Buddhism deserves examination—Researches of Remusat, Burnouf, Koeppen, and t. !i"aire— anscrit manuscripts from Nepau"—Buddhist #oo$s revea" to vie% the ancient !indoo %or"d—The openin& scene of the Kin-kang-king, '''''''''''''''' ( )I*+ O* BUDD!( IN *OUR C!(,T+R .

C!(,T+R I.

)I*+ O* !(K-(.UNI TI)) !I (,,+(R(NC+ (T B+N(R+ ( ( T+(C!+R.

,revious "ives—Chrono"o&/—The seventh Buddha—Birth—+ar"/ "ife—Becomes a hermit—Becomes Buddha—)e&endar/ stories of his ear"/ preachin&— Hwayen-king—+xtramundane teachin&—(ppearance at Benares,

C!(,T+R II.

)I*+ O* BUDD!( *RO. !I (,,+(R(NC+ ( ( T+(C!+R (T B+N(R+ TO T!+ CON0+R ION O* R(!U)(.

The four truths—1odinia and his four companions—The first monastic communit/—The first "a/ #rother—Conversion of five hundred fire2%orshippers in the $in&dom of .a&adha—Buddha at Ra3a&riha—(t hravasti, hravasti in 4eta5s &arden—(ppoints punishments &arden—(ppoints punishments for crimes of mon$s—1oes to see his father after t%e"ve /ears6 a#sence— tor/ of his son Rahu"a, p. xxvi

C!(,T+R III.

*RO. T!+ CO..+NC+.+NT O* R(!U)(5 R+)I1IOU )I*+ TI)) T!+ N+(R (,,RO(C! O* T!+ NIR07N(.

Buddha sends for Rahu"a—(rran&ements for instructin& Rahu"a and other #o/s—Tutors—Bo/s admitted to the vo%s—Nuns—Rapid spread of monasticism— Discip"inar/ ru"es—+ducation in metaph/sics—(nanda and the Leng-yen-king—Buddha in these %or$s "i$e ocrates in ,"ato—Buddha said to have &one to Ce/"on—("so to the paradise of desire—Offer of Devas to protect Buddhism—,rotectors of China—Re"ation of Buddhism to !indoo po"/theism—,ra3na2 paramita—Kin& ,rasena3it— utra of the Benevo"ent Kin&—Dai"/ "itur&/—(nanda #ecomes Buddha5s attendant discip"e—Intrusted %ith the utras in t%e"ve divisions—Buddha teaches his esoteric s/stem—0irtua""/ contained in the 8)otus utra8—In this the sun of Buddha cu"minated—!is father5s approachin& death announced—Buddha reaches the fort/2ninth /ear of his pu#"ic preachin&,

C!(,T+R I0.

)( T DI COUR + (ND D+(T! O* BUDD!(.

Buddha5s immorta"it/ in his teachin&—Death rea" and fina"—O#3ect of Nirv9na teachin&—Buddha visits the Tau-li heaven—Descends a&ain #/ Indra5s staircase —The first ima&es—Death of Buddha5s aunt—Death of hariputra—Buddha at Kushina&ara—Bet%een the a"a trees—)ast instructions—Kashiapa made patriarch—*"esh prohi#ited—Re"ieves the $in& of .a&adha— ends for (nanda—(ns%ers to four :uestions—Brahma comes—Buddha5s "ast %ords—Death— 1o"d coffin—.a/a comes—Cremation—!is re"ics—,a&odas,

C!(,T+R 0.

T!+ ,(TRI(RC! O* T!+ NORT!+RN BUDD!I T . *eatures of (siatic "ife in the time of the patriarchs—Character, po%ers, and inte""ectua" :ua"ities of the patriarchs— eries of thirt/2three patriarchs— (ppointment of Kashiapa #/ ha$/amuni—The vasti$a—Counci" of Ra3a&riha, for %ritin& out the #oo$s of Buddha, and sett"in& %hat shou"d #e received as canonica"—The part ta$en #/ (nanda in the authorship of the Buddhist #oo$s—(nanda, second patriarch—The third %as han&navasu—Remar$s on samadhi and reverie—*ourth, Upa&upta—Conversion of a %ic$ed %oman %hen d/in&—*ifth, sixth, and seventh patriarchs—Buddha5s prophec/ re&ardin& Buddhanandi, the seventh— tru&&"e #et%een fi"ia" "ove and Buddhist conviction in Buddhamitra— p. xxvii

;para&raph continues< The %a/ in %hich he su#dued an un#e"ievin& $in&—.amin& &iven to the $in& of the 1et= to induce him to raise the sie&e of ,ata"iputra— Kapimara, the thirteenth—Na&ar3una, the fourteenth—Converts ten thousand Brahmans—>rites the Ta-chï-tu-lun—0i&orous defence of Buddhism #/ Kanadeva —(ssassination of Kanadeva— an&hanandi, precocious as a #o/—,rophec/ respectin& him—Rahu"ata ascends to heaven— an&$a/asheta5s discussion on the nature of sound—Converts five hundred hermits—Kumarada5s vie%s on the ine:ua"it/ of present retri#ution—Difficu"ties met %ith #/ .anura in teachin& Buddhism in outhern and >estern India—( patriarch5s po%er over #irds—!a$"ena converts in&ha"aputra, %ho succeeded him as patriarch ?the t%ent/2fourth@, #ut %as $i""ed #/ the $in& of Candahar—The orthodox schoo" has on"/ t%ent/2four patriarchs—The contemp"ative schoo" has t%ent/2ei&ht—,rad3n/atara, the t%ent/2seventh, converts Bodhidharma, the t%ent/2ei&hth, %ho proceeds to China—!indoo $no%"ed&e of the Roman empire,

C!(,T+R 0I.

K+TC! O* T!+ !I TOR- O* BUDD!I . IN C!IN(.

The emperor .in&2ti sends an em#ass/ to India for ima&es, (.D. AB—Kashiapmadan&a arrives in China— pread of Buddhism, (.D. CCD—Buddo3an&a—( pa&oda at Nan$in&, (.D. CEB—The trans"ator Kumara3iva, (.D. FGD—The Chinese trave""er, *a2hien, visits India—!is #oo$—,ersecution, (.D. FHA— Buddhism prosperous, FDD—Indian em#assies to China in the un& d/nast/—Opposition of the Confucianists to Buddhism—Discussions on doctrine—Buddhist prosperit/ in the Northern >ei $in&dom and the )ian& $in&dom—Bodhidharma— un2/In sent to India—Bodhidharma "eaves )ian& >u2ti and &oes to Northern China—!is "atter /ears and death—+m#assies from Buddhist countries in the south—Re"ics—The )ian& emperor >u2ti #ecomes a mon$—+m#assies from India and Ce/"on—Inf"uence of anscrit %ritin& in &ivin& the Chinese the $no%"ed&e of an a"pha#et— /""a#ic spe""in&—Confucian opposition to Buddhism in the TJan& d/nast/—The five successors of Bodhidharma—!iuen2tsan&5s trave"s in India—>or$ as a trans"ator—,ersecution, (.D. KBF—!indoo ca"endar in China —(mo&ha introduces the festiva" for hun&r/ &hosts—Opposition of !an -I to Buddhism—,ersecution of EFD—Teachin& of .a2tsu—Triumph of the .aha/ana —Bodhiruchi—,ersecution #/ the Cheu d/nast/—+xtensive erection of pa&odas in the un& d/nast/—+ncoura&ement of anscrit studies—,"aces of pi"&rima&e —,Ju2to—Re&u"ations for receivin& the vo%s—!indoo Buddhists in China in the un& d/nast/—The .on&o" d/nast/ favoured Buddhism—The "ast Chinese Buddhist %ho visited India—The .in& d/nast/ "imits the ri&ht of accumu"atin& "and—Roman Catho"ic controvers/ %ith Buddhists—Kano hi of the .anchu d/nast/ opposes Buddhism—The "iterati sti"" condemn Buddhism p. xxviii

C!(,T+R 0II.

T!+ C!OO) O* C!IN+ + BUDD!I ..

The &ro%th of esoteric sects in India—The 4ains—Their series of t%ent/2four patriarchs—Bodhidharma headed a ne% schoo" in outhern India, and %as heretica" as vie%ed from the 4ams standpoint—!e founded the contemp"ative schoo" in China—Na&ar3una, the author of the most revered hoo$s of this schoo"—Tsun&2 men—Kiau2men—Divisions of Tsun&2men—The Tsun&2men sects are heretica" in the vie% of the o"d orthodox/2 pecimen of the teachin& of the Tsun&2men— )in2tsi schoo"—,rofesses strict discip"ine—Its founder died (.D. EAE—!is monument on the #an$ of the !u2to river in Chi2"i—Resem#"ance to +uropean specu"ation on the a#so"ute—Is Buddhism pantheisticL—+xoteric sects—Lü-men ?0ina/a@—-o&achara—*a2sian&—.adh/ami$a—*a2sin&—Tsing-tu, or sect of the 8,ure "and8 or 8>estern heaven8—TJien2tJai—,oetr/ of the Tsin&2tu schoo",

C!(,T+R 0III


TJien2tJai, a p"ace of &reat note in Chinese Buddhism —ChM2$Jai resided there in the sixth centur/—!is c"oa$ and rice #o%"—*u2"un& fen&—*an&2$%an& sM and the roc$ #rid&e—)e&end of the )o2hans—T%e"ve monasteries founded—!e tau&ht the Fa-hwa-king— /stem of threefo"d contemp"ation— ix connectives—

+i&ht modes of characterisin& Buddhism—Ten steps in pro&ress—Derived much from Na&ar3una—TJien2tJai, a midd"e s/stem2Re&u"ations,

C!(,T+R IN.

T!+ BUDD!I T .OR() - T+..

The Ten virtues and Ten vices—The cause of human stupidit/ is in the passions—The *ive prohi#itions—The Ten prohi#itions—K"aproth5s praise of Buddhism —But it is atheistic, and therefore this praise shou"d #e :ua"ified—Kindness to anima"s #ased on the fiction of transmi&ration —Buddhism teaches compassion for sufferin& %ithout incu"catin& o#edience to Divine "a%— tor/ of ha$/amuni— in not distin&uished from miser/—Buddhists teach that the mora" sense is innate —The/ assi&n a mora" nature to anima"s—The ix paths of the metemps/chosis—!indoo notions of heaven and he""—Count"ess a&es of 3o/ and sufferin&— +xamp"es—+xemption from punishment &ained #/ meritorious actions—Ten $in&s of future 3ud&ment—*ate or Karma— Buddhism depreciates p. xxix

heaven and the &ods—Buddha not 1od, #ut a aviour—.ora" inf"uence of the ,aradise of the >estern heaven—*i&urative interpretation of this "e&end—The contemp"ative schoo" identifies &ood and evi"—No mora" distinctions in the Nirv9na—Buddhism has fai"ed to produce hi&h mora"it/—The Confucianist condemnation of the Buddhists—.r. ,. !ordern5s praise of Buddhism in Birmah —The Birmese inte""ectua""/ inferior to the Chinese—Kindness to anima"s $no%n to the Chinese #efore the/ received Buddhism—Buddha5s reasons for not eatin& f"esh,

C!(,T+R N.

T!+ BUDD!I T C()+ND(R.

Nationa" festiva"s— *estiva"s in honour of ce"estia" #ein&s—In honour of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as—In honour of characters in Chinese Buddhist histor/— upp"ementa" anniversaries— in&ha"ese Buddhists $eep a different da/ for Buddha5s #irthda/—In the TJan& d/nast/ !indoo astronomers reformed the ca"endar —1audamsiddha—The %ee$ of India and Ba#/"on $no%n to the Chinese—>ord mit for unda/—,eacoc$ utra—The !indoo Rahu and Ketu,

C!(,T+R NI.

R+)(TION O* BUDD!I . TO T!+ O)D+R !INDOO .-T!O)O1-.

Buddhism accepted the !indoo m/tho"o&/, %ith the sacred #oo$s of the Brahmans, so far as it a&reed %ith its o%n do&mas—The &ods Indra, Brahma, and Ish%ara "isten as discip"es to Buddha—+i&ht c"asses of Devas—*our $in&s of Devas—-a$shas—.ahora&as—,retas—.aras—.ama, $in& of the dead— Creation is denied to the !indoo &ods in the Chung-lun and other %or$s,

C!(,T+R NII.

T!+ BUDD!I T UNI0+R +.

The universe passes throu&h incessant chan&es—Kalpas of various "en&ths—Kalpas of esta#"ishment, of destruction, Oc.— aha %or"d— umeru mountain—The outhern continent is 4am#udvipa—!eaven of the thirt/2three—Tushita paradise—Upper tier of paradises—!eavens of form and of desire—!eavens %ithout form—Brahma5s paradise—No %ise man is #orn there, #ecause Brahma sa/s he created the universe—The #e""s— tor/ from the 8Ti2tsan& utra,8 p. xxx


T!+ +NT+ND+D UNI0+R + O* T!+ NORT!+RN BUDD!I T .

>ei2to—Chief ha"".ONI+ *OR T!+ D+(D.ei2tsan&.i"&rima&es to .i2/In sM—!a"" of )o2hans—Diamond throne of Buddha—Co"ossa" ima&es of . ei&ht/ times as "ar&e as our Ne% Testament—The . KG to (. This esta#"ishment more modern than TJien2tJai and >u2tJai—. Temp"es—+nterin& ha"". BUDD!I T .e$in& "amas—Dedicated to K%an2/in—1ifts #/ Kan&2hi—Ima&es—Caves—.(1+2>OR !I. >en2shu.ratimo$sha. inc"usive of those #/ Chinese authors—On the counci"s for sett"in& the canon—Trans"ations #/ Burnouf and others—)otus —Boo$ of *ort/2t%o ections—Character of this and other ear"/ %or$s— tories i""ustrative of ancient "ife—Fan-wang-king—Chan-tsï-king trans"ated #/ Bea"— ...usica" instruments— Ref"ections.i2"i *o—Behind him.aha/ana of Northern Buddhism—Counci" of Cashmere— (uthors of the . and future— Chape"s to O2mi2to *o. Lü. present. (.(1+ (ND I.ota"a of 4eho" in .on&o"ia—It is a"so the name of the pa"ace— Temp"e of the Da"ai )ama—In China an is"and %as preferred to #e the tau2ch6an& of K%an2/in. BUDD!I T I. or second printed edition. .D.iau2fen& shah—. C!(.rimitive Buddhism aimed at mora" improvement and the Nirv9na—Its m/tho"o&/ %as of popu"ar &ro%th—The . Sï-to-t‘ien-wang—These four $in&s descri#ed—The "au&hin& Buddha.ROC+ ION . C!(.ei2tsan&—Division into King. xxxi . KGD— ixteen hundred %or$s are c"assified. (ND C+R+.aha/ana—)un&2shu %rote the Hwa-yen-king—Contrasts #et%een the primitive and .aitre/a—.T+R d/nast/."a/s—. the hea"in& teacher—. .T+R N0I.T+R NI0.T+R N0III.T+R N0II. . of the . C!(. and other Bodhisatt%as—Buddha represented as teachin&—Buddha of the past. %isdom.. Buddhist "i#raries presented to monasteries #/ emperors—ChJen&2tsu. Lun—*irst Counci"—>or$ of (nanda—The . and the Ten $in&s—Representation of the ei&ht miseries from %hich K%an2/in de"ivers—Temp"es in Ce/"on—Ima&es in temp"es near . C!(. .a&odas—Inscriptions—Resident defenders of Buddhism—The .T+R. ü-lan-hwei. %as the first to print the entire series of the Buddhist accepted #oo$s —!ra" Thi#etan inscriptions—*re:uent visits of . BUDD!I T )IT+R(TUR+. are s/m#o"ised in the Bodhisatt%as—>u2tJai shan in China is introduced in the Hwa-yen-king.e$in&—Tan2cho sM sna$e—.as:uerades—. Oc.erc/. C!(. dates from the sixteenth centur/—The Kia2hin& edition of the .ON( T+RI+ (T . Ta-hiung-pau-tien— ha$/amuni—(nanda—Kashiapa—K%an2/in.D. 8(ssociation for &ivin& food to the dead8—>orship of ancestors—)itur&ica" services in the houses of the rich.(1+ . for the "i#eration of the sou"s of the dead from he""—0i""a&e processions— p.I)1RI.i"&rims %earin& iron chains— upposed efficac/ of the pra/ers of the priests—Pea" of the "ait/ in promotin& pi"&rima&es to ce"e#rated shrines.para&raph continues< Based on the o"d rura" processions of c"assica" times—.aha/ana m/tho"o&/ %as introduced #/ the metaph/sicians of Buddhism itse"f—Na&ar3una the chief inventor—Hwa-yen-king—(n extended universe invented to i""ustrate do&ma—Ten %or"ds #e/ond the aha %or"d in ten different directions—Ne% divinities to %orship—(mita#ha—!is %or"d in the >est—K%an2/in and Ta2shM2chM—The %or"d of (chJo#h/a Buddha in the +ast—>or"d of -o2shM *o. T!+ )+N12-+N2KIN1—*IR T C!(. ( OCI(TION .aha/ana #oo$s—)ist of trans"ators.JU2TO. Ti2tsan&.

The utra of firm esta#"ishment in a"" doctrine, descri#in& c"ear"/ the secret merit and attainments in the re"i&ious "ife of Tatha&ata, %ho appears as Buddha in his &reat and unsurpassed statureQ a"so the man/ acts of the Bodhisatt%as

C!(,T+R NIN.

T!+ +K( !)OK( !( TR(.

The 8+$ash"o$a hastra,8 trans"ated from the Chinese, %ith an ana"/sis and notes,

C!(,T+R NN.

+**+CT O* BUDD!I . ON T!+ ,!I)O O,!- O* T!+ UN1 D-N( T-.

The un& phi"osophers differ from Confucius—*ive periods of Chinese inte""ectua" deve"opment—The un& %riters chan&ed the o"d cosmo&on/—The !an %riters had a"read/ done so—Dia&ram of the 1reat +xtreme—Other pictoria" i""ustrations—(voidance of the doctrine of a persona" 1od—.ateria"istic phi"osoph/ of nature—Ne% vie% of divination,

C!(,T+R NNI.

*+N12 !UI, OR T!+ >IND (ND >(T+R U,+R TITION O* T!+ C!IN+ +.

