplar of desire for ecclesiastical power and prestige.\par On the fifth terrace.\par The scene from the life of the Virgin.\par \par Fifth terrace (the covetous)\par On the last three terraces are those who sinned by loving good things. but before the poem was written:\par "The other. in contrast. and bodily comforts. and John the Baptist.[49] He h as just finished his time of purgation in this circle.[48] and Philip IV of France ("the fleur-de-lis" ) arresting Pope Boniface VIII in 1303 (a pope destined for Hell. is the humble birth of Christ. without decree. still not sated. Dante also ref ers to the suppression of the Knights Templar at Philip's instigation in 1307.\par Further down the terrace."[45]). I see\par the vinegar and gall renewed and He\par is slain between two thieves who're still alive. and "prophesies" events which occurred after the date in which the poem is set.\par \par I see Him mocked a second time. excessive concern for earthly goods \endash whether in th e form of greed. bargaining\par as pirates haggle over female slaves.\par \par O Avarice. but lovin g them in an excessive or disordered way. unable to move.[49] Dante and Virgil are overtaken by the Roman poet Statius.[50] The examples here are given by voices in the trees. one so cruel\par that. The avaricious and prodigal lie face-down on the ground. and. the Vicar of Christ[48]). taken from Psalm 119:25 ("My soul cleaveth u nto the dust: quicken thou me according to thy word.\par carries his greedy sails into the Temple. as a Christian. drink. who lived on locusts and honey (Matthew 3:4[51]). He bemoans the way that. in Dante's view. they are starved in the presence of trees whose fruit is forever out of reach. and more generally. according to t he Inferno.Night falls (for the second time) while the poets are on this terrace.\par I see the fleur-de-lis enter Anagni\par and. those who ov er-emphasised food.[50] A classical example of the opposite vice . avarice has motivated the a ctions of his successors. who shared her Son's gifts with others at the Wedding at Cana. Hugh the Great personifies greed for worldly wealth an d possessions. he. which is a prayer ex pressing the desire to follow God's law (Canto XIX).[50] In a scene reminiscent of th e punishment of Tantalus. who once left his ship as prisoner\par I see him sell his daughter. Dante meets the shade of Po pe Adrian V. ambition or extravagance \endash is punished and purified. and Dante dreams of a Siren (Canto XIX). but still. The Virgin Mary. in His vicar.

As a prayer. Dante wonders how it is possible for bodiless s ouls to have the gaunt appearance of the souls being starved here..\par and I apply my lovely hands to fashion\par a garland of the flowers I have gathered. in their dark company. each to each. and even as she sang.\par On the stairs to the Earthly Paradise. on all sides. Virgil finally persuades D ante to pass through the intense fire (Cantos XXVI and XXVII). know that I'm Leah. describing it as the sweet new style."[54] written in praise of Beatrice. both of which are important[58] (Canto X XVII):\par \par . I can see every shade\par move quickly to embrace another shade.\par content they did not pause with their brief greeting. open my l ips.\par \par Seventh terrace (the lustful)\par The terrace of the lustful has an immense wall of flame through which everyone m ust pass.\par But to discourse that I may ease my mind.\par That if I then should lose not hardihood. In explaining . I seemed to see a woman\par both young and fair.\par Here Dante also meets his friend Forese Donati and his poetic predecessor Bonagi unta Orbicciani.\par I say that when I think upon her worth. He quotes the line "Ladies that have i ntelligence of love. which he dare not enter. and Dante dreams of Leah and Rachel.\par So sweet doth Love make himself feel to me. I should enamour all mankind. they sing the hymn Summae Deus Clementiae[56] (God of Supreme Clemency) from the Liturgy of the Hours (Cantos XXV and XXVI)."[55]\par Climbing to the seventh terrace.[53] which is also the source of prayers for th e fifth and seventh terraces (Cantos XXII through XXIV).[50]\par The prayer for this terrace is Labia mea Domine (Psalm 51:15: "O Lord. in my dream. Statius discourses on the nature of the soul and its relationship to the body (Canto XXV).\par Among the flames. along a plain she gathered\par flowers. La Vita Nuo va. perhaps to seek\par news of their fortunes and their journeyings. with whom Dante speaks. By reminding Dante that Beatrice ca n be found in the Earthly Paradise on the other side. night falls for the third time. she said:\par \par Whoever asks my name.\par I of my lady wish with you to speak.