About Muhammad ibn 'abd Allah ibn Hashim (Bani Hashem), (PBUH

)

Muhammad was the founder of the religion of Islam and is regarded by Muslims as a messenger and prophet of God, the final law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets as taught by the Qur'an (33:40– 40).

Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith preached before him by Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.

He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.

Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Discontented with life in Mecca, he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection.

According to Islamic beliefs it was here, at age 40, in the month of Ramadan, where he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way of life (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other prophets before him.

Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca eventually migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the conflicting tribes, and after eight years of fighting with the Meccans, his followers — who by then had grown to 10,000 — conquered Mecca. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.

The revelations (or Ayat, lit. "Signs") — which Muhammad reported receiving until his death — form the verses of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion of Islam is based. Besides the Qur'an, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld

by Muslims. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase "peace be upon him" whenever their names are mentioned.

In Michael H. Hart's 'The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History', Muhammad is described as the most influential person in history. Hart asserted that Muhammad was "supremely successful" in both the religious and secular realms.

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His our Prophet...All Muslim love him...Salawat to him

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Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet1

b. 9 May 570, d. 8 June 632

Father 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Banu Hâshim1,2 b. 545, d. before 9 May 570

Mother Aminah bint Wahab al-Qurayshi (as)1 b. circa 545, d. circa 576 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was related to Fâtimah al-Zahra bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim (as); the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah (and possibly the only child together).3,4 Messenger of Allah. Seal of all Prophets. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh alMustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was from the offspring of An-Nadr bin Kinana (Sahih Bukhari 4.698). He was a descendant of Mudar, of which Muhammad was informed by the angel Gabriel, and was not common knowledge.5 Also called Abu al-Qasim Muhammad.6 He was the father of al-Qassim ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad and Khadijah.7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh alMustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ibraheem ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad by Maria, the Egyptian Coptic Christian.8,7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Zainab bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the eldest daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4,9 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Umm Kalthum bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim; the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ruqaiyah bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the daughter of Muhammad and Khadijah.4

Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was the father of Ta'hir ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim; the son of Muhammad and Khadijah.7 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh alMustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was born on 9 May 570 at 17th Rabi' al-Awwal 54 B.H., Mecca, Saudi Arabia. He was born after his father's death.1,10,6 He was the son of 'Abd Allâh ibn 'Abd alMuttalib Banu Hâshim and Aminah bint Wahab al-Qurayshi (as).1,2 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh alMustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was born on 20 August 570.11 He was born at Friday, 17th RabiulAwwal, 52 B.H.. Muslims claimed that he was born on this date, but according to scholars, the date is uncertain.8 He was a witness where 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hâshim, Clan Chief took in his grandson, Muhammad, who later became the Prophet, on the death of Muhammad's mother in 576. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was taken into the home of Grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttalib, at age six when his mother died in 576.6 He witnessed the death of 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hâshim, Clan Chief in 578; He died at age 82. On his deathbed he appointed his son Abu Talib as the guardian of Muhammad.12 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Âbu Tâlib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, Clan Chief made the guardian of his nephew, Muhammad, on the death of his father in 580. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was taken into the care of his uncle, Abu Talib, on the death of his grandfather, 'Abd al-Muttali, in 580. He was so described: a gentle, soft spoken, tall and handsome boy. An approximate outline may be traced of his appearance in the prime of manhood: Slightly above the middle size, his figure, though spare, was handsome and commanding, the chest broad and open, the bones and framework large, the joints well knit together. His neck was long and finely moulded. The head, unusually large, gave space for a broad and noble brow. The hair, thick, jet black, and slightly curling, fell down over his ears. The eye- brows were arched and joined. The countenance thin, but ruddy. His large eyes, intensely black and piercing, received additional lustre from their long dark eye-lashes. The nose was high and slightly aquiline, but fine, and at the end attenuated. The teeth were far apart. A long black bushy beard, reaching to the breast, added manliness and presence. His expression was pensive and contemplative. The face beamed with intelligence, though something of the sensuous also might be there discerned. The skin of his body was clear and soft; the only hair that met the eye was a fine thin line which ran down from the neck toward the navel. His broad back leaned slightly forward as he walked; and his step was hasty, yet sharp and decided, like that of one rapidly descending a declivity.13 He accompanied the trading caravans of his uncle and guardian, Abu Talib, across the deserts, giving him deep insight into nature and man between 585 and 595. He was a witness where Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad alQurayshiyya hired Muhammad as the manager for her rich merchantile caravans, and soon married him. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshiyya, daughter of Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshi, in 595; His 1st. 4th cousins.14,2,6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Zaid ibn Muhammad carried away while young and sold into slavery, and as a slave was presented by Khadija to Muhammad after 595.15 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet received the Divine Message, where the angel Gabriel appeared to a fearful Muhammad and informed him that he was God's chosen messenger, and became the Prophet of God in 610.16 He experienced his first vision of the angel, and is deeply disturbed, but reassured by his wife, whose Christian cousin, Waraqah, helped him to understand his experience in the Judeo-Christian Biblical tradition of prophets in 610.6 He was a witness where Clan Chief Abu Lahab ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib Banu Hâshim an enemy of the Prophet from the very beginning of his public mission after 610. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet was a witness where Umm Jamil (?)

an enemy of the Prophet from the very beginning of his public mission after 610. Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet began preaching publicly circa 613.6 A contract for the marriage of Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet and 'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya was signed in 620.17 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Saudah bint Zam'ah (?), daughter of Zam'ah (?), in 621; His 2nd. Her 2nd (widow).6,18,19 Twelve men from Yathrib on a pilgrimage to the pagan Ka'bah shrine of Mecca (of the god Hubal and about 300 lesser idols) secretly professed allegiance to Muhammad's message of monotheism at Mecca, Arabia, in June 621.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet commanded his followers in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, later called Medina (Medinat-ennabi=City of the prophet) in April 622 at Mecca, Arabia.6 He fled from a planned assassination, by the Meccans, towards Medina (the Muslim era of Hijrah (Emigration) is named after this incident), southward to the cave of Thaur on 16 July 622 at 17th Rabi' al-Awwwal.6 Prophet of Islâm between 16 July 622 and 8 June 632.2 He arrived safely on 24 September 622 at Yathrib (now Medina), Arabia.6 He led three raids on trade caravans but all fail in 623.6 He married Ayishah as a political marriage to cement ties with 'A`ishah's father, Abu Bakr, who was one of Muhammad's most important supporters, but last endly, she remained his favourite in January 624.6 Followers of his, disguised as pilgrims during the annual period of sacred truce among all Arab tribes, attack an unarmed trade caravan from Yemen, at Nakhlah south of Mecca, killing one person and taking two for ransom, at Arabia in January 624.6 He married 'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya, daughter of 'Abû Bakr al-Siddiq, 1st Rightly Guided Caliph of Islam and Umm Ruman (?), in January 624; His 3rd.20,2,6,17,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet regarded the Jewish tribes as at par with his own followers, but his experiences of their betrayals of the pacts they entered into with him for the joint defense of Medina (Yathrib) against his Meccan enemies, led him to expel them and execute all Jewish males in Medina; he also levied a special tax (jizyah) on the Jews of Khybar (creating a precedent that later led orthodox Islam to conclude must be paid by Christians and Jews to the Muslim state), and consequently also changed the prayer direction (qiblah) of his followers from Jerusalem to Mecca's Ka'bah, even though it was a shrine of tribal idols, and justified this by announcing that Abraham with Ishmael had built it as a shrine to God (Qur'an 2:125,127) circa February 624.6 He received a revelation justifying the crimes because of Mecca's banning of his access to the Ka'bah (Qur'an, 2:217) in January 624.6 He led a raiding party of about 315 men to attack a Meccan trade caravan which eluded him, but the leader of the Makhuzum clan of Mecca confronted him with a force of 800 near Badr; his troops triumph and in the aftermath many of his critics in Medina are assassinated and the Muslim movement grows on 15 March 624.6 He married Hafsa bint 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Bani Adiy, daughter of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab, 2nd Rightly Guided Caliph of Islam, after 15 March 624; His 4th. Her 2nd (widow).2,6,21,19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah after 15 March 624; His 5th.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Zainab ummu al-Masakin bint Khuazimah, daughter of Khuazimah (?), circa 625 at 3 A.H; His 6th. Her 3rd (widow).6,22 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet married Zainab bint Jahsh Banu Hâshim, daughter of Jahsh Banu Hâshim and Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah, in 625 at 4 A.H; His 8th. Her 2nd (allowed by al-Ahzab 33:37).6,23 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf), The Prophet present when a Meccan force of 3000 attacked Medina at Uhud; and returned them to Mecca having killed as many Meccans as the Muslims had lost, on 23 March 625.6 He withstood a siege by a Meccan confederacy of 10,000 troops; his troops at Medina were well prepared and the siege failed in April 627 at Medina, Arabia.6 He attacked the Jewish clan of