(n o#stac"e to civi"isation—.eanin& of Feng, 8>ind8—Of Shui, 8>ater8—Use of c/c"ic characters—.eanin& of Lung, 8Dra&on8—Names of the &eomancers— !indoo nomenc"ature—Sha-ch‘i, 8Destructive vapour8—Dar$ arro%—Chen-wu, or 8,rotectin& shie"d8—Feng-shui professed"/ #ased on the 8Boo$ of Chan&es8—.odern Feng-shui is #ased on the !an2"un&2$in&—Buddhist e"ement in Feng-shui—The four e"ements of the 1ree$s—The !indoo 8(ir and %ater8 is Feng-shui—+arth, %ater, fire, and air are creative forces, existin& in successive kalpas, and formin& successive %or"ds—Resem#"ance to the theories of the Ionian phi"osophers—1eomanc/ in the TJan& d/nast/—Rahu and Ketu—The Feng-shui s/stem &re% out of Buddhism—Native e"ement in Feng-shui—Nine fancied stars—Causes of the contour of hi""s and p"ains— tars of the six houses—Feng-shui inconsistent %ith &enuine Confucianism,



Use of Buddhist terms in the Nestorian inscription, (.D. KEB—#o, 8demonQ8 in anscrit, mara—Ti-yü, 8he"",8 is naraka—Ten 3ud&es of he""—(mon& them ,au Chen&, the famous 3ud&e of the un& d/nast/—The un& phi"osophers encoura&ed the popu"ar #e"ief in future retri#ution—This prepares for Christianit/— T‘ient‘ang, 8heaven8—Defects of this term—#ing-kung, Oc., as names for 8heaven8—Buddhist paradises possi#"/ #orro%ed from >estern (sia or some other countr/ farther %est—Redemption—Ti2tsan& and K%an2/in—,it/—Instruction—+ffect of sin—Decreed for&iveness to penitents— ecret merit—!appiness and merit confounded— in and miser/ confounded—I""ustration from the narrative of a Christian convert,


NOTIC+ O* T!+ >U2>+I2KI(U, ( R+*OR.+D BUDD!I T +CT.

Ori&inated t%o hundred and sevent/ /ears a&o #/ a native of hantun&—No sho%/ ceremonia"—No ima&es— acred #oo$s six in num#er—Intervie% of the founder %ith the emperor of the period, Chen&2te—Discussion %ith opponents—0ictor/—One of their "eaders %as crucified, p. xxxiii

C!(,T+R NNI0.

BUDD!I . (ND TRUI . IN T!+IR ,O,U)(R ( ,+CT .

The popu"arit/ of Buddhism rests on its doctrine of retri#ution, and not on its ethics—.a&ica" c"aims of the Tauists— %an2/in, since the t%e"fth centur/, usua""/ a fema"e—,o%ers and c"aims of %an2/in—,opu"ar Buddhism "oves to have pra/ers said for the dead—!opes for paradise hereafter—,opu"ar Tauism #e"ieves in haunted houses, in charms, and in the efficac/ of the %iRard in contro""in& demons—The present head of the Tauists and chief ma&ician—>ent from >estern China to Kian&2si, %here he has ever since resided as hereditar/ ,ope—The Tauist divinit/ -I2h%an& shan&2ti has incarnations assi&ned to him—Chan& ien the #o%man, a ph/sician—Tai"2cuttin& de"usion—Tauist pra/ers for the dead—The Buddhist en-lo-wang, 81od of death8—The ei&ht &enii—The ei&hteen )o2hans —The Tauist de"usions dan&erous po"itica""/—TJien2tsin massacre—Need of the "i&ht of education—The effect of the assau"t of Christianit/ on these re"i&ions,

C!(,T+R NN0.

ON T!+ U + O* (N CRIT B- T!+ C!IN+ + BUDD!I T .

Chan&es in Chinese sounds since the time of the Buddhist trans"iteration of Indian %ords—+xamp"es of anscrit %ords in o"d and ne% Chinese—The importance of trans"ations made in (.D. AG to (.D. KA for readin& the *our Boo$s—The !indoo trans"ators did not spea$ pure anscrit— anscrit %as the "an&ua&e of the #oo$s—No ,a"i #oo$s in China—The trans"ators spo$e ,racrit—The term po-li, 8&"ass8—Use of anscrit %ords in ma&ic—$harani—Inscription in six "an&ua&es at KI2/un& $%an,

C!(,T+R NN0I.

BOOK (ND ,(,+R T!(T .(- B+ CON U)T+D *OR T!+ TUD- O* C!IN+ + BUDD!I ..

Fo% kou%&ki #/ Remusat—>or$s of 4u"ien—Interestin& passa&e from *a2hien—Trans"ations #/ Bea"— chott, 'e(er&den&)uddhaismus&in&Hoch&*sien&und&in& China—>ritin&s of ,a""adius—+ite"5s Hand(ook&+or&the&Student&o+&Chinese&)uddhism—>atters6 account of Chinese Buddhism—+ite"5s Three&Lectures, and artic"e on Nirv9na,

(),!(B+TIC() IND+N O* ,RO,+R N(.+ (ND UB4+CT ,

(),!(B+TIC() IND+N O* TIT)+ O* BOOK .+NTION+D,

NextS Introduction acred Texts Buddhism Index ,revious Next

Bu/ this Boo$ at (

Chinese&)uddhism, #/ 4oseph +d$ins, ;BETC<, at

p. B


INTRODUCTION. Buddhism deserves examination—Researches of Remusat, Burnouf, Koeppen, and t. !i"aire— anscrit manuscripts from Nepau"—Buddhist #oo$s revea" to vie% the ancient !indoo %or"d—The openin& scene of the Kin-kang-king. (T the present time, %hen forei&n intercourse %ith China is increasin& ever/ /ear, and our $no%"ed&e of that countr/ is extendin& in proportion, an account of the histor/ and "iterature of Buddhism in that "and %i"" perhaps find more readers than at an/ former period. The trave""er %i"" not fai" to in:uire %h/ this Indian re"i&ion has sun$ into such he"p"essness and deca/ as he o#serves. The phi"osophica" historian natura""/ %i"" %ish to $no% the causes of the vast extension of Buddhism, and of its present dec"ine. The Christian missionar/ %ou"d %i""in&"/ "earn the amount and nature of the re"i&ious fee"in& possessed #/ the mon$s, and the stren&th of the opposition %hich the re"i&ion of Christ has to expect durin& its propa&ation, from them and from the Buddhist "ait/. +specia""/ the statesman needs to #e informed ho% far the Chinese peop"e are "i$e"/ to #e offended #/ the introduction of Christianit/, and %hether the opposition to ido"atr/ %hich it excites %i"" stri$e at an/ of their most dear"/2cherished pre3udices and #e"iefs. ( re"i&ion that has extended its s%a/ over so man/ +astern nations, and %hose converts far outnum#er those p. H of an/ other sect in the %or"d, deserves minute investi&ation. The present s$etch %i"" #e necessari"/ too #rief to do 3ustice to the su#3ect, #ut it is hoped some resu"ts %i"" #e #rou&ht for%ard that ma/ assist the forei&n o#server to exp"ain the &reat and "on&2continued success of the Buddhistic s/stem, the causes of its &ro%in& %ea$ness, and the man/ indications of its hope"ess deca/. (mon& +uropean scho"ars Remusat and his successors in the stud/ of Chinese "iterature have #esto%ed considera#"e attention on Buddhism, and their "a#ours have #een re%arded %ith man/ interestin& and va"ua#"e resu"ts. +specia""/ is the %or"d inde#ted to Burnouf and t. !i"aire for their %or$ in this fie"d of Buddhist in:uir/, and "ucid exposition of their resu"ts. The aid to #e derived from their investi&ations has not #een ne&"ected in the account no% &iven to the reader. *urther, the most direct means of &ainin& information is to stud/ some parts of the vo"uminous %or$s extant in Chinese on this su#3ect. The numerous Indian priests %ho came to China ear"/ in the Christian era %ere indefati&a#"e trans"ators, as is sho%n #/ %hat the/ have #e:ueathed to their discip"es. These monuments of the hi&h"/ civi"ised race that spo$e the anscrit "an&ua&e, &ive to the in:uir/ a specia" "iterar/ interest. The/ %ere ti"" "ate"/ inaccessi#"e in their ori&ina" form. The +uropean students of anscrit for a "on& period sou&ht in vain for an account of Buddhist doctrines and traditions, except in the %ritin&s of their adversaries. The orthodox Indians destro/ed the sacred #oo$s of their heretica" #rethren %ith assiduous care. The representations the/ &ive of the vie%s of their opponents are necessari"/ partia", and it ma/ #e expected that %hat Co"e#roo$e and others have done in e"ucidatin& Buddhism from the po"emica" %ritin&s of the Brahmans, %ou"d receive usefu" corrections and additions as %e"" from Chinese sources as from the anscrit manuscripts of Buddhist #oo$s o#tained #/ !od&son. B p. C (n extended criti:ue of the Buddhist "iterature of China and the other countries professin& Buddhism, such as Burnouf p"anned and part"/ accomp"ished for India, %ou"d #e a va"ua#"e contri#ution to the histor/ of the !indoo race. The po%er of this re"i&ion to chain the human mind, the pecu"iar princip"es of its phi"osoph/, its m/tho"o&ica" characteristics, its mode of vie%in& human "ife, its monastic and ascetic usa&es, a"" resu"t from the ear"/ inte""ectua" deve"opment of the nation %hose home is south of the !ima"a/as. In the Buddhist c"assics it is not the "ife of China that is depicted, #ut that of !indostan, and that not as it is no%, #ut as it %as t%o thousand /ears a&o. The %ords and &rammatica" forms that occur in their perusa", %hen deciphered from the hiero&"/phic Chinese form that the/ have #een made to assume, remind the reader that the/ sprin& from the same stem of %hich the c"assica" "an&ua&es of +urope are #ranches. .uch of their native "iterature the Buddhist missionaries "eft untouched—for examp"e, the hi&h"/2%rou&ht epic poems and dramas that have recent"/ attracted the admirin& notice of +uropeansQ #ut a "ar&e num#er of fa#"es and ta"es %ith a mora" are found in Chinese Buddhist #oo$s. .an/ specimens of this pecu"iar mode of composition, %hich, ori&inatin& in 1reece, %as adopted #/ the !indoos, and spread into the various "iteratures of modern +urope and (sia, have "on& since #een made to %ear a Chinese &ar#. B *urther, the e"ements of &rammar and the $no%"ed&e of the a"pha#et, %ith some important contri#utions from mathematica" science, have reached China throu&h the same medium. evera" openin&s are thus presented into the o"d !indoo %or"d. The countr/ %here specu"ative phi"osoph/, %ith &rammatica" and arithmetica" science, p. F attained &reater perfection than an/%here e"se in ancient times, is seen spreadin& its civi"isation into the nei&h#ourin& countries, and producin& remar$a#"e and permanent chan&es in the nationa" "ife of China. To %itness this, as ma/ #e done in the Buddhist #oo$s, cannot #e re&arded as devoid of attraction. The ver/ existence of Buddhism is sufficient evidence of the ener&/ of the Indian race as it %as "on& a&o. The .on&o"s, Thi#etans, and in&ha"ese, %ith the inha#itants of the Indo2 Chinese peninsu"a, com#ine %ith the Chinese and 4apanese to prove #/ the faith the/ sti"" maintain in Buddhism the enthusiasm of its first missionaries, and their po%er to inf"uence man$ind. Buddhism %as not a"%a/s that decrepit and %orn2out superstition that it no% appears. !avin& said thus much #/ %a/ of preface, it is time to introduce to the reader5s attention the founder of the re"i&ion. No %a/ of doin& this su&&ests itse"f as more suita#"e than to trans"ate from the openin& scene of a popu"ar Buddhist %or$ ca""ed the 8Diamond C"assic8 a fe% passa&es, %here he appears in the midst of his discip"es, instructin& them in some of the princip"es of his s/stem. The time, accordin& to the in&ha"ese chrono"o&/, %as in the sixth centur/ #efore Christ. The p"ace is ha2%ei, B a cit/ in Centra" India. The hero is ha$/amuni himse"f, i,e,, Buddha or 4u"ai. The su#ordinate characters are the Bi$shu H or re"i&ious mendicants, %ho are so denominated #ecause the/ #e& instruction for the mind and food for the #od/. The/ consist of t%o c"asses, sa/s the editor of the Diamond C"assic. Those %ho have a#andoned vice and are aimin& at virtue are the sma"" Bi$shu. Those %ho are re"eased from #oth a"i$e are &reat Bi$shu. (mon& the "atter, %ho p. D have &one deeper than the others into the profundities of Buddhist doctrine, are inc"uded those ca""ed Bosat and )ahan, or, as these characters are no% pronounced #/ the Chinese, ,usa and )ohan. The chief minister of the $in& havin& at Ra3a&riha heard Buddha5s instructions, and #een deep"/ impressed #/ them, %ished to invite him to some suita#"e d%e""in&. 4eta, the $in&5s son, had a &arden. The minister offered to #u/ it. The prince said #/ %a/ of 3est that he %as %i""in& if he %ou"d cover it %ith &o"d. The minister, %ho %as chi"d"ess, o#tained &o"d2"eaf and spread it over the &arden. The prince then &ave it him free of cost. (ccordin& to another account the minister ordered ei&ht/ e"ephants "oaded %ith &o"d to come immediate"/. The prince, admirin& the doctrine %hich had so affected the minister as to ma$e him %i""in& to &ive a"" this &o"d for a ha"" to teach it, &ave it for nothin&. In a house 8in this &arden, %hich "a/ outside the cit/ ha2%ei, Buddha %ith his discip"es, BHDG in num#er, assem#"ed. It %as the time of ta$in& food. Buddha put on the ro#e8 ca""ed seng-gha-li, and %ith his pat B or 8mendicant5s rice #o%"8 in his hand, entered the cit/ to #e& for food. >hen havin& &one from door to door he had finished his tas$, he returned to his "od&in&2p"ace. 8!is mea" #ein& ended, he put his ro#e and rice vesse" aside, and %ashed his

8superior. !e shou"d not rest in forms of thin&s. This %as an effort to recover the divine. sa/s the discip"e. and &ives them his instructions.8 Buddha is as$ed #/ his discip"e for a further exp"anation of this doctrine. $eeps them in his thou&hts. i. appetite or aversion. throu&h the a#surdities of po"/theism. and $nee"in& on his ri&ht $nee. Footnotes HSB Durin& his residence in Nepau". said to emanate from the 8%i"". >or"d2honoured sa&eW ? Shïtsun@ if &ood men and &ood %omen exhi#it the&unsurpassed&"ust&and&enlightened&heart.8 the fami"iar term of our o%n popu"ar phi"osoph/. and of the sensuous %or"d %ith its deceptive phenomena. B 4u"ai. It is %e"". 8The :uestion is a &ood one. and from ever/ se"fish aim. In %hat he does he shou"d not rest on co"our. and accepted #/ a"" the Buddhist nations north of ha$/amuni5s #irthp"ace. The Rev. his happiness and virtue %i"" #e #ound"ess. ?C. or are "i$e the fish. piet/ to%ards the Ru"er of the %or"d does not form either its foundation or the resu"t to %hich it aims to e"evate its votaries.@ The happiness of the Nirv9na or state of unconsciousness %hich frees him %ho attains it from the miseries of existence. . the paradises of the &ods. to #e convinced of %hich is to ta$e the first &rand step on the road to en"i&htenment. C are %ritten %ith Chinese characters in the text. and ho% shou"d the evi" risin&s of the heart #e suppressed and su#duedL8 The %ords in ita"ics.aris.8 for it %as the practice of this re"i&ious reformer to %a"$ %ith na$ed feet. the perfect sa&e. 8not. H %ho in the #est manner protects his discip"es ?Bosat@.8 yi. and are exp"ained #/ the commentator as consistin& of an. he then p. %ho %as sittin& amon& the cro%d of discip"es. 8The Bodhisatt%a in action shou"d have no fixed restin&2p"ace for his thou&hts.@ The mischievous inf"uence of human "ife. is c"assed %ith them as the sixth mode assumed #/ %or"d"/ phenomena. has #een trans"ated #/ Burnouf. the patient and "ovin& teacher. and addressed Buddha in the fo""o%in& %ordsS—8Rare is it to meet %ith the %or"d5s p. In enumeratin& the various $inds of sensations conve/ed to our minds #/ the senses. ("" these sensations are said #/ the Buddhists to #e produced #/ the respective or&ans %ith %hich the/ are connected. I fee" the importance of exhi#itin& ha$/amuni in the form %hich is fami"iar to the Chinese devotee.8 and pass throu&h remar$a#"e chan&es.e. is emp"o/ed in p"ace of 8touch. Of these %or$s. 8or are neither %ith thou&ht nor %ithout thou&ht.8 Buddha no% #ade u#hVti resume his seat.8 sam(odi.8 The %ords "u-shï. and visitin& the most distant spots. the ac$no%"ed&ed superior of &ods and men.. !e then as$s if %ith the materia" #od/ and its senses 4u"ai or Buddha can #e tru"/ perceived. the %onder2%or$in& ma&ician. The/ descri#e him as a sort of divine man. or an/ particu"ar action. Buddha %i"" #e here represented as he appears in the Chinese #io&raphies. The precedin& specimen of Buddha5s teachin&. and /ou have tru"/ descri#ed m/ disposition. has attained to a profound understandin& of Buddhist doctrines. co""ision. is sufficient to introduce the su#3ect. It is thus that a restin&2p"ace can #e found and the heart contro""ed.8 some of the most prominent doctrines of Buddhism are #rou&ht to vie%. surrounded p. In these fe% passa&es from the Kin-kang-king or 8Diamond utra.8 sa/s the commentator. The principa" facts in the "ife of that sa&e %i"" no% #e detai"ed. . "ove or hatred. in an instant of time. Receivin& a ne&ative ans%er. The/ are ca""ed the six $inds of 8dust8 or 8%or"d"/ thin&s8—the un%e"come accretions that attach themse"ves to our &arments as %e %a"$ throu&h the %or"d. %hi"e strivin& to escape from the evi"s incident to "ife. possessed un#ounded ma&ica" po%er. In &ivin& an account of Chinese Buddhism. K thin$8 on the phenomena of the sensuous %or"d 8or have ceased to thin$. >ith his ri&ht shou"der uncovered. he is not a true Bodhisatt%a. to retain the detai"s of a marve""ous nature %hich have #een so a#undant"/ added #/ the Northern Buddhists to the simp"icit/ of the first narrative. )ondon. A honoured one.@ The non2existence of matter. 8(ction. Buddha himse"f rep"ies #/ den/in& the existence of a"" matter in the %ords 8%hatever has form is an empt/ de"usion. 8ri&ht"/ $no%in&. 8!e then sat cross2"e&&ed on a raised p"atform.rofessor of Chinese in Universit/ Co""e&e. for #od/ and form are not tru"/ #od/ and form. .8 i. has trans"ated from Chinese *&Catena&o+&)uddhist&Scriptures.S—?I. the su#stitute %as Buddha. %hether the/ resem#"e in their nature oviparous anima"s.8 >h/ do not a"" "ivin& men o#tain this immeasura#"/ &reat re"easeL 8If the Bodhisatt%a ?Bosat..8 chJu. !e rep"ies #/ in:uirin& if the four :uarters of space can #e measured #/ thou&ht.8 sprun& from spa%n. in Chinese #iau-+a-lien-hwa-king. u#hVti then expresses his anxious desire to hear the instructions of the sa&e.8 utara. E tru"/ perceives 4u"ai8 in his form"ess and matter"ess rea"it/Q that is. or o"d a&e. instinctive"/ fo""o%in& the mu"titude in the path of evi". 8the/ shou"d thus see$ sa"vation in destruction. refer not to %hat precedes.kya&)uddha. or man. 8thus. sound. viR.8 +a.feet. arose. #ut to %hat fo""o%s. correspondin& to the anscrit anutara&samyaksam(uddhi.8 remainin& some time in meditation #efore he #e&an to teach.ore %i"" su#se:uent"/ occur to confirm the correctness of this opinion. taste. as in Chinese s/ntax. In the histor/ of re"i&ions it is of extreme importance that this fact shou"d #e reco&nised and appreciated. Bea". .8 samya. C Law. >hen 1od.8 Buddha rep"ied. 8ri&ht and e:ua". #ecome so far en"i&htened as to pa/ no attention to passin& scenes. or imitate the mora" dispositions and ref"ectin& ha#its of 8the mamma"ia. This introduction into the Buddhist sphere of thou&ht ma$es the s/stem appear to #e #ased rather on phi"osoph/ than on an/ re"i&ious princip"e.e. ?H. %as pushed out of vie%. sme"".8 that are "i&ht and f"/. ho% shou"d the/ p"ace it firm"/. accordin& to the usa&e of anscrit &rammar. he raised his 3oined hands respectfu""/.8 that is. stripped of the &rosser :ua"ities %hich are manifested in the common course of human histor/. U(t that time the a&ed cannot "ive %ithout 1od. It %i"" #e seen that. shou"d enter that state %hich is fina" and unchan&ea#"e F—the Nirv9na. a ver# 8to stri$e or pierce. the mode" ascetic. have #ecome entire"/ indifferent to "ife or death. he sa/s that the same is true of the doctrine that the Bodhisatt%a in actin& %ithout re&ard to particu"ar o#3ects o#tains &reat happiness and virtue. %ith its stru&&"es after particu"ar forms of happiness. 8("" men. 8or are of the same c"ass %ith anima"s #orn #/ transformation. in our picture. No. D 8>hether the/ sti"" p. %ho conse:uent"/ addresses his discip"es ca""ed Bosat and 1reat Bosat ? #a-ha-sat@. >ith re&ard to the rea" character of Buddhism. that is. If he thus acts. the Lotus&o+&the&-ood p. If an/ one sees that a"" thin&s havin& forms are not forms. . a""o% himse"f to attend to an/ specia" sensationa" phenomena. T #/ his discip"es in a cit/ of ancient India. or the %or"d of "ivin& thin&s. he&who&knows&and&+eels@ has for his aim se"f. and The&Romantic&Legend&o+& S. nothin&. BEDH. for examp"e. it is nothin& #ut se"fishness in an a#stract phi"osophica" form. and %ent on to inform him concernin& the fixed p"ace of rest for %hich he had in:uired. uch %as the conception %or$ed out #/ the !indoo mind to ta$e the p"ace of the o"d po"/theism of India. as. .

