(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 11, No.

10, October 2013

Active Queuing Mechanism for WCDMA Network
Vandana Khare 1, Dr. . Madhavee !atha ", Dr. D. #rinivas$ao %
1

Associate professor & HOD ECE, RITW, Hyderabad, India RECW, !ec"nderabad, India

2

Professors & Principal

#

Professors & Head ECE Depart$ent, %&T', Hyderabad, India

A&stract: T/e net2or0 traffic in t/e "pco$in2ireless net2or0 is e3pected to be e3tre$ely non4 stationary and ne3t -eneration 2ireless net2or0s incl"din- #rd -eneration are e3pected to pro)ide a 2ide ran-e of $"lti$edia ser)ices 2it/ different 5o! constraints on $obile co$$"nication beca"se of t/at t/ere is no -"arantee for a -i)en syste$ to pro)ide -ood 6"ality of ser)ice. !o t/at t/ere is a need to desi-n an efficient 6"e"in- $ec/anis$ by 2/ic/ t/e 5o! is -oin- to be i$pro)ed for 2ideband ser)ices. T/is paper proposes an efficient acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent $ec/anis$ to control t/e con-estion at t/e ro"ter. T/is paper is $ainly ai$ed to2ards t/e WCD A sc/e$e for 2ideband ser)ices li0e )ideo. !o t/at it inte-rates t/e WCD A 2it/ IR4RA& "sin- acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent. 7y si$"lation res"lt o"r proposed WCD A arc/itect"re alon- 2it/ acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent 8A5 9 2ill ac/ie)es t/e effecti)e pea0 si-nal to noise ratio 8P!&R9. Ke'words( WCD A, IP4RA&, 5o!, ,P!&R.

).)N*$+D,C*)+N
T/e cons"$ers of t/e f"t"re 2ill p"t ne2 re6"ire$ents and de$ands on ser)ices. Ho2e)er, t/e fact is t/at today 2e already "se different 0inds of $"lti$edia ser)ices, i.e. ser)ices t/at to so$e e3tent co$bine pict"res, $otion and a"dio. T/ese incl"de T:, )ideo and t/e Internet. any of t/ese applications /a)e beco$e f"nda$ental ele$ents of o"r li)es beca"se t/ey f"lfill basic needs. !o to access all t/ese ser)ices t/ere s/o"ld be $ini$"$ loss d"rin- data trans$ission. T/is can be ac/ie)ed by desi-nin- an efficient $edi"$ /a)in- $ini$"$ losses. &o2 a days t/e )ario"s types of ser)ices accessin- by $"lti "sers at a ti$e contains an i$portant data. !o t/is i$portant data /as to be recei)ed in t/e 2ay s"c/ t/at t/ere s/o"ld be $a3i$"$ percei)ed 6"ality. T/is bot/ feat"res can be obtained effecti)ely by inte-ratin- t/e WCD A co$$"nications 2it/ t/e IP net2or0s. T/e $ain ai$ in t/ese IP4RA& net2or0s is $aintainin- t/e

