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Journal of Animal Science Advances

Effect of Dietary Garlic (Allium sativum) Supplementation as Feed Additive on Broiler Performance and Blood Profile
Elagib H. A. A., El-Amin W. I. A., Elamin K. M. and Malik H. E. E.

J Anim Sci Adv 2013, 3(2): 58-64 DOI: 10.5455/jasa.20130219104029

Online version is available on: www.grjournals.com

ISSN: 2251-7219

ELAGIB ET AL.

Original Article

Effect of Dietary Garlic (Allium sativum) Supplementation as Feed Additive on Broiler Performance and Blood Profile
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Elagib H. A. A., 1El-Amin W. I. A., 2Elamin K. M. and 1Malik H. E. E.


1

Department of Poultry Production; Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum; Sudan. 2 Department of Animal Breeding; Faculty of Animal Production, University of Gezira; Sudan.

Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of incorporating garlic ( Allium sativum) powder, as a growth promoter in broiler feed on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood profile. Sixty three one day-old commercial broiler chicks (Cobb) were reared in an open sided poultry house and divided into three groups of 21 birds each. The groups were assigned to three diets containing (0, 3 and 5%) garlic powder. Feed and water were offered ad libitum till the termination of the trial after 42 days. Growth performance parameters and blood parameters were measured. Diet with 3% level of garlic significantly (P <0.05) increased feed intake (3051.6 g), body weight gain (1688.7 g), body weight (1733.8 g) and achieved the best efficiency of feed utilization (1.81 kg feed for one kg meat). Dressing percentage showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between the various treatments. The highest breast weight was attained by feeding 3% of garlic (250g) and the lowest weight was attained when feeding 5% level (155g). No significant difference (P>0.05) in both bursa and thymus weights between the different treatments. Spleen weight decreased significantly (P<0.05) by feeding diets containing 3% (1.01g) and 5% (1.23g) garlic powder compared to 0% level (1.67g). The different levels of garlic has no significant effect (P>0.05) on total red blood cells, packed cells volume, total white blood cells and the differential count of white blood cells including neutrophile, eosinophile, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is concluded that the incorporation of garlic as feed additive at 3% level significantly enhanced growth and performance of broiler chicks without any side effects as detected by blood profile.

Key words: Chicken, bursa, haematology, feed additive, spleen.

Corresponding author: Department of Animal Breeding; Faculty of Animal Production, University of Gezira; Sudan. Received on: 07 Feb 2013 Revised on: 13 Feb 2013 Accepted on: 19 Feb 2013 Online Published on: 26 Feb 2013

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EFFECT OF DIETARY GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) SUPPLEMENTATION AS

Introduction Feed additives are non nutritive substances used in poultry feed including antibiotics, enzymes, antioxidants, pellet-binders, antifungal, colored pigments and flavoring agents. Feed additives are generally used to improve feed intake and to increase the growth rate in broilers (Scott et al., 1982, Fadlalla et al., 2010, Abouelfetouh et al., 2012 and Bali et al., 2011). For many years feed additives have been widely used to increase animals performance and recently it is used in poultry industry to improve growth, feed efficiency and layers performance (Collington et al., 1990) and (Khan et al., 2007). Garlic (Allium sativum) is well known as a spice and herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases ranging from infections to heart diseases (Javandel , 2008). Moreover, Adibmoradi et al., 2006) reported that garlic possess antimicrobial activity. Garlic is considered as a plant with antibiotic, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardiovascular- protecting effects (Reuter et al., 1996). Qureshi et al. (1983) concluded that garlic has the tendency to lower serum and liver cholesterol. In previous studies the positive effects of herbal supplements on production performance and carcass quality have been demonstrated by (Tekeli et al., 2006) and (Tekeli et al., 2008). Demir et al., (2003) reported that garlic can improves productive performance of broiler chicks. Garlic has been used for about 50 years as antibiotic growth promoters and to enhance growth performance in poultry and swine Dibner and Richards (2005) and Demir et al. (2008). The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of supplementing garlic (as dried garlic powder) in broiler rations on some aspects of production such as growth rate, feed efficiency, carcass composition, blood profile; in term of packed cells volume, haemoglobin, total red blood cells, total white blood cells and differential white blood cells count. Materials and Method Study location
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This study was conducted in a poultry house within the premises of Faculty of Animal production University of Khartoum. Experimental Birds Sixty three, one-day old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Cobb), were used in this study. Chicks were weighted and randomly divided into three groups of 21 chicks. Each group was further subdivided into three replicates each with seven chicks. The experiment was carried out in an open sided deep litter poultry house. Authors followed the International Animal Ethics Committee guideline for use of animals in the study. Ration Formulation The garlic was purchased from the local market and the powdered was prepared by mincing and drying using sun light. The experimental diets were designed as diet 1, 2 and 3. Diet 1 served as control (with no garlic powder supplementation) while diet 2 and 3 contained 3% and 5% of garlic powder, respectively (Table 1: A&B). The determined and chemical analysis of the experimental diets and their calculated analysis are shown in table (2). Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 42 days. Continuous light was supplemented throughout the experimental period. Traits Studied: Growth performance parameters were recorded weekly, traits include: feed intake, live body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. At the end of the experiment, birds were weighed and slaughtered and their lymphatic organs (spleen, bursa and thymus) weights were determined. The weight of some major body cuts were weighed such as the legs weight, (both drum stick and thigh), breast weight and fleshed breast weight. Blood samples were collected from three birds of each treatment on 42th day. The birds were bled directly from the heart using sterile disposable syringe. Two ml of blood were collected from each sample. The blood was discharged immediately into collection tube with anticoagulant for examination of the haematological parameters Hb, PCV, Red Blood cell count, and total white blood cell count and the differential count of white blood cell. Statistical Analysis