even those that %ear an historica" "oo$.revious "ives—Chrono"o&/—The seventh Buddha—Birth—+ar"/ "ife—Becomes a hermit—Becomes Buddha—)e&endar/ stories of his ear"/ preachin&— Hwa-yenking—+xtramundane teachin&—(ppearance at Benares. In the $a"pa immediate"/ precedin& the present. ."a ?+ite"5s Hand(ook&o+&Chinese&)uddhism@. #ecause his is not a true death "i$e that of other men. LIFE OF SHAKYAMUNI TILL HIS APPEARANCE AT BENARES AS A TEACHER. The !indoo trans"ator %ou"d pronounce Nir%ana. It is said of him that #efore his #irth more than t%o thousand /ears since in the present kalpa.andarin a&neu-to-lo&san-miau&san-p‘u-t‘i. is temptin& to the #io&rapher %ho %ishes for variet/ of incident. ASH 4ulai is the Chinese trans"ation of Tatha&ata. 4anten&. !e %as then #orn in the heaven ca""ed Tushita. FSB ha2%ei %as on the north of the 1an&es. *or ou. and introduce the %onderin& discip"e to the scener/ and inha#itants of num#er"ess other %or"ds. sa/s.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. >ade and of the *rench %riters on $indred su#3ects. ASB ( tit"e of Buddha—Shï-tsun in anscrit. The time %hen this happened %as too "on& a&o to #e expressed #/ common Chinese numera" p. a&rees near"/ %ith that of ir T. i. H and %hen the time %as come his sou" descended to our %or"d. It is ca""ed in some trans"ations Nir%an. FSH This anscrit %ord is pronounced accordin& to KJan&2hi )i-k‘u. BAF.BETC<. K Chinese e:uiva"ent of this anscrit term is. BH and honoured the Buddhas %ho then instructed the %or"d. p. The ortho&raph/ here adopted for Chinese and anscrit %ords. !e can p"ace his hero %herever he p"eases. ASF >ithout remainder. a fictitious Buddha.8 B/ the *rench ino"o&ues it is identified %ith Nirv9na. 8#rin&in& human nature as it tru"/ is. and foreto"d that he %ou"d in a su#se:uent $a"pa #ecome Buddha. Lok0s1/arar. The founder of Buddhism. consistin& of ta"es and apo"o&ues. The Chinese character used for ni %as ca""ed nit in some parts of China. the happ/ condition of perfect rest at %hich the !indoos aim. at sacred2texts. the oo of . and that it is app"ied to descri#e the death of Buddha. !is name is associated particu"ar"/ %ith Dipan$ara. v. In anscrit the %ord is p. The doctrine of transmi&rations. to announce that he is at rest. vo". u is here %ritten. IN examinin& the Buddhist %ritin&s. p. %ith perfect $no%"ed&e and hi&h inte""i&ence. 5u-yü. the reader is at once reminded that he has entered a fie"d %here he is deprived of the trust%orth/ &uidance and carefu" adherence to facts and dates of native Chinese authors. ("" the upper part of the va""e/ of the 1an&es %as em#raced in %hat %as $no%n as Centra" India. %hose tsing-shin ?sou"@ does not die. an ima&e #ehind that of 4u"ai sometimes represents 4anten&. do not fai" thus to #etra/ their forei&n ori&in. 8harassment. The dictionar/ Ching-ts7-t‘ung.8 The sound (an %as se"ected. or Lokad"yesht‘a. and in . ha$/a is said to have risen to the ran$ of Bodhisatt%a. BB A LIFE OF BUDDHA IN FOUR CHAPTERS. The date of ha$/a5s #irth is ver/ . Not on"/ is this true of %or$s that contain the %i"der extrava&ances of Indian m/tho"o&/.8 and (an. it ma/ #e.8 and is exp"ained. in Chinese. in the universe #ound"ess in space and time of the Indian ima&ination. ASD 6it is trans"ated #/ the commentator 8&o out if.tra. ha$/amuni. he had durin& man/ previous ones ta$en re"i&ious vo%s. NextS Chapter IS )ife of ha$/amuni Ti"" !is (ppearance at Benares as a Teacher acred Texts Buddhism Index . and an eterna" succession of $a"pas past and future. a#out HGG mi"es a#ove Benares. he comes and manifests himse"f. BG p. It means "itera""/ 8thus come. . and #ear the name #/ %hich he is no% $no%n.CSB Of these %or$s tanis"as 4u"ien has trans"ated Les&*/ Chinese&)uddhism.8 is a case in point. BEDT. and /ie"d the most information. B In modern Chinese temp"es. and nir in others.8 ASC These %ords are pronounced in o"d Chinese a&nu-ta-la&sam-mia&sam-(o-di. !e came on a %hite e"ephant havin& six tus$s. DSB In modern Chinese the t is dropped and the a ?a in father@ chan&ed to o. It %as at a distance of num#er"ess $a"pas. Remusat5s #2langes&*siati3ues. %ho received him as his discip"e. CHAPTER I. or the 8 a&e of the house of ha$/a. that 8the p. #/ a !indoo %ho pronounced the %ord Nir#ana. It is a"so %ritten hravasti.

On seein& it. Koeppen a"so remar$s that Ce/"on %as converted to Buddhism much ear"ier than countries north of India. a favourite discip"e of Buddha. as #oth the Northern and outhern Buddhists inform us. If anscrit %as the "an&ua&e in %hich he tau&ht his discip"es.a"i. he died ten da/s after his #irth. ma/ have "ed to a desi&ned a"terin& of dates #/ the Northern or outhern schoo" of Buddhism.C. his son. Kashiapmadan&a said to the !an emperor. BA the o"der chrono"o&/.C. received that tit"e. is that the ascertained interva" #et%een him and (shX$a is too short for the formation of a ne% "an&ua&e. D. The accepted date in China for Buddha5s #irth is B.C. or six predecessors in the same di&nit/.ohammedan series of seven sa&es.a/a. It %as in (. 1iven a hero. for the o"d Buddhist inscriptions. !e first &ives six &rounds for acceptin& p.e&uans. . BD . the emperor TJai2tsun& ordered an investi&ation into the date of Buddha5s #irth. $in& of the cit/ Kapi"avastu. and his tree. therefore. Burnouf ri&ht"/ prefers the chrono"o&/ of the outhern Buddhists. AHE. The :uestion in re&ard to this date is thus treated #/ the author of Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki. The true histor/ of the Buddhist re"i&ion #e&ins %ith p.erhaps the most convincin& ar&ument for the c"aim of the . too "ate #/ sixt/2five /ears. havin& t%e"ve stripes stretchin& from south to north.D. that it %as in the fift/2first /ear of the c/c"e. The same author proceeds to &ive severa" other epochs. +ar"/ in the seventh centur/.a T%an2"in. . and the date of the Nirv9na is sanctioned #/ a ver/ extended officia" use. !e died at sevent/2 nine. for the interva" from the death of Buddha unti" modern times is in the %ritin&s of #oth schoo"s fi""ed up #/ a series of events and dates. mentions t%o dates as assi&ned #/ various authorities to this event. on the ei&hth da/ of the fourth month. >here a"" is fictitious.8 Buddha %as #orn B. it matters not ver/ much %hether the precedin& six Buddhas %ere incarnations of ha$/amuni Buddha. !e %as the son of uddhodana. and are. The uncertaint/ that invo"ves this :uestion is an instance of the difficu"t/ attendin& researches in Indian chrono"o&/ and histor/. !e is ca""ed the Bi#a Buddha. BF it commemorates as havin&. (nother ear"/ %or$ of a Chinese Buddhist &ives the /ear B. BGHK and AAE. #e"ieved in #/ as man/ authorities. shou"d have its date a thousand /ears ear"ier. sa/s Turnour. it must have #een 3ust d/in& out at the time. to %hich the 1an&es provinces %ere then tri#utar/. on the &round that the/ are usua""/ accepted #/ the outhern Buddhists. than %hen Buddhism spread in China and other northern countries. B. on the fourth month and ei&hth da/. The %or$ ca""ed San-kiau-yi-su H p"aces the Buddha ca""ed ha$/amuni in the seventh p"ace amon& those %hom p. in B. and desi&nate the histories of these incarnations #/ the names of ten !indoo sa&es. to HG. C The Chinese historian. on account of their perfect en"i&htenment.C. %ho are supposed to "ive to%ard the c"ose of the same vast period of time. The most ancient of the seven is said to have saved CF. KFF.. The conse:uence %as that *a2"in sett"ed it to #e B. These are Ce/"onese dates. The $in& of Kapi"avastu %as su#3ect to the $in& of . The sett"ement of it %ou"d thro% "i&ht on the chrono"o&/. DFC. . AF that Buddhism entered China. This &ives B. The "ist #e&ins %ith the ninet/2ei&hth Buddha of a precedin& kalpa. differ amon& themse"ves. BGHK. their "ives must #e re&arded as pro"on&ed #e/ond pro#a#i"it/. . and attained the ran$ of Buddha at thirt/2five /ears of a&e. in the ei&hth /ear of the rei&n of (3atashatru. is imitated from this !indoo series of seven sa&es. !is discip"es %ere too man/ to num#er. The same is true of a statement #/ a Buddhist in the History&o+& the&5ei. !is name %as iddharta.C. %ho rei&ned near . Their discrepancies #et%een themse"ves form an o#3ection. $in& of Centra" India.C. and pass over the %ho"e %est. are ca""ed hM2chM and Baishevu. !e su&&ests that the Buddhists of China and other northern countries %ere inf"uenced #/ the prophec/ uttered #/ ha$/amuni. The statement of the .C. a"" usin& the . viR. The statement of the third Chinese patriarch in the sixth centur/. the Bodhi tree.C. >hat %as the ori&ina" "an&ua&e of Buddhism is another point not /et fu""/ determined. The deception %as an e"a#orate one. and in&ha"ese. One %ou"d "i$e to $no% %hether the . There appears to #e no &round for #e"ievin& in an/ Buddhism #efore Buddha.a"i versions of the sacred #oo$s %ere the ear"ier. and that historica" events are. The cit/ in %hich the/ "ived is a"so mentioned. in the countries %atered #/ the 1an&es. and his t%o most proficient pupi"s %ere hariputra and . #ut not at a"" a fata" one. >ithout for&ettin& the simp"e and a#stemious ha#its of these ancient ascetics. in:uired of a famous Buddhist named *a2"in the reason of the discrepanc/ in the current accounts. a #ri&ht "i&ht of five co"ours %as seen to pierce the conste""ation Tai2%ei. A. as &iven in Chinese #oo$s. DEE. The names of the most faithfu". it is eas/ to invent for him six pre"iminar/ "ives. a#out BDG or HGG /ears after Buddha5s death. a %hite rain#o% %as seen. appear too "on&. a minister of tate. BGHK. The mother2ton&ue of the !indoos must then have #een a"read/ supp"anted #/ a derived dia"ect in the time of (shX$a. !is faithfu" discip"e %as Rahu"a. that it %as in the /ear B.C. (nanda. %ho introduced Buddhism into China. ADC and B. the #irth and death of Buddha are assi&ned to the /ears B. The historian !u To. BGHK. more "i$e"/ to #e correct"/ recorded in Ce/"on. or %ere separate in their persona"it/. The three first Buddhas of the present $a"pa are said to have #een named Ku"usan.C. BGHK. On"/ one of the dates can #e ri&ht. The Nirv9na.para&raph continues< ha$/amuni. (ccordin& to a %or$ ca""ed Cheu-shu-yi-ki. 8It is the si&n of the death of a &reat sa&e in the %est.atna. and the tree under %hich the/ %ere fond of de"iverin& instruction. 8The Buddhists assi&n to their hero ten incarnations. step #/ step. ( portent in the /ear B. near the #oundar/ of Nepau". that Buddha %as #orn. event/2nine /ears "ater. is made to die ei&ht/2three /ears after him. C. se"ected out of the 4e%ish and Christian criptures.a"i versions of the Buddhist c"assics. it is said. the month and da/ a&reein&.aud&a"/a/ana. BC to Buddha5s identit/. ACE. seein& it. from (dam to Christ. #/ %hichever part/ it %as practised. %hich stated that his doctrines %ou"d spread in China a thousand /ears after his death.8 H.8 But the true histor/ of the re"i&ion #e&ins %ith ha$/amuni.C. the sixteenth /ear of the rei&n of Bim#isara. are &iven in the case of each Buddha. B. The iamese. to such a conc"usion.C. The num#ers as stated #/ them are B. BGHK. (ccordin& to the iamese and Birmese chrono"o&/. )ieu Te2%ei. The events in Buddha5s "ife %ere fresher in remem#rance %hen the ear"/ Buddhist "iterature of Ce/"on %as compi"ed. and AHF. the historian u -eu remar$ed that a &reat sa&e %as #orn in the %est. a countr/ in outhern Bahar. B. the num#er attri#uted to the immediate predecessor of the historica" Buddha. The effects of the teachin& of each of the past Buddhas are recorded.a& and Kashiapa.GGG.EGG men. therefore. Koeppen prefers the former dates. The t%o next. an imperia" %or$. F. said.a"i to #e that %hich %as spo$en #/ Buddha himse"f. the first t%o he"d it for sixt/2t%o and sixt/2six /ears respective"/. It is to his a&e that those monuments are ascri#ed. *rom this %e ma/ understand %h/ the Chinese Buddhists p"ace the "ife of Buddha so much ear"ier than do their #rother #e"ievers in the south. The former is %hat is common"/ &iven in Chinese #oo$s. for there is no dou#t as p. The fi&ures diminish. as contrasted %ith the fu"ness and accurac/ of Chinese %riters. are in a dia"ect derived from the anscrit and differin& "itt"e from . The favourite cit/ of ha$/amuni %as hravasti. AHC. and a"so the t%o proficient discip"es. Inscription on a stone pi""ar. KBE. . In >ard5s #ythology&o+&the&Hindoos. Kunashemuni.various"/ &iven. and that of his mother %as . uddhodana is ca""ed in Chinese Tsin&2 +an—8!e %ho eats food freed from impurities. H. The avera&e of the first fourteen patriarchs is more than fift/2t%o /ears to each.erhaps a discussion as to %hether the anscrit or . Of his successors in the office of patriarch. B The "ives of some of the patriarchs.