\par Not that I can believe to end her praise. and my mouth will declare your praise"[52]) These are the opening words fro m the daily Liturgy of the Hours."[57]\par \par \par Dante dreams of Leah picking flowers. who he will meet later in the Purgatorio:\par "Ladies that have intelligence of Love. Canto 27.\par As they circle the terrace. They are symbols of the active (non-monastic) and co ntemplative (monastic) Christian lives. symbol of the active (non-monastic) Christ ian life.of gluttony is the drunkenness of the Centaurs that led to the Battle of Centau rs and Lapiths. will touch\par their muzzles. are the poets of love Guido Guinizell i and Arnaut Daniel. Bonagiunta has kind words for Dante's earlier poem. the two groups of penitents greet each other in a wa y Dante compares to ants:\par "There.\par \par as ants.\par Speaking. Souls repenting of misdirected sexual desire (both heterosexual and ho mosexual) run through the flames calling out examples of lust (Sodom and Gomorra h and Pasipha\'eb) and of chastity and marital fidelity (the Virgin Mary's chast ity).\par .

a woman whose literal and a llegorical identity "is perhaps the most tantalizing problem in the Comedy."[76] representing the general epistles[67]\par "when all the rest had passed. and its ties to the French monarchy[82] (Canto ."[70] bearing Beatrice.\par To find delight within this mirror I\par adorn myself. help cover t he disappearance of Virgil.\par With Matilda. which erases the memory of past sin ( Canto XXXI). where the cha racters are walking symbols rather than real people. Dante witnesses a procession which forms an allegory within the al legory. the gentlest father."[75] representing the Acts of the Apostle s and the Pauline epistles[67]\par "four of humble aspect. it represents the state of innocence that existed before Adam and Eve fell from grace \endash the state which Dante's journey up Mount Purgatory has been recapturing. though washed\par with dew. as classified by Jerome[67]\par "four animals" with "six wings as plumage"[68] (a reference to Revelation 4:6\en dash 8[69]). Hope. Virgil. It has a very different style from the Purgatorio as a whole. from darkening again with tears.[60] Allegorically. and Fortitude[67]\par "two elders. which is drawn by.\par as I. representing the 2 4 books of the Hebrew Bible. green. Beatrice is Dante's guide):\par "But Virgil had deprived us of himself."[77] representing the Book of Rev elation[67]\par The appearance of Beatrice.[61] but others suggested a connection with the dream of Le ah in Canto XXVII.\p ar a Griffin. there she sits\par \par all day."[60] Critics up to the early twentieth century have connected her with the historica l Matilda of Tuscany. whereas my sister Rachel\par never deserts her mirror. a lone old man."[80]\par Dante then passes through the River Lethe.[72] representing the thre e theological virtues: Love. in which she rebukes his sin (Cantos XXX and XXXI).[62] However. Justice. This allegory includes a denunciation o f the corrupt papacy of the time. in which t he chariot plays the role of the Church.[78] and a dramatic reconciliation scene between Beat rice and Dante.[74] representing the four cardinal vir tues: Prudence. somewhat like Shakespeare's play within a play. a traditional representation of the four Evangelists[67]\par "a chariot triumphal on two wheels. The procession consists of (Canto XXIX):\par "twenty-four elders"[65] (a reference to Revelation 4:4[66]).\par Virgil. having the form of a masque.\par \par and even all our ancient mother lost\par was not enough to keep my cheeks. as a symbol of non-Christian philosophy and hum anities. who. can help him no further in his approach to God[79] (and in the rest of the Divine Comedy.[81] and sees an allegory of Biblical and Church history. long:\par she is content with seeing. to see my hands adorning. I with labor. and Faith. respectively[67]\par "four other women"[73] dressed in purple. he\par to whom I gave my self for my salvation..[60] the woman to whom (historically) Dante dedicated his previous poetry.[60] Here Dante meets Matilda. different in their dress. and white. Temperance.[71] representing the conjoined divinity and humanity of Christ[67]\pa r "three circling women" coloured red. the woman at whose request (in the story) Virgil was commissioned to bri ng Dante on his journey."[59]\par \par The Earthly Paradise\par At the summit of Mount Purgatory is the Earthly Paradise or Garden of Eden.[63] and the woman who (allegorically) symbolizes the pa th to God[64] (Canto XXVIII). Matilda clearly prepares Dante for his meeting w ith Beatrice. she longs to see her fair eyes gazing.