6. Medina.25.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf). and received a revelation to justify it (Qur'an 33:37) after April 627.6 He died on 8 June 632 at 28th Safar 11 A. Arabia. Her 2nd (widow).Qurayzah who surrendered. after March 628. at age 62 years and 30 days.19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf). The Prophet married Mariah alQibtiyah circa 628. His 7th.2. The Prophet conquered Mecca in 629 at Arabia. The Prophet set out on pilgrimage to the Ka'bah at Mecca driving sacrificial animals ahead of him. (Qur'an 33:53). concluded treaties of submission to Islam with various tribes (but Christian support for Byzantium provoked his hostility) after January 630. c 58515 .H.6 He performed the old pagan Arab rites of the 'hajj' pilgrimage to Mecca. She a widow.27. destroyed all the tribal idols. from whom he took the beautiful Juwayriya as a wife from the tribe instead of a ransom after April 627. the Meccans and Muslims agreed to stop hostilities and that Muslims would be allowed to make the pilgrimage the following year in March 628. Her 2nd (widow). Her 2nd (widow). Arabia. The Prophet married Safiyah bat Huyay Banu Akhtab. Arabia. daughter of al-Harith bin Abi Dirar Banu Khuza'ah.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh alMustafa (pbuh&hf). monotheistic meaning in March 632 at Mecca. His 11th.000 men to the Syrian border in a month long campaign. after March 628.6 He married Ramlah umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan (?). Muslim's from marrying his widows. He was survived by nine wives.6 He married Juwayriya bint al-Harith Banu Khuza'ah. The Prophet was buried in his house adjoining the Great Mosque. His 10th.6 He led a force of 30.6 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf). Medina. Arabia.6. His 11th.6 He associated with Rayhanah the Jewess after November 629.6 He married Maimunah bint Al-Harith (?) in March 629 at Mecca. The Prophet entered Mecca with 10.6. His 9th. Family 1 Child Zaid ibn Muhammad b. Arabia.26. daughter of Huyay Banu Akhtab. Arabia.24 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf). Said to have been poisoned by an old Jewish woman. The Prophet repudiated the Hudaybiyah agreements after his allies were attacked by allies of Mecca circa November 629. daughter of Abu Sufyan (?).600 of his men were willing to accompany him. after April 627. and announced the Law of Islam in January 630 at Mecca. the former wife of his adopted son.28 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf).6 He married Zaynab bint Jahsh. and killed 28 opponents. He forbade. Concubine.1.6 He had his forces attack and defeat the Banu Khuza'ah tribe. by revelation.19 Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh al-Mustafa (pbuh&hf). and after long negotiations at alHudaybiyah. but was dissappointed that only 1..20 He entered Mecca by the Hudaybiyah agreements with unarmed followers as an act of worship in March 629 at Mecca. and had their men savagely executed and their women and children sold as slaves after April 627. giving them a new. removed the statue of the god Hubal from the Ka'bah.000 men in triumph.

d. d. c 598 Zainab bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim+ b. c 598. circa 555. 6232 Umm Kalthum bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim b. d. 643 . c 63329. circa 601.2 Ta'hir ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b. d. d. d. d. c 603. 629 Ruqaiyah bint Muhammad Banu Hâshim+ b. c 605. 630 Fâtimah al-Zahra bint Muhammad ibn 'Abd Allâh Banu Hâshim (as)+ b. d. between 619 and 620 Children al-Qassim ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b. c 605. c 597. July 678 Family 4 Saudah bint Zam'ah (?) b. after February 614. c 606 Family 3 'Â'isha umm Mu'minin bint Abu Bakr al-Makkiyya b. c 596.Family 2 Khadîjah bint Khuwaylid banu As'sad al-Qurayshiyya b. d.

d. c 628 . d. circa 590. 641 Family 9 Juwayriya bint al-Harith Banu Khuza'ah b. circa 607. circa 607. 676 Family 6 Hafsa bint 'Umar ibn al-Khattab Bani Adiy b. circa 665 Family 7 Zainab ummu al-Masakin bint Khuazimah b. d. circa 595 Family 8 Zainab bint Jahsh Banu Hâshim b. d. d. 637 Child Ibraheem ibn Muhammad Banu Hâshim b.Family 5 Hind umm Salamah bint Ummayyah b. circa 676 Family 10 Mariah al-Qibtiyah b. circa 614. circa 608.

com/. 435-45. circa 600. circa 613 Citations [S204] Roderick W. circa 595.com.htm. [S469] Al-Islam. 670 Family 14 Rayhanah the Jewess b. The Prophet's daughters. circa 608. 664 Family 13 Maimunah bint Al-Harith (?) b. d.nbci. circa 670 Family 12 Ramlah umm Habibah bint Abu Sufyan (?) b. RfC.Family 11 Safiyah bat Huyay Banu Akhtab b.friesian. d. Stuart. d. [S653] PoH. . online http://members.al-islam. Chapter 1. online http://www. online http://www.com/ [S894] Muslim History.com/muslimhistry/index.

ABDUL MUTTALIB. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. Vol. online http://answering-islam. ".com/muslimhistry/index.iafrica. online http://answering-islam. "The people of Banu Fuhayrah came to the Prophet and said to him : You belong to us. Bengal Civil Service William Muir Muir on Mahomet. ZAID B. online http://answering-islam. (the archangel) Gabriel has informed me that I belong to Mudar. Caussin de Perceval (whose calculations have already been recommended for general acceptance) accepts the 20th of August. 2. [S894] Muslim History. p.D.it suffices to state that the widowed Amina gave birth to a son in the autumn of the year 570 A. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. 1. online http://www. [S911] Hadrian to Islam.org/Index/index. pg..com. [S204] Roderick W.html.htm. 1. [S954] Esq. . RfC. Stuart. Chapter 1. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. Vol. 4.html [S469] Al-Islam. Vol. Chap..com/. online http://members. online http://answering-islam. [S954] Esq." but consider too M.org/Index/index.html.org/Index/index. Bengal Civil Service William Muir Muir on Mahomet. The Prophet's grandchildren..com/l/ll/lloyd/1-TimeLine/…. Chap.org/Index/index. 2.. online http://www. 570 A. The Prophet's sons.com/. per Ibn Sad. [S469] Al-Islam.html.al-islam.com. MUHAMMAD. for the materials are too vague and discrepant to be subjected to so close a calculation. "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir".. I. He replied : Verily.. It is a vain attempt to fix with certainty the precise date of the birth. online http://users.al-islam.nbci.D.". 2.[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. 436-45.

WIVES.com.org/Index/index.org/Index/index.iafrica.html. [S862] Various EB CD 2001. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. The Prophet's wives.html.html. online http://answering-islam.". online http://answering-islam. online http://answering-islam. ZAINAB BINT KHUAZIMAH.html. online http://www.com/. pg.html. Shiíite Encyclopedia. [S469] Al-Islam.com/l/ll/lloyd/1-TimeLine/…. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. . UBAIDULLAH B. [S911] Hadrian to Islam. HAFSAH. online http://answering-islam.html. 41. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam.b. 632. online http://answering-islam. Ch 1. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH. online http://users. says 8 June.org/Index/index. Muhammad. MS Encarta 2001.. but has it as 8 June 632.org/Index/index. online http://answering-islam.al-islam. [S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica. JASH.org/Index/index. under "Islam..org/Index/index. AISHA BINT ABU BAKR. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam.[S711] Encyclopedia. [S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. [S890] Ali Abbas.

c. Mahoma es considerado el "sello de los profetas" (jātim alanbiyā' ‫)األن ب ياء خات م‬.html. por ser el último de una larga cadena de mensajeros. que eran reconocidos por su honradez y la carencia de numerosos vicios. sería en esencia el mismo que habrían transmitido sus predecesores. online http://answering-islam.org/Index/index. 8 de junio de 632) fue el profeta (nabi ‫ )ن بي‬fundador del islam. Isa (Jesús) y Musa (Moisés). para poder también robustecerse y aprender de los beduinos. Stuart. De acuerdo a la religión musulmana. miembro del clan de los hashimí. 8 Jun 632. y Mahoma fue confiado a Bani S’ad. nació en La Meca (‫ ) كة‬alrededor del 570/571. Vida anterior a la predicación Su nacimiento e infancia Árabe de la tribu de Coraix (Quraysh). Su nombre completo en lengua árabe es Abu l-Qasim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Hashimi al-Qurashi del que. [S204] Roderick W. que según el islam. castellanizando su nombre coloquial Muhammad ( ).*2+ Apertura del pecho . el 26 de abril de 570/571 — Medina. RfC. -------------------- Mahoma (La Meca. 436-44. enviados por Dios para actualizar su mensaje.[S956] Comparitive Index to Islam. Fue hijo póstumo de Abd Allah ibn Abd alMuttalib.[1] Meca se encuentra en la región de Hiyaz en la actual Arabia Saudí. La costumbre de los más honorables de la tribu de Quraysh era enviar a sus hijos con niñeras beduinas con el propósito de que crecieran libres y saludables en el desierto. se obtiene Mahoma. entre los que se contarían Ibrahim (Abraham).

a excepción del rostro pálido.[3] Los musulmanes ven este acontecimiento como una protección para que él se apartara desde su infancia de la adoración de los ídolos y probablemente la razón por la que fue devuelto a su madre. un líder de la tribu Quraysh. Mahoma acompañó a su tío por sus viajes a Siria y otros lugares. A los doce años se dirigió a Basora con su tío Abu Tâlib y tuvieron un encuentro con un monje llamado Bahira. y Al Waqidi presenta cuarenta. pero se ha reportado que trabajó como pastor para Bani Sad y en la Meca como asalariado. había impresionado a Jadiya y ésta le propuso matrimonio en el año 595. una rica comerciante viuda.El primer milagro que se narra sobre Mahoma en la compilación de los hadices es que el Arcángel Gabriel descendió y abrió su pecho para sacar su corazón.[cita requerida] Se dice que ella murió cuando él tenía seis años. no recibió ni la de su padre ni la de su madre. Ibn Ishaq presenta que la edad de Jadiya era 28 años. cuando las guerras tribales estaban prohibidas y podían contar con un viaje seguro. lo cual atraía a un gran número de peregrinos. la más poderosa de La Meca. Extrajo un coágulo negro de éste y dijo «Esta era la parte por donde Satán podría seducirte». principalmente porque existían varios templos que contenían diferentes ídolos. Por tanto.[5] Matrimonio con Jadiya Mahoma no tuvo un trabajo específico en su juventud.[4] Encuentro con el monje Bahira En aquella época La Meca era un centro comercial próspero. Algunos dicen que al engendrar Jadiya dos varones y cuatro mujeres de Mahoma. por lo que fue acogido y educado primero por su abuelo Abd alMuttalib y luego por su tío paterno Abu Talib. en los hadices se narra que Bahira reconoció algunas señales de la profecía de Mahoma y le advirtió a su tío sobre llevarlo a Siria por temor de los judíos y romanos. pronto llegó a ser una persona con amplia experiencia en las costumbres de otras regiones. . y padre de su primo y futuro califa Ali. Los niños y compañeros de juego con los que se encontraba corrieron hacia su nodriza y dijeron: «Mahoma ha sido asesinado». Se quedó huérfano a temprana edad y. Mercaderes de diferentes tribus visitaban La Meca en la época del peregrinaje. debido a una costumbre árabe que dice que los hijos menores no pueden recibir la herencia de sus progenitores.[4] A la edad de los 25 años Mahoma trabajó como mercader en la ruta caravanera entre Damasco y La Meca a las órdenes de Jadiya. Después lo lavó con agua Zam Zam en un recipiente de oro y devolvió el corazón a su sitio. todos se dirigieron a él y lo hallaron en buen estado. hija de Juwaylid (‫) خوي ل ب نت خ ي جة‬. pero los escolares musulmanes refutan esta opinión alegando que no pudo haber aprendido en la hora de la comida ese conocimiento y que además no se registra un segundo encuentro con este monje. En su adolescencia. algunos orientalistas dicen que esto demuestra que Mahoma aprendió de él los libros sagrados.