!e %ent out once more. the %armth of human fee"in& returns. hatred. (t first Buddha appeared "i$e the sun in the east i""uminatin& the tops of the %estern hi""s. and said.8 !is father tried in vain to detain him. and it #e"on&s to the 81reater deve"opment. (t seventeen he %as married to a Brahman maiden of the ha$/a fami"/ ca""ed -ashodara. The sixth states that B. 8an a#rupt out#urst. a centur/ #efore the Christian era.ra3na. %hi"e ref"ectin& on the "ife of the rec"use. !e thou&ht sad"/ on the rapidit/ %ith %hich men &ro% o"d. and &ave him the sea" of the seven precious thin&s. ar&ues that the #irth must have ta$en p"ace in the second month of the modern Chinese ca"endar. in an assem#"/ of no#"es and Brahmans. and de"ivered thirt/2five discourses of specia" importance. as in the da/s of /outh %hen he founded the !indoo monastic societies. death. in prospect of death. "ead #ut to partin&s. and sa% at the north &ate a #e&&in& priest. The first teachin& %as "i$e mi"$ fresh from the co%. in the "ater /ears of his "ife. !e %ore the &ar# of an ascetic. III.8 There %ere. Ku2shan. and expounds the doctrine of sa"vation for man and a"" "ivin& #ein&s in the triumphant tone of an ic/ "o&ic. B. B. !is teachin& and his audience are human. BT %as the first &rand out#urst of Buddhist thou&ht. The fifth authorit/. . The no#"es presented to his ro/a" father #asins fi""ed %ith %ater from the four seas. !e "ived on hemp and #ar"e/. and came to con&ratu"ate him.8 II. a Bi$shu in fact. #ut in vain. death. The statement of the %or$ Siang-cheng-ki. BE "est I ma/ #e pressed do%n #/ o"d a&e. The !%a2/en doctrine is descri#ed a"so as tun. 8If the ei&ht miseries8—viR. 1oin& out a&ain. ( staff %as in his hand. #irth. Next the sun shone on the va""e/s.on&o"ia and North China mi"$ is #oi"ed to ma$e #utter. ha$/amuni #ecomes s/mpathetic and touchin&. KDC. and that then. and then upon the %ide p"ains.8 (s he finished these %ords he rose into the air. there %as a sho%er of fa""in& stars. (nother statement p"aces it in the time of !ia2$ie. 8!e si&hed. mu"tip"ied as the/ ma/ #e.C. AEK %as the /ear in :uestion. and "ived on the !ima"a/a . practisin& sacred duties. reso"ved to #e a hermit. Oc.—!ere ha$/amuni #ecomes most co"d"/ metaph/sica". #ecause in the Cheu p. sic$ness. 5It is stran&e that a"" men %hi"e the/ have %ithin them 4ulai ?the capacit/ of perceivin& the true nature of "ife and %or"d"/ phenomena@. The prince as$ed him %ho he %as. &ives the date B. and carried a #o%".ountains in so"itar/ spots. (t the %est &ate he sa% a dead man. The/ a"so sprin$"ed %ater on the prince5s head. and the oi" %hich appears on the surface in the "ast #oi"in& process. This Bi$shu has arrived at the perception of m/ fee"in&s. The prince thou&ht. examp"es of %hich %e have in the Sutra&o+&Forty-two&Sections. There are four su#se:uent p. and %as supp"ied %ith a"" the de"i&hts that hi&h position and riches cou"d afford. proceedin& step #/ step from the )ook&o+&the&Forty-two&Sections to the Leng-yen. F. These #ein&s then $ne% that iddharta had #ecome a rec"use. %ith %hite hairs and croo$ed #ac$. sic$ness. and the mem#ers of his fami"/ "au&hin& as the/ fo""o%ed him to the &rave.—The scene %as most"/ in the paradises of the Devas. The deer &arden period. five principa" periods of instruction. and then a"" man$ind in the p"ains. ti"" at thirt/ /ears of a&e he came to the perception of the true condition and %ants of man$ind. it is not open to us to sa/ that it too$ p"ace in the second month. that in three utras the #irth of Buddha is said to have ta$en p"ace in the fourth month. B. (fter the Bodhisatt%as had #een tau&ht. and other %or$s. ordinar/ #utter. !ere. the same divinit/ presented himse"f at the south &ate in the dis&uise of a sic$ man. On the seventh da/ of the second month the prince. This phenomenon is supposed to indicate Buddha5s #irth. Bodhisatt%as from immense distances %ere attracted.8 %ere instructed in the va""e/s.assin& the east &ate of the cit/ he sa% there a Deva %ho had assumed the form of an o"d man. and possess $no%"ed&e and virtue as the ori&ina" propert/ of their nature. BK d/nast/ the /ear #e&an t%o months "ater. as an enthusiastic preacher.—8#e not a#andoned. HG sta&es. #ut he soon "earned to despise them. after a"" that ma/ #e said for them. and /et are not afraid. 8Kindness and affection.8 *rom this time the prince #e&an to desire the ascetic "ife. that I ma/ "earn %hat %isdom is.—Buddha no% #ecomes historica".pi"&rim *a2hien. (t t%ent/2five /ears o"d he sou&ht an intervie% %ith his father. The time of de"iverin& the Hwa-yen-king. %ith "an&uid features and s%e""ed paunch. This p. the Shramanas. (""o% me to enter on the ascetic "ife. or 8 :uare and e:ua". !e as$ed their aid. and assua&ed his thirst %ith sno%. as in the Leng-yen-king. C. Be/ond that. To this the defenders of the orthodox Chinese vie% sa/ in rep"/.8 !e refused to return to his father5s pa"ace. he visited one after another the &reat cities of Oude and Bahar. !e %as tau&ht in his /outh ever/ possi#"e accomp"ishment. !e rep"ied.C. !e sho%s me the path of de"iverance. BEGG. the first discip"es of the human race.C. ( "earned Buddhist.C. (t ei&hteen /ears of a&e he "eft the pa"ace to visit certain p"easure &ardens and &roves. "ove. FDK. Chung-sheng-tien-ki. durin& Buddha5s "ife. The chan&es of mi"$ are referred to in i""ustration. Buddha . and sa/in&. and came to reco&nise him as the teacher %hose instructions %ou"d &uide man$ind to the hi&hest truth. This is the period of instruction in the four miseries. I0. and "eft his father5s pa"ace in the ni&ht2time under their escort. accordin& to the Tso-chwen. %isdom cannot #e attained. and said. The/ #ecome a&ed "i$e "i&htnin&. and ornamented %ith the seven precious thin&s. and the doctrine of Nirv9na. In . and %hen. BBTK. or 8"isteners..8 The teachin& of the Bi$shus is 8&radua" and e"ementar/8 ?tsien@. The teachin& of s:uareness and e:ua"it/Q—%here a"" the princip"es of ha$/amuni5s phi"osoph/ appear in s/mmetr/.8 and from thence to the !ra"na&paramita. forma""/ invested %ith the ran$ of heir2apparent. 8I am a Bi$shu. 0.C. are simp"/ impossi#i"ities. and as the/ %ere a"" trans"ated since the modern ca"endar %as adopted. The miseries of societ/ are to #e terminated #/ minute hair2sp"ittin& and #e"ief in certain profound a#stractions. I. tr/in& various methods to attain menta" satisfaction. This %as the !%a2/en period. the miseries I have %itnessed.5 (fter this he "ived fort/2nine /ears. (t fifteen /ears of a&e he %as. 8I fear p. The period of the . %hich. and %as soon out of si&ht. The c"osin& period of Buddha5s pu#"ic "ife inc"uded the announcement of the )otus of the 1ood )a%. and a"%a/s o#tainin& the re%ard of freedom from action. cream. emitted from his #od/ a "i&ht %hich shone to a"" the pa"aces of the Devas. rich #utter. shou"d #e entan&"ed #/ deceptive thou&hts and remain in i&norance of these thin&s. and the audience %as composed of m/tho"o&ica" persona&es.

It %as on the seventh da/ of the second month that ha$/amuni. !e sat here. the assem#"/ of the fort/2one &reat teachers em#od/in& the "a%.8 !e %ent to the Nairan3ana river to #athe. 8/ou attained the ran$ of Ish%ara #/ some charita#"e deed. ha$/amuni is pictured #/ his northern fo""o%ers %ith num#er"ess m/tho"o&ica" persona&es assem#"ed #efore him. and see the Buddha re&ions and a"" the Buddhas. . thou&ht in himse"f. reso"ved not to move ti"" the transformation he %as a#out to under&o shou"d #e comp"eted. I %i"" shoot m/ darts at /ou.8 8"ivin& in sec"usion8 ?see +ite"@. . and %ait upon him %ith respect.8 8a hermit. that he comes to the comp"ete $no%"ed&e of the unrea"it/ of a"" he once $ne% as &ood and evi" actin&. . hariputra and other discip"es are there #/ anticipation.an3usiri.8 The $in& of the . !e then addressed him—8Bodhisatt%aW &ive up the monastic princip"e ?c‘hu-kia&+a@. !e is fo""o%ed #/ ten Bodhisatt%as. The $in& of the . !e is one of the fa#u"ous Bodhisatt%as. This is different from the )odhi tree of the *gama utras of the ma"" Deve"opment schoo". under the Bodhi tree. fo""o%s hit. and %e no% find him sudden"/ ma$in& his appearance at Benares. the Indian . another.a/a resides. Buddha is next found in the heaven of -ama. and utters an encomium upon him in a speech in %hich he states that Kashiapa Buddha had discoursed on the same spot. as he is ca""ed in anscrit. %here the ima&es of >en2shu ?. the perfection of $no%"ed&e. and other supernatura" #ein&s. it is hi&h"/ va"ued in China. !e a"so traversed outhern India. It is not for /ou to distur# him. The first %as under the )odhi tree of *ranya in the $in&dom of .Ju2hien. )ast of a"".aras then returned to his pa"ace. 8I had #etter eat. In some &reen &"ade of the forests that s$irt the mi&ht/ !ima"a/as. The darts. the hermit "ife had a"read/ #ecome a fashion in India. The &od Indra #rou&ht him a stra% seat. This is descri#ed as enterin& into a state of reverie.para&raph continues< . and then attain to perfect $no%"ed&e. -ou ma/ "eave meQ I need /ou not. Samanta(hadra. .Ju2hien are common in the temp"es. or tree of Bodhi. #usied herse"f particu"ar"/ %ith the /ear %hen he attained that perfect vision of truth %hich is ca""ed the state of Buddha.unfo"ded the 8secret8 ?pi-mi@ and 8unfixed8 ?pu-ting@ aspects of his doctrine. (s such. The addition of ka mar$s an a&ent.8 on the east of %hich he met the /outh fami"iar"/ $no%n amon& the Northern Buddhists as han2tsJai2tJun&2tsi. ( spirit in the air %as no% sudden"/ heard to sa/. the scene is "aid in the &arden of 4eta as in the 8 utra of the Diamond. find himse"f more at home %ith men of this c"ass than an/ other. "itera""/ 8the happ/. summoned a host of demons to assau"t the uncon:uera#"e /outh. and after this in that ca""ed Tushita. and #rist"in& spears. Cease /our hosti"it/.ippa"a@.an3usiri then proceeded to the 8cit/ of happiness. #ut do not see Buddha. perceivin& that the %a""s and foundations of his pa"ace %ere sha$in&. after this victor/.aras a&ain said. !ere stands the diamond throne of man/ past Buddhas. as the/ fe"". 8I %i"" resi&n to /ou m/ throne as a Deva. emittin& a #ri&ht "i&ht. !e exhorted them to practise the duties of the Bodhisatt%as. and #ecome a 5%hee" $in&. #ut see$ to tempt me.8 8No.Ju2hien in one speech mentions China under the name Chen2 tan. or. the #od/ p. that the/ mi&ht o#tain the samadhi of fau"t"ess vision. I %i"" &o and trou#"e him.an3usiri@ and . and attained the perfect vie% of the hi&hest truth."uto. Indra receives Buddha in one of his pa"aces B p.8 !e %ent %ith #o% and arro%s. #/ a sma"" act of virtue.8 %here his mother .aras then offered him his three dau&hters to attend on him.8 The Bodhisatt%a %as unmoved.8 8#e"on&in& to the %oodsQ8 and *ranyakah 8a forester. %here he tau&ht in BBG cities.ountain.an3usiri ta$es his fare%e"" of Buddha. The scene of the de"iver/ of the Hwa-yen utra %as "aid in nine p"aces. !e too$ it.8 (n arm/ of spirits no% issued from the &round and re#u$ed the tempter. nor the ma&nificent assem#"a&e of Bodhisatt%as. as the c"ouds &ather round the moon. #ecame "otus f"o%ers. . )et me eat. (s the mornin& star of the ei&hth da/ of the month appeared. ha$/amuni said. !e %ent to sit under a #an/an tree ?. HH re&ion %here man/ Bodhisatt%as have #een en&a&ed in past times in instructin& the peop"e. "on& and short "ife. and sets forth on a south%ard 3ourne/ amon& man$ind. %ho.8 8a :uiet p"ace.5 B If /ou rise not. I %ish it not. &athered round him. and of innumera#"e Devas. and fe"t his stren&th return. is the principa" spea$er. &nashin& teeth. But this happiness has an end. -ou thin$ not on the perishin&. "eadin& a"" "ivin& #ein&s into a perpetua" interchan&e of sorro% and 3o/.aras.8 The $in& of the . )e&end havin& reso"ved to exa"t ha$/amuni to the utmost extent of her resources. hariputra and AGGG Bi$shus %ent to him for instruction. and attendant demons.a&adha. %ith the instruments of a"" the five p"easures. Before the assem#"/ #rea$s up. attained the ran$ of Buddha. 8The Bodhisatt%a attains this da/. HB on the umeru . to the tree %here the o#3ect of his attac$ %as sittin&.8 Kin-kang-king. HC of a Deva. The scene is then sudden"/ chan&ed to the paradises of the Devas. as his "ast device. But the time had arrived %hen ha$/amuni must #ecome a teacher of man$ind. !e %ou"d. B as a p. and ref"ectin& on the four modes of truth. !ere a shepherdess &ave him food %hich sudden"/ &re% on a "otus2f"o%er at her feet. he sudden"/ a%o$e to this consciousness. %here Indra and other &ods of the Brahmanica" m/tho"o&/ ho"d conference %ith them. (s soon as ha$/amuni had risen from the state of p. Na&as. the scene of the instructions and encomiums of the Bodhisatt%as in the presence of Buddha is transferred to other Deva paradises. 81autama is no% attainin& perfect $no%"ed&e. The Bodhisatt%a "oo$ed on this scene as if it %ere chi"d5s p"a/. %hen a /oun& and enthusiastic hermit.Jusa to that of *o. The $in& of the . "est the heretics shou"d sa/ that Nirv9na is attained in famishin& the #od/. *ranya is 8%i"d. and durin& his /outh. The air %as fi""ed %ith &rim faces. %ho #ecame his discip"e and "earned from him the $no%"ed&e of Bodhi. One da/ he thou&ht. Before Buddha5s time.8 rep"ied the Bodhisatt%a. (fter this. . Before he has reached the hei&ht of %isdom. %ho a"" spea$ in praise of Buddha5s %isdom. !e had passed six /ears in the exercises of severe a#stinence and meditation. 8-ou attained. and the five paths of the metemps/chosis. HF . at the c"ose of this "on& utra. ha$/amuni himse"f sa/s ver/ "itt"e in the course of this utra. B It is added. It is intended rather for deve"opin& the m/tho"o&/ of the &reat Bodhisatt%as.

p. The anscrit %ord *sankhy. reform and ma$e happ/ such &roups as he ma/ meet of ordinar/ morta"s in their %retchedness and deso"ation. ho"din& it so that a"" present mi&ht see it. Teaches the !%a2/en doctrine. for fear of &ivin& offence to an/ of the $in&s. %hich the/ found there #/ a happ/ chance. a"" attained hi&h &rades in Buddhist $no%"ed&e. In the third %ee$. But from this %ish he %as dissuaded #/ Brahma and Indra. means 8innumera#"e. and five %ee$s ma/ #e o#served. Buddha. as a"read/ descri#ed. in this instance. %ho desired the perfect $no%"ed&e of truthL )et me first save him. and. 8!e died /esterda/. In reverie #/ the poo". The spirit advised them of the presence of Buddha near the poo". it first appeared #etter that he shou"d enter at once into the Nirv9na. and Buddha must #e content to "eave the #ri""iant"/2i""uminated re&ions of the &reat Bodhisatt%as and shine upon the retired va""e/s. >hi"e he %as meditatin& on the hope"essness of attemptin& the instruction of man$ind. after utterin& a charm. E HT A K E +vent. the spirit of the tree under %hich Buddha had for seven da/s #een in a state of samadhi. postpone his more e"evated discourses. In these the/ offered the food. and induce Buddha to #ecome a pu#"ic teacher. On the seventh da/ of the third month. 8The five messen&ers sent #/ the minister of state had a "i$e %ish. Footnotes BHSB *-send-gi-kap. ( #"ind Na&a ?sna$e or dra&on@ that "a/ in the poo" fe"t the "i&ht that shone from Buddha restore his vision. Then. This thro%s "i&ht on the desi&n of the Northern Buddhists in antedatin& Buddha5s #irth #/ FFK /ears. #/ a &radua" process of teachin&. 8 upp"ementar/ account of the three re"i&ions. On the %a/. In the second %ee$ he ref"ected on the sufferin&s and sorro%s of man. %ho. .To them he discoursed. %here he %i"". %ith their companions. This must #e re&arded.8 Kalpa is app"ied to periods of time var/in& from a fe% hundreds to man/ thousand /ears. none #ut a Buddha #ein& a#"e to comprehend %hat Buddha $ne%. and the oxen that dre% their %a&&ons proved una#"e to pu"" the vehic"es over the o#stac"es that "a/ in the road. BCSH San-kiau-yi-su. The shinin& ro#es of the reco&nised Buddha must #e exchan&ed for the tattered &ar# of the ascetic.onth. ha$/amuni #ecomes Buddha. interva"s of three. T%o of the merchants came to the tree to as$ p. that dates %ere a"tered to reconci"e Buddha5s prophecies %ith facto. %ho came to intercede for morta"s. therefore. Durin& seven da/s he received in si"ence Brahma5s entreaties.8 ( voice in the air said. formed them into one.8 The voice a&ain said. BHSC ee K"aproth5s Li+e&o+&)uddha. HD the spirit5s aid. In the &arden at Benares.8 !e thou&ht once more. !e came out of the %ater. he said. 8manifested.8 (&ain he thou&ht. sa/s the #io&rapher. and Turnour5s 98amination&o+&the&!ali&)uddhistical&*nnals.8 It is at this point in ha$/a5s #io&raph/ that a ne% section #e&ins. )et them first hear the "a%. BHSH Tushita no% pronounced Tushïto. professes &reat exactness in dates. in the Hwa-yen-king. >ho shou"d first hear itL The hermit (rara. imposed on the neoph/tes the ordinar/ five prohi#itions suited for men and Devas. too$ notice of Buddha5s "on& a#stinence from food. In these dates. But as the &rade attained %as hi&h in proportion to the amount of trainin&.an$ind %ere not at this time in a state to receive the doctrine of the 1reater deve"opment. *ive hundred trave""in& merchants passed at the moment. H Y C Y Y Da/. it #e"on&s so far to the unfixed or ar#itrar/ division of the exoteric doctrine Hien-lu-chï-pu-tingkiau. 8!e died "ast ni&ht. The/ &ave him #ar"e/ mixed %ith hone/. HA The Northern schoo". he sat #/ a poo" in a state of samadhi for seven da/s. as e8oteric teachin&.8 Buddha accordin&"/ set out for Benares. and proceeded at once to administer the vo%s to the t%o merchants. for the time. This is to him a temporar/ dis&uise. The four $in&s of the Devas ?%ho are seen in the front ha"" of Buddhist temp"es@ too$ from the mountain stones four s%eet2sme""in& #o%"s. %ith a"" the "ooseness of its chrono"o&/. !e %i"". and received the vo%s as a discip"e. and proceed to Benares to teach the rudiments of his s/stem. . four. Buddha too$ a"" the #o%"s. %as transformed into a /outh. Receives food from the merchants. BCSB The su&&estion of Turnour to account for the sixt/2five /ears discrepanc/ of the in&ha"ese and 1ree$ dates is. %ith his ri&ht ?#/ ma&ica" manipu"ation@. !e then pi"ed them up on his "eft hand. he ate the food. and not fixed teachin&. 8I ou&ht to open the &ate of the s%eet "a%.8 . and said the/ shou"d offer him food. 8Then "et the hermit Na"ana #e the first.

