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Chapter II CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the theories and concepts related to the study. It gives emphasis to evaluate vital points of current studies and those comprehensive views of the previous researches and studies made by relevant references and authors. This conceptual framework constructed was based on the different variables of the study and the primary reasons that affect the students of NDDU involvement in different vices.

Conceptual Framework The framework has different variables includes the profile of NDDU students. The other variables are the different vices engaged specifically smoking, drinking, playing computer games, and drugs. It also demonstrates the factors that influenced students to involve in such vices namely: peers, environment, personal problems, and family. After those variables have been identified, the researchers will be able to recognize the significance and recommend ways for NDDU students to prevent involving in different vices. Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework.

Vices Smoking; Drinking; Playing Computer Games; and Drugs

NDDU Students

Recommendations

Factors Influencing Students Peers Environment Personal Problem Family

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework

Related Literature This part presents related literatures that were gathered through nonhuman resources. The researchers included articles coming from international and local reviews. Also, the researchers opted facts which are related to the subjects of the study.

Adolescence Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority). The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, though its physical, psychological and cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later. Physical growth, as distinct from puberty (particularly in males), and cognitive development generally seen in adolescence, can also extend into the early twenties. Thus chronological age provides only a rough marker of adolescence, and scholars have found it difficult to agree upon a precise definition of adolescence. A thorough understanding of adolescence in society depends on information from various perspectives, most importantly from the areas of psychology, biology, history, sociology, education, and anthropology. Within all of these perspectives, adolescence is viewed as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood, whose cultural purpose is the preparation of children for adult roles. It is a period of multiple transitions involving education, training,

employment and unemployment, as well as transitions from one living circumstance to another (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence).

Drinking Slurp down a few shots or guzzle a couple of beers and the bar is buzzing. Slam a few more and the world spins like a top. Gulp another pint and you might do something youll regret. Drink way too much and youll end up in the hospital. How much can you safely imbibe in the long run before your liver screams uncle? Well, heres the thing: Nobody really knows for sure. Studies on alcohol consumption are spotty and even long-standing guidelines, like the ones published by the British government more than 20 years ago, are being questioned. Some studies have shown that moderate drinkers (people who have one drink a day) have lower mortality rates than teetotalers. Others suggest that guys would have to drink twice that amount before they felt ill effects. The general consensus is that, for most people, moderate drinking is probably safe as far as acceptable vice intakes go. Not a definitive answer, but it can give you some comfort if youre used to a snifter of brandy or a can of brew every night. If, like some guys, you have trouble having just one, you should probably steer clear of the stuff (http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/08/03/ acceptable-vice-intakes- drinking-smoking-coffee-how-much-is-too-much/).

Smoking Nicotine is perhaps not the first thing that comes to mind when one is considering the wide variety of addictions that exist in todays modern world. However, numerous smokers will attest to the fact that stopping the use of nicotine is an extraordinarily difficult endeavor. Smoking is lethal in the long run and is a poisonous habit that almost always leads to nasty things like cancer, heart disease and lung disease. A few smokes now and again, however, cant hurt, right? Weve all heard stories of guys who quit af ter 15 or 20 years of sucking smoke. They brag about how pink and mucous-free their lungs are and how lung tissue almost always regenerates. Sorry to say, but theyre wrong. According to the American Cancer Society, studies have shown that smoking between one and four cigarettes a day can have serious effects on your health. You can probably get away with a cigarette every few months, but why take the chance? Even second-hand smoke can be lethal over time, so just put the pack down and seek help to kick the addiction. Itll be good for you. Trust us. Where acceptable vice intakes are concerned, smoking is not one of them (http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/08/03/ smoking-coffee-how-much-is-too-much/). acceptable-vice-intakesdrinking-

Vices It is well known that when a student goes to college he encounters all sorts of vices such as ALCOHOL, CIGARETTES, SEX, DRUGS or BANNED

SUBSTANCES and GAMBLING. Such vices cannot be ignored anymore as to

the more students seem to be detaching from their parents, they seem to be enjoying freedom too much. Firstly, vices are forms of undesirable practices, habits or behaviours in the society. In most case, vices are usually carried out by students .Many factors contribute why the college students engage in vices. For example, it could be problems from home and relationships. Secondly, alcohol use among college students has been a theme for years. It is almost guaranteed that students will be introduced to alcohol at one time or another during their time at school. Risks such consumption has an impact not only on college student. For example, if a person drinks alcohol and becomes violent it is not only affected are affected and other students, family, and anyone. Thirdly, drugs when they are abused, they lead to many undesirable consequences on a person. For example, teenagers who are shy, lonely and

lack self-confidence often find that drugs transform them into life of the party. For them, these vices are the key to social success. In conclusion there are several reasons why a teenager may take drugs or alcohol. Some teenagers are just bored and like to experiment this.

Alcohol, drugs and other vices existed long before we were born and will exist forever (http://www.studymode.com/essays/Bad-Vices-In-Students-1304695.html). It seems to be a "coming of age thing" when a student goes to college and encounters vices such as drinking, unprotected sex and gambling. Such vices

cannot be ignored anymore as to the more students seem to be detaching from their parents, they seem to be enjoying freedom too much. Some studies show that between non-college and those who are taking up college, drinking maybe quite a "thing" for college students when there are parties, events and other celebrations that can be thought of. Is this normal? A natural reaction to transitions might be the issue. From being under "rules" to the crossroads of the real life, things from the real life they might be experiencing might not come off good from the start. Such crossroads may be a time for experimenting, discovery and risky decisions. Although this might not apply to others, some of the college students who involve themselves in binge drinking, vices and even unprotected sex are either failing, dropping out or worse, ending up dead, making parents and administrators worried and that some of the laws and policies lack being implemented properly. Yes, there are deaths in students who have binge drinking and too much partying, this is caused by drinking and driving and other alcohol-related crimes. Is it because of kids' morality and views with drinking, peers and sex? Young people still need guidance, and the crossroads of their life like college, are one of the risky periods when they are tempted to try almost anything they have not experienced yet. Some of them may stop, and may be thought of as "just a phase", but what about those who do not and get caught up in the vice that it destroys the future? Should policies be changed? Yes, it should adapt to different situations. National policies are being thought of in line with campuses' rules and implementation. Different academic institutions have