which is the abode of God. and Love appear together in the eighth sphere. following the Inferno and the Purgatorio. Hope. such as the one between Venus and romantic love. for Dante's benefit (and the benefit of his readers).\par securely seated there. ungirt. Dante also relies on tradition al associations.\par and they again."[83]\par Finally. the Sun. again embraced each other.XXXII):\par "Just like a fortress set on a steep slope. which restores good memories. Mercury. some less. I was\par pure and prepared to climb unto the stars. while Fait h. The first thre e spheres (which fall within the shadow of the Earth) are associated with defici ent forms of Fortitude.\par While the structures of the Inferno and Purgatorio were based around different c lassifications of sin. as in the standard medieval geocentric model of cosmology. Venus. Venus. with one o f the ten regions different in nature from the other nine."[84]\par \par \par Paradiso (Italian for "Paradise" or "Heaven") is the third and final part of Dan te's Divine Comedy. He is careful to say that these all actually live in bliss with God in t he Empyrean:\par "But all those souls grace the Empyrean."[2]\par However.\par and each of them has gentle life though some\par sense the Eternal Spirit more.\par who seemed to serve as her custodian. It was written in the early 14th century. appeared to me.\par During the course of his journey. Hope.\par \par he Paradiso begins at the top of Mount Purgatory. and Temperance. Justice.\par \par First Sphere (The Moon: The Inconstant)\par . Temperance.\par \par The Spheres of Heaven\par Dante's nine spheres of Heaven are the Moon. and Fortitude) and the three theologi cal virtues (Faith. remade. Paradise is depicted as a series of concentric spheres surr ounding the Earth. The nine sphere s are concentric. the structure of Dante's Heaven is therefore of the form 9+1=10. In the poem. Saturn. Justice. Allegorically. a giant. Saturn. The Empyrean is non-material.\par whose eyes were quick to rove. as new trees are\par renewed when they bring forth new boughs. The next four are associated wi th positive examples of Prudence. and prepares him for his ascent to Heaven (described in the Paradiso). and the Primum Mobile. a whore. Jupi ter. As with his Purgat ory. who symbolises th eology. Fortitude. and Temperance. These are associated by Dan te with the nine levels of the angelic hierarchy. Mercury. Jupite r.\par \par and I saw at her side. to the Empyrean. guided by Beatrice. the Fixed Stars. he is "as a sign" [3] shown various souls in planetary and stellar spheres that have some appropri ate connotation. Mars. After ascending through the sphere of fire believed to exist in the ear th's upper atmosphere (Canto I). at noon on the Wednesday after Easter. It is an allegory telling of Dante's journey through Heaven. Dante meets and converses with several blessed souls. the structure of the Paradiso is based on the four cardin al virtues (Prudence. Justice. the Fixed Stars. the Sun. As with the other two parts of the Divine Comedy. erect. and Love).[1] which was derived from Ptolemy. the Purgatorio ends on the word "stars" (C anto XXXIII):\par "From that most holy wave I now returned\par to Beatrice. Dante drinks from the River Euno\'eb. the Empyrean. consisting of the Moon. Beatrice guides Dante through the nine celestia l spheres of Heaven. the poem represents the soul's ascent to God. the Primum Mobile and finally. Mars.