-ood 6"ality of ser)ice as 2ell as at a ti$e it /as to ac/ie)e $"lti /i-/ data rate ser)ices. T/e ai$ of $"lti /i-/ rate ser)ice accessin- can be ac/ie)ed by WCD A ;1<, beca"se it co$es "nder 2ideband co$$"nications. Anot/er ai$ of ac/ie)in- -ood 6"ality of ser)ice can be ac/ie)ed by desi-nin- an efficient con-estion ;#<, ;=< control $et/od at t/e ro"ter. Wit/ t/e increase in t/e data access "sint/ese protocol, de$ands for lar-er band2idt/ in co$in- f"t"re. Increasin- band2idt/ $ay not be a s"itable sol"tion as it is econo$ically non4 ad)isable. T/e decrease in t/e reso"rces $ay lead to con-estion ;=< in t/e net2or0 res"ltin- to co$plete collapsin- of t/e net2or0. A $ec/anis$ is /ence re6"ired to o)erco$e t/ese proble$s so as to s"pport lar-er data in t/e constraint reso"rce to pro)ide fair ro"tin- 2it/ least con-estion. T/is 2or0 proposes an acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent for control of con-estion in IP4RA& net2or0 2/ic/ is "tili>in- t/e Wide band code di)ision $"ltiple accesses 8WCD A9;2< at t/e trans$itter and recei)er sta-es, to $a3i$i>e net2or0 capacity 2/ile $aintainin- -ood )oice 6"ality. T/e principle "nderlyin- t/e sc/e$e is re-"lation of t/e IP RA& load by ad?"stin- t/e 6"e"e accordin- to t/e priority. IP ro"ters "sin- a drop tail $ec/anis$ d"rin- con-estion co"ld prod"ce /i-/ delays and b"rsty losses res"ltin- in poor ser)ice 6"ality. 'se of acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent at t/e ro"ters red"ces delays and loss correlation, t/ereby i$pro)inser)ice 6"ality d"rin- con-estion. T/is pro?ect ob?ecti)e is to i$ple$ent a efficient con-estion control $ec/anis$ on ro"ter "sin- acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent i$pro)in- t/e perfor$ance of IP4 7ased Radio Access &et2or0. T/e rest of t/e paper is or-ani>ed as follo2s( section II -i)es t/e details abo"t t/e syste$ $odel "sed. T/e co$plete detail abo"t t/e desi-n of an acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent for con-estion a)oidance at t/e ro"ter is ill"strated in section III. &e3t, section I: -i)es t/e res"lts e)al"ation for t/e proposed approac/, finally concl"sions are pro)ided in section:.

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)).# #*-M M+D-! T/is section -i)es t/e ill"stration abo"t t/e basic syste$ $odel "sed to i$ple$ent t/e proposed approac/. T/e proposed approac/ "tili>es t/e WCD A syste$ $odel to pro)ide t/e $"ltiple accessin- beca"se in 2ideband syste$s, t/e trans$ission band2idt/ of a sin-le c/annel is $"c/ lar-er t/an t/e co/erence band2idt/ of t/e c/annel. Code di)ision $"ltiple access tec/ni6"e co$es "nder 2ideband syste$s. T/e -eneral co$$"nication arc/itect"re of t/e proposed approac/ is s/o2n belo2.
#ource Mo&i0e *ransmitter $outing management Destination Mo&i0e $eceiver

Congestion contro00ing

str"ct"red ort/o-onal code. &e3t t/e !cra$blincodes $a0e t/e direct se6"ence CD A 8D!4 CD A9 tec/ni6"e $ore effecti)e in a $"ltipat/ en)iron$ent. It si-nificantly red"ces t/e a"to4 correlation bet2een different ti$e delayed )ersions of a spreadin- code so t/at t/e different pat/s can be "ni6"ely decoded by t/e recei)er. Additionally, scra$blin- codes separate "sers and base station sectors fro$ eac/ ot/er by allo2in- t/e$ to $ana-e t/eir o2n O:!@ trees 2it/o"t coordinatina$on-st t/e$sel)es. After t/at t/e spreader $essa-es fro$ $"ltiple so"rce nodes are s"$$ed to-et/er for trans$issions are spectrally o)erlapped and ti$e4o)erlapped. Adapti)e po2er control sc/e$es are e$ployed in WCD A tec/nolo-y for efficient trans$ission of $essa-es. T/e differential encodin- process at t/e trans$itter inp"t starts 2it/ an arbitrary first bit, ser)in- as a reference, and t/erefore t/e differentially encoded se6"ence d0 is -enerated by "sin- t/e lo-ical e6"ation
819

@i-.1.7asis Arc/itect"re based on WCD A T/e basic co$$"nication syste$ $odelin"tili>in- t/e WCD A as $"ltiple accessintec/ni6"es s/o2n in fi-.1 is ill"strated as follo2s( A. *ransmitter design In Wide band Code Di)ision "ltiple Access 8WCD A9 syste$ t/e inp"t band data si-nal is added to a /i-/ rate4spreadin- si-nal. T/is spreadin- si-nal is for$ed fro$ a pse"do4noise code se6"ence, 2/ic/ is t/en $"ltiplied by a Wals/ code for $a3i$"$ ort/o-onality to 8i.e. to /a)e lo2 cross4correlation 2it/9 t/e ot/er codes in "se in t/at cell. Typically, CD A pse"do4noise se6"ences are )ery lon-, t/ereby -i)in- e3cellent cross correlation c/aracteristics. T/e I!4+A syste$ can be t/o"-/t of as /a)in- $any layers of protection a-ainst interference. It allo2s $any "sers to co4e3ist, 2it/ $ini$al $"t"al interference. T/e spreadin- si-nals fro$ all t/e "sers are s"$$ed "p and trans$itted t/ro"-/ t/e DP!B $od"lator. T/e follo2in- fi-.2 -i)es t/e basic desi-n of t/e trans$itter "sin- in t/is approac/.