different approaches, having one national strategy could help those campuses who have a hard time making (www.termpaperwarehouse.com/signin?save_ page=%2Fessay-on%2FBadVies-In-Students%2F119891). Teenagers have bad habits that can affect their lives, because of the vices, the sexual interactions and rebellions. Teenage years are a crucial part of growing up. Teenage life is a very complicated and challenging in terms of age it ranging 13 to 19 year old. And as we all know teenagers nowadays are keeping up with the trends. They want to get what they want in an instant. They dont care about the feelings of the people around them. They keep doing what makes them happy even if its not right. Thats why teenagers have a bad habits that can affect their lives, because if the vices, the sexual interactions and rebellions. Teenagers in todays life are very complicated and challenging. There are so many distractions that affect their life and studies. One of them is the teenage vices, like Drinking alcohol, smoking, sex and many more. Almost half of the teenagers know how drink alcohol, smoke a cigarette and having a casual sex and most of them are high school and college students. They keep doing those things with their peers. They were doing it as a habit and as a past time which is bad. Thats why many teenagers now days became teenage Parents because they keep doing those vices especially the casual sex. We all know that Sexual Interaction is a mortal sin especially if you are not married because it is only for those people who commit their self through the word and God and for love. But now why some teenagers do this? Believe it or not some do this for fun and curiosity. Fun because they interact with every

people around them and used it to express what they have and because it is a need of everyone and also they compare. Curiosity because they want know how it feel to have a sex with their partner some used sex to express their love to their partner. Thats why we have an early mother and father these are teenage rs who cannot handle their self (http://www.studymode.com/essays/Teenagers-HaveBad-Habits-That-Can-1492133.html).

Related Studies This part presents related studies that were gathered through non-human resources such as thesis and dissertations. The researchers included studies coming from international and local reviews. Also, the researchers chose facts which are related to the subjects of the study.

International According to Kalyani and Singh (2006) in his study entitled; A Study on Causes and Etilogy of Personal Vices, addiction to the personal vices may cause lot of behavioural, cognitive, affective, situational, and physical consequences. A total number of 500 employees of GSK, Rajahmundry, East Godavari District, A.P, Indiawere interviewed by the tool, Questionnaire. Group discussions were held, individual interviews were conducted and a part of the sample were delineated as a clinical group. The selected sample were analyzed based on the data obtained from the survey. Effective behavioral techniques like hypnosis, counseling, chemotherapy and other spiritual methods were suggested

as the remedial measures or strategies. A large percentage of the people accepted that the vices are harmful and they will definitely modify their bahaviour according if support is given by the society. It was concluded that the human behavior can be modified into an integrated and socially responsible manner with self disciplined mechanism by leading him towards success. The success of the organization depends on the personal success of every employee. The organization will excel where the human resource is motivated and streamlined with highest potential towards a common goal. (http://www.shvoong.com/ humanities/421851-study-causes-etilogy-personal-vices/) According to Panner (2013) in his study entitled; Healthcare Industry, people say that college years are the most pleasurable phase for

experimentation and discovery of oneself. Aside from learning, students are acquainted with different people coming from different regions and countries. These results to sudden adjustments and peer pressure that gets in the way of the students behaviour and changes. Even worst is the abrupt practices students adopt from others that includes vices. The purpose of this study is to have advance knowledge about the vices of college students in the present time. Knowing the types of vices that are circulating around campuses would give information not only for the researcher buts also for the readers, educators and parents who are significantly involved in this study. The study will include surveys and interviews among college students for the purpose of coming up with the research. It attempts to know the percentage of students who engages in these practices and also to know more vices that are not known to many but are being

practiced by some students (http://www.studymode.com/essays/HealthcareIndustry-1498172.html). According to Pettus (2011) in his study entitled; Students Bad Habits May Lead to an Incomplete, the work is too hard he said. Many students

around the country are making this complaint about college coursework and classes in their school and end up dropping out of college. According to MSNBC.com, 54% of college students never finish college. Why is that? Students try to make excuses for work studies, course load, long hours, cost, etc., and others may admit college isnt for them. There are distinct differences between successful students and unsuccessful ones that fall short of completing a college degree. One difference, I find that students who are most successful in completing a college degree are dedicated. Dedication plays an important part in students success. This requires that they follow through even when they dont feel lik e and attend all the classes. They purchase the required classroom material and school books. Also, they complete the homework assignments by their due date. Unsuccessful students have a lackluster attitude towards school. He or she fills school is boring and uninteresting. The classrooms are overcrowded, and the classroom sessions are too long. They usually miss a lot of classes or have excessive tardiness. They complain that the books are too expensive or never purchase the books at all. Another thing which leads them dropping out or failing is not completing the homework assignments or turning in many

assignments late or not at all. Both students have good intentions about furthering their education but dedication and determination are key factors. Another difference is study habits of students. Good study habits are key to an individuals success. I find that successful students schedule studying into their daily routine. This allows them to focus on school work and assignments due for class. They sometimes get involved with a study group to find encouragement as well. This group can aid in problem solving

(http://www.studymode.com/essays/Students-Bad-Habits-1033693.html).