thickness and traction
Andy Olver
Professor of Tribology
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Contents of talk
• Film thickness
• Viscosity
• Temperature and pressure
• Shear thinning
• Errors in film thickness calculation
• Traction
• ReeEyring vs Carreau
• Determining the parameters
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication
• Hydrodynamic lubrication + elastic deformation of
surfaces + effect of pressure on viscosity
• First analysis probably by Ertel but usually
attributed to Grubin, mid 20
th
C
• Shows that relatively thick oil films are present in
gears and rolling bearings (few hundred nm)
• Thickness of oil film is typically found from
regression equations based on numerical
solutions to coupled
Reynolds+elasticity+piezoviscosity relations
Parameters affecting film thickness
Dimensionless groups
Regression equations for film thickness
e.g. Those due to Chittenden et al. for elliptical contact:
Variation of viscosity with temperature
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,
c
P
100
50
0
40
60 80 100
20
Temperature C
dT
dη
η
γ
1
=
Viscosity temperature
coefficient:
≈ − 0.05 C
1
Not constant with temperature, i.e.
viscosity not exponential with
temperature
ViscosityTemperature equations
Name Equation Comments
Reynolds very inaccurate
Andrade OK at high temperature
Eyring
Slotte quite accurate
Vogel accurate even at
low temperature
Walther basis of ASTM method
aT be− = η
T a be / = η
( ) c T b ae − = / η
bT
ae η
−
=
b/T
ae η =
( ) c T b/
ae η
−
=
( )
c
T b
a
η
+
=
c
/T
bd a ν
1
+ =
Temperatures in EHL contact
oil
Viscosity pressure relationships
Pressure, GPa
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,
P
a
s
Mil L23699
23 C
100 C
165 C
From Bair, S, J. Tribology, 123 (2001) p435
Roelands:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
−
(
¸
(
¸
+ = 1 1 exp
0
0 0
0
z
p
p
z
p α
η η
η = η
ο
e
αp
Barus
[Log scale]
η
0
α
Velocity distributions in the film
Pure rolling:
Rolling –sliding:
Viscous
Plastic
Shear bands
Shear thinning: variation of “viscosity” with shear rate
S
h
e
a
r
s
t
r
e
s
s
,
τ
Strain rate, z U d / d
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,
η
Strain rate, z U d / d
NonNewtonian (“shear thinning”) fluid
Newtonian fluid


.

\

= =
−
e
e
p p τ
γ η τ τ
µ
0
1
sinh
2
1
2
0 0
1
−
(
(
¸
(
¸


.

\

+ = =
n
e
p p τ
γ η γ η τ
µ
Two equations are commonly used for EHL traction calculations:
ReeEyring:
Carreau
n
h
u
z
u
p
e
c
x
τ
γ
η
τ
µ
∆
≈ =
d
d
0
Coeff of friction
Shear stress
Mean pressure
Viscosity at zero strain rate
Shear strain rate
Constants...
Shear thinning formulae for hydrocarbon liquids
0.00E+00
1.00E+07
2.00E+07
3.00E+07
4.00E+07
5.00E+07
6.00E+07
1.00E+04 1.00E+05 1.00E+06 1.00E+07
Newton
ReeEyring
Carreau
.0
µ
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
γ
n
p
e
τ
η
0
43 Pa s
1 GPa
11.8 MPa
0.45
Comparison of shear thinning Equations
Minitraction machine
Fix bulk temperature, load.
Determine friction as a function
of mean surface (“entrainment”)
speed, for several different slide
roll ratios...”Stribeck” curves
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
1 10 100 1000 10000
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
Mean Speed, mm/s
100 @ 5
Red Yellow Orange Purple Blue
5%SRR
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
1 10 100 1000 10000
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
Mean Speed, mm/s
100 @ 20
Red Yellow Orange Purple Blue
20%SRR
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
1 10 100 1000 10000
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
Mean Speed, mm/s
100 @ 50
Red Yellow Orange Purple Blue
50%SRR
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
1 10 100 1000 10000
C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
o
f
f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
Mean Speed, mm/s
100 @ 100
Red Yellow Orange Purple Blue
100%SRR
Effect of runningin on traction behaviour
3D Stribecktraction curve
ReeEyring
ReeEyring
Reasonable fit for low slide roll ratio, but thermal droop at high slideroll
Need to account for thermal effect...
5%
20%
50%
100%
Traction data compared to ReeEyring Equation
Slideroll ratios
Thermal correction
α
γ
τ
η
η
γ
τ
τ
τ
γ
τ
η
τ
η
τ
η
η
τ τ
γ
k
h
T k
h
k
h
T
T T
e e
e
8
1
8
δ
8
δ
δ
δ
2 2
2
=
∂
∂
=
=
=


.

\

∂
∂

.

\

∂
∂


.

\

∂
∂
=
Noting that:
and, for a ReeEyring fluid at τ >>τ
e
The temperature rise is
And so the fractional temperature correction is
Thermally corrected traction coefficient
Now repeat for the
next temperature!
Extracting rheological coefficients from friction data
Fit friction data to suitable isothermal traction equation at low slide
roll ratio
Use this to determine, effective viscosity, critical stress
Adjust measured data by a theoretical fraction depending on
thermal properties until good fit is obtained across the range of
sliding speeds. Use this to determine the effective conductivity
Repeat for a range of temperatures and pressures(!)
Use results to predict traction (and film temperature) for any target
contact.
Conclusions
• A protocol for extracting a description of
the EHL traction behaviour of an oil
from simple bench tribometer tests has
been proposed
• This can be used in conjunction with a
coupled thermal EHL model to predict
traction over a wide range of conditions
for competing oils.