Where mk is the input binary digit at time KT b and dk-1 is the previous value of the differentially encoded digit. The symbol denotes module-two addition, and the use of an overbar denotes logical inversion. The differentially encoded se uence dk thus generated is used to phase-shift key a carrier with the phase angles ! and radians. The block diagram of the "#$K transmitter, which is used in this thesis, is shown in the fig above. %t consists in part, of a logic network and a one-bit delay element interconnected so as to convert an input binary se uence mk into a differentially encoded se uence dk in accordance with the above e uation.

B. Receiver Design
At t/e recei)er, t/e in)erse operation of trans$itter is perfor$ed to reco)er t/e ori-inal si-nal, 2/ile interferin- si-nals are considered as noise, and $ainly s"ppressed by t/e $atc/ed filter. T/e "lti 'ser Detector bloc0 in t/e recei)er carries 2it/ t/e ban0 of $atc/ed filters to dispread t/e "ser data at t/e recei)er o"tp"t.
Cold code -enerator

O:!@

'ser14data

O:!@ 'ser24data

!cra$blin- code -enerator

od"lator

Trans$itted data O:!@ 'ser # 4data !cra$blin- code -enerator

O:!@

@1 Cold code -enerator

'ser Data 1

!cra$blin- code -enerator

O:!@

@i-.2. Trans$itter bloc0 dia-ra$ Trans$issions fro$ a sin-le so"rce are separated by c/anneli>ation codes, i.e., do2nload connections 2it/in one sector and t/e dedicated p/ysical c/annel on t/e "plin0. T/e O:!@ c/anneli>ation code preser)es t/e ort/o-onality bet2een different p/ysical c/annels "sin- a tree4
edi"$ access controller