‫)ج بري ل‬. Jadiya sería posteriormente la primera persona en aceptar el islam después de la revelación. libro sagrado de los musulmanes. sin el menor cambio ni de fondo ni de forma. no habría peregrinos hacia La Meca. Transformado en un rico y respetado mercader. tal como Mahoma predicaba. Sus cuatro hijas se llamaban Zainab. A pesar de que estas informaciones no están establecidas en un hadiz sino que es algo que se hizo famoso entre los historiadores. Ruqayyah. Describió esta visita como un mandato para memorizar y recitar los versos enviados por Dios. Los musulmanes creen que en 610 a los cuarenta años de edad. dos varones y cuatro mujeres. como portador de la verdad revelada. El repudio al politeísmo que denunciaba Mahoma era particularmente ofensivo a su propia . se convirtió en una amenaza para los jefes de las tribus locales. Mahoma confió la conservación de la palabra de Dios (Allah ‫) هللا‬. Mahoma era analfabeto (ummi). ‫)ال قران‬. pero su esposa Jadiya le aseguró que se trataba de una visión real y se convirtió en su primera discípula. ni comercio. trasmitida por Gabriel (Yibril. recibió la revelación del ángel Gabriel. Rechazo A medida que los seguidores de Mahoma comenzaban a aumentar en número. Mahoma tuvo una visión del ángel Gabriel. a la retentiva de los memoriones. quienes la memorizaban recitándola incansablemente que después de su muerte serían recopilados por escrito en el Corán debido a la primordial importancia de conservar el mensaje original en toda su pureza.hace que la opinión más fuerte sea la de Ibn Ishaq. sobre las que grababan los versículos del Corán. mientras meditaba. Todos nacieron antes de que Mahoma recibiera la primera revelación. Durante su vida. Sus hijos Al-Qasim y Abdullah murieron en la infancia en La Meca. Las primeras revelaciones Mahoma era de carácter reflexivo y rutinariamente pasaba noches meditando en una cueva (Hira) cerca de La Meca. Umm Kulzum y Fátima. el recinto sagrado de los ídolos de los árabes y el punto principal religioso de La Meca. De acuerdo con el Corán y las narraciones. Si rechazaban a dichos ídolos. pues es sabido que la mujer llega a la edad de la menopausia antes de los cincuenta años. El arcángel Gabriel le indicó que había sido elegido como el último de los profetas y como tal predicó la palabra de Dios sobre la base de un estricto monoteísmo. ni riqueza. prediciendo el Día del Juicio Final. Esta visión perturbó a Mahoma. que le invitó a predicar una nueva religión.[5] Jadiya tuvo seis hijos con Mahoma. La riqueza de estas tribus se basaba en la Kaaba. Para ello emplearon materiales como las escápulas de camello. hecho que la tradición musulmana considera una prueba que autentifica al Corán (Al-Qur'ān.

la qurayshí. donde recorrió los siete cielos y se comunicó con profetas que le precedieron. y que. específicamente al lugar conocido como Masjid al-Aqsa. podían vivir dentro del nuevo estado islámico. Sin embargo. Mahoma llegó a Medina como un mediador. sino también peligrosa. como Abraham. Este año se conoce como el "año de la tristeza". por tanto. Mahoma emitió un documento que se conoce como La Constitución de Medina (en 622-623). es decir. a los judíos y cristianos les era . Isra es la palabra en árabe que se refiere a un viaje milagroso desde La Meca a Jerusalén. quien finalmente decidió trasladarse a Medina. Rompiendo sus vínculos con las lealtades tribales y familiares. Moisés o Jesús. Esta migración a Medina marca el principio del año en el calendario islámico. la esposa de Mahoma. razón por la cual las fechas musulmanas llevan el prefijo AH (año de la Hégira). Algunos académicos afirman que Mahoma abandonó la esperanza de ser reconocido como profeta por los judíos. Isra y Miraj En 620. En el año 619 fallecieron Jadiya. la alquibla. Mahoma demostraba que estos vínculos eran insignificantes comparados con su compromiso con el islam. y su tío Abu Talib. una idea revolucionaria en la sociedad tribal de la Arabia. en la cual se especifican los términos en que otras facciones. su ascensión al cielo. Medina era también el lugar donde vivían varias tribus judías. Logró este fin absorbiendo a ambas facciones en la comunidad musulmana y prohibiendo el derramamiento de sangre entre los musulmanes. fue cambiada del antiguo templo de Jerusalén a la Kaaba en La Meca.tribu. por cuanto ellos eran los guardianes de la Kaaba. El clan al que pertenecía Mahoma lo repudió y sus seguidores sufrieron hambre y persecución. un gran oasis agrícola donde había seguidores suyos. Es por esto que Mahoma y sus seguidores se vieron perseguidos. lo cual no ocurrió. De acuerdo con este sistema. La Hégira La vida de la pequeña comunidad musulmana en La Meca no sólo era difícil. Las tradiciones árabes afirman que hubo varios atentados contra la vida de Mahoma. Mahoma hizo un viaje en una noche que es conocido como Isra y Miraj. la dirección en la que rezan los musulmanes. invitado a resolver querellas entre los bandos árabes de Aws y Khazraj. El calendario islámico cuenta las fechas a partir de la Hégira (‫)هجرة‬. Mahoma esperaba que estas tribus lo reconocieran como profeta. Isra fue seguida por el Mi'rāŷ. particularmente los judíos.

En marzo de 624. se casó con Ali. los cuatro primeros califas estaban vinculados a Mahoma por . La guerra Las relaciones entre La Meca y Medina se deterioraron rápidamente. En Medina también se casó con Hafsah. ambos bandos chocaron. hija de Umar (quien luego sería el sucesor de Abu Bakr). la hija de su amigo Abu Bakr (quien posteriormente se convertiría en el líder de los musulmanes tras la muerte de Mahoma). Después de la victoria. Éste fue el primero de una serie de logros militares por parte de los musulmanes.permitido mantener su religión mediante el pago de un tributo (no así a los practicantes de religiones paganas). Estos hombres surgirían en los años subsiguientes como los sucesores de Mahoma (califas) y líderes políticos de los musulmanes. Otra hija. mientras que en Medina Mahoma lograba alianzas con las tribus vecinas. los ciudadanos de este lugar adoptaron todos la fe musulmana y Mahoma se estableció como el regente de facto de la ciudad. La hija de Mahoma. la victoria de Badr resultaba una ratificación divina de que Mahoma era un legítimo profeta. y una vez que el clan judío de Banu Qainuqa fue expulsado de Medina. Los seguidores de Mahoma comenzaron a asaltar las caravanas que se dirigían a La Meca. Después de la muerte de su esposa. Los integrantes de la caravana lograron rechazar el ataque y posteriormente decidieron dirigir una represalia contra los musulmanes. en un lugar llamado Badr. enviando un pequeño ejército a invadir a Medina. primo de Mahoma. Este sistema vendría a tipificar la relación entre los musulmanes y los dhimmis. Ruqayyah. Mahoma condujo a trescientos guerreros en un asalto a una caravana de mercaderes que se dirigía a La Meca. Por tanto. Fátima. los musulmanes ganaron la batalla. Estos casamientos sellarían las relaciones entre Mahoma y sus principales seguidores. El dominio de Mahoma se consolida Para los musulmanes. y esta tradición es la razón de la relativa estabilidad que normalmente existía en los califatos árabes. Mahoma contrajo matrimonio con Aisha. El 15 de marzo de 624. Todas las propiedades de los musulmanes en La Meca fueron confiscadas. contrajo matrimonio con Uzman pero ella falleció y después Uzman se casó con su hermana Umm Kulzum. Si bien los seguidores de Mahoma eran numéricamente tres veces inferiores a sus enemigos (trescientos contra mil).