among the violent of the seventh circle. thought that.\par \par .\par \par Let Ghibellines pursue their undertakings\par beneath another sign. which was planted by that one\par who was the first to turn against his Maker. and so Dante makes this the planet of the lovers. who introduces himself with the words "Caesar I was and am Justinian. describing a simple scientific experiment in optics. but that his earthly status no longer ex ists in Heaven[11] (Canto V). just as Mercury p ales into insignificance beside the sun. Cyprian\par the fair sent down her rays of frenzied love.\par in the third epicycle. among others.[9] Here Dante meets the Emperor Justini an. She also prai ses the experimental method in general (Canto II):\par "Yet an experiment. given the conflict between Guelphs and Ghibellines."[4]\par Beatrice explains that a vow is a pact "drawn between a man / and God. when still in peril.\par at times behind her and at times in front. wheeling. being ambitious. which occurred during Roman times (Canto VII).[14] and who points ou t that a properly functioning society requires people of many different kinds. who were deficient in the virtue of temperance (Canto VIII):\par "The world. and should be kept once given \endash unless keeping the vow would be a greater evil. Beatrice explains to Dante the reasons for the markings on its surface. b y Satan) for producing that "damned flower" (the florin) which is responsible fo r the corruption of the Church. rather than on Scripture and the writings of the Church Fathers (Canto IX ):\par "Your city. and the inv olvement of the "yellow lilies" of France[11] (Canto VI):\par "For some oppose the universal emblem\par with yellow lilies. others claim that emblem\par for party: it is hard to see who is worse.\par . and he criticises the clergy for their focus on money. who is here in Heaven. He condemns the city of Florence (planted. Vows should theref ore not be taken lightly."[13]\par Dante meets Charles Martel of Anjou. and poin ts out that (as was believed at the time) the cone of the Earth's shadow just to uches the sphere of Venus. Justinian recounts the history of the Roman Empire ."[12]\par By association. to\par the planet that is courted by the sun. Their ea rthly glory pales into insignificance beside the glory of God. as with Jephthah's and Agamemnon's sacrifice of their daughters (Canto V)..\par \par Third Sphere (Venus: The Lovers)\par The planet Venus (the Morning and Evening Star) is traditionally associated with the Goddess of Love. he says. were deficient in the virtue of justice. but who.\par could free you from your cavil. the planet Mercury is often difficult to se e. while her brother Ezzelino III da Romano is in Hell.On visiting the Moon. who was known to him.[9]\par \par Second Sphere (Mercury: The Ambitious)\par Because of its proximity to the sun. mentioning. and the source\par of your arts' course springs from experiment. Allegorically. and gave the name of her\par with whom I have begun this canto."[8] in wh ich a person freely offers up his free will as a gift to God. S uch differences are illustrated by Cunizza da Romano (lover of Sordello). and bemoans the present state of Italy. for those who sever\par this sign and justice are bad followers.[15]\par The troubadour Folquet de Marseilles speaks of the temptations of love. Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. the planet represents those who did good out of a desire for f ame. Beatrice discourses on the Incarnation and the Crucifixion of Ch rist. were you to try it."[10] i ndicating that his personality remains.