!ync/roni>ation

@2

'ser Data 2 Cold code -enerator O:!@

De$od"la tor

@# 'ser Data #

.ig.%.receiver /0ock diagram

43

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T/e basic f"nction of t/e DP!B de$od"lator is ill"strated /ere. At t/e recei)er, a reference carrier is created fro$ t/e inp"t si-nal. T/is reco)ered carrier is at t/e sa$e fre6"ency as t/at of t/e ori-inal carrier, b"t 2it/o"t any p/ase c/an-es, in t/e sense t/e reference carrier /as a constant p/ase, t/e reco)ery sc/e$e "sed is e3plained. T/e reco)ered carrier is $i3ed 2it/ t/e inp"t $od"lated si-nal to retrie)e t/e "n$od"lated si-nal. At t/e recei)er inp"t, t/e recei)ed DP!B si-nal pl"s noise is passed t/ro"-/ a band4pass filter centered at t/e carrier fre6"ency fc, so as to li$it t/e noise po2er. T/e filter o"tp"t and delayed )ersion of it, 2it/ t/e delay e6"al to t/e bit d"ration T b, are applied to a correlator. T/e res"ltin- correlator o"tp"t is proportional to t/e cosi-n of t/e difference bet2een t/e carrier p/ase an-les in t/e t2o correlator inp"ts. T/e correlator o"tp"t is finally co$pared 2it/ a t/res/old of a >ero )olts, and a decision is t/ereby $ade in fa)or of sy$bol 1 or sy$bol 1.T/is discri$ination bet2een t/e recei)ed codes is acco$plis/ed by $eans of a $atc/ed filter, 2/ose o"tp"t indicates 2/en a partic"lar code se6"ence is detected in t/e inp"t data strea$.A $atc/ed filter is a filter 2/ose fre6"ency response is desi-ned to e3actly $atc/ t/e fre6"ency spectr"$ of t/e inp"t si-nal. T/ese filters are "sed as si-nal processors in co$$"nications recei)ers to calc"late t/e correlation bet2een t/e trans$itted si-nal and t/e recei)ed si-nal. In WCD A syste$s t/e $atc/ed filter is t"ned to $atc/ a code se6"ence, 2/ic/ is e3pected to be contained 2it/in t/e di-ital sa$ples enterin- t/e syste$ recei)er. T/e $atc/ed filter indicates 2/en t/is code se6"ence is detected in t/e inp"t data strea$. T/e o"tp"t of a $atc/ed filter 2ill be a score )al"e. A /i-/er score )al"e indicates a $ore t"ned $atc/ 2it/ t/e code se6"ence of t/e recei)ed data strea$. T/is is also called correlation, and /ence a /i-/ score )al"e represents a -ood correlation of inp"t 2it/ t/e code se6"ence of interest. 'nli0e a trans$ission filter 2/ere t/e contin"o"s data strea$ enterin- t/e filter is $odified to for$ a ne2 contin"o"s data strea$, a $atc/ed filter o"tp"t $"st be considered to be a flo2 of indi)id"al res"lts. T/ese res"lts $"st t/en be analy>ed to identify t/e indi)id"al point 2/ere t/e $atc/ occ"rred. T/e $essa-e retrie)ed fro$ t/e $atc/ filters consists of $essa-e 2it/ t/e spreadin- code. Once t/e $essa-e of eac/ "ser is differentiated "sin- t/e $atc/ filter 7an0 t/e retrie)ed $essa-e bits are passed do2n to Dispread bloc0s, 2/ere t/ese $essa-e bits are a-ain $"ltiplied by t/e spreadin- code de)eloped by t/e -old code -enerator in t/e recei)er syste$. T/e dispreadin- of t/e $essa-e ta0es place e3actly opposite to t/e spreadin- $et/od. Here eac/ n4bit is represented by its e6"i)alent one bit of $essa-e. In t/is 2ay a s"ccessf"l co$$"nication is -oin- to be establis/ed bet2een so"rce and destination. An

i$portant c/allen-e in t/is sc/e$es addressincon-estion occ"rrence at t/e c/annel 8ro"ter9 fro$ enterin- t/e con-estion state rat/er t/an /a)in- to reco)er once con-estion /as occ"rred. A sc/e$e t/at allo2s t/e net2or0 to pre)ent con-estion is called a ro"ter desi-n for con-estion a)oidance is disc"ssed in ne3t section. ))). $+,*-$ D-#)1N *+ AV+)D C+N1-#*)+N T/is section -i)es t/e desi-n of a ro"ter $od"le 2/ic/ in present bet2een trans$itter and recei)er. T/e $ain p"rpose to desi-n t/is ro"ter is to control t/e con-estion ;#<, ;=< occ"rrin- at t/e ro"ter. T/ere are so $any con-estion control tec/ni6"es are proposed to a)oid t/e con-estion ta t/e ro"ter li0e drop tail ro"ter, rando$ early detection, acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent, etc., t/is section -i)es t/e co$plete description abo"t t/e acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent, beca"se t/is 2as -ainin- $ore researc/ interest in recent days. A. $+,*-$ M-C2AN)#)M# We ter$ a -ro"p of s"ccessi)e pac0ets in a 6"e"e, /a)in- t/e sa$e IP so"rce4destination addresses and t/e sa$e port n"$bers, as Db"rst of pac0ets belon-in- to t/e sa$e flo2E. T/e ro"ter acti)e 6"e"e $ana-e$ent al-orit/$ detects incipient congestion. In t/is case, t/e pac0et to be sent is c/ec0ed in order to identify t2o different conditions( 1, t/e pac0et is EC& $ar0ed, and 2, t/e pac0et is t/e last pac0et of a b"rst of pac0ets belon-in- to t/e sa$e flo2 and stored in t/e ro"terFs 6"e"e. W/en t/e pac0et is not $ar0ed 8condition 1 does not /old9, t/e EC& bit is set in t/e IP /eader. If condition 2 applies and if t/e pac0ets of t/e b"rst do not /old any EC& $ar0, an IC P so"rce 6"enc/ $essa-e is ret"rned to t/e so"rce of t/e b"rst.
t/res/old