000 hombres. Mahoma declaró amnistía a los pobladores de la ciudad. Después de diversas negociaciones. La conquista de La Meca Antes de su muerte en 632. Después de esta batalla.los diferentes matrimonios. los musulmanes. Tras la victoria de la Guerra de las Trincheras. los musulmanes expandieron su influencia a través de conversiones o conquistas de varias ciudades y tribus. la posición de Mahoma era lo suficientemente fuerte para decidir su retorno a La Meca. Los musulmanes consideran a estos califas como los rashidún (‫ال خ ل فاء‬ ‫)ال را ش ون‬.600 hombres. muchos de los cuales se convirtieron al islam. Abu Sufyan emprendió otro ataque contra Medina. se dirigió a La Meca seguido de 1. por . la cual conquistó sin que encontrara resistencia. En la batalla que se libró el 23 de marzo.En el año 628.000 hombres. Mahoma había consolidado su dominio sobre la península de Arabia. esta vez como un peregrino. El tratado duró solo dos años. Mahoma marchó hacia La Meca con un ejército de más de 10. En abril de 627. derrotándolos. pero Mahoma había cavado trincheras alrededor de la ciudad y pudo defenderla exitosamente en lo que se conoce como la Guerra de las Trincheras. marchó contra Medina con 3. Mahoma destruyó los ídolos de la Kaaba y. se vieron traicionados por la tribu judía de Banu Qurayza o Banu Koreidha la cual se había aliado con las tribus de la Meca en la batalla de las trincheras. Como consecuencia de esto. Abu Sufyan. Si bien a Mahoma no se le permitió ese año entrar en La Meca. Continúa la guerra En 625 un jefe de La Meca. ya que en 630 los regentes de La Meca rompieron dicho tratado. En marzo de ese año. El ejército de La Meca afirmó haber ganado la batalla. pero quedó muy diezmado como para perseguir a los musulmanes de Medina y ocupar la ciudad. se firmó un tratado en un pueblo cercano a La Meca llamado alHudaybiyah. no salió victorioso ninguno de los dos bandos. emprendieron guerra contra éstos. Los hombres de la tribu fueron decapitados y las mujeres y niños fueron vendidos como esclavos. las hostilidades cesaron y a los musulmanes se les autorizó el acceso a la ciudad en el año siguiente. que significa "guiados".

y al poco tiempo con Aisha. como en todas las batallas por prescripción coránica. en su casa no había sino lo necesario para pasar el día y para los invitados que a ella acudían. y con una judía de nombre Safiah. aunque el matrimonio se consumó cuando ella tuvo 9. Ramlah. Según algunos hadices. Sin embargo. Posteriormente tuvo varias otras esposas. la copta) tuvo otro hijo con ella después de mudarse a Medina. Muhammad. . de número impreciso entre éstas 9 reseñadas. para sostener que los matrimonios infantiles que se siguen practicando en la actualidad en los países islámicos encuentran un argumento favorable en este posible precedente histórico[7] Más tarde se casó con Hafsa. También se casó con una cristiana de nombre Mariyah Al-Qibtía (Mariyah. sin embargo. viuda de un combatiente musulmán. Después de su muerte contrajo matrimonio con Sawdah. no llegó nunca a saciarse de comida alguna. hija de un líder que combatió a Mahoma. Aisha tenía 6 años de edad cuando fue prometida al profeta. Hay. y con Umm Salama. con Zaynab (quien era mujer de su hijo adoptivo Zaid). Esto último ha sido utilizado por críticos del islam. A pesar de Mahoma no estar presente en el asalto a la ciudad. el peregrinaje en adelante sería al lugar sagrado del islam. que afirman casi todos los expertos como seguras. Mahoma no constituyó ningún gobierno. Ibrahim falleció en su niñez. se dice que murió a los 17 o 18 meses de edad. La capitulación de La Meca y la derrota de las tribus enemigas Hunayn permitió a Mahoma tomar el control de Arabia. Muhammad administraba la quinta parte del botín para repartirlo entre los más necesitados. Mahoma sólo tuvo una esposa. Cobró un rescate 45 onzas de plata por cada prisionero. rescate que fue repartido entre los necesitados.tanto. sino que prefirió gobernar a través de las relaciones personales y los tratados con diferentes tribus. que tenía 54. Al igual que sus hermanos varones. estudiosos musulmanes que creen que dichos datos son erróneos y que Aisha era considerablemente mayor. Algunas de estas mujeres eran esposas de seguidores de Mahoma muertos en batalla. como Ibn Warraq. una gran mayoría de los fieles musulmanes siguen aceptando actualmente las interpretaciones tradicionales.[6] Pese a estas reinterpretaciones modernas de los hadices que adjudicarían a Aisha una edad más madura. y las más de 20 que algunos le estiman. La vida familiar de Mahoma Desde 595 hasta 619. Ese séptimo y último hijo se llamaba Ibrahim. mientras que otras eran hijas de sus aliados. Los cuatro quintos restantes pertenecían siempre a los combatientes. Jadiya. hija de Abu Bakr —quien posteriormente sucedería a Mahoma—. una rica mujer de La Meca que contaba 27 años (40 según otras fuentes) cuando se casó.

fue elegido por los líderes de la comunidad musulmana como el sucesor de Mahoma. Persia. Mahoma falleció el 8 de junio de 632 en la ciudad de Medina a la edad de 63 años. Descendientes de Mahoma A Mahoma le sobrevivieron su hija Fátima y los hijos de ésta.La muerte de Mahoma Muerte de Mahoma en un manuscrito otomano de 1596. La mayor parte de su corto reinado la pasó combatiendo tribus rebeldes en lo que se conoce como las Guerras Ridda. Los chiíes afirman que el esposo de Fátima. Mesopotamia. Muchos líderes y nobles de los países musulmanes. lo cierto es que Abu Bakr se convirtió en el nuevo líder del islam. Siria. Posteriormente los sucesores de Mahoma extendieron el dominio del imperio árabe a Palestina. los idrisíes. -------------------- . Los descendientes de Mahoma son conocidos por diferentes nombres. Cualquiera que hayan sido los hechos. actuales y pasados. A la fecha de la muerte de Mahoma. el padre de Aisha. el Norte de África y Al-Andalus. la tercera mujer de Mahoma. tales como sayyid y sharif. si bien respetan a los descendientes de Mahoma. la actual familia real de Marruecos y Jordania y los imanes ismaelitas que usan el título de Agha Khan. Los sunníes no aceptan esta afirmación. Alí y sus descendientes.Después de una corta enfermedad. son los verdaderos líderes del islam. pues éste era el favorito de Mahoma. así como en parte de Siria y Palestina. Abu Bakr. Egipto. había unificado toda la Península Arábica y expandido la religión islámica en esta región. tales como la dinastía fatimí del Norte de África. afirman ser descendientes de Mahoma con variables grados de credibilidad.

kakek dan paman beliau. Pada usia dua puluh lima tahun. Dimana Setelah menikah... ibundanya wafat dan dikebumikan di Abwa..Mustafa Ahmed-ie -Mujtaba (S.A.Mursaleen Wo Rahmat-Ul. Abdullah melakukan pepergian ke Syam. salah satu kabilah Quraisy. Rasulullah adalah nabi pamungkas dari para nabi.Syed's are the direct descendants of The Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) Of Islam. sang ibunda membawanya pergi ke Madinah. Setelah ibunda beliau wafat.. beliau diutus menjadi nabi oleh Allah. The Prophet's daughter Syeda Bibi Fatima-tuz. tahun 571 Masehi di Makkah.S) Sahib-It Taj-Ie-Wal Merajie Huzoor Sarwar-Ie Konain Khatim-Un Nabaieen Wa-Katmul. Pada usia empat puluh tahun. beliau wafat pada hari Senin bulan Shafar 11 Hijriah di Madinah. The other descendants of Ali ibne Abu-Talib from his other wifes are named as Alawi's ( Although syed's are Hashmi Sadaat's ( for info: Descendents when started using the surname "Syed" then they stopped using the word Hashimi in past after the era of Prophet Of Islam ) and Alavi's are Hashmi Alavi's ). Beliau hidup di dunia ini selama enam puluh tiga tahun... Dalam perjalanan pulang ke Makkah. sang ibu mengambilnya kembali. Sesuai dengan kebiasaan para bangsawan Makkah... Rasulullah wafat di Madinah dan dikuburkan di kota itu juga."Muhammed Prophet Of Islam PBUH An-Hazrat Abul-Qasim Muhammed -ie.. yang lahir di bulan Rabi’ul Awal. ibundanya menyerahkan Muhammad kecil kepada Halimah Sa’diyah dari kabilah Bani Sa’d untuk disusui.Nabi Muhammad SAW berasal dari kabilah Quraisy.Lil Alaaimeen Alaihis Sallat Was Sallam ( Prophet of Islam)". Menurut pendapat masyhur. Beliau tinggal di rumah Halimah selama empat tahun. secara bergantian. Dengan tujuan untuk berkunjung ke kerabat ayahnya di Madinah. Ibunda beliau adalah Aminah binti Wahab yang berasal dari keturunan Bani Zuhrah. beliau menikah dengan Khadijah yang waktu itu sudah berusia empat puluh tahun.A).W.. Ia menamakan beliau sebagai pamungkas para nabi dan memujinya karena kemuliaan akhlaknya. Ia mewahyukan kepada beliau al-Quran yang seluruh manusia dan jin tidak mampu untuk menandinginya. sebuah daerah yang terletak antara Makkah dan Madinah. Beliau menjalani hidup bersamanya selama dua puluh lima tahun hingga ia wafat pada usia enam puluh lima tahun. (Fourth Caliph of Caliphate of Rashideen) and who was also the youngest cousin of the Prophet of Islam. tepatnya keturunan Hasyim. The Prophet Of Islam's tree goes far back to the prophet Ismail (Ishmael) son of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Whose father was Taric but not Azar->Who was Ibrahim' uncle) It Is a .A) was married to Ali ibne Abu-Talib (R. dunia menjadi terang-benderang. dan dengan kelahirannya itu. cucu Hasyim.Zahra (R. Setelah itu.. -------------------.. Setelah beberapa bulan dari wafatnya sang ayah berlalu. Ketika pulang dari pepergian itu. Ayah beliau adalah Abdullah bin Abdul Muthalib. Abdul Muthalib dan Abu Thalib memelihara beliau.