a Franciscan.\par \par From this hillside. who help to illuminate the world intellectually[17] (Canto X). Francis of Assisi.\par \par from there Perugia feels both heat and cold\par at Porta Sole.\par for of the shepherd it has made a wolf. Justice."[18]\par Twelve new bright lights appear. and has representatives from across Europe. and having members of on e order praising the founder of the other shows the love present in Heaven[19] ( Canto XII).\par \par For this the Gospel and the great Church Fathers\par are set aside and only the Decretals\par are studied as their margins clearly show. while behind it sorrow\par Nocera and Gualdo under their hard yoke. where it abates its rise. Thomas Aquinas recounts the life of St. one of which is St. founder of the order to which Aquinas belo nged.\par a sun was born into the world.\par where Gabriel's open wings were reverent. confused here with Pseudo-Dionysius\par Orosius\par Boethius\par Isidore of Seville\par Bede\par Richard of Saint Victor\par Sigier of Brabant\par This list includes philosophers. Within the Sun. The two orders were not always friendly on earth. The twenty-four bright lights revolve around Dante and Beatrice.\par \par On these the pope and cardinals are intent. Dante deals with positive examples of Prudence.\par but Orient. which is the Earth's source of illumination. a circle of twelve bright lights dance around Dante and Beatrice. who recounts the life of St.\par Their thoughts are never bent on Nazareth. and his love for "Lady Poverty" (Canto XI):\par \par \par "Between Topino's stream and that which flows\par down from the hill the blessed Ubaldo chose. Bonaventure. Dominic. Dante meets the greatest examples of prudence: the souls of the wise. much like\par this sun when it is climbing from the Ganges. and Aquinas explains the surprising presence of King Solomo . Initially.\par from a high peak there hangs a fertile slope.\par \par Therefore let him who names this site not say\par Ascesi. These are the souls of:[17]\par \par Thomas Aquinas\par Albertus Magnus\par Gratian\par Peter Lombard\par King Solomon\par Dionysius the Areopagite. theologians and a king. if he would name it rightly. sin ging of the Trinity. Temperance."[16]\par \par Fourth Sphere (The Sun: The Wise)\par Beyond the shadow of the Earth. and Fortitude.the one whose envy cost us many tears\par \par produces and distributes the damned flower\par that turns both sheep and lambs from the true course. which would be to say too little.

rather than philosophical or mathematical wisd om (Cantos XIII and XIV):\par "My words did not prevent your seeing clearly\par that it was as a king that he had asked\par for wisdom that would serve his royal task\par \par and not to know the number of the angels\par on high or. The setting o f the Divine Comedy in the year 1300. graced with lesser and with larger lights\par between the poles of the world."[23]\par Dante meets his ancestor Cacciaguida. the Galaxy\par gleams so that even sages are perplexed."[22]\par Dante says that sages are "perplexed" by the nature of the Milky Way. this may be so.\par \par Sixth Sphere (Jupiter: The Just Rulers)\par The planet Jupiter is traditionally associated with the king of the gods. You are to know the bitter taste\par \par of others' bread. constellated in the depth of Mars. such as Joshua. how salt it is. and therefore re tains and throws back this light. In the Old Translation he says that the Galaxy is nothing but a multitude of fixed stars in that region.n. t hough from them originates the appearance of that brightness which we call the G alaxy. Dante sees some other warr iors of the Faith. within a semicircle. for the heaven in that region is denser. and know\par how hard a path it is for one who goes\par descending and ascending others' stairs. but in his Convivio. and bemoans the way in which the city has declined since those days (Cantos XV and XVI). so Dan te makes this planet the home of the rulers who displayed justice. Dante will be exiled (Canto X VII):\par "You shall leave everything you love most dearly:\par this is the arrow that the bow of exile\par shoots first. Charlemagne.[21] The millions of sparks of l ight that are the souls of these warriors form a Greek cross on the planet Mars. Cacciaguida also charges Dante to write and tell the world all that he has seen of Hell."[26]\par However. so small that we are unable to distinguish them from here below. and God frey of Bouillon (Canto XVIII). who is placed here for kingly.."[20]\par \par ifth Sphere (Mars: The Warriors of the Faith)\par The planet Mars is traditionally associated with the God of War.[27] The souls here spell out the Latin for "Love justice. before Dante's exile.\par necesse ever can produce necesse. who served in the Second Crusade.[24] Cacc iaguida praises the twelfth-century Republic of Florence. and Dante compares this cross to the Milky Way (Canto XIV):\par "As. if combined with a contingent. he had described its nature fairly well:\par "What Aristotle said on this matter cannot be known with certainty.[25] In response to a question from Dante.\par \par so. Cacciaguida speaks the truth bluntly. ye that judge the earth". and so Dante ma kes this planet the home of the warriors of the Faith. and Heaven. after whi ch the final "M" of that sentence is transformed into the shape of a giant imper . who gave their lives for God. Judas Maccabeus.[25] Finally. one\par can draw a triangle with no right angle. Purgatory. Roland.\par \par or si est dare primum motum esse. thereby displaying the virtue of fortitude.\par or if. Avicenna and Ptolemy seem to share this opinio n with Aristotle.\par those rays described the venerable sign\par a circle's quadrants form where they are joined. has allowed characte rs in the poem to "foretell" bad things for Dante.