...

incipient con-estion IC P so"rce 6"enc/ $essa-e to be sent EC& $ar0 2/en for2ardin- t/e last pac0et of t/e b"rst

@i-.=. Ro"tin- $ec/anis$ T/e EC& bit set in t/e IP /eader of a pac0et is "sed by t/e s"ccessi)e con-ested ro"ters as an indication t/at t/e b"rst /as already passed t/ro"-/ at least one con-ested ro"ter. Hence, an IC P so"rce 6"enc/ 2as already trans$itted to t/e sender for t/is b"rst and an additional IC P so"rce 6"enc/ trans$ission is a)oided. W/en t/e ro"terFs 6"e"e beco$es f"ll, t/e 6"e"e enters t/e congestion state and t/e arri)in- pac0ets are dropped. T/e 6"e"ed

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pac0ets to be sent are c/ec0ed as in t/e incipient con-estion case. /.#ender mechanisms T/e sender reaction to net2or0 con-estion is t/e $ost sensiti)e part of a con-estion a)oidance sc/e$e, infl"encin- t/e loss rate at t/e bottlenec0 lin0 8/i-/ if t/e sendin- rate is too /i-/9, t/e efficient "tili>ation of reso"rces 8lo2 if t/e sendinrate is too slo29, and t/e fairness a$on- t/e flo2s in)ol)ed. &e-otiations bet2een sender8s9 and recei)er8s9 by $eans of end4to4end flo2 control $ec/anis$s allo2 establis/in- data transfer rate bo"ndaries a-reed by recei)er8s9. T/ese bo"ndaries are /ereinafter called li$its. In t/e case of TCP;A<, t/e flo2 control is ens"red by a 2indo2 $ec/anis$ t/at "ses a field in t/e ac0no2led-$ents to ad)ertise t/e b"ffer space of t/e recei)er to t/e sender. In t/e case of 'DP, flo2 control $ec/anis$s, if any, are /andled at a /i-/er layer. We foc"s belo2 on t/e al-orit/$ "sed to ad?"st t/e data transfer rate offered by t/e sender to IC P so"rce 6"enc/. As lon- as no IC P so"rce 6"enc/ /as been recei)ed since t/e data transfer started, t/e so"rces 0eep on sendin- data at t/e rate $onitored by t/e "pper layer $ec/anis$s 8e.-. TCP for TCP flo2s, application for 'DP flo2s9. W/en t/e first IC P so"rce 6"enc/ arri)es indicatin- con-estion or incipient con-estion, additional $ec/anis$s are acti)ated at t/e sender side. )V.$-#,!*# This section gives the complete illustration about the performance evaluation of the proposed approach. There are &! wireless nodes move randomly in a given 1!!!'1!!! m ( s uare. )ideo se uences are in the .avi format. We encoded the video into *#+,- formatted file, and transmitted through the network shown below. .inally compare the file after transmission with the original file, and calculate the #$/0 1#eak $ignalto-/oise 0atio2 value. #$/0 is one of the most widespread ob3ective metrics to assess the application-level 4o$ of video transmissions. .irst to evaluate the numerical analysis we have to evaluate the mean s uare error between the original video and recovered video. Then the #$/0 can be evaluated by applying the logarithm for that *$+. The formulae for *$+ and #$/0 evaluation are shown below. !EG 829 W/ere t/e reco)ered )ideo is se6"ence and is t/e ori-inal )ideo se6"ence.

P!&RG11Hlo-8 !E9 8#9 T/e 2ireless band2idt/ is set as 11 b. &ode co$$"nication radi"s is set as #11$. T/e len-t/ of interface 6"e"e is set 111.
N o d e D is t rib u t io n in R a n d o m T o p o lo g y 600

18 9 22 21

28

29 3 5 12 23 10 26 6 27 11 17 4

500

7

400

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300

25

15 2 20 19

200

16
100

30

14 24 13

0

1
300 400 500 600

0

100

20 0

@i-A.Rando$ topolo-y in net2or0s In t/is 2or0 to e)al"ate t/e proposed approac/ 2e /ad considered a net2or0 /a)in- #1 nodes. T/e area of t/e net2or0 considered is *11 $I2. In t/is net2or0 t/e nodes are distrib"ted in rando$ fas/ion. T/e 34a3is denotes len-t/ of t/e net2or0 alon- /ori>ontal direction and t/e y4a3is denotes t/e len-t/ alon- t/e )ertical direction
N e t w o rk in r a n d o m t o p o lo g y w it h li n k s 600