Brunei and Singapore Pashto Sayed. Sidi Arab world Azerbaijani Seyid. Qur'an is also wrongly miss-spelled as Koran. Malayalam. Syed.W. Syed. Saeid. Seyit Kurdish region Malay Syed. Syed Pakistan. Sayed. Sindhi Sayed. As-Sayyid / Mister / his highness is also used as title or a different form of address to denote a prince or superior in the Sultanate of Oman and rest of the muslim world or else matters in this current era only ( nothing as such related to the word " Syed" who are the descendents of Prophet Of Islam ). Children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father cannot be attributed the title of Sayyed. Sayyed. From Wikipedia. Sayyed's (Arabic: ‫( ) س ي‬plural sādah / sadaat where 't' is a silent letter in Arabic: ‫ ) سا ة‬literally means Mister. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. India Seraiki. Arabic Sayyid. Syed Pakistan Turkish Seyed. Bhojpuri. Marathi. however. Seyyid. Seyyed. Assamese.S) Sahib-It Taj-Ie-Wal Merajie Huzoor Sarwar-Ie Konain Khatim-Un Nabaieen WaKatmul. Hindi. the name given to a famous Spanish knight of the 11th century C. Saeyd. Bengali. Sayyed. Seyyid Azerbaijan.Mustafa Ahmed-ie Mujtaba (S. The Alevi use seyyid (the Turkish form) as an honorific before the names of their saints ( only if they are direct descendants of the prophet of Islam). Sait. Tamil. Syed's may also claim the title ' Mir' but never Mirza (out of question) In the Arab world or any where else in the world as matter itself.E. Saiyid. Sayyid. As an honorific title given to males accepted as who are the descendants of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad through his grandsons. Syed. Azerbaijan and Central Asia Bosnian Seid. Saiyad. Iran Baluchi Sayyid. Sayyed. Sayid Indonesia Kurdish Seyid. search Not to be confused with Sa‘id or saeed ( means happy / farrah ) or Zayd. El Cid.Mursaleen Wo Rahmat-Ul. Saiyyid. Seyyid. is derived from Al-Sayyid (as-sayyid/Mister/Ustaaz / moallim). Telugu. Sead Bosnia and Herzegovina Urdu. Sayyed. Sheikh Malaysia. Sayid Baluchistan region Indonesia Sayyid. Kannada. Said Afghanistan & Northwest Pakistan Persian Said. Sayeed.. Syarifah. Seyit. Gujarati Syed. Saiyid. Hasan ibn Ali and Husain ibn Ali. Seyed. Syed.Lil Alaaimeen Alaihis Sallat Was Sallam ( Prophet of Islam) and many more that are assigned attributes by Allah (God the Almighty) in our Holy Book (Qur'an) to our Prophet. Sayyidi. Saiyed. Saiyed. Sayid. who were also the sons of the prophet's daughter Fatima tuz Zahra (also named as Hussany and Hosseiny Syed's " AlaiRasool" )and his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib ( Ali's descendent's are also called as "Aulad-ie-Ali"). Daughters of sayyids are given the titles Sayyeda.A. Saiyed. or Sharifah. Konkani. Sayid South Asia Spanish Cid Al-Andalus Other Siyyid .respectful and honorable that as Muslims in good faith we all uses numerous honorable names for (Muhammed Prophet Of Islam PBUH An-Hazrat Aboul-Qasim Muhammed -ie. Seyyed Turkey. Siyyid Iran & Afghanistan Punjabi Sayed.

wikipedia.http://en. For other uses. 570/571 Mecca. Arabia (present day Saudi Arabia) Died June 8. see Muhammad (disambiguation). Arabia Cause of death Illness Religion Muslim Spouse see below Parents Father: Abd Allah Mother: Aminah bint Wahb A series of articles on Muhammad callig.Muhammad From Wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayyid -------------------. 632 (age 63) Medina.gif Prophet of Islam Muhammad Life Companions · Family tree · In Mecca · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · The Farewell Sermon · Succession Career Diplomacy · Family · Wives · Military career Succession Farewell Pilgrimage · Pen and paper · Saqifah · General bay'ah Views by subject Slavery · Jews · Christians Perspectives Muslim (Poetic and Mawlid) · Medieval Christian · Historicity · Criticism · Depictions v · d · e This article is part of the series: Islam Allah-eser-green. the free encyclopedia For other persons named Muhammad.png Beliefs[show] Practices[show] Texts and laws[show] History and leadership[show] Culture and society[show] Islam and other religions[show] Other[show] v · d · e . Page semi-protected Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh The name Muhammad in traditional Thuluth calligraphy by the hand of Hattat Aziz Efendi Born ca.The prophet of the Muslim faith -------------------. see Muhammad (name).

adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned.[11][12] The revelations (or Ayat.[3] Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam. Muhammad united the conflicting tribes. which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. also spelled Muhammed or Mohammed)[n 2][n 3] (ca.[13] While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom and premodern times were largely negative. According to Islamic beliefs it was here. the Hijra. Transliteration: Muḥammad.[1] (Monday. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence.1 Childhood and early life 4.2 Establishment of a new polity 4. in the month of Ramadan.*4+*5+*6+ He was also active as a diplomat. a few months after returning to Medina from his Farewell pilgrimage. This event. 632). Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly. Besides the Qur'an. Moses.[n 5] the last prophet of Islam as taught by the Qur'an.7. and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes. philosopher.2 Early biographies 2.3 Beginning of armed conflict 4.7. he retreated to a cave in the surrounding mountains for meditation and reflection. and he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.1 Migration to Medina 4.[15] He is revered as a true prophet and Manifestation of God in the Baha'i Faith. and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God. conquered Mecca. according to Muslim belief.[7] Born in 570 in the Arabian city of Mecca. an agent of divine action.6 Last years in Mecca before Hijra 4. Muhammad fell ill and died.3 Beginnings of the Qur'an 4.1 Life in Mecca 4. In Medina.000. where he received his first revelation from God. as well as a shepherd.2 Wives and children 4. who by then had grown to 10. and.[n 1] pronounced [mʊˈħæmmæd] ( listen). He later worked mostly as a merchant. and. Noah.7 Hijra 4.[16] Contents [hide] 1 Names and appellations in the Qur'an 2 Sources for Muhammad's life 2. Jesus and other prophets.[10][14] His life and deeds have been debated and criticized by followers and opponents over the centuries. Year 11 A. By the time of his death. reformer. Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims. that complete "surrender" to Him (lit.H. orator.[6][9][10] Muhammad gained few followers early on. Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his remaining followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622.1 Qur'an 2. appraisals in modern history have been far less so. and was first married by age 25. and after eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes.) is the founder[n 4] of the religion of Islam.3 Hadith 2. 12th Rabi' al-Awwal. regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. In 632. "Signs of God")–which Muhammad reported receiving until his death– form the verses of the Qur'an. legislator. by most Muslims. he and his followers were treated harshly.7. in the same vein as other Islamic prophets. To escape persecution. Discontented with life in Mecca. at age 40. 570/571 – June 8.4 Opposition 4. his followers. lit. military general.Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh (Arabic: .1. islām) is the only way (dīn)*n 6+ acceptable to God.5 Isra and Mi'raj 4. proclaiming that "God is One".7. the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets.7.5 Siege .4 Conflict with Mecca 4.[2] and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: Allah|‫ هللا‬Allāh). marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. merchant.[8] he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib.4 Non-Arabic sources 3 Pre-Islamic Arabia 4 Life 4. most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. Abraham.

[10] Qur'an Wiki letter w cropped.3 Other religious traditions 8 Criticism 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 12.2 European and Western views 7. servant of God ('abd).8.1 Non-Muslim biographies 14.[17] The Qur'an addresses Muhammad in the second person not by his name but by the appellations prophet.8.[21] These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad (the sira literature). Main articles: Historiography of early Islam and Historicity of Muhammad Being a highly influential historical figure. believers are not to distinguish between the messengers of God and are to believe in all of them (Sura Al-Baqara 2:285). warner (nathir). God has caused some messengers to excel above others 2:253 and in Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 He singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets".svg This section requires expansion.1 Muslim views 7.2. Muhammad's life. announcer (bashir). messenger. deeds. Sura As-Saff 61:6).9 Aftermath 5 Early reforms under Islam 6 Slaves 7 Legacy 7. which provide further information on Muhammad's life.[10] The Qur'an has a few allusions to Muhammad's life.2.2 Other views 7.[19] The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" (Arabic: ‫أ‬."[10] Early biographies Main article: Prophetic biography Next in importance are historical works by writers of the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Muslim era. which makes a biography of him difficult to write.8.1 Non-western views 7. Sources for Muhammad's life The Qur'an is the primary source for details about Muhammed's life. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped (al-muzzammil) in Qur'an 73:1 and the shrouded (al-muddaththir) in Qur'an 74:1.2.6 Truce of Hudaybiyyah 4.7. Muslims regard the Qur'an as a holy book and the primary source of knowledge about Muhammed as a historical figure. witness (shahid).2 Muslim biographies Names and appellations in the Qur'an The name Muhammad means "Praiseworthy" and occurs four times in the Qur'an.3 Farewell pilgrimage and death 4.[20] The Encyclopaedia of Islam says that the Qur'an responds "constantly and often candidly to Muhammad's changing historical circumstances and contains a wealth of hidden data.of Medina 4.8 Final years 4.1 Encyclopedias 13 Further reading 14 External links 14.[18] In the Qur'an. bearer of good tidings (mubashshir). one who calls *unto God+ (dā‘ī) and the lightgiving lamp (siraj munir). reminder (mudhakkir). and thoughts have been debated by followers and opponents over the centuries.[22] .1 Conquest of Mecca 4.2 Conquest of Arabia 4.

but was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari. and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era).[25] Hadith compilations are records of the traditions or sayings of Muhammad.[24] Hadith Hadith collections Mosque02. The work is lost.[26] Western academics view the hadith collections with caution as accurate historical sources.[29] Pre-Islamic Arabia Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia and Jahiliyyah Approximate locations of some of the important tribes and Empire of the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islam (approximately 600 CE / 50 BH). The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources.The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written ca. the material may have been only subject to "tendential shaping"."[28] Another Greek source for Muhammad is the 9thcentury writer Theophanes.[20][23] Another early source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era).[15] Non-Arabic sources Wiki letter w cropped. but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye.] you will discover nothing true from the said prophet except human bloodshed. traditions could have been subject to invention while in the latter sphere. They indicate that both Jews and Christians saw Muhammad as a deceiving prophet. Muhammad is portrayed as being "deceiving[.[25] Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods. They might be defined as the biography of Muhammad perpetuated by the long memory of his community for their exemplification and obedience. oral tradition plays a major role in the Islamic understanding of Muhammad. 767 (150 AH).. In the Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati of 634.[27] Although usually discounted by historians. In the former sphere. aside from exceptional cases. [.[21] Many scholars accept the accuracy of the earliest biographies. or at least certain circles did. the hadith collections are accounts of the verbal and physical traditions of Muhammad that date from several generations after his death. though their accuracy is unascertainable. ..[20] Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between the traditions touching legal matters and the purely historical ones.] for do prophets come with sword and chariot?.svg [show]Sunni [show]Shi'a [show]Ibadi [show]Mu'tazili This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Hadith In addition.svg This section requires expansion.