and tell of God's justice[30] (Cantos XIX and XX). then you would be\par like Semele when she was turned to ashes.\par those spirits kept their order. as it flashed.\par QUI IUDICATIS TERRAM followed after. Hope.\par \par Then. In response to Dan te's reply. Bea trice.[34] From h ere (in fact.ial eagle[27] (Canto XVIII):\par "DILIGITE IUSTITIAM were the verb\par and noun that first appeared in that depiction. as you have seen. and (to Dante' s amazement) Ripheus the Trojan."[35]\par Here.\par \par because. all the rest\par \par are not its hundredth part: for you were poor\par and hungry when you found the field and sowed\par the good plant once a vine and now a thorn. Trajan (converted to Christianity ac cording to a medieval legend). and he whose thoughts are set\par elsewhere.[31] D ante here meets Peter Damian. and discusses with him monasticism. Peter tests Dante on faith. St. your mortal faculty\par would seem a branch a lightning bolt has cracked. my loveliness\par which.\par \par I said: If without miracles the world\par was turned to Christianity. and on the Earth (Canto XXII):\par "My eyes returned through all the seven spheres\par and saw this globe in such a way that I\par smiled at its scrawny image: I approve\par \par that judgment as the best. under which he was born). Constantine. that is\par so great a miracle that. asking what it is."[37]\par ."[33]\par \par Eighth Sphere (The Fixed Stars: Faith. indicating the contemplative's closer insight into the truth of God:\par "She did not smile. Jupiter's\par silver. William II of Sicily. can truly be called virtuous. a pagan saved by the mercy of God. at that point. who embody temperance. which holds this earth\par to be the least. St. and (in an argument attributed to Augustine[36]) Dante cites the miracle of the Church's g rowth from such humble beginnings (Canto XXIV):\par \par "Say. Dante sees the Virgin Mary and other saints (Canto XXIII). Instead her speech to me\par began: Were I to smile. would be so brilliant\par that. blazes with more brightness\par \par were it not tempered here. having formed the M of the fifth word. becomes increasingly lovely here. Hezekiah. Peter asks Dante how he knows that the Bible is true."[28]\par Present in this sphere are David. and the sad state of the Church[32] (Cantos XXI and XXII). and whether Dante has it. the doctrine o f predestination. seemed embossed with gold. who represents theology. from the constellation Gemini.[29] The soul s forming the imperial eagle speak with one voice.\par \par Seventh Sphere (Saturn: The Contemplatives)\par The sphere of Saturn is that of the contemplatives. and Love)\par The sphere of the Fixed Stars is the sphere of the church triumphant. Dante loo ks back on the seven spheres he has visited. who assures you that those works were real?\par came the reply. even as we climb the steps of this\par eternal palace. The very thing that needs\par proof no thing else attests these works to you.

