City Beautiful Movement

• To understand Chicago of the early 1900s, consider this observation from Truesdale Marshall, the protagonist of Henry Blake Fuller's novel, "With the Procession:" "[Chicago is a] hideous monster …so pitifully grotesque, gruesome, appalling." • Many people, foreigners and Americans alike, felt the same way about most cities in America. • By 1910, many cities contained one million residents, but few planned properly for such a population explosion. As a result, cities developed in an ad hoc fashion. This made them shapeless, inefficient and, in many cases, dangerous.



City Beautiful
• Daniel Hudson Burnham, a Chicago architect, began to address these issues in an approach to urban planning that would become known as the City Beautiful movement. • City Beautiful was characterized by the belief that if you improved form, function would follow. In other words, an attractive city would perform better than an unattractive one. • Beauty came from what Burnham called "municipal art" -magnificent parks, highly designed buildings, wide boulevards, and public gathering places adorned with fountains and monuments. Such beautiful additions to the cityscape could not directly address perceived social ills, but they could, at least in Burnham's thinking, indirectly improve social problems by enhancing the urban environment.



City Beautiful
• Burnham first displayed the City Beautiful principles at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. • His dream city, known as White City, featured largescale monuments, electric lights & state-of-the-art transport systems. It also removed all visible signs of poverty so that the roughly 27 million visitors who streamed through the exhibition witnessed a true urban utopia.


The Administration Building at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, where Daniel Hudson Burnham's City Beautiful movement made its debut.

. and San Francisco. the first comprehensive plan for controlled growth of an American city. Manila.City Beautiful Movement ASAP. D. Ohio.C. • He directed plans for Washington. AUUP • Burnham then applied City Beautiful ideas to several city designs between 1902 and 1905. Cleveland. 4 . but the culmination of the movement came in 1906 when Burnham teamed up with Edward Bennett to prepare the Plan of Chicago.

AUUP 5 . such as the twin level roadway. • Some of these features. • straightening of the Chicago River • consolidation of competing rail lines and • an integrated park system that encompassed a 20-mile park area along Lake Michigan. ASAP.Chicago • The Plan encompassed the development of Chicago within a 60-mile radius and called for a double decker boulevard to better accommodate commercial and regular traffic. were firsts in any city. anywhere in the world.

appointed by Napoleon Bonaparte. began reworking the city. making it more suitable and attractive for the vast numbers of visitors. Georges Eugéne Haussmann. in another era of notable development beginning in the 1850s. • Planning of Paris began in earnest in the 1600s during the reign of Louis XIV when architects used great foresight to build squares.City Beautiful Movement ASAP. parks and avenues in areas that were barely settled. it was able to grow into its design. Burnham used Paris as a successful model of urban planning. • Burnham also recognized the contribution of the ancient planners responsible for Athens and Rome. AUUP • Although the City Beautiful movement was revolutionary in America. Then. merchants. In particular. • As Paris increased its population. as well as the planning tradition that went back for centuries. manufacturers and residents who filled the city. it drew upon urban planning ideas used for many years in Europe. 6 .

2013 .08. AUUP PLANNING CONCEPTS Patrick Gaddes 01.ASAP.

function and environment. place and work’. He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter. has been called the father of modern town planning. function i. Geddes did much of his pioneering work in the Old Town of Edinburgh.Geddes’ name and spirit are imperishably associated with Ramsay Garden and the Outlook Tower. environment (Social aspect) (Economical aspect) (Physical aspect) 8 . the city and the surrounding open country and the region. but also food and work. • FOLK WORK PLACE i. organism i. Geddes was concerned with the relationship between people and cities and how they affect one another. . the recreation and social life.e.e. which corresponds to organism. • • The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among ‘Folk.Patrick Geddes • ASAP.e. both in Castle hill. This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood. AUUP Scottish origin. having made his home there in 1886.