and Family tree of Muhammad . stones. Life in Mecca Timeline of Muhammad in Mecca Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad in Mecca c.[35][36] According to Muslim tradition. 615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia 616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins c. the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idol statues of tribal patron deities.[32][33] In pre-Islamic Arabia. including Christians and Jews. Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael.[34] Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arab monotheists – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia. as people needed support against the harsh environment and lifestyle. the Arabs shared a common belief in a supreme deity called Allah (literally "the god"). two prominent ones being Mecca and Medina.The Arabian Peninsula was largely arid and volcanic. making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage. Childhood and early life See also: Year of the Elephant. 570 Possible date of birth. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah 610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation c. this unity being based on the bond of kinship by blood. 620 Isra and Mi'raj 622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra) This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Muhammad in Mecca Muhammad was born and lived in Mecca for the first 52 years of his life (570–622) which was divided into two phases. while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture. is the site of Muhammad's tomb. Three goddesses were associated with Allah as his daughters: Allāt. The landscape was thus dotted with towns and cities. Amina 578 Death of his grandfather c. while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. April 26: Mecca 576 Death of his mother. Aside from these gods. Tribal grouping was encouraged by the need to act as a unit. 614 Begins to gather following in Mecca c. who was remote from their everyday concerns and thus not the object of cult or ritual. 583 Takes trading journeys to Syria c. Abdullah c. gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes. Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia. Manāt and al-‘Uzzá.[30] Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions. 618 Medinan War 619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends 619 The year of sorrows: khadija and Abu Talib die c. although their historicity is disputed amongst scholars. Saudi Arabia. springs and wells. 569 Death of his father. the nomads not viewing this as a crime.[37] Life Al-Masjid alNabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) in Medina. the former constantly travelling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks. Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement. their spirits being associated with sacred trees. that is before and after declaring the prophecy. Nomadic survival was also dependent on raiding caravans or oases. Mawlid. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly c. son of Abraham.[31] Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary (or bedouins).

Recent scholarship has suggested alternative dates for this event.[43] According to tradition. such as 568 or 569. one of the prominent families of Mecca. soon after Muhammad's birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert. and her husband until he was two years old.[44] Little is known of Muhammad during his later youth. "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death. Abdullah. trustworthy" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. When Muhammad was eight.[10][38] Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant. although it seems not to have been prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime. a forty-year-old widow in 595.[40] According to the tradition. meaning "faithful. He now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. the only career open to Muhammad as an orphan.Muhammad was born in the month of Rabi' al-awwal in 570. Muhammad accompanied his uncle on trading journeys to Syria gaining experience in the commercial trade. Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives or concubines.[42] He was subsequently brought up for two years under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib.[45] Wives and children Main articles: Muhammad's wives and Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca (from 570 to 622). Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb.[41] At the age of six Muhammad lost his mother Amina to illness and he became fully orphaned.[47])[48] All but two of his marriages were contracted after the migration to Medina. He belonged to the Banu Hashim. Part of a series on Islam Muhammadwives. and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632).[39] Muhammad's father. as the desert-life was considered healthier for infants. of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe. (There are differing accounts on the status of some of them as wife or concubine. and from the fragmentary information that is available. Some western scholars of Islam have rejected the historicity of this tradition. died almost six months before he was born. because of the general disregard of the guardians in taking care of weak members of the tribes in Mecca in the 6th century.[43] It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria.png Umm-al-Momineen Wives of Muhammad . Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother. his grandfather also died.[8][10][46] His reputation attracted a proposal from Khadijah."[43] While still in his teens."[45] Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: ‫)اال ين‬. especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time. he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammed's career as a prophet of God. but it was hard for them to do more for him. which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca that year by the Aksumite king Abraha who had in his army a number of elephants. Muhammad consented to the marriage. which by all accounts was a happy one. it is hard to separate history from legend. the new leader of Banu Hashim.[39] According to Watt.

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid Sawda bint Zamʿa Aisha bint Abi Bakr Hafsa bint Umar Zaynab bint Khuzayma Hind bint Abi Umayya Zaynab bint Jahsh Juwayriya bint al-Harith Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan Rayhana bint Zayd Safiyya bint Huyayy Maymuna bint al-Harith Maria al-Qibtiyya .

[53] After migration to Medina. As Muhammad's only descendants.[51][52] After the death of Khadija. a Muslim widow. or belonging to important families or clans whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances with. or Aisha. he listened to their advice.[53][54][56][57][58] While majority of traditional sources indicate Aisha was 9 (and therefore a virgin) at the time of marriage. daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. but the child died when he was two years old.[64][65][66] Khadijah is said to have borne Muhammad four daughters-(Ruqayyah bint Muhammad. Fatimah Zahra)-and two sons-(Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad) who both died in childhood. who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition.[48] Aisha.[59][60][61][62] Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. The women were either widows of Muslims who had been killed in battle and had been left without a protector. Muhammad (who was now in his fifties) married several women. they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a.At the age of 25.[63] Muhammad did his own household chores and helped with housework. He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue. Zainab bint Muhammad. These are honorific titles in Arabic. such as preparing food. syeds or sayyids. and the wives debated and even argued with him. Muhammad is said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both.[49] The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one.[67] Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter. though the Shi'as place . died before him.[53] Traditional sources dictate that Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad[53][54][55] but the marriage was not consummated until she was nine or ten years old. Fatimah and Zainab. survived him by many decades and was instrumental in helping bring together the scattered sayings of Muhammad that would form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam. it was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim that he should marry Sawda bint Zama.[68] Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad. Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old at that time. a small number of more recent writers have variously estimated her age at 15 to 24. sewing clothes and repairing shoes. These marriages were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad.[50] Muhammad relied upon Khadija in many ways and did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage. All except two of his daughters.[67] Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as sharifs.

Muhammad received his first revelation. listen to the divine word and serve God. published in 1307 AD. According to Welch these revelations were accompanied by mysterious seizures. Shi'a tradition maintains that Muhammad was neither surprised nor frightened at the appearance of Gabriel but rather welcomed him as if he had been expecting him.[18] .[75] The initial revelation was followed by a pause of three years during which Muhammad further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices.[80] Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Qur'an demands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols apart from God or associate other deities with God. but also a bearer of good news for those who abandon evil.[70][71] Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to Mount Hira. Who created. When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee.[69] Beginnings of the Qur'an Part of a series on the Quran Decorative Qur'an cover Mus'haf Sura · Ayah Quran reading Tajwid · Hizb · Tarteel Quranic guardian · Manzil Qari' · Juz' · Rasm Ruku' · Sujud Translations List of translations English translations History Meccan suras Medinan suras Tafsir Persons related to verses Justice · Asbab al-nuzul Naskh · Biblical narratives Tahrif · Bakkah · Muqatta'at Esoteric interpretation Quran and Sunnah Literalism · Miracles Science · Female figures Perspectives Shia · Criticism · Desecration Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn Tanazzulat · Qisas Al-Anbiya House of the Quran v · d · e See also: History of the Qur'an and Wahy At some point Muhammad adopted the practice of meditating alone for several weeks every year in a cave on Mount Hira near Mecca.much more emphasis and value on their distinction.[10] Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.[76][77][78] A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the book Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani.[74] After returning home.".[18] Muhammad is not only a warner to those who reject God's revelation. ayat 1-5[73] According to some traditions. one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Qur'an 38:70.[79] According to the Qur'an. according to Muslim belief. Qur'an 6:19)..Created man. out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful. the angel Gabriel appeared to him in the year 610 and commanded Muhammad to recite the following verses:[72] The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where..He Who taught (the use of) the pen. sura 96 (Al-Alaq). Waraqah ibn Nawfal. nor is He displeased. Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher. and the reports are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims. upon receiving his first revelations Muhammad was deeply distressed.Taught man that which he knew not. Sometimes the Qur'an does not explicitly refer to the Judgment day but provides examples from the history of some extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities (Qur'an 41:13–16). —Qur'an. Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin. Ilkhanate period.

Muhammad began his public preaching (Qur'an 26:214).[82] Most Meccans ignored him and mocked him. whose wealth rested upon the Kaaba.[10] Opposition See also: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and Migration to Abyssinia According to Muslim tradition.[84] However. assisting others particularly those in need. while a few others became his followers. However.The key themes of the early Qur'anic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator. the focal point of Meccan religious life. close friend Abu Bakr. the Quraysh. being chaste and not to kill newborn girls.[83] Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment of Muhammad and his followers. offering frequent prayers. Muhammad was protected from physical harm as he belonged to the Banu Hashim clan.[10] Sumayyah bint Khabbab. There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe. and establishing his position therein by an advantageous marriage. Bilal. another Muslim slave.[81] She was soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.[83] The powerful merchants tried to convince Muhammad to abandon his preaching by offering him admission into the inner circle of merchants. he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city. In 615. is famous as the first martyr of Islam.[88][89] After being persecuted by the Meccans. some of the early converts to Islam sought refuge in the Aksumite Empire (shown above). he refused. God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in hell and pleasures in Paradise. the Qur'anic exegesis maintains that it began as soon as Muhammad started public preaching.[86][87] Apart from insults. and adopted son Zaid. asking for forgiveness of sins. and the weak.[81] Around 613. the resurrection of dead. having been killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Aksumite Empire and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar. was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion.[85] As the number of followers increased. Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet.[10] . the opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the Meccan forefathers who engaged in polytheism. Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God. and the signs of God in all aspects of life.[83] According to Ibn Sad. rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca). people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it. which Muhammad threatened to overthrow. a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl. mostly unprotected foreigners.