18 9 22 21

28

29 3 5 12 23 10 26 6 27 11 17 4

500

7

400

8

300

25

15 2 20 19

200

16
100

30 24

14 13

0

1
300 400 500 600

0

100

200

. @i-*. &et2or0 in rando$ topolo-y 2it/ lin0s. T/e abo)e fi-"res s/o2s t/e co$plete lin0s pro)ided fro$ eac/ and e)ery node to eac/ and e)ery node. @or t/is p"rpose t/e distance fro$ node to node /as to be e)al"ated. T/en only t/e lin0s are -oin- to be plotted by co$parin- it 2it/ t/e net2or0 ran-e. T/"s to pro)ide a lin0 bet2een t2o nodes t/e distance bet2een t/at t2o nodes s/o"ld be less t/an t/e net2or0 ran-e.
N e t w o r k w it h s e le c t e d r o u t e 600

18 9 22 21

28

29 3 5 12 23 10 26 6 27 11 13 1
300 400 500 600

500

17 4

7

400

8

300

25

15 2 20 19

200

16
100

30 24

14

0

0

100

200

@i-J. &et2or0 2it/ selected ro"te . T/e abo)e fi-"re s/o2s t/e pat/ establis/ed bet2een t2o nodes. Here t/e node 21 is considered as so"rce node and t/e node 11 is considered as destination node. To establis/ t/e pat/ bet2een t/ese t2o nodes first t/e so"rce node /as to send t/e re6"est pac0et to destination node t/en t/e destination node /as to be ac0no2led-e an ac0no2led-e$ent to so"rce. If t/e so"rce recei)es

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t/eac0no2led-e fro$ t/e -i)en destination node t/en t/e pat/ is said to be establis/ed. T/en only t/e co$$"nication for infor$ation transfer is -oin- to be occ"rred bet2een t/ose t2o nodes.
O rig in a l V id e o s e q u e n c e

@i-11. Reco)ered )ideo se6"ence "sin- A5 T/e abo)e fi-"re denotes t/e reco)ered )ideo se6"ence at t/e decoder. It is al$ost sa$e as is it is of t/e inp"t )ideo sa$ple -i)en at t/e so"rce node. !o t/at t/e proposed $et/od is said to be efficient.
P S N R p lo t 100 90 80 70 60 P SNR 50 40 30 20 10 0 A A Q M m e th o d W R E D m e th o d

0

50

100 150 F ra m e In d e x

200

250

@i-K. Ori-inal )ideo se6"ence T/e abo)e fi-"re represents t/e ori-inal )ideo se6"ence ta0en to process t/ro"-/ t/e selected pat/ bet2een so"rce node and destination node. T/e -i)en )ideo file for$at is 6cif.y"). T/e proposed al-orit/$s applied on t/is )ideo one by one and t/e perfor$ance is analy>ed by e)al"atin- t/e P!&R for obtained )ideo at destination @i-11.P!&R plot T/e abo)e fi-"re denotes t/e P!&R plot for t/e proposed approac/ and also for pre)io"s approac/. @irst to e)al"ate t/e n"$erical analysis 2e /a)e to e)al"ate t/e $ean s6"are error bet2een t/e ori-inal )ideo and reco)ered )ideo "sin- e6"ation 829. T/en t/e P!&R can be e)al"ated by applyin- t/e lo-arit/$ for t/at !E. T/is is e)al"ated by e6"ation 8#9. @ro$ t/e adobe fi-"re.1# it is clear t/at t/e obtained P!&R )al"e is /i-/ for proposed approac/ for a -i)en fra$e inde3. V.C+NC!,#)+N T/is paper introd"ces a ne2 approac/ "sinWCD A &et2or0 for fairness by $eans of t/e ro"ter ro"nd trip ti$e concept "sed by o"r $ec/anis$. We e)al"ated t/e $ec/anis$ be/a)ior by si$"lations and o"r res"lts s/o2 t/at it ac/ie)es fair s/arin- of net2or0 reso"rces "sin- little band2idt/ control o)er/ead. D"e to space li$itations, $any details of t/e al-orit/$ and si$"lation res"lts are not s/o2n in t/is paper. $-.-$-NC-# ;1< :en"-opal:.: and As/o0 antra)adi, ET/ecodin- spreadintradeoff in WCD A syste$sE, IEEE !elect .Areas Co$$"n.,)ol.21,pp.#+*4=1K,@eb2112. ;2< in-3i @an and Bai4ye"n-!i",EA d"al4$ode $"lti4"ser detector for D!4CD A syste$sE, IEEE%.select. Areas Co$$"n, )ol.21, pp.#1#4#1+, @eb2112. ;#< R. Re?aie, . Handley, D. Estrin. RAP( An End4to4end Rate4based Con-estion Control ec/anis$ for Realti$e !trea$s in t/e Internet. Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM’99, arc/ 1+++.