HK CHAPTER II. the ancient 0aranasi. the de"iverance of the mind from thra"dom #/ the cessation of fau"ts. 8miser/. 8the path. and to men of ever/ c"ass. distin&uished #/ common vo%s of a#stinence from marria&e. The ima&e is that of &rindin&. and the path of reformation ?.8 The %hee" of Buddhist preachin& %as thus made to perform t%e"ve revo"utions. Buddha %ent forth to appea" to the /outh of India. and the path of sa"vation as re&ards the practica" Buddhist "ife. %hen formin& its "e&ends of the Deva %or"ds in their first form. LIFE OF BUDDHA FROM HIS APPEARANCE AS A TEACHER AT BENARES TO THE CONVERSION OF RAHULA. If this supposition #e correct. The %ord is Chakra/arti in anscrit. Tan means 8countr/. 8Thus. IT %as exact"/ thirt/2five da/s after his arrivin& at perfect %isdom that Buddha opened his pu#"ic "ife at Benares. These t%o truths #e"on& to the monastic "ife on %hich /ou shou"d no% enter. %hether of Buddha in preachin&. and "ast"/ appea" to evidence and persona" experience. and causes the %hee" of doctrine ever/%here to revo"ve.HGSB The Tau-li-t‘ien. The chaff and refuse are forced from the p. or 8!eaven of the num#er CCQ8 in anscrit. in the . chap. at sacred2texts.(R1(@. "i$e el. NextS Chapter IIS )ife of Buddha *rom !is (ppearance as a Teacher at Benares to the Conversion of Rahu"a acred Texts Buddhism Index . the Brahman %ho studied the 0edas. must have "ived in the vicinit/ of the Caucasus. These ne% discip"es as$ed to #e permitted to commence the mon$ish "ife.nes ?San&!au@.8 Tsi. Su Z 9l: #e Z )u: Ru Z r. The %hee" of doctrine revo"ved thrice. 8-ou shou"d $no%. The Sanga. and oppressive restraints. of the emptiness of the externa" %or"d. the thirt/2seven methods of reformation. 8the %or"d for the first time had six (rhans. The/ ta"$ed of the ei&ht/2one states of miser/. an iso"ated mountain of the Caucasus ran&e. BE. and the proof are repeated in the incu"cation of each of the 8four truths. xxvi. and the conse:uent attainment of the mora" and inte""ectua" ran$ of (rhan. The statement of facts. from Chakra. %ear the $asha. or of $in&s "i$e (shX$a in ru"in&. One of Buddha5s ear"iest converts %as 1odinia. the possi#i"it/ of destro/in& the desires. truth. then exhortation. The four truths—1odinia and his four companions—The first monastic communit/—The first "a/ #rother—Conversion of five hundred fire %orshippers in the $in&dom of . and attained the first &rade of c"ear vision. This ha$/a a""o%ed. There %as first didactic statement. HHSB ( $in& %ho ru"es the %or"d. the need of separation from the ties of passion. 8the fact of miser/ ?DUKJ(@. These t%o truths #e"on& to the %or"d from %hich /ou are no% exhorted to ta$e /our departure. 8Bi$shusW it is for /ou to ta$e off /our hair. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. Ku. %hich %as destined to spread the ne% doctrine over so %ide a portion of (sia. umeru is pro#a#"/ +"#urR.8 !avin& these su#3ects to discourse on.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon.UD(-(@. 8destruction. The &reat (shX$a %as a %hee" $in&. HBSB Hwa-yen-king. sa/in&. . the p. It %as at Benares. and the need of #ecomin& separated from the accumu"ation of entan&"ements caused #/ the passions ? (.BETC<. B !avin& once "aunched the su#3ect under these four heads.8 #ie. the second %as the revo"vin& of the %hee" of the doctrine of the four truths ? $harma@. Oc. shou"d ramif/ them into num#er"ess su#divisions. HT This %as the foundation of the spiritua" communities of Buddhism. HCSB These are. . Thus #e&an the revo"vin& of the %hee" of the Buddhist "a%. 8%hee". it %as natura" that the !indoo minds of the time.8 the s/m#o" of activit/. and to continue for so man/ centuries. is a prefix. The s/""a#"e su. that this conversion and that of four others too$ p"ace. and surrounded #/ "o% & Chinese&)uddhism.8 and Tau. and ?inc"udin& the ne% doctrine@ the Three&!recious&. The first %as Buddha. >e"" mi&ht that &arden #e re&arded as the happ/ "and of men and Devas ?T‘ien@. %ho %as attracted #/ his teachin& upon the four truths. -ou shou"d a"so experience the extinction of these miseries and entan&"ements ?NIROD(@. the fo""o%ers of the Poroastrian fire2%orship. in 4eta5s &arden—(ppoints punishments for crimes of mon$s—1oes to see his father after t%e"ve /ears6 a#sence— tor/ of his son Rahu"a.8 as in !indostan. the !indoo race. HE &ood f"our #/ repeated revo"utions of the %hee".8 he said to his auditors.a&adha—Buddha at Ra3a&riha—(t hravasti. #/ discoursin& to 1odinia and others on the four truths.GGG feet in hei&ht. or assem#"/ of #e"ievers. the non2existence of the 9go. and the third %as the compan/ of the five (rhans ?Sanga@.8 adds the de"i&hted Buddhist historian. and #ecome hramanas. fond as the/ %ere of dia"ectica" hair2sp"ittin&.ri&adava &arden ?Lu-ye-yuen@. 8assem#"in&.8 consistin& in $no%"ed&e of miser/. Triyastrimsas.8 !e discoursed of the non2permanence of human actions. (f&hanistan. the ur&ent appea". the ei&ht/2ei&ht varieties of deception.8 p.

the )a%. But Buddha refused his thrice repeated re:uest. >hen Buddha %as come to see his father after t%e"ve /ears6 a#sence. "ivin& in spiritua" communities. and administered to him the vo%s of adherence to Buddha. in the success of his s/stem. and the courtiers dou#ted if Buddha %as his father. $eepin& the ru"es. Buddha said to the dou#ters. #ecame his discip"es. and %hose #odies %ere #"ac$. It is %orn outside the kasha. The #o/ %as 3ust six /ears o"d. %ith the chief. Buddha %as o#"i&ed to #ecome a "e&is"ator. !e did not. at a spot sixteen mi"es south2%est of Bahar. of passers#/.ersia.a&ian %orship of the heaven"/ #odies.recious Ones. !ere he %as in the $in&dom of Kosa"a. B and a"" the principa" persons in the cit/. his %ife #rou&ht his "itt"e son. a"%a/s refuse app"icants for sa"vation from other %or"ds. no% commenced. or upper ro#e. Three /ears "ater. and in the force of his inf"uence. and re:uested permission to ta$e the vo%s. 8-ashodara has #een true to her dut/. >ith these ne% converts. (t this time the Buddhist communit/ had no propert/. as it %ou"d appear. assassination. and received some of his most ce"e#rated discip"es. the norma" mode of &ainin& support %as #/ the charit/ of nei&h#ours.ersia. The s/stem %as thus &radua""/.rasena3itaQ %ho. it %as destined to #e expe""ed from India #/ Buddhism. %hich %as in use from the commencement of the monastic institute. and attempt. on the &round that he %as not mentally&prepared for the chan&e. to %hich Buddha at once consented. The an&arama and 0ihara. ha$/amuni had an intervie%. and carried it out %ith such triumphant success. and dismissed a"" its mem#ers to trave" ever/%here. oon after%ards. Buddha %ent to the cit/ of Ra3a&riha. the $in& of the . On the #an$s of the Nairan3ana river. vo"untar/ povert/. and evi"2spea$in& occurred in his communit/. "i$e phoenixes round . >hether the mon$s %ere in the monaster/ or upon their trave"s. (s ha$/amuni %as the first in time of the founders of monastic communities. and %as received there %ith perfect confidence and admiration. reachin& to the $nees. such as hariputra. after he had #een a#sent from home for t%e"ve /ears. %ho %as conspicuous for his stature—#ein& sixteen feet in hei&ht—and his #ri""iant &o"den co"our. and returned home to #ecome the first Up9sa$a. #/ teachin&. %ith his o"d enem/. !e #ro$e up the communit/. or "on& ro#e. The/ seemed "i$e those #"ac$2%in&ed #irds that f"/ round the purp"e2&o"den mountain. as a"read/ descri#ed.8 !e then. "i$e the Brahmach9ri of the time. Thus. #/ his ma&ica" po%er. persons of inf"uence.%ho %ished to enter the Nirv9na. a /outh of &reat inte""i&ence sa% in the ni&ht2time a "i&ht. he enc"osed the sna$e in a rice #o%". . The/ %ere content to avoid the stains of a secu"ar "ife. and thre% their imp"ements of %orship into the river. "e&end—%hich %as never more active in inventin& %onderfu" stories a#out an/ one than a#out ha$/amuni—ma$es him soverei&n over the most po%erfu" supernatura" #ein&s. To produce an impression on Kashiapa5s mind. and peop"e. another &reat step %as ta$en #/ ha$/amuni. Buddha no% reso"ved to &o to see his father. named Uda/a. or . throu&h the "a#ours of the Buddhist preachers. >e cannot #ut admire the %onderfu" practica" &enius of the man %ho conceived the s/stem. CG@. !e opened the door of the house. in the ear"/ /ears of ha$/amuni5s p. %ere a"" in favour of the ne% doctrine. #ecame (rhans. so he surpassed them a"" in the ori&ina"it/ of his conceptions. then ru"ed #/ . to occup/ a house and &arden express"/ provided for him #/ the $in&5s e"dest son and a rich no#"e.a&adha princes ti"" the era of (shX$a. or re"i&ious mendicants. !is father sent a messen&er to him. (3atashatru5s father. #ut "ivin& at his o%n house. Buddha himse"f %as at first a hermit.onastic vo%s. %ith f"ourishin& communities of mon$s. and the occupations of socia" "ife. his mind s%e""ed %ith ne% thou&hts and aims. The Buddhist preachers "eft their master. In a fe% /ears India %as covered. Kashiapa %as sti"" deficient in $no%"ed&e. #ut from this time he ripened and pro&ressed visi#"/. !e #ecame a convertQ %ith pur&ed vision too$ the vo%s of adherence to the Three .onaster/ of 4eta5s 1arden.aud&a"/a/ana. It %as supported #/ the "i#era"it/ of the ne% mem#ers. (s soon as the num#er had increased to fift/2six. The messen&er %as a Brahmach9ri ?a re"i&ious student or o#server of Brahmanica" ru"es of purit/@. and perform #efore him the ei&hteen chan&es—a series of ma&ica" effects. to see him. %as tau&ht. fire2%orship had #een added to the o"d . and %ent out in search of the "i&ht. %ho proceeded from Benares to . But %hi"e it had triumphed throu&h Poroaster5s inf"uence in . Brahmans. iii. (s thefts. !e %as #ent on savin& mu"titudes #/ teachin&. to continue in the position %hich he he"d in socia" "ife. p. accompanied %ith an escort of ten thousand persons. 8devi"8@. The $in& %as de"i&hted. CH he made specia" ru"es for the punishment of such crimes ?Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki.a/a in the ne% "a%. caused the mon$s present a"" to #ecome Buddhas in p. B or monastery. the Buddhist monarch %ho ru"ed a"" India a#out t%o hundred /ears after the time of ha$/amuni. of $in&s and no#"es. ho%ever. and the . !ere Buddha tau&ht for man/ /ears. CG teachin&. (t this time Buddha #e&an to appoint the %earin& of the shangati. In . %as soon rendered necessar/ for the residence of the vo"untar/ c[no#ites. and to invite him to come for a visit. to %e"come ha$/amuni. or #/ the &ifts of rich persons. and the &reatest socia" revo"ution that ever too$ p"ace in India %as fair"/ #e&un. to inform him that he %ished to see him. propa&ated from . after hearin& his discourse on the four miseries. (t evenin& he s"ept in the house of U"uvi"va Kashiapa. and in the coo" season of the /ear the Bi$shus. !e is said to have &one up to the Tushita paradise to instruct his mother . The $in& 0im#as9ra. (round him %ere man/ Brahmach9ri %ho had "on& #een in the %oods and mountains. and a"" the $ind"/ disposed. and universa" preachin&—these formed the #asis on %hich the &reat Buddhist structure %as erected. !e sent for%ard Uda/a to inform the $in&. CB On the #an$s of the same river. Rahu"a. !e there su#dued a fier/ sna$e. The ruins of this cit/ are sti"" visited #/ the 4ains. But %hi"e the/ aimed at the o"d Brahmanica" purit/. ha$/a %as invited to hravasti. It %as permitted to the neoph/te. five hundred fire2%orshippers.aras ?the Chinese mo in mo-kwei. Their re"i&ion—fre:uent"/ mentioned in ear"/ Buddhist histor/—%as. and Kashiapa. assumin& the form it has ta$en in a"" Buddhist countries.ersia to India not "on& #efore the time of C/rus. CC . Uda/a at once attained to the state of (rhan ?)ohan@.from anima" food. sa/s the "e&end. On hearin& Buddha discourse. and %ent out of the cit/ thirteen mi"es. !e soon reached Buddha5s &arden. The hermit "ife in India preceded the monastic "ife. p. %ho dai"/ &re% in num#ers. and not to 3oin the monastic communit/. officers. if he preferred it. H It %as the metropo"is of the .riesthood. &ivin& instruction in the doctrine of the four miseries to a"" persons %ith %hom the/ met. . or "a/ #rother.a&adha. to save #oth him and his mother. The $in& then ordered five hundred /ouths of distin&uished fami"ies to #ecome mon$s and attend on Buddha. I %i"" &ive proof of it. and %as a"so tau&ht #/ Buddha. %ere ever/%here seen on the roads and in the cities teachin& the true path to the Nirv9na. This occupation %as connected %ith #e&&in& for food.ount umeru. !e appeared "i$e the moon amon& the c"ouds. It %as the 4etavana 0ihara. #ecame an (rhan. The father of this /outh came in search of him.

%hen sti"" of tender /ears. 8stren&th. as from t%e"ve to seventeen. and the . persuaded to consent to this sacrifice. 6i is the anscrit feminine termination of )ikshu. and committed him to the care of the messen&er. if the parents %ere %i""in&. and ou&ht to commence the re"i&ious "ife. 81oodW this #o/ is tru"/ the son of Buddha. to indicate his trip"e su#mission to Buddha. 8&ardenQ8 <ih. sa/s the "e&end. !e a"so ordered the erection of an a"tar for administerin& the vo%s. )im(asala. %here it is sti"" used in the %ider sense.8 B Footnotes HESB Shï-er-hing-+a-lun. and in China 6iku. sa/in& to him. The f"i&hts of steps are so arran&ed that the neoph/te passes three times round the a"tar on his %a/ up. at sacred2texts. CF CHAPTER III.r.ra.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. B The ori&ina" meanin& of the ordinar/ Chinese term for Buddhist priest thus appears to #e 8tutor.rasena3it— utra of the Benevo"ent Kin&—Dai"/ "itur&/—(nanda #ecomes Buddha5s attendant discip"e—Intrusted %ith the utras in t%e"ve divisions—Buddha teaches his esoteric s/stem—0irtua""/ contained in the 8)otus utra8—In this the sun of Buddha cu"minated—!is father5s approachin& death announced—Buddha reaches the fort/2ninth /ear of his pu#"ic preachin&. and *-che-li ?*charya@. The term %as after%ards extended in +astern Tur$estan to a"" mon$s. The mother rep"ied.kya&)uddha. 8a p"ace for %a"$in& a#out in. 8This is /our father5sQ &ive it to him. !avin& after six /ears #ecome Buddha. The/ %ere ca""ed in India ) p. -ashodara then too$ a si&net rin& and &ave it to the #o/.rad3na . .com Chinese&)uddhism. *rom that countr/ it %as introduced into China. 80o% a"tar. 8>hen 4ulai ?Tath9&ata@ %as a prince he married me. 8assem#"/Q8 ar. Oc. ho%ever.rotectors of China—Re"ation of Buddhism to !indoo po"/theism—. >hat miser/ can #e so &reat as thisL8 he %as.BETC<.8 The primar/ dut/ of the !o2shan& %as to #e the &uide of /oun& mon$s. and ku is a common respectfu" term used of aunts. he no% %ishes me to &ive him m/ son. 8shado%Q8 s. and the out"ine of the re&u"ations for the mon$s and nuns %as a"read/ dra%n.8 Rahu"a too$ it and &ave it at once to Buddha. Buddha sends for Rahu"a—(rran&ements for instructin& Rahu"a and other #o/s—Tutors—Bo/s admitted to the vo%s—Nuns—Rapid spread of monasticism— Discip"inar/ ru"es—+ducation in metaph/sics—(nanda and the Leng-yen-king—Buddha in these %or$s "i$e ocrates in . under the care of hariputra and . FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF RAHULA'S RELIGIOUS LIFE TILL THE NEAR APPROACH OF THE NIRVANA. the )a%.8 In o"d Chinese. the monastic s/stem %as founded. >!+N Buddha %as fort/2four /ears o"d he sent a messen&er to his father and %ife to sa/ that his son Rahu"a %as no% nine /ears of a&e.aud&a"/a/ana %as the messen&er. NextS Chapter III. CCSB Other stories ta$e the p"ace of this in .8 It is ascended #/ three f"i&hts of steps. The $in& and a"" the courtiers said.riesthood. On the top sit the officiatin& priest and his assessors. . It %as no% arran&ed #/ Buddha that %hi"e #o/s mi&ht #e received into the communit/. CD sent fift/ sons of no#"e fami"ies to #e his companions in ta$in& the vo%s and receivin& instruction.aud&a"/a/ana as their tutors— Ho-shang ?'p. Bea"5s trans"ation of The&Romantic&Legend&o+&S.saka@. In t%e"ve /ears from the commencement of his pu#"ic teachin& Buddha5s doctrines had spread over sixteen Indian $in&doms. It is ca""ed Kiai-t‘an. >omen #e&an to as$ and received permission to ta$e the vo%s. and returned to visit his countr/. *rom the Commencement of Rahu"a5s Re"i&ious )ife Ti"" the Near (pproach of the Nirvana acred Texts Buddhism Index . CBSH +ite"5s Hand(ook&o+&Chinese&)uddhism.appearance. and #efore %e had #een married three /ears he %ent a%a/ to "ead a mountain "ife.8 CBSB *rom <im(a. a"" mon$s #ein& ca""ed HTSB Sanga. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. >ith him the $in& p. the/ shou"d not receive the fu"" vo%s ti"" the/ %ere t%ent/. The/ %ere p"aced."ato—Buddha said to have &one to Ce/"on— ("so to the paradise of desire—Offer of Devas to protect Buddhism—. /oun& &ir"s.aramita—Kin& . .