In the first part of the journey. Islamic tradition relates that in 620. This description is similar word for word to the description of an angel seen by Moses in "The Revelation of Moses" [96] Some western scholars of Islam hold that the oldest Muslim tradition identified the journey as one traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur (heavenly prototype of the Kaaba). declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim. praising them. The account holds that Muhammad pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. their commercial rival.000 languages.[n 7] Islamic scholars have weakened the hadith[91] and have denied the historicity of the incident as early as the tenth century. to pressurize it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. and every one involved in singing God's (Allah's) praises. each tongue speaking 70. adjacent to the Dome of the Rock (along the southern wall of al-Haram ash-Sharif). Muhammad later retracted the verses at the behest of Gabriel." After calculation this would mean the angel spoke 24 quintillion (2. Moses. is the site from which Muhammad is believed to have travelled to heaven and returned. the Isra. he is said to have travelled from Mecca on a winged horse to "the farthest mosque" (in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa). In 617 the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams. relations between the Muslims and their pagan fellow-tribesmen were already deteriorated and worsening. and spoken with earlier prophets. the Mi'raj. The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective. which Muslims usually identify with the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.401 × 1019) languages for the praise of Allah. Ibn Kathir al Dimashqi and Ibn Hijir al Masri.[95] Ibn Ishaq.000 heads.An early hadith known as "The Story of the Cranes" (translation: ‫ال غران يق ق صة‬.[92] In any event. Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj. presents this event as a spiritual experience whereas later historians like Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir present it as a physical journey. two important Quraysh clans. but later tradition identified Muhammad's journey from Mecca to .[93][94] Isra and Mi'raj Main article: Isra and Mi'raj The Al-Aqsa Mosque. Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell. transliteration: Qissat al Gharaneeq) was propagated by two Islamic scholars. such as Abraham. author of the first biography of Muhammad. and Jesus. The hadith describes Muhammad's involvement at the time of migration in an episode which historian William Muir called the "Satanic Verses". a miraculous journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel in one night.000 mouths. and appealing for their intercession. where the former has strengthened it and the latter called it fabricated[90] (see Science of hadith). In the second part.[95] When he was transported to Heaven. According to this account. each mouth having 70.000 tongues. each head having 70. he reported seeing an angel with "70.

Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib. the Quraysh attempted to stop the emigration. However. Meeting him secretly by night. he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina). and tried to find a protector for himself there. successfully terrifies enemy to cause retreat 625 Banu Nadir expelled after Invasion 625 Invasion of Nejd. Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger.[10] The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism because a Jewish community existed there. Muhammad then visited Ta'if. illustrating the episode of the Black Stone. approximately 1315.Jerusalem. After several unsuccessful negotiations.[10] Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina.[10][94] Persian manuscript miniature depicting Muhammad.[100] Hijra Timeline of Muhammad in Medina c. This placed Muhammad in danger of death since the withdrawal of clan protection implied that the blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection from Muhammad. or the "Pledge of War"[99] Following the pledges at Aqabah. almost all Muslims managed to leave. Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him safely to re-enter his native city.[10][94] Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. Muhammed raids Ghatafan tribes 624 Assassination of Khaled b. the group made what was known as the "Second Pledge of al-Aqaba". As with the migration to Abyssinia. 622 Emigrates to Medina (hijrah) 623 Caravan Raids begin 623 Al Kudr Invasion 624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans 624 Battle of Sawiq. Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib both died in 619. Abu Sufyan escapes capture 624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa 624 Invasion of Thi Amr. With the death of Abu Talib. from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh. Sufyan & Abu Rafi 625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims 625 Tragedy of Bir Maona and Al Raji 625 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad. A Meccan man named Mut'im b. gains access to Kaaba 628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis 629 First hajj pilgrimage 629 Attack on Byzantine Empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah 630 Bloodless conquest of Mecca 630 Battle of Hunayn 630 Siege of Ta'if 631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula 632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk 632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage 632 Wasal (June 8): Medina This box: view · talk · edit Main article: Hijra (Islam) Migration to Medina Main article: Muhammad in Medina . successful siege 628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah.[97] Last years in Mecca before Hijra Muhammad's visit to Ta'if was his first attempt to spread Islam beyond Mecca. another important city in Arabia.[98] Many people were visiting Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. such that by June of the subsequent year there were seventy-five Muslims coming to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Soon afterwards. the year thus being known as the "year of sorrow". Badr and Dumatul Jandal 627 Battle of the Trench 627 Invasion of Banu Qurayza. an inveterate enemy of Muhammad. the leadership of the Banu Hashim clan was passed to Abu Lahab.

[101][102] The community defined in the Constitution of Medina. deliberately initiating armed conflict between the Muslims and Mecca.[101] The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims.[107][108] Muhammad delivered Qur'anic verses permitting the Muslims to fight the Meccans .A delegation consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina. invited Muhammad as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community. according to the tradition. a large agricultural oasis. With the help of Ali. Muhammad fooled the Meccans who were watching him. The first group of pagan converts to Islam in Medina were the clans who had not produced great leaders for themselves but had suffered from warlike leaders from other clans. and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr. Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun (emigrants).[105] Beginning of armed conflict Main article: Battle of Badr Following the emigration.[10] It effectively established the first Islamic state. apart from some exceptions. this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam.[10] Establishment of a new polity Wikisource has original text related to this article: Medina Charter Main article: Constitution of Medina Among the first things Muhammad did in order to settle down the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was drafting a document known as the Constitution of Medina.[101] The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves. the Muslim migrants turned to raiding Meccan caravans as an act of war. According to Ibn Ishaq.[10] Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina until virtually all his followers left Mecca. especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved. which specified the rights and duties of all citizens and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including that of the Muslim community to other communities.[10] Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother. "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca.[104] Those Medinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters). specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). Being alarmed at the departure of Muslims. had a religious outlook but was also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes. the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad.[106] Economically uprooted and with no available profession. made it obvious to them that the tribal conceptions of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. Ummah. This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina. the Meccans seized the properties of the Muslim emigrants in Mecca. Muhammad emigrated to Medina.[101][102] There was fighting in Yathrib mainly involving its Arab and Jewish inhabitants for around a hundred years before 620.[103] By 622.

many of whom were soon ransomed in return for wealth or freed.[118] Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa.(see sura Al-Hajj.[113] Though outnumbered more than three to one.[10] Following the Battle of Badr. dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils. Two persons. a force from Mecca was sent to protect the caravan.[10] The Qur'anic verses of this period.[112] Aware of the plan. Meanwhile.[117] The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers. Asma bint Marwan and Abu 'Afak had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims. but nothing was said and no blood-feud followed. As a result the opposition to him became less vocal. Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam.[109] These attacks pressured Mecca by interfering with trade. Qur'an 22:39–40).[107][115][116] Muhammad and his followers saw in the victory a confirmation of their faith.[114] Seventy prisoners had been acquired. unlike the Meccan ones. They were killed by persons belonging to their own or related clans . The Muslims set an ambush for them at Badr. the Muslims won the battle. killing at least forty-five Meccans with only fourteen Muslims dead. Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to . continuing forward to confront the Muslims upon hearing that the caravan was safe. power and prestige while working towards their ultimate goal of inducing Mecca's submission to the new faith. one of three main Jewish tribes. and allowed the Muslims to acquire wealth. the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan.[110][111] Alt text Expeditions of Muhammad Ghazwah (expeditions where he took part) Caravan Raids – Waddan – Buwat – Safwan – Dul Ashir – Badr – Kudr – Sawiq – Banu Qaynuqa – Ghatafan – Bahran – Uhud – Al-Asad – Banu Nadir – Invasion of Nejd – Invasion of Badr – 1st Jandal – Trench – Banu Qurayza – 2nd Banu Lahyan – Banu Mustaliq – Thi Qerd – Hudaybiyyah – Khaybar – Conquest of Fidak – 3rd Qura – Dhat al-Riqa – Mu'tah – Banu Baqra – Mecca – Hunayn – Autas – Ta'if – Hawazan – Tabouk Sariyyah (expeditions which he ordered) Nakhla – Nejd – 1st Banu Asad – 1st Banu Lahyan – Al Raji – Bir Maona – Assassination of Abu Rafi – Maslamah – 2nd Banu Asad – 1st Banu Thalabah – 2nd Banu Thalabah – Dhu Qarad – Jumum – Al-Is – 3rd Banu Thalabah – 1st Qura – 2nd Jandal – Fidak – 2nd Qura – Uraynah – Hisma – Umar – Abu Bakr – Banu Murrah – Banu Uwal – Yemen – 3rd Fadak – Banu Sulaym – Kadid – v · d · e In March of 624. including Abu Jahl. They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders. The Battle of Badr began in March of 624.

