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Information Sheet No.

2 ECG, EEG, and EMG SIGNALS


ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (ECG) SIGNAL DEFINITION: o The electrical activity associated with the functioning of the heart is nown as electrocardiogram. o E!" is a #uasi$%eriodical& rhythmically re%eating signal synchroni'ed (y the function of the heart& which acts as a generator of (ioelectric events. o This generated signal can (e descri(ed (y means of a sim%le electric di%ole )%ole consisting of a %ositive and negative %air of charge*. o The waveforms thus recorded have (een standardi'ed in terms of am%litude and %hase relationshi%s and any deviation from this would reflect the %resence of an a(normality.

Fig +., Normal wave %attern of E!" waveform recorded in the standard lead %osition Sector: BES Level: NCII
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Module Title Biomedical Signal

Version 0.0 07-05-2007 1o 5

Information Sheet No. 2 ECG, EEG, and EMG SIGNALS


o The normal wave %attern of the electrocardiogram is shown in Fig. ,.+. The 43 and 4/ interval& measured from the (eginning of the 4 wave to the onset of the 3 or / wave res%ectively& mar s the time which an im%ulse leaving the S$- node )Fig. ,.5* ta es to reach the ventricles. o The 43 interval normally lies (etween 6.,2 to 6.2 s. o The /3S interval& which re%resents the time the heart im%ulse travels first through the inter$ventricle system and then through the free walls of the ventricles& normally varies from 6.67 to 6.,6 s. o The T wave re%resents re$%olari'ation of (oth ventricles. o The /T interval& therefore& is the %eriod for one com%lete ventricle contraction )systole*. o 8entricle diastole& starting from the end of the T wave e9tends to the (eginning of the ne9t / wave. o Ty%ical am%litude of /3S is , m8 for a normal human& when recorded in lead I %osition. S$- . Sino . -trial node

Fig ,.5 The %osition of sino$atrial node in the heart from where the im%ulse res%onsi(le for the electrical activity of the heart originates. The arrows show the %ath of the im%ulse. Sector: BES Level: NCII
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Module Title Biomedical Signal

Version 0.0 07-05-2007 2o 5

Information Sheet No. 2 ECG, EEG, and EMG SIGNALS ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG) SIGNALS
The (rain generates rhythmical %otentials which originate in the individual neurons of the (rain These %otentials get summated as millions of cell discharge synchronously and a%%ear as a surface waveform& nown as the electroence%halogram )Fig. ,.7*. The neurons are electrically %olari'ed at rest. The interior of the neuron is at a %otential of a(out $:6 m8 relative to the e9terior. The EE" signal can (e %ic ed u% with electrodes either from the scal% or directly from the cere(ral corte9. The %ea $to$%ea am%litude of the waves that can (e %ic ed u% from the scal% is normally ,66 ;8 or less while that on the e9%osed (rain& it is a(out , m8. The fre#uency varies greatly with different (ehavioral states. The normal EE" fre#uency content ranges from 6.7 to 76 <'. The nature of the wave varies over the different %arts of the scal%. Fre#uency information is %articularly significant since the (asic fre#uency of the EE" range is classified into the following five (ands for %ur%oses of EE" analysis: Delta )=* Theta )>* -l%ha )@* 1eta )B* "amma )C* 6.7$5 <' 5$? <' ?$,+<A ,+$22 <' 22$+6 Hz

The al%ha rhythm is one of the %rinci%al com%onents of the EE" and is an indicator of the state of DalertnessD of the (rain. It serves as an indicator of the de%th of anesthesia in the o%erating room.

Sector: BES Level: NCII


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Module Title Biomedical Signal

Version 0.0 07-05-2007 !o 5

Information Sheet No. 2 ECG, EEG, and EMG SIGNALS

Fig. ,.7 Ty%ical EE" signal waveform

Sector: BES Level: NCII


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Module Title Biomedical Signal

Version 0.0 07-05-2007 "o 5

Information Sheet No. 2 ECG, EEG, and EMG SIGNALS Electromyo ram (EMG) S! nal"
The contraction of s eletal muscle results in the generation of action %otentials in the individual muscle fi(ers& a record of which is nown as electromyogram # The activity is similar to that o(served in cardiac muscle& (ut in s eletal muscle& re$ %olari'ation ta es %lace much more ra%idly& the action %otential lasting only a few milliseconds. The electrical activity of the underlying muscle mass can (e o(served (y means of surface electrodes on the s in. In voluntary contraction of s eletal muscle& the muscle %otentials range from 76 ;v to 7 m8 and the duration 2 to ,7 ms. the values vary with the anatomic %osition of the muscle and the si'e and location of the electrode.

Fig. ,.E The wave sha%e of a ty%ical EF" signal

Sector: BES Level: NCII


TESD- . /!01SD! 23-

Module Title Biomedical Signal

Version 0.0 07-05-2007 5o 5