or pesti"ence. Not havin& the re"i&ious esta#"ishments %hich #rin& happiness on a countr/. ac$no%"ed&ed to #e so #/ noted Chinese Confucianists "i$e Chu2fu2tsM. This is true of Northern and outhern Buddhism.8 shou"d #e assi&ned. shou"d e:ua" the utras %hich %ere de"ivered at the end of his "ifeL The/ therefore den/ its e:ua"it/ %ith the Fa-hwa-king. the a#sence of secu"ar cares. !o% foo"ish and use"ess %ou"d #e the endeavour to construct a #io&raph/ of ocrates on the princip"e that he %rote . The a#ori&ina" inha#itants of a distant . is found in the Leng-yen-king. and that after much teachin& his 8stren&th8 ? tau-li@ %as so far from perfect."ato. 8>e %i"" henceforth protect correct doctrine. The incident. so that the e/e of Buddha5s "a% mi&ht "on& remain in that "and. !e tried first to #rin& his discip"es out of dan&er from the %or"d5s temptations #/ introducin& them to the spiritua" association of the Bi$shus. %hich %i"" then remain un#"essed. %hether it %ere 8air8 ?k‘ung@. CE that this most po"ished specimen of his acumen. *ortunate"/. %hi"e %ind.aten&a. CK %ith %hich he had thus #een miracu"ous"/ furnished. %hen ha$/amuni %as an o"d man. !ere is the most &rievous fai"ure of his s/stem. $no%in& of the spe"". in the ei&hteenth /ear of his pu#"ic teachin&."ato5s %or$s certain"/ constitute the record of his o%n inte""ectua" "ife rather than that of ocrates. and that the phi"osophica" princip"es the/ contain %ere a"" deve"oped in a s/mmetrica" succession. !o% much more shou"d Buddha enforce a#stinence from f"eshW8 Buddha assented. and the stru&&"e %hich ta$es p"ace perpetua""/ in the heart of man$ind #et%een &ood and evi"Q #ut he misunderstood them #ecause he %as destitute not on"/ of Christian and 4e%ish. to %hat /ears the various utras of the Hinayana and #ahayana. strict mora" discip"ine. One of the most stri$in& examp"es of the use of metaph/sics as a cure for mora" %ea$ness. Durin& the next /ear Buddha is said to have visited one of the heaven"/ paradises.on&o"ia. and on"/ "oo$s at dut/ on its human side. and introduced his o%n thou&hts in various proportionQ and . #rotherhood. O#edience to the "a% of 1od is in ha$/amuni5s mora"it/ $ept assiduous"/ out of vie%. and instead of a histor/ of 1od5s dea"in&s %ith man$ind. #ut even of Confucian "i&ht. !e hed&ed p. %here an assem#"a&e of Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as from the ten re&ions &athered #efore him. Confucius %as a#"e to uncover the secret of the ori&in of virtue and dut/ so far as to trace it to conscience and natura" "i&ht."atonic dia"o&ues %ere a"" the products of his mind. and rain. The m/tho"o&/ of India appears in this description in its true "i&ht. !e $ne% the "on&in& of humanit/ for de"iverance from miser/. sent forth a #ri&ht "otus "i&ht from his head and received a charm. The man %ho founded the monastic institute as a cure for %or"d"iness. B the -a$sha Kapi"a. ca""ed in the utras )en&a is"and. and directed them to #ecome the patrons of China. The on"/ respite %as %hen the %ho"e communit/ %ent out into the streets of the cit/ to receive the a"ms of the househo"ders in the form of mone/ or food. or 8 ma""er8 and 81reater Deve"opment. mi&ht consistent"/ teach phi"osophica" ne&ations as a remed/ a&ainst #ad mora"it/.ea$. a"" the imperfect teachin& in the %or"d cannot destro/ the %itness %hich conscience in ever/ "and #ears to the distinctions of eterna" and immuta#"e mora"it/. If an/ $in&s scour&e mem#ers of the mon$ish communit/. +ach of them %as to"d to ta$e DGGG fo""o%ers and %herever there %as strife. and finishes %ith the profound.Jusa appeared in the form of the e"ement he &overned. and &ave severa" reasons %h/ Bodhisatt%as and others shou"d conform to this ru"e. !e accidenta""/ met a %ic$ed %oman named . the patron of artisans. The instruction consisted of hi&h metaph/sics and a mora"it/ %hich spea$s chief"/ of merc/. (nanda on arrivin& made his #o% and %ept.aha/ana to that %hich %as composed #/ ha$/amuni5s immediate discip"es. #ut he made metaph/sics the stap"e artic"e of his ora" instructions. or an/ other. The occurrence of the Leng-yen-king ear"/ in Buddha5s pu#"ic "ife constitutes a difficu"t/ to the Buddhist commentators. or Buddha5s teachin& %ou"d have #een sti"" more harmfu"."ato said in his name. !ere there %as communit/ of &oods. %here he proceeded a"one from door to door #e&&in&. CA round his communit/ %ith the strictest re&u"ations. It has cost much "a#our to reduce the utras into a se"f2consistent chrono"o&ica" order. after the evenin& mea" returned from the house of the rich man %ho entertained him. the favourite discip"e. %e %i"" not protect their $in&doms. that the . #ut the s/stem prevai"in& in Ce/"on and iam has perhaps some%hat "ess of the metaph/sica" and more of the mora" e"ement than that found in China and . Buddha. to put a stop to those evi"s.8 de"ivered. !ere he de"ivered the Ta-tsi-king. !o% %as it p. The &od Brahma had a"read/ reso"ved to in3ure (nanda. Buddha is perfect. %hich is of course "e&endar/. pesti"ence. Ima&ine a "ife of ocrates composed #/ a modern author on the h/pothesis that he rea""/ spo$e a"" that Nenophon and . The Northern Buddhists %hen the/ added the "iterature of the . and said. fe"t o#"i&ed to sho% in a harmonious scheme of his "on& "ife. CT de"ivered the Lenga&Sutra. 8The )otus of the 1ood )a%. and no% dre% him #/ a spe"" into the house of . and drou&ht %i"" #rin& ruin on the a&ricu"ture. But ha$/amuni fai"ed to express ri&ht"/ the re"ation of mora"it/ to 1od or to human nature. !e %ent to the top of (dam5s .aten&a for instruction. "iti&ation. #"amin& himse"f that he had not come #efore.an3usiri to ta$e the charm p. %ater.8 (fter the &ods and dra&ons had finished this speech. +ach . 4udaism found it in the revea"ed "a% of 1od. But it is for ever to #e re&retted that ha$/amuni fai"ed to see the true foundations of mora"it/. in the midd"e of the second ran&e of the heaven of co"our and desire. ho%ever. Christianit/ com#ined the "a% %ritten on the heart %ith the revea"ed "a% of the Divine Ru"er. (nanda. he supp"ied them %ith an un"imited series of the #enevo"ent actions of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. !e commences %ith the superficia". 8!eretics prohi#it the eatin& of f"esh. is p"aced #/ Buddha5s #io&raphers in the fort/2fifth /ear of his a&e and in the cit/ hravasti. and &o to save (nanda. such as the Bi#"e is to the Christian. Instead of theo"o&/ he tau&ht metaph/sics. The attempt is made to stren&then the discip"e a&ainst temptation #/ a &rand disp"a/ of metaph/sica" s$i"". +arnest"/ he as$ed the aid of the Buddhas of the ten re&ions that he mi&ht o#tain the first #enefits of $no%"ed&e ?Bodhi@. and re&u"ar instruction. havin& e/es %ith t%o pupi"s. and fifteen dau&hters of Devas. Buddha in a&reein& to his desire announced to him the doctrine of the Leng-yen-king. famine. +ach or these authors imparted his o%n co"ourin& to his account. ( Bodhisatt%a said to him. The Devas and Na&as no% came for%ard. and here p. that the incidents rea" or fictitious the/ record %ere a"" capa#"e of arran&ement in a se"f2consistent scheme. B/ means of it he %as to"d to #rin& (nanda and . Buddha addressed himse"f to a son of a Deva ca""ed 0ishva$arma. %ar. Buddha. is said to have &one to Ce/"on. and as unapproacha#"e #/ men except #/ those %ho are endo%ed %ith ma&ica" po%er. and %ar %i"" commence.aten&a. "in&ered one evenin& in the streets. !e then directed .ha$/amuni tau&ht mora"it/ #/ ru"es. )en&a Is"and is descri#ed as inha#ited #/ -a$shas. and at definite epochs in the "ife of ocratesW uch is the hope"ess tas$ underta$en #/ Buddha5s Northern #io&raphers. The discip"es of Buddha %i"" a#andon their inhospita#"e territories. so the/ sa/. !is ram#"es in the %or"d of thou&ht have ever since his time #een re&arded as his o%n much more than the/ %ere those of his revered teacher.

shou"d sa/. and #ecame devoted see$ers after Buddhist perfection. (t sevent/2one /ears of a&e. This statement means that (nanda %as the most active of the discip"es in preservin& the sa/in&s of his teacher. >hen the same utra—the !ra"na&!aramita—%as heard #/ the $in&s of sixteen Indian tates. In in&ha"ese temp"es (nanda5s ima&e is not p"aced in that c"ose proximit/ to Buddha %hich is common in China. FG is"and "i$e Ce/"on %ere thou&ht of as a race of demons. and the #oo$s containin& his teachin&. and stars. the Theoi of 1reece. the Saddharma&!undarika.—%ith %hich the !e#re% nahash B and +n&"ish sna$e ma/ #e compared. Ku"u. are #e"ieved #/ the peop"e to #e #eneficia" on the &round of such passa&es as that 3ust &iven. sa/s the enthusiastic #ut evident"/ not truthfu" narrator.8 8measured. the invasion of hosti"e armies. durin& past periods of #ound"ess time. too. The/ are often %ritten in &i"t "etters. and of the superstitious reverence for the sacred #oo$s ca""ed utras common amon& the Buddhists of a"" countries. so de"i&hted. the meanin& is. !ence in Buddhist temp"es the/ are p"aced at the door. Thus he %ou"d #e a#"e to prevent re#e""ion. Kosa"a the modern Oude and Berar. *or examp"e.8 !ara is 8the farther side8 of a river. !e had on"/ Kumara3iva5s fra&mentar/ trans"ations. pointin& to an o"d man of a hundred. in a state of reverie. Buddha himse"f. sa/s the "e&end. the sa&e of TJien2tJai. 5This is m/ father. FB of the 8. artic"es of &o"d. and occup/ an honoura#"e position near the domestic ido". or 81reat )otus of the 1ood )a%. The/ constitute the six . Kucha.8 T‘ien. 1odinia5s offer of service %as dec"ined on account of his a&e.aramitas. sic$ness. The ru"ers of nature %i"" protect those %ho honour Buddha5s true %ords.ra3na is the hi&hest. #een practisin& Buddha5s "a%. The #ein&s ca""ed Devas. It %as in ans%er to thirt/2six :uestions propounded to him #/ Kashiapa. and are %orshipped as invisi#"e protectors of a"" faithfu" Buddhists. inundations. founded on some of these %or$s the hastra p. and to have &iven the advice that he shou"d. cora". Cophen the modern Ca#u". 5This is m/ sonQ5 and the o"d man shou"d point to the /oun& man and sa/. !ere is the first mention of the dai"/ service.—are here vie%ed as a c"ass of ce"estia" #ein&s. therefore.—? Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki@.. the Chinese term for 8!eaven. . and cou"d not. for the avoidance of nationa" ca"amities. ("" these #ein&s. exercisin& ma&ica" po%ers.ra3na discourses. %hen he #ecame an ascetic. Of these. It %as to him that Buddha is said to have de"ivered one of the .rasena3ita. it shou"d #e $ept on an e"evated throne. %ho persuaded (nanda to accept the dut/.easure of >isdom.p. that the/ &ave over the affairs of their &overnments to their #rothers. $in& of hravasti. such as Kashiapa. Oc. This %or$. "eft the pa"ace of the ha$/a c"an. remindin& him of the time. Na&ar3una "a/s it do%n as a ru"e that 8ever/ Buddha has #oth a revea"ed and a m/stic doctrine.8 There are six means of arrivin& at the farther shore of the sea of miser/.5 Their %ords %ou"d #e hard to #e"ieve.aud&a"/a/ana. corne"ian. Kapi"avastu Buddha5s #irthp"ace. %hi"e it is in form exoteric. and one hundred and t%ent/ vo"umes. Continuin& to ru"e the %or"d. >hen the "e&end sa/s that 8&ods8 ?Devas@ and 8dra&ons8 ?Na&as@ a&reed to protect Buddhism. ho%ever exa"ted. FH the ca"" of emperors and rich men in times of drou&ht. The names of the countries or cities the/ ru"ed %ere— hravasti. and perhaps in composin& the o"der utras. the/ %ere. #ecome %orshipped o#3ectsQ and the &rand "itur&ica" services performed #/ "ar&e companies of priests at p. undertoo$ the "a#orious tas$ of trans"atin& one of these %or$s. 8to men incredi#"e. for. as a man %ou"d honour his father and mother. is to #e vie%ed as a sort of ori&ina" document of the esoteric teachin&. dearth. The $in&. and in his care %ere deposited the utras in t%e"ve &reat divisions. Na&ar3una. that at this period in Buddha5s "ife the Indian $in&s #e&an to favour his re"i&ion in a more pu#"ic and extended manner than #efore. portents in the sun. B This circumstance su&&ests that he does not. *or %ant of a #etter %ord.8 ta$es its name from the i""ustrations emp"o/ed in it. here ta$es his p"ace in the Chinese narrative of ha$/amuni5s "ife. In temp"es (nanda is p"aced on the ri&ht hand of Buddha. >hen at home. &reat fires. This of t2mentioned persona&e %as . The &ood "a% is made p"ain #/ f"o%ers of rhetoric. %hen trave""in&.8 he as$s.aramita ? !at-no-pa-la-mit-ta@. The 8dra&ons. the fruit of his teachin&. the/ do so in the interest of the ne% "a% %hich ha$/amuni has introduced.ra3na in constructin& his s/stem. invite a hundred priests to recite this utra upon a hundred e"evated seats t%ice in one da/.8 The 8Benevo"ent Kin&8 ?4en-wang@. moon.8 he sa/s.8 The exoteric is for the mu"titude of ne% discip"es. #e transmitted #/ (nanda as definite doctrine amon& the utras. and it shou"d #e fu""/ a hundred paces in advance of himse"f. 8that these innumera#"e discip"es have. sa% that ha$/amuni5s thou&hts %ere on (nanda. #ut it is not "ess so to credit the fact of the marve""ous resu"ts of Buddha5s exertions in so short a space of time. %ere a c"ass su#ordinate to Buddha. &"ass.8 %hich is re&arded as containin& the cream of the revea"ed doctrine. The possession of a 8 utra8 or nom amon& the . adopted the monastic "ife. FC have I heard. It is as if a man of #eautifu" countenance and #"ac$ hair. ha$/amuni set his heart upon him. In the sixtieth /ear of his a&e.recious Thin&s. The ori&ina" %or$s containin& this s/stem %ere thou&ht too vo"uminous to #e trans"ated in fu"" #/ Kumara3iva. after his return from India. In the sentence 8Thus p. and a king amon& the Chinese. is #e"ieved to #rin& &ood "uc$ to the fami"/ and the state. and drou&ht. or 8 utra of the )otus of the 1ood )a%. stud/in& the doctrines of the . Buddha &ave instruction in his esoteric or m/stic doctrine.a&adha. !o% is it. and the $ei of the )atins.ra3na . uch is the (siatic fetishism. si"ver. as the sun at his risin& sheds his "i&ht strai&ht on the %estern %a"". over %hich han& curtains ornamented %ith the same precious thin&s. the Fa-hwa-king. 0aisha"i the seat of the second s/nod. -et it is virtua""/ contained in the utras. destructive %inds. It %as not ti"" the seventh centur/ that !iuen2tsan& the trave""er. *or examp"e. are re&arded #/ the Buddhists as su#3ect to the commands of their sa&e. and other ca"amities. a#out t%ent/2 five /ears of a&e. and "ived near the cit/ of 1a/a as a hermit. 8The %onderfu" resu"t is. made much use of the . (nanda %as se"ected to #e the persona" attendant of ha$/amuni. .8 8arrived at. It shou"d #e honoured dai"/ %ith reverentia" #o%s. ha$/amuni next de"ivered—accordin& to the Chinese account of him—the . the person %ho spea$s is (nanda. fort/ and more /ears #efore. occup/ so prominent a position as $eeper of the utras and persona" attendant on ha$/amuni as he is entit"ed to in the opinion of their Northern #rethren. cr/sta". and pear"s.8 or nagas. Kushinara the cit/ %here he died.aranai or Benares. in the fifth chapter. such as the 8Diamond C"assic. %hich extended to six hundred chapters. shou"d have the utra p"aced upon a ta#"e ornamented %ith the even . viR.on&o"s.8 %hich opens a"" the utras. is app"ied to them. !e then points to the mu"titude of immeasura#"/ exa"ted Bodhisatt%as. the most noted %riter amon& the t%ent/2ei&ht patriarchs.aitre/a rises in the assem#"/ and addresses Buddha. The esoteric is for the Bodhisatt%as and advanced pupi"s. !ra"na is 8%isdom.8 B The Chinese ChM2$Jai. #ita is 8$no%n. the se"f2e"evated sa&e. It is not communicated in the form of definite "an&ua&e. that ca""ed the . death. 1ata$ana. . !e to"d 1odinia. . amon& the outhern Buddhists.