ELAGIB ET AL.

Data were analyzed using repeated measurements of the ANOVA and Least significant difference (LSD) was used to determine the

significance between means. SPSS (statistical Package for Social Studies) program V17 was used.

Table 1: The ingredient composition of the starter experimental diets (1 4 weeks) and finisher experimental diets (4 6 weeks). Starter Ratio Finisher Ration Ingredients Experimental Diet % Experimental Diet % 0% 3% 5% 0% 3% 5% Sorghum 60 57.3 57 66 57 55.32 Groundnut cake 30 28 28 21 30 29.75 Wheat bran 1.75 0 0 5 0.1 0 Super concentrate* 5 5 5 5 5 5 Dicalcium phosphate 1 5 5 0.5 1 1 Lime stone 0 1 1 0.15 3 5 salt 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 Lysine 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.1 0.13 0.13 Methionine 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.1 0.1 Vegetable oil 1.9 3.5 3.2 1.9 3.5 3.5 Garlic powder 0 3 5 0 3 5 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
Super concentrate contains the following / kilogram: CP 40%, ME 2100 kcal/kg, EE 2%, CF 2%, Calcium 10%, Phosphorus 4%, Lysine 12%, Methionine 3%, Methionine + cystine 3.2%.

Results and Discussion The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of inclusion of dietary garlic in form of garlic powder in broiler chicks, 0 6 weeks, on feed intake, rate of growth, feed conversion efficiency, carcass characteristics, blood profile (hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total red blood cells and total white blood cells) and differential white blood cells. The overall performance of broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with different levels of garlic powder is summarized in table (2). All performance parameters in the experiment were progressively improved by increasing dietary garlic powder from 0% up to 3% and were reduced by raising dietary garlic powder level beyond 3% to 5%. The best performance was attained by the group of birds fed on diet containing 3% garlic powder; they attained the highest feed consumption, body weight gain and the best feed conversion efficiency. The lowest performance was attained by the birds fed on the diet containing 5% dietary garlic powder. The group fed on a diet with 3% garlic showed significantly (P<0.05) higher feed consumption (3051.678.78), final body weight (1733.833.78) and weight gain
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(1688.729.64) followed by 0% level (2395.933.78, 1078.733.78 and 1030.829.64) for the traits respectively, then 5% (2099.033.78, 1021.333.78 and 972.729.64). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (P<0.05) lower in birds fed diet supplemented with 3% (1.810.05) followed by 0% (2.320.05) and 5% (2.150.05). Results obtained for feed consumption were in line with Javandel et al (2008) who reported that feed consumption was significantly higher in birds fed diets with lower concentration of garlic 0.125 and 0.25% compared to higher level 0.5, 1 and 2%. In this study the feed consumption was improved up to 3% of garlic compared to 5%. Sharma et al. (1979), Horton et al. (1991), Canogullar et al. (209) and [Yalcn et al .(2006)] reported that feed intake was not affected by the supplementation of garlic in broiler chicks. This result was in agreements with Raeesi et al. (2010), Mansoub and Nezhady, ( 2011)., Kumar et al. (2005) and Afsharmanesh et al. (2008) who found positive effects of Garlic supplementation on broiler performance . On the other hand Onibi et al. (2009) and found no significant (P<0.05) differences among treatments that received different levels of garlic.
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EFFECT OF DIETARY GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) SUPPLEMENTATION AS

Results found for live body weight were in agreement with Ademola et al. (2009) who reported, that garlic supplementation improved the final live weights of broiler chicks. The results obtained in this experiment for FCR agreed with Fadlallaet al. (2010) and Raeesi et al.

(2010) who found better FCR when supplementing garlic to broiler diets, although Onibi et al. (2009) found no significant (P<0.05) effects for garlic supplementation.

Table 2: The overall performance of broiler chicks fed different levels of Garlic powder. Parameters Levels of garlic powder 0% 3% 5% Initial Body Weight 47.90 45.10 48.60 Feed Consumption 2395.90b 3051.6a 2099.00c Live Body Weight 1078.70b 1733.8a 1021.30c b a Weight Gain 1030.80 1688.7 972.70c a c FCR 2.32 1.81 2.15b
(a, b, c) Means in the same row with the different superscript are significantly different at (P 0.05). S.E = Standard error of means.