\par \par But now men go to preach with jests and jeers. ending wi th a forceful criticism of the preachers of the day (Canto XXIX):\par \par "Christ did not say to his first company:\par 'Go. John questions Dante on love.\par . as it is my hope. I love\par according to the good He gave to them.\par as it surrounds the rest and that enclosing."[43]\par The Primum Mobile is the abode of angels.\par only He who encloses understands.\par but he gave them the teaching that is truth. and its motion causes all the spheres it encl oses to move[42] (Canto XXVII):\par "This heaven has no other where than this:\par the mind of God. and Beatrice vouches for his possession o f it (Canto XXV):\par "There is no child of the Church Militant\par who has more hope than he has. to battle to enkindle faith.\par but it serves as the measure for the rest. in his eyes. Beatr ice explains the creation of the universe.\par \par and truth alone was sounded when they spoke. as is written\par within the Sun whose rays reach all our ranks:\par \par thus it is granted him to come from Egypt\par into Jerusalem that he have vision\par of it.\par St.\par \par No other heaven measures this sphere's motion. It is moved directly by God. James[38] questions Dante on hope. together\par \par with living knowledge I have spoken of\par these drew me from the sea of twisted love\par and set me on the shore of the right love. the Papal See stands empty (Canto XXVII)."[39]\par Finally.\par and just as long as they can raise a laugh. and preach idle stories to the world. the world's existence\par \par and mine.\par \par Ninth Sphere (The Primum Mobile: The Angels)\par The Primum Mobile ("first moved" sphere) is the last sphere of the physical univ erse. St. and the role of the angels. light and love enclose it. Dante refers back to th e concept of "twisted love" discussed in the Purgatorio[40] (Canto XXVI):\par "Thus I began again: My charity\par results from all those things whose bite can bring\par the heart to turn to God. and says that.\par \par The leaves enleaving all the garden of\par the Everlasting Gardener. Peter then denounces Pope Boniface VIII in very strong terms.\par \par As in a circle."[41]\par St. In his reply. the death that He sustained that I\par might live. before his term of warring ends.\par the Gospels served them as both shield and lance. and that which is the hope of all\par believers. and here Dante sees God as an intensel y bright point of light surrounded by nine rings of angels (Canto XXVIII). in which are kindled both\par the love that turns it and the force it rains.\par even as half and fifth determine ten.\par and thus.

which as I gazed grew stronger.[45] Angels fly around the rose like bees. and Dante becomes envelope d in light.[45] is he re transformed to be more beautiful than ever before.\par \par one circle seemed reflected by the second.\par \par The Love that calms this heaven always welcomes\par into Itself with such a salutation.the cowl puffs up. God appears as three equally large circles occupying the same space.\par that sole appearance.\par \par such was the living light encircling me. Bernard. All the souls he has met in Heaven. signifying that Dante has passed beyond theology in directly contemplating God. even as I altered."[46]\par Dante sees an enormous rose."[50] In a flash of understanding. and nothing more is asked. the Son.\par to make the candle ready for its flame. The Divine Come dy ends with Dante trying to understand how the circles fit together. Dante does finally see this. distributing peace and love. have their home in this rose. three circles\par appeared to me.\par as rainbow is by rainbow.[47] and St. In the deep and bright\par \par essence of that exalted Light. including Beatrice. they had three different colors. a s a mystical contemplative. and the Holy Spirit:[48]\par "but through my sight. Beatrice. which he c annot express. and his soul becomes aligned with Go d's love:[48]\par "But already my desire and my will\par were being turned like a wheel. now guides Dante further (Canto XXXI).\par leaving me so enveloped by its veil\par of radiance that I could see no thing. Beatrice now returns to her place in the rose. the Empyrean."[51]\par } ? .\par seemed to be changing. as Dante puts it. and the third\par seemed fire breathed equally by those two circles. representing theology. r epresenting the Father. and prays to the Virgin Mary on Dant e's behalf. and how th e humanity of Christ relates to the divinity of the Son but."[44]\par \par The Empyrean\par From the Primum Mobile. " that was not a flight for my wings. Dante comes face-to-face with God Himself (Cantos XXXII and XXXIII). symbolising divine love.\par but all of them were of the same dimension. Bernard further explains predestination. that if\par the people saw it.\par \par t.[45] the petals of which ar e the enthroned souls of the faithful (both those of the Old Testament and those of the New). all at one speed.\par \par But such a bird nests in that cowl. they would recognize\par as lies the pardons in which they confide.\par by the Love which moves the sun and the other stars. Finally."[49]\par Within these circles Dante can discern the human form of Christ. which is the abode of God. Dante ascends to a region beyond physical existence. rendering him fit to see God[45] (Canto XXX):\par "Like sudden lightning scattering the spirits\par of sight so that the eye is then too weak\par to act on other things it would perceive.