idd"e $in&dom. !is #rother. sudden"/ too$ his departure preparator/ to his next transmi&ration. Buddha %as no% approachin& the "ast /ear of his "ife. This circumstance made the ne% re"i&ion ver/ popu"ar %ith men of hum#"e ori&in. on account of his purit/ of "ife. the $in&. CTSB +ite"5s Hand(ook. #/ 4oseph +d$ins.rasena3ita had a son #/ a %oman of "o% Chinese&)uddhism.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. xxx. at their o%n re:uest. and. to %hich the/ #e"on&ed. the/ sa/. These are the yin-yuen of %hich %e hear the Chinese Buddhists sa/ so much. at the summer so"stice. Buddha a"so said that the unhapp/ fate of the ha$/as %as due to their mode of "ife. so as to produce a supernatura" "i&ht. it is said. &iver of the &arden of that name. p"acin& his hand on his heart in an attitude of %orship. as sho%n #/ the &nomon. had #een insu"ted #/ the ha$/a c"an. This #o/. BC. %hich. and had an immense num#er of them trodden to death #/ e"ephants in pits. and set him upon the throne ornamented %ith "ions. is in fact the . Buddha to"d his fo""o%ers that 4eta %as #orn ane% in the !aradise&o+&=ndra. so %ere the/ destro/ed. . %hich too$ p"ace. as the/ had #een destro/ers of "ife. Innumera#"e causes are constant"/ %or$in& out their retri#utive effects. FF escapin& the stains of the %or"d. %hen the/ a"" %ent to the he"" ca""ed (vichi. #/ attendin& to the prohi#itions of purit/. %hich shou"d shine upon the sic$ $in&. On succeedin& to the $in&dom. . the son sent him a comfortin& messa&e #/ (nanda.BETC<. a mora" fate ru"es the %or"d. %ho after%ards erected Da&o#as and tupas over them. at sacred2texts. FA . he #ein& of i&no#"e #irth. (t the funera". %as a"so $i""ed #/ him for refusin& to ta$e part in this crue" act. FGSB Nahash in !e#re%.8 Footnotes CDSB +ite"5s Hand(ook. sa/ the #io&raphers. In the vie% of ha$/amuni. officiated as coffin2#earers. +ar"/ Buddhism favoured no castes. #ut it operates %ith ri&id 3ustice. usua""/ ca""ed in Chinese 8The thirt/2three heavens. %here Buddha "ived. To 8utter incantations8 is nahash or lahash. %as the cause of the preservation p. and the #ones %ere co""ected in &o"d cas$ets #/ various $in&s. 8I sha"" enter the Nirv9na in the third month of next /ear.8 is said to #e named from the hissin& sound of the anima". This mora" fate is impersona". !avin&.com p. Buddha himse"f %ent in front carr/in& an incense2ho"der. as the resu"t of &ood actions accumu"ated in former "ives. in that "atitude casts no shado%. 8serpent. The %ord !o2shan& is trans"ated from 'p. NextS Chapter I0. FBSB Chi-tu-lun.saka into the former "an&ua&e of Khoten. FHSB >hen at 1a""e in BEDE I noticed this. Then he %as to put his hand upon his forehead. This. ("" virtuous and %ise persons are supposed to #e so. perhaps. China. "i$e the "otus from its mir/ #ed. he %ent to ma$e %ar on the ha$/as. emer&in&. Buddha informed his fo""o%ers that the deceased.ersons of a"" castes %ere e:ua" in the e/es of Buddha. causin& re"ief from pain. >hen Buddha5s father %as an o"d man. +ver/ &ood action is a &ood yin-yuen.8 !e a"so foreto"d the ear"/ destruction of Ru"i and his so"diers in a thunder2storm.Bodhisatt%as p. the four $in&s of the Devas.—?Fan-yiming-i@. ( ne% house for Buddha to discourse in had 3ust #een comp"eted. %hen he %as sarcastica""/ revi"ed #/ mem#ers of the ha$/a c"an for presumin& to sit on the throne. 4eta. the /oun& prince. . The coffin %as #urnt. *rom Tur$estan it %as introduced into China. Ru"i. he shou"d re3oice and meditate on the doctrine of the utras. and no% appear here %ith reverence in the presence of the >or"d5s !onoured oneL8 This utra mar$s the time %hen. and %as seiRed %ith a threatenin& sic$ness. havin& for this purpose assumed the human form. Buddha5s sun reached the Renith and cast no shado%. Immediate"/ after%ards. securin& at some future time an infa""i#"e re%ard. The/ %ere fishermen. accordin& to the prediction. %hen ei&ht /ears o"d. and state the messa&e. cannot so %e"" #e ca""ed the Centra" $in&dom. caused the remova" of po""ution from his heart. !e %as "earnin& archer/ in the house of a tutor. #ecause there is a shado% there on the da/ mentioned. )ast Discourses and Death of Buddha acred Texts Buddhism Index . The messen&er %as directed first to "eap in the air. In the e"eventh month he said to the Bi$shus &athered round him in the cit/ 0aisha"i. %as massacred. FD of Buddha and (nanda %hen the c"an of ha$/a. had #een #orn into one of the hi&her paradises a#ove the umeru mountain. %ith sanda"2%ood for fue". . mounted the "ion throne. ee Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki.em#ers of the ha$/a c"an p"aced him in his coffin. and the sa&e had #een invited %ith his fo""o%ers. The/ ta$e the opportunit/ to remar$ here that Centra" India.

Buddha 3oined his hands. %hen Buddha %as a#out to enter Nirv9na. found the Fa-hwa #e/ond their reach. "eavin& the &round. is %hat is intended #/ Buddha enterin& the Nirv9na. as never #efore. T!+ fifth period of deve"opment in the discourses of Buddha em#races those #oo$s %hich #e"on& to the 8)otus of the 1ood )a%. cou"d not #ear the thou&ht of seein& Buddha enter the state of extinction and sa"vation that %ou"d hide him from morta" vie% for ever. ome %a"$ed on the %ater as on dr/ "andQ others. so Buddha. p. and ma/ amount #/ imp"ication to a denia" of the future "ife. These %ere the first t%o ima&es of Buddha $no%n to have #een made in the %or"d of 4am#udvipa. This %as %h/. (fter their autumn harvestin& and %inter &arnerin&. This %as his meanin& %hen he said. %ho instructed her. This is the Buddhist non& omnis&moriar. FE and mora" su#mission #/ the 6ir/.an3usiri to his mother to as$ her for a time to #end #efore the Three . In the third month.8 Buddha5s aunt. Death the/ "oo$ed on as a rea" death. . Buddha5s immorta"it/ in his teachin&—Death rea" and fina"—O#3ect of Nirv9na teachin&—Buddha visits the Tau-li heaven—Descends a&ain #/ Indra5s staircase—The first ima&es—Death of Buddha5s aunt—Death of hariputra—Buddha at Kushina&ara—Bet%een the a"a trees—)ast instructions—Kashiapa made patriarch—*"esh prohi#ited—Re"ieves the $in& of . B/ these Buddha. The destruction of the materia" or&anisation is rea". he came %ith the ima&e and #o%ed #efore Buddha. even %hen under the contro" of Buddha5s "a%. >e see the teachin& of the Nirv9na to #e the doctrine of Buddha in his o"d a&e.8 This. FK %ho %rote the treatises %e are no% examinin& #e"on&ed to the same actua" %a$in&. and so enter the Nirv9na. (mon& them %ere those %ho advanced from the !ra"na&!aramita to the Fa-hwa ?"otus@. proceeded to a "ater so%in& and harvest. In this case he finds the Nirv9na of ha$/amuni in the un#ro$en continuance of the resu"ts of his teachin&. It is consistent %ith much scepticism. The historian has his e/e upon those mon$s of "ater times %ho "i$e to read other #oo$s than those of Buddha himse"f. descended to the %or"d. and others %ho. (s for the sou". he attained the u2da2%an fruit. that the/ mi&ht "earn %hat is 8rea""/ permanent8 ?chen-c‘hang@. from a state of metaph/sica" reverie into the condition of common men under the dominion of the senses. LAST DISCOURSES AND DEATH OF BUDDHA. It %as the comp"etin& process in the deve"opment of doctrine. %hen his experience %as ripe. that it %ou"d #e proper for them to ma$e five hundred coffins. and %ith it that of the three divisions of the Buddhist "i#rar/. I &ive into /our char&e m/ discip"es. The/ %ere adapted to excite the "on&in& of his discip"es for hi&her attainments.erhaps our un& d/nast/ author of six centuries a&o fe"t satisfaction occasiona""/ in restin& the truth of his phi"osoph/. and "et &o comp"ete"/ from their possession the 8em#odiment of the "a%8 ?+a-shen@.aha/ana. (fter the ear"ier instructions had #een de"ivered. or sat. and are re&arded as the me""o%est and richest of his productions. The/ fe"" #ac$. B/ this means he is stated to have stren&thened the authorit/ of the mon$ish s/stem of ru"es. The/ find in the Nirv9na doctrine that %hich ena#"es them to see Buddha5s nature.. attitudes. It %as five feet hi&h.rasena3ita heard of it. To them it %as necessar/ sti"" to discourse on the true nature of Buddha. and said to the ima&e. %here the/ resided accordin& to their ru"es. The ima&e %as of 8sanda"2%ood8 ? chan-tan@.an3usiri to the p"ace %here Buddha %as. The/ then returned to the house. the c"aim of the Northern Buddhists on #eha"f of their sa&e amounts to an immorta"it/ in the resu"ts of his instructions.etaph/sics vanished. and each then exhi#ited the ei&hteen movements. he a"so caused an ima&e to #e made of purp"e &o"d. Immediate"/ mi"$ f"o%ed from her and reached Buddha5s mouth.CHAPTER IV. and made a &o"den ima&e. sa/s the %riter. >hen the #urnin& of the #odies %ith the coffins %as comp"eted. and marve""ous performances. their perceptions sti"" #"unted. !e sent . These ima&es radiated "i&ht %hi"e the s$/ rained f"o%ers. !earin& that Buddha %as a#out to descend #/ the steps Indra had made. and remained three months. 8I am not to #e destro/ed. The/ then a"" to&ether entered the Nirv9na. he came. and cease to use the #oo$s of Buddha for their instruction. Buddha no% ordered (nanda to &o into the cit/. it "ives in its actions. In the /ear TFK B.recious Thin&s. Then the/ too$ a firm &rasp of the %or"d. and %as adapted to affect minds %hich remained unmoved under ear"ier and simp"er forms of teachin&. It is for such #ac$s"iders that the doctrine of permanence %as introduced. do%n to the period of the 8)otus of the 1ood ) . >hen the $in& . Its fu"ness and rea"it/ %ere to furnish them %ith a firm support.a&odas. 5efficacious mountain5@. and to #ear the fruit of a ripe experience. came to see. on the rea"it/ of visi#"e thin&s. "ed #/ a mu"titude of discip"es. there %as no more for them to do. fe"t for Buddha a "ovin& admiration.8 The/ c"ose his pu#"ic "ife as a teacher. near the c"ose of his "ife.8 there %ere sti"" some men %ho fai"ed to comprehend the fu"" sense of Buddha5s teachin&. The/ shorten %isdom5s "ife. Thus interpreted. not se"dom. . ( &reat hero "i$e Buddha "ives on"/ in the resu"ts of his "ife %or$.a&adha— ends for (nanda—(ns%ers to four :uestions—Brahma comes—Buddha5s "ast %ords—Death—1o"d coffin—. he came %ith . . %here there is neither "ife nor death. The same tendenc/ to "oo$ out on the actua" %or"d accounts for the vie% here ta$en of the Nirv9na as a s/stem of u"timate doctrine adapted to correct the fau"ts of ne&"i&ent and mis&uided mon$s and others. It %as then that a mu"titude of discip"es. #ut sha"" #e constant"/ on the 5mountain of instruction5 ?ling-shan.C. and the continued existence of the sou" in an/ form. movin& %or"d %ith ourse"ves. Buddha %ent to the Tau2"i heaven. %hen the first so%in& of instruction had #een fo""o%ed #/ the ripenin& and the harvest. a"" in the same e"ement. accordin& to the chrono"o&/ of the Northern schoo". or "a/ do%n. #ecause he "ives in his teachin&. after sa/in& fare%e"" to his mother. %a"$ed in the air.a/a comes—Cremation—!is re"ics—.ah9pra39pat\. %here the/ mi&ht #e continua""/ honoured %ith %orship. !e is not dead. of Kausham#i. The/ "earn to encoura&e in3urious and destructive thou&hts. hi&h and "o% in attainment. Indra made three f"i&hts of steps. It %as the resu"t of his o#servation of the needs of the Buddhist communit/. *ire and %ater %ere seen f"o%in& from the ri&ht side of some.8 and the 8Nirv9na. ha$/amuni discoursed specia""/ on the Nirv9na #efore himse"f enterin& into that state of #"issfu" extinction. as an expounder of the . In others it %as seen issuin& from their mouths. and from the "eft side of others. the true nature of Tath9&ata. >e must not for&et that the enthusiastic Buddhists p. 8(fter m/ entrance into the state of extinction and sa"vation. and announce to a"" the resident Buddhist househo"ders. (s the farmer has the ear"/ and the "ate harvest. he too$ %ith her five hundred %omen and &ir"s under vo%s of fastin&. or stood sti"". FT and %ent to the 4etavana &arden in the cit/ of hravasti. The $in& Uda/ana. and %ere on"/ capa#"e of #ein& reduced to a state of menta" p. and five feet hi&h. and made o#eisance to Buddha. the re"ics %ere &athered and p"aced in temp"es erected for the purpose.

the various $in&s of the 4am#udvipa continent.ri@ of a hundred and t%ent/ /ears o"d. and to ma$e our sma"" offerin&. and remained in this state of &reat unhappiness.8 !e then added. %ho "ived #e/ond the a"ari#hu $in&dom. a"thou&h he had ac:uired the e/esi&ht and hearin& of a Deva. and chan&ed the t%o proficient ones into the form of t%o attendant discip"es. to $eep in trust. $in&s of countries and "eaders of supernatura" armies.hariputra and . the permanence %hich is not permanent. The vast audience of Bi$shus said. If he %ou"d do an/thin& he shou"d do it :uic$"/. #/ natura" retri#ution. DC a vesse". 8I accept /our offerin&. Buddha no% said to 1odinia. This %as the state of the :uestion a"so at the time of the teachin& in Benares. The $in&s of the . Conse:uent"/ he did not come. ( &reat voice %as heard proc"aimin& to a"" the assem#"/. Buddha. so he received m/ instructions. 8I have a"read/ committed to . !e had six ministers of depraved minds %ho counse""ed him. In conse:uence.8 *or this Buddha commended him. It %i"" #e the same as if /ou had Buddha himse"f. viR. Oc. 8>e "oo$ to 4u"ai for food in the future. the $in&s of the Devas. and the purit/ that contains impurit/. #ut come #/ chance.aha Kashiapa the comp"ete and unsurpassed doctrine.aras. %hose u"cer %as at once hea"ed. the deposit of sound doctrine that /ou ma/ defend it #/ punishments and "a%fu" force. %here the *gama&Sutras of the )esser Deve"opment schoo" %ere de"ivered. !e is no% vexed %ith demons. This he used as a s/m#o" p. DG the Nirv9na. made use of his ma&ica" po%er. the I that is not I.8 it is said. The compi"er ta$es the opportunit/ here to thro% #"ame on the )esser Deve"opment schoo".8 (t this time the &reat Bodhisatt%as. the Bodhisatt%as cou"d not eat anima" food. and here in a short time entered Nirv9na. addressed him in the %ords.a&adha.. 8To2da/ the >or"d5s !onoured One is a#out to enter the Nirv9na. >here is heL I %ish him to hear from me the 6ir/. . then proceeded to Kushina&ara to see the sa&e. DH of Buddha it %as that the "a% %as first made #indin& on a"" discip"es of the Buddhist re"i&ion. (s %ater f"o%s into p. a 8"a/ discip"e8 ?'p. or %i"fu" #rea$in& of mon$ish ru"es. (t the same time KT. %hi"e he %as at the same time entan&"ed in a demon thra"". had not #een a#"e to put a%a/ his pride. In si"ence he firm"/ dec"ined to receive an/thin&. as a restriction on the Bodhisatt%a. that the restriction on the entire Buddhist communit/ #e&an su#se:uent to the (&ama period. suffered from a painfu" u"cer. no% "et him come for%ard and as$ for a so"ution of them. &ave them instruction in the four antitheses. that he %as #e/ond a"ari#hu. /et I cannot #ut &rieve. In rep"/. Buddha then addressed . one on his ri&ht and the other on his "eft.GGG of his su#3ects. and themse"ves died first. those of the Hwa-yen and Fan-wang c"ass. %h/ %i"" he not remain %ith us for a kalpa or ha"f a kalpa. . ne&"i&ence. On the fifteenth da/ of the second month. ("" "ivin& #ein&s re3oiced %hen the/ sa% this. and &o and save him.aras. the $in&s of the mountains and rivers. invo"ved in the de"usions of sixt/2four thousand mi""ions of demons. (3atashatru. ha$/amuni himse"f %ent into a remar$a#"e state of samadhi.an3usiri too$ it and %ent. %ho there tau&ht them. the 3o/ that invo"ves sorro%. !e %ent to a spot #et%een t%o a"a trees. %ho tau&ht that there is no need to honour prince or parents.urana Kashiapa. %ishin& to administer to the %ants of the >or"d5s !onoured One. 8(nanda has #een m/ discip"e and has served me for more than t%ent/ /ears. >hi"e the $in& %as "amentin& that Buddha %as a#out to enter the Nirv9na. Buddha %as at the cit/ Kushina&ara. in case of %ant of di"i&ence. %ith the :ueen and DEG. %ho returned to Buddha. (t this time the $in&s of the Devas and Na&as ur&ed ha$/amuni. >hoever has an/ dou#ts. an 8ascetic8 ?)rahmach. Ta$e in /our hand this 5charm5 ?dharani@ of mi&ht/ po%er. ("" the assem#"/ of Bi$shus then invited him to discourse on the cessation of permanence. Chunda. No% %e desire to receive sorro%fu""/ the vo%s of the o#edient. It occurs a&ain in the Lenga&Sutra. and %ere at once "i#erated from ever/ anxiet/ and vexation. made hi&h attainments in the Bodhi %isdom. Therefore. The/ immediate"/ a#andoned the devices of . the >or"d5s !onoured One discoursed on the s/m#o" 8I. for it is the "ast offerin& /ou %i"" present to me. 8>here is (nandaL8 1odinia rep"ied. in their deceptive %a/. The $in&. to app"/ for re"ief to the six heretica" teachers. This refers to the teachin& of ha$/amuni in the Deer &arden at Benares.ra3na.8 . and on the ne&ation of se"f. %ith the persona" discip"es of Buddha. Buddha no% informed (nanda that u#hadra. I as$. %ho came into the %or"d "i$e the 8Udum#ara tree8 ?Ficus&glomerata@. and of the #irds and #easts. 8Thou&h I $no% the #enefit that is derived to man$ind from Buddha enterin& the Nirv9na in a pu#"ic manner.8 Chunda said in rep"/. 84u"ai #ein& %ithout these four contradictions./ teachin& of the "a% has #een heard #/ him in its entireness. on emptiness. DB of the em#odied form of Tath9&ata %hen re"eased from the three methods of the . (nanda %as "ed to thin$ himse"f receivin& instruction from true Buddhas. and in conse:uence. It is the "ast opportunit/ of as$in& Buddha for instruction.saka@. #/ %hich he %as ena#"ed to radiate pure and coo" "i&ht as far as to the #od/ of the $in&.an3usiri in the %ords. . in conse:uence. In the first utras. that /ou ma/ a"" have a form of teachin& on %hich /ou can re"/. and that happiness and miser/ do not depend on the mora" character of actions. and re"eased (nanda. seein& that his discip"es of a"" four c"asses %ere a"so exceedin&"/ distur#ed in mind. Buddha. his %ife and dau&hters. B %ou"d to2ni&ht enter the Nirv9na. 8Ta""ies of the ha$/a communities. !e directed (nanda to &o to him and sa/ that Buddha. $in& of . and the po%er to search into other persons5 minds and purposes. had $i""ed his father. and returned to their pa"ace. #ut in vain. 8I a"so intrust to /ou.8 The prohi#ition of anima" food is referred #/ the 1reat Deve"opment schoo" to this period. on miser/. #ecause it a""o%s fish and f"esh to #e eaten on certain occasions. the heav/ crime of (3atashatru #ecame much "i&htened. that %e ma/ #e informed ho% to escape from the four contradictionsL8 Buddha said in ans%er.8 %ritten %ith three dots ?∴@. and then #ade fare%e"" to the sa&e. In the Nirv9na teachin& p. In the %or$ ca""ed Shih&tsien. arran&ed as a trian&"e restin& on its #ase. on hearin& the charm a"" arrived %ith offerin&s.. !e.8 Buddha rep"ied. at once #e&an to fee" 8%ise thou&hts8 ?)odhi@ stirrin& %ithin them. These demons had transformed themse"ves into so man/ Buddhas. discoursin& on the "a% and disp"a/in& marve""ous po%ers. Thus the Nirv9na teachin& made an important addition to the Buddhist code of discip"ine. (nother adviser informed the $in& that Buddha cou"d cure him.GGG )ohans a"so entered the state of extinction. not to enter the Nirv9na at present.aud&a"/a/ana %ere a"so &rieved at the prospect of %itnessin& the entrance of their master into p.