AUUP • • • • “Cities in Evolution’ – published in 1915 – essence of the book – city beautiful movement and too many small schemes here and there like garden cities were only poor examples of town planning. City design 9 . and unnecessary obsolescence. Rural development – 3. waste. Town planning – 4. followed by overcrowding and slum formation. True city design have little in common and repeating the same over all the three was disastrous and economically wasteful Each valid scheme should and must embody the full utilization of its local and regional conditions Geddes was the originator of the idea and technique of Regional survey and city survey The sequence of planning is : – 1. In this book he coined the term “Conurbation” to describe the waves of population inflow to large cities. and then the wave of backflow – the whole process resulting in amorphous sprawl.Patrick Geddes • • ASAP. Regional survey – 2.

10 .Patrick Geddes ASAP. which was studied appreciatively not only throughout Britain but also abroad. in France. • He died there in 1932. and in 1924 he settled at Montpellier. having been knighted that year. Cities and Town Planning. From 1920-23 he was Professor of Civics and Sociology at the University of Bombay. AUUP • In 1911 he created a milestone exhibition.

it still holds the camera obscura. A mirror at the top of the dome picks up images and reflects then through a lens which in turn focuses the picture onto a white surface as on a film in a camera.The Outlook Tower Interpreter’s House ASAP. visual thinking. 11 • • . and commitment to understanding the city in the region.Sociological Laboratory • • Patrick Geddes took over the building formerly known as ‘Short’s Observatory’ in 1892. index-museum and the ‘world’s first sociological laboratory’. It represents the essence of Geddes’s thought . for study and survey.his holism. The tower was conceived as a tool for regional analysis. From the Prospect Roof of the Outlook Tower are spectacular views across the Firth of Forth and the surrounding city region. AUUP Index Museum . Positioned at the top of the Edinburgh’s High Street. which refracts an image onto a white table within.

to see its many sides in their proper relations.AUUP ASAP.Sociological Laboratory • He said of it: ‘Our greatest need today is to conceive life as a whole. Index Museum . He can also grasp what a natural region actually is and how a great city is linked to such a region.The Outlook Tower Interpreter’s House . for from here everyone can make a start towards seeing completely that portion of the world he can survey. 12 .’ • Now the tower is home to the Patrick Geddes Centre For Planning Studies. where an archive and exhibition are housed. • Hence the first contribution of this Tower towards understanding life is purely visual. but we must have a practical as well as a philosophic interest in such an integrated view of life.

This work was formative in his development of a regional planning model called the "Valley Section“ This model illustrated the complex interactions among biogeography. AUUP In 1909. and to encourage regional planning models that would be responsive to these conditions 13 . geomorphology and human systems and attempted to demonstrate how "natural occupations" such as hunting. or fishing are supported by physical geographies that in turn determine patterns of human settlement. mining. The point of this model was to make clear the complex and interrelated relationships between humans and their environment. Geddes assisted in the early planning of the southern Edinburg.Regional Plan • • ASAP.

Before coming to India. • He laid emphasis on “Survey before plan” i.Patrick Geddes in India ASAP. the then Governor of Madras. AUUP • He came to India in 1915 at the invitation of Lord Pent land.e. These are the physical and social economic surveys. 14 . • He was the first man who introduced the sociological concept in the town planning. diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers and then prescribe the correct remedies for its cure. He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. he had successfully overcome the horrors of Edinburg slums.

Conservative Surgery ASAP. AUUP Balrampur (India) 15 .