A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. indiscipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat.[120] Abu Sufyan subsequently gathered an army of three thousand men and set out for an attack on Medina. who were now anxious to avenge their defeat. and Muhammad subsequently delivered Qur'anic verses 3:152 which indicated that their defeat was partly a punishment for disobedience and partly a test for steadfastness. Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina. Muhammad eventually conceded to the wishes of the latter. Muhammad led expeditions on tribes allied with Mecca and sent out a raid on a Meccan caravan. using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness. as they had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims.[131] Siege of Medina Main article: Battle of the Trench . with 75 Muslims killed including Hamza. he reacted with severity. though he was able to increase his own forces and stop many potential tribes from joining his enemies.[127] When Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina. and readied the Muslim force for battle.[121] Mount Uhud. Thus. in north of Medina. anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr. there was dispute over how best to repel the Meccans. the Meccans needed to restore their prestige. Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying their crops.[124][125] The Muslims buried the dead. and returned to Medina that evening.protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hijaz. however.[127] Muhammad's policy was now to prevent alliances against him as much as he could. but marched back to Mecca declaring victory.[10] Conflict with Mecca Main article: Battle of Uhud The attack at Badr committed Muhammad to total war with Meccans.[126] Abu Sufyan now directed his efforts towards another attack on Medina. at the Muslim conference of war. was the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. Muhammad and many senior figures suggested that it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of its heavily fortified strongholds. They were not entirely successful.[128] One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf. memories of the prestige of the Quraysh and use of bribes. The next morning. To maintain their economic prosperity.[122][123] Although the Muslim army had the best of the early encounters. and that huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims further.[129] Around a year later. He attracted the support of nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina. Questions accumulated as to the reasons for the loss. which had been lost at Badr.[130] Muhammad's attempts to prevent formation of a confederation against him were unsuccessful. Whenever alliances of tribesmen against Medina were formed. Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (where the Meccans had camped) and fought the Battle of Uhud on March 23. a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir who had gone to Mecca and written poems that helped rouse the Meccans' grief. promises of booty.[119] In the ensuing months. Muhammad's uncle and one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition. he sent out an expedition to break them up.

thereby reaching al-Hudaybiyya. apart from a few who converted to Islam. In the month of Shawwal 628. he was at . The siege of Medina began on March 31 627 and lasted for two weeks.000 men. 33:9–27. the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days. No agreement was reached after the prolonged negotiations. while the women and children were enslaved. located at the south of Medina.[140] while Meir J. Their failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige. an "impostor" and for seeking out the Jewish descendants for gathering information about Muhammad's campaign with their forefathers.[10] While returning from one of these (or some years earlier according to other early accounts). the coalition decided to go home. Aisha was exonerated from the accusations when Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses. The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered and all the men.[132] Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications they were confronted with. who embellished or manufactured the details of the incident. a contemporary of Ibn Ishaq.With the help of the exiled Banu Nadir. and after an ineffectual siege lasting several weeks. just outside of Mecca. who denounced this and other accounts as "odd tales" and quoted Malik ibn Anas.[142] Following the Battle of the Trench.[144] Upon hearing of the approaching 1. their trade with Syria was gone. saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision where he was shaving his head after the completion of the Hajj. Muhammad prepared a force of about 3000 men and adopted a new form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time: the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed that the Banu Qurayza were killed on quite such a large scale. an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha. Muhammad made two expeditions to the north which ended without any fighting. Although they were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed. Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route. Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to make preparations for a pilgrimage (umrah) to Mecca. Arafat relates the testimony of Ibn Hajar.[135][136] Walid N. in part due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts. were beheaded.[143] the Muslims had not performed it due to the enmity of the Quraysh. the Quraysh military leader Abu Sufyan had mustered a force of 10. ayat (verses) 927.[138][139] Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing".[134] After the coalition's retreat. the Meccans exerted their utmost strength towards the destruction of the Muslim community.400 Muslims.[141] In the siege of Medina.[53] Truce of Hudaybiyyah Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Although Muhammad had already delivered Qur'anic verses commanding the Hajj. whom he rejected as a "liar". the Quraysh sent out a force of 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad's wife. the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza.[85] During the battle. The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam. Kister has contradicted[clarification needed] the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad. had entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad.[133] The Qur'an discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab. they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream.[137] Arafat disputes large-scale killings and argued that Ibn Ishaq gathered information from descendants of the Qurayza Jews.[145] According to Watt. Salman the Persian.[n 8] Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe were killed. while some of the fighters were merely enslaved.

anonymous 16th or 17th-century illustration. This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" (Arabic: ‫ ال ر ضوان ب ي عة‬. Muhammad responded by calling upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad. Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers of the world. Khosrau of Persia. However. who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad.[10][149][150] Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire).[121][148] According to Muslim tradition. Israfil and Azrail.[151] Final years Conquest of Mecca Main articles: Conquest of Mecca and Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca A depiction of Muhammad advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi.[147] It was only later that Muhammad's followers would realise the benefit behind this treaty. or to regain some prestige to deflect from what appeared to some Muslims as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya.[145] Many Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. the Qur'anic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Qur'an 48:1–29) assured the Muslims that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one.[145][146] The main points of the treaty included the cessation of hostilities. and gaining the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the incorporation of the pilgrimage rituals. in which the Muslims were defeated. known as the Battle of Khaybar. in L'Histoire Merveilleuse en Vers de Mahomet. a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. Michael. Muhammad sent his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine soil in the Battle of Mu'tah. An anonymous artist's illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries. (Graphically enhanced. . depicting Muhammad prohibits intercalary months during the Farewell Pilgrimage. are also shown. the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year. The destruction of idols at the Kaaba by Muhammad. This was possibly due to it housing the Banu Nadir. these benefits included the inducing of the Meccans to recognise Muhammad as an equal. Muhammad made an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar. a cessation of military activity posing well for the future. asking them to convert to Islam (the exact date is given variously in the sources).the same time demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam does not threaten the prestige of their sanctuary. whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators. While these continued. used in letters sent to other heads of state. and that Islam was an Arabian religion.[10] After signing the truce. the chief of Yemen and to some others. and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh. According to Welch. allowed for negotiations to continue. however. found in a 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex). News of Uthman's safety. and an agreement to send back any Meccan who had gone to Medina without the permission of their protector. bay'at al-ridhwān) or the "Pledge under the Tree". Uthman bin al-Affan.[149][150] In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya.[145] Imprint of Muhammad's seal.) Negotiations commenced with emissaries going to and from Mecca. The angels Gabriel. had been killed by the Quraysh.

had an alliance with the Meccans.[161] Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.[154] The Meccans replied that they would accept only the last condition. he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region. Some of these were later pardoned. soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty. killing a few of them.[85][160] Conquest of Arabia Main articles: Battle of Hunayn and Battle of Tabouk Soon after the conquest of Mecca. Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad in order to be safe against his attacks and to benefit from the booties of the wars. except for ten men and women who had mocked and ridiculed him in songs and verses.[152][153] A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a.[156] He declared an amnesty for past offences. said to number more than ten thousand men. but now his request was declined by Muhammad. or. Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions.[155] In 630. their established code of virtue and their ancestral traditions. the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam and wanted to maintain their independence. Muhammad took control of Mecca. Muhammad made the expedition of Tabuk against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah as well as reports of the hostile attitude adopted against Muslims. the Banu Bakr.[152][153] The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad.[10] In the same year. The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans.[157] Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba.[154] However.[10][162] A year after the Battle of Tabuk. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. Although Muhammad did not make contact with hostile forces at Tabuk. Muhammad thus required of them a military and political agreement . whereas their enemies. or. These were that either the Meccans paid blood money for those slain among the Khuza'ah tribe. a few Meccans also took part in the fighting. They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans.[10] However.[158][159] The Qur'an discusses the conquest of Mecca. according to some sources. the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to Medina to surrender to Muhammad and adopt Islam. that they should disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr.[152][153] The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and.[152] After this event. With minimal casualties. that they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null.The truce of Hudaybiyyah had been enforced for two years. Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force. asking them to accept one of them. Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were collecting an army twice the size of Muhammad's.

God on High and paradise.[10][168][169] Next to Muhammad's tomb.”."[163] Farewell pilgrimage and death Main article: The Farewell Pilgrimage At the end of the tenth year after the migration to Medina. He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year. Muhammad delivered a famous speech known as The Farewell Sermon. He also told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness.[164][165] According to Sunni tafsir. which was in Aisha's house and is now housed within the Mosque of the Prophet in the city of Medina. Muhammad also addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and also forbidding his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir.[167] With his head resting on Aisha's lap he murmured his final words soon after asking her to dispose of his last worldly goods. Muhammad carried through his first truly Islamic pilgrimage. Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society. in Medina. 632. which were seven coins: Rather. and hear my words . Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina. ..”(Qur'an 5:3)*10+ According to Shia tafsir. there is another empty tomb that Muslims believe awaits Jesus. Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs such as adding intercalary months to align the lunar calendar with the solar calendar.[169][170] Aftermath See also: Rashidun. at the age of 63. the Muslim religious levy. and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you. In this sermon. so come to your senses people.[166] A few months after the farewell pilgrimage. and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God. Medina) After completing the pilgrimage. Muslim conquest. Muhammad abolished all old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for all old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. You took them in God’s trust.[10] The tombstone of Muhammad in the quarters of his third wife. the following Qur'anic verse was delivered in this incident: “Today I have perfected your religion. June 8. (Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. and Succession to Muhammad Conquests of Muhammad and the Rashidun. Aisha.[167] —Muhammad He is buried where he died. and to pay the Zakat. it refers to appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor..according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina. He died on Monday. Muhammed asked his male followers to “Be good to women. to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies. thereby teaching his followers the rites of the annual Great Pilgrimage (Hajj).

Muhammad's friend and collaborator. Makkah Province. Arabia 600 600 Age 29 Birth of Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad Mecca. 570 Birth of Muhammad Age 24 Marriage of Muhammad ibn Hashim to Khadijah bint Khu. With Muhammad's death.[12] Umar ibn al-Khattab. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to make an expedition against the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces because of the previous defeat. had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. nominated Abu Bakr.[171] The pre-Islamic Middle East was Prikaži svih 29 Prophet Muhammad of Islam (PBUH)'s Timeline 570 Mecca. Saudi Arabia 605 Age 34 Birth of Ruqayyah bint Muhammad Mecca.A) Mecca.Muhammad united the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions. who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib. or "Wars of Apostasy". Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. Saudi Arabia 605 605 Age 34 Birth of Fatimah-tuz-Zahra (R. although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode referred to by later Muslim historians as the Ridda wars.. a prominent companion of Muhammad. his cousin and son-in-law. Mecca. Arabia 595 595 April 20. disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.. Saudi Arabia . Arabia 604 604 Age 33 Birth of Hazrat Qaasim bin Maulana Muhammad Medina.

620 620 Age 49 Marriage of Muhammad ibn Hashim to Sawda Zam'ah Makkah 622 July. 622 Age 52 Marriage of Muhammad ibn Hashim to "Umme Habeeba" Ra... Medina... 625 Age 54 Marriage of Muhammad ibn Hashim to Hazrat Hafsa Bint. Saudi Arabia 622 Age 51 Marriage of Muhammad ibn Hashim to Aisha bint Abi Bakr Mecca. . 625 March.