E x tra c te d F ra m e s

@i-+. E3tracted fra$es Cenerally a )ideo file is considered as a -ro"p of i$a-es 8fra$es9. !o to process any operation on an )ideo in t/e first sta-e 2e /a)e to e3tract t/e fra$es fro$ it. T/e abo)e fi-"re denotes t/e e3tracted fra$es for t/e -i)en )ideo se6"ence in t/e fi-11.
R e c o ve re d V id e o s e q u e n c e u s in g A A Q M m e t h o d

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 11, No. 10, October 2013

;=< D De L"cia, B. Obrac>0a. A Con-estion Control ec/anis$ for Reliable "lticast. IRT@ R RC $eetin-, !epte$ber 1++J. ;A< %. Pad/yle, %. B"rose, D. To2sley, R. Boodli. A TCP4friendly Rate Ad?"st$ent Protocol for Contin"o"s edia @lo2s o)er 7est Effort &et2or0. ' A!! C P!CI Tec/nical Report +K4 =J, October 1++K. An E3tended Abstract 2ill appear in t/e Proceedings of SIGMETRCICS'99. ;*< D. !isale$, H. !c/"l>rinne. T/e Loss4Delay 7ased Ad?"st$ent Al-orit/$( A TCP4@riendly Adaptation !c/e$e. Proceedings ofNOSSDAV 99!.

Dr.D.!reeni)as Rao is professor in ECE depart$ent %&T' Hyderabad. He p"blis/ed $any papers in international & national ?o"rnals. He is a fello2 of IETE and life $e$ber of I!TE Tec/nical !ociety. His area of researc/ in Ad)ance Co$$"nication, Co$p"ter net 2or0s & net2or0 sec"rity.

Dr.M. ad/a)ee Lat/a, presently 2or0in- as a Principal at RECW, !ec"nderabad. !/e recei)ed P/.D 8!i-nal Processin-9 fro$ %&T' Hyderabad. !/e /as $ore t/an 12 years of e3perience in t/e field of teac/in-. !/e contrib"ted )ario"s researc/ papers in ?o"rnals & Conferences of nationalNinternational rep"te. Her area of interest incl"des $"lti$edia syste$s, co$$"nication & si-nal processin-. !/e is senior $e$ber of I!TE, IETE & IEEE, Tec/nical societies.

rs. :andana B/are is p"rs"in- P/D in Co$$"nication En-ineerin- %&T' Hyderabad 8A.P9. !/e co$pleted .E 8Di-ital tec/ni6"es9 in 1+++ fro$ !C!IT!, I&DORE 8 .P9 India and 7.E in ECE in t/e year 1++= fro$ CEC 0ewa 1*.#2. $he

is working as 5ssociate Professor& Head ECE in
Ris/i Wo$ens En-ineerin- Colle-e, Hyderabad since %"ly 211#. !/e /as 1J years of teac/ine3perience. !/e /as p"blis/ed 1K researc/ papers in International ?o"rnals &presented o= papers in &ational & International conferences. !/e is $e$ber of IEEE & life $e$ber of I!TE & IETE Tec/nical societies. Her researc/ Interest incl"des co$p"ter net2or0s, $obile co$p"tin- and 7io4$edical i$a-in-.

47

http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

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