AUUP • Retaining the native settlement pattern while improving the hygine and traffic flow • Minimises demolition through carefully plotted street expansion • Climate and local customs are also reflected in the provision of scattered treeshaded chowks – the mid street opening that harbour public life in traditional Indian cities 16 .Conservative Surgery Balarampur ASAP.

arouse civic enthusiasm let them express their individuality. he tirelessly promoted the idea of a civic survey • Reduce the number and width of paved streets in residential areas. & turn the land saved into a chain of usable open space to renew social life • Have flexible plots that might be combined easily or subdivided • Undo as little as possible • Persuade citizens to get involved.Conservative Surgery ASAP. AUUP • In his early involvement with the Old Town of Edinburg in late 1880s and with Dublin betwn 1911-1914. for streets will ‘look all the better for a certain freedom of treatment and rivalry between houses 17 .


an environment in which women may have an easy walk to a shopping centre where they may get the daily households goods. heavy traffic movement through the city. distant location of shopping and recreation activities. AUUP • The concept of neighbourhood unit was evolved due to the advent of industrial revolution & gradation of the city environment caused due to high congestion. schools which are within walking distance from home. etc. insecurity to school going children. With consideration to all the above physical factor's the Neighborhood concept was evolved. • Hence to create a safely healthy physical environment in which children will have no traffic streets to cross on their way to school. It is an environment in which a well equipped playground is located near the house where children may play in safety with their friends for healthy development of their mind and spirit.Neighbourhood Unit ASAP. employed people may find convenient transportation to and from work. 19 .

The Settlement House movement which began in London about 1885 was the first conscious recognition of the Neighbourhood as a basic unit in the urban structure or planning. PERRY wrote that these principles. The growth unit would range in size from 500 to 3.A. • • 20 .000). This would mean a population of between 5. the American Institute of Architects adopted the neighborhood unit as the recommended "GROWTH UNIT" for future urban growth.CLARENCE A. if complied with. the latter being on the circumference. "will result in a neighbourhood community in which the fundamental needs of family life will be met more completely. The neighbourhood unit is bounded by arterial roads or other boundaries. with open spaces. C.000 people. PERRY was the first one to specify the physical form of the neighbourhood unit (1872-1944). He described the neighbourhood unit as that populated area which would require & support an elementary school with an enrollment of between 1000 to 1200 pupils. AUUP NEIGHBOUHOOD UNIT • C. Population criteria may vary from place to place but it depends mainly upon the size of the neighborhood unit.000 dwelling units (population of between 1. Most importantly there was no through traffic within the Neighbourhoodunit. In 1972.700 and 10. school. community centre and local shops. PERRY CONCEPTION OF ASAP.000 and 6.A.

safe. curved layout and light duty surfacing. ASAP. 2. sports centre etc. spaces for outdoor recreation. Interior street pattern should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs. low volume traffic movement FACILITIES: Neighbourhood unit should consist of orderly arrangement of all those facilities including primary school. community centre. in relation to convenient walking distance to most essential social services STREET SYSTEM: Major arterial roads and through traffic route should not pass through residential neighbourhood. Instead these streets should provide the boundaries of the neighbourhood. UNIT OF URBAN PLANNING: It is a unit of urban planning considering population as a criterion to decide the size of a neighbourhood unit. so as to encourage a quiet.Principles of Neighbourhood Theory 1. AUUP 3. shopping centre. shopping adjacent to main road. 21 .

1944 by Abercrombie and Forshaw. AUUP 5. it may range from 3000 to 12000 people. big markets. In the Greater London plan. the unit size was 6000 to 10. When Perry formulated his theory the population was estimated about 5. entertainment centres. It is considered because the facilities which are not covered in the neighbourhood unit should have to be covered in a sector.000. like secondary school. The size of the population equivalent to the number of neighbourhood units is equal to twelve to fifteen thousand persons suitable for a sector. 22 . ASAP. POPULATION: The population of neighbourhood should be that which is optimal to support its elementary school.000 persons for enrollment of between 1000 to 1200 pupils.Principles of Neighbourhood Theory 4. major parks and large site recreation spaces.000 people. In general. SECTOR: Sector is a combination of two or more neighbourhood units. For Chicago. in 1942 the range was from 4000 to 12. Current elementary school size standard probably would higher the figure to 3000 to 4000 persons. The American Institute of Architects adopted the unit range between 1700 to 10000 people.