SE 1.04 78.78 33.78 29.64 0.05

The effect of dietary supplementation of garlic powder on differential leukocyte count was shown in table (3). There were no significant difference (P0.05) on the differential count of white blood

cells including neutrophile, eosinophile, monocytes and lymphocytes between the different treatments. This is in accordance to Yang et al. (2007).

Table 3: The effect of supplementation of different levels of Garlic powder on white blood cells differential count. Garlic level Traits SE 0% 3% 5% Neutrophile 61.000 61.333 60.667 0.7201 Eosinophile 3.6667 4.3333 5.0000 0.4303 Monocytes 3.3333 3.6667 3.3333 0.3333 Lymphocytes 31.000 28.667 29.667 0.9230
S.E = Standard error of means

The effect of supplementation of different levels of Garlic on haematological parameters showed in table (4). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) on haemoglobin percentage between different groups, where the birds fed on 0% level showed the highest percentage where as there was no difference (P0.05) between the other groups fed on 3% and 5%. This is in accordance to results obtained by Ademola et al. (2009), Fadlalla et al. (210) and Prasad et al. (2007), the latter due this decrease in Hb percentage to the presence of some hemolytic bioactive constituents and/or their metabolites in garlic. There was no significant effect (P0.05) of the different treatments on the packed cell volume (PCV), total red blood cells count and total white blood cells. Haemtological
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parameters in birds had been shown to be influenced by various factors including physiological (age, sex) Alodan, and Mashlay (1999) environmental conditions (as season), diet contents and age Seiser et al. (2010) . There was no effect of garlic inclusion in broiler feed in blood parameters except in haemoglobin concentration. Table (5) represents the effect of different levels of garlic powder on lymphoid organs (bursa, spleen and thymus). Both bursa and thymus showed no significant difference (P0.05) between the different treatments. Spleen weight was decreased significantly (P<0.05) in birds fed 3 and 5% level compared to 0% level. No structural changes observed in the shape of bursa, spleen and the thymus of the different groups.

ELAGIB ET AL.

Table 4: The effect of supplementation of different levels of Garlic on Haematological parameters. Parameters Garlic level SE 0% 3% 5% a b b Hb % 77.7 66.6 62.2 1.81 PCV 22.0 24.0 23.7 1.07 RBCs ( 106) 1.53 1.20 1.30 1.27 TWBCs( 103) 2.56 2.37 2.17 1.59
(a, b, c) Means in the same row with different superscript are significantly different at (P 0.05).

Table 5: The effect of supplementation of different levels of Garlic on lymphoid organ weights. Treatment Parameters 0% 3% 5% Bursa 1.36 1.18 2.14 Spleen 1.67a 1.01b 1.23b Thymus 5.81 6.02 6.19
(a, b, c) Means in the same row with different superscript are significantly different at (P0.05).

SE 0.42 0.12 1.62

The data of carcass parameters is shown in table (6). The birds selected for determination of carcass parameters showed the same live body weight pattern of the different experimental treatments. The group of the birds fed the diet containing 3% garlic powder attained the highest hot weight, dressed weight, breast weight, fleshed breast weight and fleshed breast percentage,

followed by the birds fed 0% level and the lowest was attained by 5% level group. These results were not in line with findings of Javandelet al. (2008) and Onibi et al. (2009) who stated that garlic supplementation had no significant effects on major carcass components and organ characteristics. This difference in the results can be due to the different levels used in the different experiments

Table 6: The effect of supplementation of different levels of Garlic on carcass parameters. Treatment Traits SE 0% 3% 5% Hot Wt.(g) 1143.0ab 1282.0a 955.3b 74.4 ab a Dressed Weight (g) 934.33 1062.00 764.00b 68.30 Dressing % 81.70 82.74 79.95 1.34 Legs Wt. (g) 260 260 238 25.6 Fleshed Breast Wt.(g) 205ab 250a 155b 18.57 Fleshed Breast % 21.9ab 23.6a 20.2 b 0.89
Means in the same column with the same superscript are not significantly different. S.E = Standard error of means.

The data on slaughter weight follows the same pattern as hot carcass weight; in that the group fed the diet containing 3% level attained the highest dressed weight, and the lowest dressed weight was attained by the birds fed the diet supplemented with 5% garlic powder. Dressing out percentage showed no significant difference (P0.05) between the various treatments. The significant (P<0.05) highest breast weight was attained by 3% level followed by 0% and 5% levels, respectively.
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Conclusion The results clearly indicated that the best production performance parameters were attained by the birds those fed the diet supplemented with 3% level of garlic powder, the lower performance were attained by the birds fed 5% level. The performance of the birds fed on the 0% level was intermediate between that of the two diets. It can be recommended that garlic can be used as feed
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additives at level of 3% to improve the overall performance of broiler chicks. References


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