Hence the physical form of the neighbourhood unit considered by C. This walking distance considered by C.A.A. ASAP. AUUP 7. 8. 23 .Principles of Neighbourhood Theory 6. SIZE AND DENSITY: The size of the unit decides upon the maximum walking distance from the extreme dwelling unit to the elementary school and shopping centres. Density should be 10 families per acre. Perry is ¼ mile. PROTECTIVE STRIPS: These are necessary to protect the units from annoyance of the traffic and to provide suitable facilities for developing parks. NEIGHBOURHOOD WALKWAYS: It is stressed to have an independent system of footway complimenting the vehicular system. Perry is ¼ mile radius which suggests that the maximum radius for walking distance from home to the community centre should be ¼ mile. playgrounds and road widening in future.


CLARENCE STEIN'S CONCEPTION OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD ASAP. • Walking distance radius is one mile. local • shopping centres located near the school. • Residential streets are suggested as CUL-DESACS to eliminate through traffic and park space flows into the neighbourhood as applied in the Radburn plan. AUUP UNIT • The figure shows grouping of three neighbourhood units is served by a high school and one or two commercial centres. 25 . • Elementary school is the centre of the unit and within a one half mile radius of all residents in the neighbourhood.

Radburn ASAP. AUUP 26 .

Radburn. the "Town for the Motor Age" was created in 1929. The automobile.Henry Wright ASAP. which was becoming a mainstay in American life. AUUP • The industrialization of the United States after World War I led to migration from the rural areas & a dramatic growth of the cities during the 1920's. This population shift led to a severe housing shortage. In answer to the needs of "modern society". • How Radburn was going to meet the problems of "modern society" is best illustrated in architect Henry Wright's "Six Planks for a Housing Platform". • These ideas formed the basic philosophy that he followed in designing Radburn. Drastic changes in urban design were necessary to provide more housing and to protect people from the horseless carriage. added a new problem to urban living. Radburn. 27 .

Arrange for the occupancy of houses on a fair basis of cost and service. playgrounds. Cars must be parked and stored. Develop collectively such services as will add to the comfort of the individual.Henry Wright • ASAP. schools. AUUP • • • • • Plan simply. deliveries made. Bring private and public land into relationship and plan buildings and groups of buildings with relation to each other. building and maintaining the community. at lower cost than is possible under individual operation. churches. 28 . school gardens. noise and confusion. sidewalks.not to a conventional pattern.Radburn. waste collected . Arrange buildings and grounds so as to give sunlight. Provide ample sites in the right places for community use: i.. theatres. public buildings and stores. sewers and the like to the particular needs of the property dealt with . Put factories and other industrial buildings where they can be used without wasteful transportation of goods or people. air and a tolerable outlook to even the smallest and cheapest house. but comprehensively.plan for such services with a minimum of danger. including the cost of what needs to be done in organizing. Don't stop at the individual property line.e. Adjust paving.

2013 .ASAP. AUUP PLANNING CONCEPTS Lewis Mumford 01.08.

30 .Lewis Mumford • • • • ASAP. Geddes had put forward an outline of the six stages of city development. AUUP Wrote the book “Culture of cities”: 1938 He was a student of Patrick Geddes Advocate of “Neighbourhood unit” In his Cities in Evolution (1915). from polis to necropolis.

from polis to necropolis. ASAP. an association of polis. tyrannopolis and necropolis represented the decline of the city. So in this new scheme. AUUP • Although French geographer Jean Gottman (1961) is credited for introducing the term.6 stages of City Development. and combining two of later stages of Geddes. Geddes had put forward an outline of the six stages of city development. the village community. and resulted in metropolis. city development originated with the rise of the village (eopolis). His description was based on a revised version of an idea his mentor Geddes had advanced in his Cities in Evolution (1915). megalopolis. it evolved into the polis as an association of villages and kinships. • In Culture of Cities Mumford modified this scheme by including an earlier stage represented by eopolis. The later three stages of city development. it was Mumford (1938) who first elaborated the concept. 31 . parasitopolis and patholopolis into tyrannopolis.

financiers. industrialists increase their interest in controlling the urban space. speculators. big.Lewis Mumford ASAP. 32 . everything must become rational. This gives rise to a new class conflict. As the conflict intensifies in megalopolis. enterprises. an alliance of land-owning aristocracy. methodical. Megalopolis facilitated the repression and exploitation of working classes by regimenting them and by making life increasingly insecure and volatile. For Mumford the aimless expansion of the metropolis into megalopolis was an expression of a drive for capital accumulation. AUUP • In Culture of Cities Mumford regarded megalopolis as the beginning of decline: at this stage of its ‘development’ “the city under the influence of a capitalistic mythos concentrates upon bigness and power. quantitative and ruthless.

AUUP • Mumford observed the transformation of the metropolis into the “shapeless giantism” of the megalopolis in Culture of Cities. for Mumford. • By 1961. understanding megalopolis required understanding the origins of the mass suburb. • In City in History the revised chapter on megalopolis is now preceded by a new chapter on suburbia. 33 .Lewis Mumford ASAP. however.

For example. 34 .Lewis Mumford ASAP. Mumford argued that it is as old as the city itself. AUUP • Although the most recent interpreters assumed that the suburb is a new phenomenon. the city of Ur had a ring of houses surrounding it. villas surrounding them. It would be an error to regard suburbanism as a mere reaction to the crowded and polluted industrial city. The Greek and Roman cities as well as medieval cities always had small huts. gardens.

• Mumford said: “In the mass movement into suburban areas a new kind of community was produced. ironically. conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold. eating the same tasteless pre-fabricated foods. lined up inflexibly. which caricatured both the historic city and the archetypal suburban refuge: a multitude of uniform. manufactured in the central metropolis. witnessing the same television performances. from the same freezers. Thus the ultimate effect of the suburban escape in our time. inhabited by people of the same class. the same income. at uniform distances. a low-grade uniform environment from which escape is impossible. unidentifiable houses. AUUP • The 18th century city witnessed the rise of the aristocratic suburb while the 19th century witnessed the rise of the bourgeois suburb. the same age group. on uniform roads.” 35 . in a treeless communal waste.Lewis Mumford ASAP.

• The suburb was a neighborhood unit. The suburb helped to recreate a new consciousness of something that had been lost in the rapid growth of the city: the sense of neighborhood. Mumford argued. 36 . the planners and policy makers also failed to see what was attractive in the suburbs and what they seemingly provided. AUUP • Nevertheless.Lewis Mumford ASAP.

each stimulating and extending its influence over the other”. and the royal and aristocratic town. the commercial town.Lewis Mumford ASAP. • The monopoly of cultural capital was also a mark of the metropolis. brokerage offices. AUUP • By the twentieth century. • Mumford argues that massive accretion of power and concentration of numbers necessitated the rise of bureaucratic administration and management. The metropolis was an embodiment and expression of a new stage in capitalism in which industrial capital and class was among other equally powerful classes and forms of capital. 37 . the metropolis “…brought into one vast complex the industrial town. • The metropolis became an arena for accumulation of different forms of capital: the banks. centralizing and monopolizing the use of money. stock exchanges essentially serve a collecting point for the savings in the entire country.

Lewis Mumford ASAP. AUUP • Megalopolis was for him the death of the city. 38 .” • In 1938 Mumford had argued that the trend toward megalopolis had to be stopped. “As one moves away from the centre. a stage leading to necropolis. the urban growth becomes more aimless and discontinuous. except where some surviving town has left the original imprint of a more orderly life.” In megalopolis “The original container has completely disappeared: the sharp division between city and country no longer exists. more diffuse and unfocussed.

AUUP Thank You 39 .ASAP.