8If a"" the peop"e in the cit/ %ere to tr/ to "ift it. there ma/ #e comp"eteness. and pointin& to the fi"th. it shou"d #e sprin$"ed %ith me"ted #utter and #urned %ith fra&rant %ood. and throu&h extreme &rief chan&ed to a stor$"i$e %hiteness. >here sha"" /ou resideL I rep"/. It is on"/ a U(s to the :uestion. DF Buddha rep"ied.8 The three sa&es are Confucius. arran&ed in four pairs. The/ must not trade. ( "ar&e num#er &oin& into the cit/ made a &o"d coffin. Brahma not appearin& in the assem#"/ %hen Buddha %as a#out to enter the Nirv9na. and in the institution of a"" needfu" ceremonies. or te"" fortunes. !e "a/ #et%een ei&ht a"a trees. The "ast %ords ascri#ed to Buddha #/ the author of Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki ?iv. u#hadra came %ith him to see Buddha. !e himse"f "ifted the coffin into the . I have appeared severa" timesQ and thou&h I have entered the Nirv9na. ( host of Devas of the visi#"e heavens came %ith ha$ra offerin& service. This had its effect in inducin& Brahma to come to the p"ace %here Buddha %as.5 This shou"d #e fo""o%ed #/ an announcement of the p"ace %here Buddha %as teachin&. (t midni&ht. and made use of a sma"" portion of his adamantine and indestructi#"e stren&th. #e"on&in& to the six c"asses of unreformed Bi$shus. #ut fai"ed. as$ed him four :uestionsS—8>ith %hom shou"d %e "iveL >hom sha"" %e ta$e as our teacherL >here sha"" %e "iveL >hat %ords sha"" %e use as a si&nL8 p. m/ 3ud&ment is that. B and coated %ith a pu"p of odoriferous dust. (nuruddha no% said. I have no% nothin& more to do. himse"f first entered the state of destruction. *i"th/ thin&s fi""ed the moat. and -en !%ei. 8)i$e that of the %hee" $in&s. %ho %ent to Brahma5s a#ode.recious Thin&s. The #od/ shou"d #e %rapped in fine %hite hair2c"oth. . and construct p. or other monumenta" #ui"din&. to%er. )aou2tsM. The/ cou"d not raise it. and his #ac$ to the east. Those %ho see it %i"" #oth re3oice and &rieve as the/ thin$ of the $in& %ho ru"ed his countr/ 3ust"/. The ru"es he ordered them to maintain p. The inner coffin shou"d #e of &o"d. the/ %ou"d #e una#"e. Therefore /ou ou&ht to $no% the 5)a%5 ?$harma@ that constant"/ remains. the "ast %as u#hadra. Brahma5s cit/ %as found to #e in a fi"th/ condition. The name differs from the nature. Indra ha$ra appeared in the air carr/in& a ma&nificent canop/. the unchan&in& "a%. 8>hi"e I have #een in this continent of 4am#udvipa. Northern Buddhism &ives its approva" to the mora"it/ of Confucius. F. The/ a"so prepared #anners and canopies of sanda"2%ood. In the four p"aces of meditation. DA %ere of this $ind. the sentence 4u-shi-wo-wen—5Thus have I heard. transformed the moat into &ood "and.8 (nanda a&ain as$ed. H.8 8>ithin the 4am#u continent is the $in&dom of China. so that in pit/ and s/mpath/. the outer of iron. Reception is not insideQ nor is it outsideQ nor is it in the midd"e. manifested in "oud cries. at the #e&innin&. his face to the %est. %ho appointed the immorta" man of a hundred thousand charms to &o on this mission. 8 utra of Tom#s in connection %ith s/mpathetica""/ operatin& causes. the Kashiapa Bodhisatt%a and the Bodhisatt%a of moon"i&ht. there shou"d #e in a"" utras. or concoct medicines. >hen he had entered the Nirv9na.editation on the heart. after m/ death ?entrance into the Nirv9na@. not a#"e to #ear the pain of %itnessin& the entrance into the Nirv9na. U(s to the :uestion. and the hermit died. for the/ can do it. the ascetic phi"osoph/ of )i )aou2tan. at the instance of (nuruddha. %as sent for #/ the an&r/ mu"titude. it has not #een a comp"ete Nirv9na. and put a%a/ their evi" dispositions. I %i"" send three sa&es to renovate and instruct the peop"e there. . The &ood Dharma cannot #e attainedQ nor can the evi" Dharma #e attained. and u#hadra.recious Thin&s. 8*rom the time that I attained %isdom I have #een en&a&ed in savin& men. and the hi&h purpose of -en !%ei. BH@ are.8 (nanda. Buddha then proceeded to te"" his discip"es that the/ must fo""o% the instructions of the #oo$ of discip"ine ca""ed !ratimoksha&Sutra. rec"ined on his ri&ht side. and of %hom his audience %as composed. >hom after Buddha5s death /ou shou"d ta$e as /our teacherL I rep"/ that /our teacher %i"" #e the Shipara s/stem of discip"ine. The Devas must #e appea"ed to. the t%o pairs that "a/ east and %est #ecame one tree. !e then pointed to Brahma. UIn re&ard to /our first :uestion. The #od/ and the mora" nature are identica" in vacanc/. and other fra&rant su#stances. a"oes. . as did a"so the t%o pairs that "a/ north and south. or ma$e profit #/ "and. %ith his head to the north. he entered the !aranir/.8 This passa&e is founded on statements in the utra Tsung-mu-yin-yuen-king. Then sixteen stron& men tried to "ift it. C. It a"so "oo$s #enevo"ent"/ on the funera" customs of the Chinese. The/ came to %here Buddha %as. or stud/ astro"o&/. %ho discoursed to him so effective"/ that he attained the ran$ of (rhan. or train s"aves and servin& &ir"s for fami"ies.editation on receptiveness. %ithout a sound. such men as Chanda$a. On this. his feet to the south. In this our "and the mu"titudes of men sti"" to "ive %i"" continue to #ur/ %ith %ashin&. and %ith #urnin&. This treatise %as to #e their teacher in p"ace of himse"f. ornamented %ith the even . Buddha created a diamond $in& #/ the exercise of his ma&ica" po%er. ho% shou"d the #uria" #e conductedL8 (ns%er. Buddha said to the assem#"ed mu"titude. The/ united to spread their shade over Buddha. Buddha %as moved %ith pit/. The sa&e made si"ent si&ns that his reso"ution %as unchan&ed. >ith sincere &rief the mu"titude raised Buddha and p"aced him in the coffin of &o"d. 8(fter 4u"ai has entered the Nirv9na. The/ must not cu"tivate p"antations for &ain. and presented them respectfu""/. The/ are ca""ed the Bodhisatt%a of "i&ht and purit/. >hen the #od/ of the $in& is p"aced in it. and immediate"/ used his endeavours to induce Buddha to de"a/ enterin& the Nirv9na.editation on 5the )a%5 ?$harma@. . 8(s to the %ords /ou shou"d re&ard as a si&n. The &rief of the mu"titude.editation on the #od/. DD tom#s and pa&odas %ith a &reat variet/ of customar/ practices. as he "a/ on the couch of the even . This %or$ detai"s the "a%s #/ %hich the priests are to conduct their "ives.8 Before he had finished spea$in&. *our stron& men %ere appointed to invite the coffin to enter the cit/. B. must come under the /o$e. "et the remainin& fra&ments of #one #e ta$en up and p"aced under a pa&oda.(nanda %ent as commanded. no% fi""ed the universe %ith sadness.8 Buddha then. The first %as 1odinia. >hen the #urnin& is comp"eted.

BETC<. The coffin of itse"f entered the %est &ate. Kashiapa. The un& d/nast/ author. On the t%ent/2ninth of the second month. prefers the statement that the cremation %as caused #/ a f"ame issuin& from Buddha5s o%n #od/. Indra ha$ra opened the coffin and too$ out a ri&ht tooth of Buddha.GGG came and received instruction in Dharma near the t%o trees. threatenin& to destro/ his $in&dom if he refused. In this %a/ Buddha %ent the round of the cit/ &ates seven times. %ho #e&&ed re"ics from him. (nother %onder %as added.a/a at once came do%n. In various parts of the 4am#udvipa continent ten pa&odas %ere soon erected %ith a simi"ar o#3ect in vie%. DT of Buddha. and a"" %as consumed. ( Ra$sha a"so too$ t%o teeth. (t once he set out %ith his discip"es to &o to the spot %here the coffin %as. and made offerin&s to them for seven da/s in succession. proceeded to the %ooden structure. Oc. %hen Kashiapa announced to DGG (rhans that the/ shou"d &o to a"" %or"ds and &ather (rhans %ho possess the six po%ers of penetration.8 Kashiapa %as instructin& five hundred discip"es at the 1ridhra$uta mountain %hen an earth:ua$e occurred. !is discip"es carried him %eepin& to the &rove of the even . and p"aced him as he "a/ in the coffin upon a hi&h frame%or$ constructed of fra&rant %ood. Buddha. the $in&s of the Na&as. 8-ou shou"d $no% that it is for an examp"e to the unfi"ia" of after a&es that I have risen from m/ coffin to address in:uiries to m/ mother. at . (ccordin& to another account. and sa% them return %ithin the coffin.para&raph continues< Kashiapa. On his %a/ home he met Nanda. dip. 8*ine hair2c"oth. !e caused t%o pa&odas to #e erected in his paradise. The !onoured One of the %or"d rose up. There %as much contention amon& those %ho desired a share in the re"ics. Buddha compassionated him. *"ame from the heart and #ones of Buddha %as seen extendin& out of the coffin. from %hich he $ne% that Buddha had entered the Nirv9na. Kin& (shX$a o#tained EF. Kashiapa performed reverent sa"utations to the feet indestructi#"e as the diamond. death. Those %ho stru&&"ed %ere the $in&s of the Devas. !is advice %as fo""o%ed. and a"so the moustaches p. It then entered the south &ate. even da/s had passed after the death ?"itera""/ destruction and extrication@ of Buddha. a $in& of the Na&as. DK air to the hei&ht of a a"a tree. sprin$"ed it %ith fra&rant %ater. The peop"e of the cit/ came and fi""ed ei&ht &o"den pots %ith re"ics. the mother of Buddha. . Upa$utta proposed a division into three parts for the Devas. is said to #"oom once in three thousand /ears. the four $in&s of the Devas arrived carr/in& #ranches of sanda"2%ood and a"oes. 8-ou have condescended to come do%n here from /our a#ode far a%a/. seven da/s after the cremation of Buddha. DE . the dra&on $in&s. "ife. stron& and #eautifu". and the coffin opened of itse"f. The coffin opened of itse"f. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. 3oined his hands. The/ too$ them into the cit/. E. a fi&2#earin& fruit %ithout distinct f"o%ers.GGG re"ics. Footnotes DCSB This tree. havin& entered the Nirv9na seven da/s. B No fe%er than EGE. (fter this the/ "ifted him into the coffin. and the representations of the %hee" of a thousand spo$es ?on %hich Buddha sits@ appeared outside of the coffin. . and came out #/ the north. and %rapped him from head to foot in si"$ and fine hair2c"oth. %hen the entire frame of fra&rant %ood on %hich the coffin rested %as consumed. and came out #/ the east. Kashiapa too$ fire and "it the pi"e of fra&rant %ood. >hen the coffin reached the &rove of the even . and a -atha %as chanted #/ p.recious Thin&s.a/a. %ished to "eave his coffin. %eepin&. Chinese&)uddhism. %hich he too$ to the umeru mountain. and said. DFSB Tie. +ach of them then too$ a torch of fra&rant %ood. The process of cremation %ent &radua""/ on ti"" the seventh da/. and the Indian $in&s respective"/. and ei&ht $in&s of India.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. The .8 Then he said to (nanda. the fee"in&s and aims of a"" persons. ChM2pJan. !e there erected a pa&oda of roc$2cr/sta" for its safe $eepin&. (nuruddha %ent up to the Tushita heaven to announce these events to . The/ then too$ odoriferous %ater and sprin$"ed him %ith it. %hen the feet of Buddha #ecame a&ain visi#"e. varieties of form.8 c+. and presented to vie% the &o"den and purp"e #od/ of Buddha. tapestr/. and retri#ution. The coffin a&ain c"osed. and arrived at "ast s"o%"/ at the p"ace of cremation.atriarchs of the Northern Buddhists acred Texts Buddhism Index . NextS Chapter 0.recious Thin&s. To end the strife. On the t%ent/2second of the second month. and %rapped it a&ain %ith the hair2c"oth. (shX$a &ave him a hair of Buddha5s moustaches.p. DESB These are such as the po%er of distin&uishin& a"" sounds.

8 and imp"ies the possession of BG. >+ are no% in the midst of the (siatic %or"d of t%o thousand and sixteen hundred /ears a&o. trave""in& to teach and ma$e ne% discip"es. or of %orshippin& at some ce"e#rated shrine.eruvians. The ran$ of patriarch cou"d #e the more easi"/ discontinued #ecause he had no ru"in& po%er.ossessed of such &ifts and :ua"ifications as these.ata"iputra—Kapimara. and fo""o% up the %or$ of i""ustrious predecessors. po%ers. and exp"ain the meanin& of the "on&est and most o#scure compositions. (fter the death of ha$/amuni. and inte""ectua" :ua"ities of the patriarchs— eries of thirt/2three patriarchs—(ppointment of Kashiapa #/ ha$/amuni—The vasti$a counci" of Ra3a&riha. ( patriarch has the $eenest inte""ectua" perception. the thirteenth—Na&ar3una. is mean"/ c"ad.8 The s/m#o" of this esoteric princip"e. and a favourite s/m#o" %ith the . >ith the o#3ect either of instructin&. %hen he heard this. Buddhist priests had entered active"/ on that pi"&rim "ife to %hich monasticism inevita#"/ &ives ori&in. in Chinese. Remusat has &iven an a#stract of the #io&raph/ of the patriarchs ta$en from a 4apanese enc/c"op=dia. !e is ei&hteenth in the series. AH the air. and at once ans%ered. i""ustratin& the #e"iefs of the time and "oca"it/. cross rivers on a #oat of "eaves. second patriarch—The third %as han&navasu—Remar$s on samadhi and reverie—*ourth. On his entrance. is man or wan. the t%ent/2seventh converts Bodhidharma. his entrance into the Nirv9na at Kushina&ara. #efore his death. !e %as simp"/ a defender. To him %as intrusted the deposit of esoteric doctrine. Buddha. and has never #een restored. AC $in&dom . sixth. ( $indred spirit %as outside. %ou"d not se"dom occur. for %ritin& out the #oo$s of Buddha. !e does not put %isdom aside and approach fo""/Q nor does he f"in& a%a/ de"usion and aim at comprehendin& truth. ma$e a stron& effort to attain it. if %e inc"ude five Chinese ho"ders of the di&nit/. !e %as a Brahman. %ho %ou"d reform his contemporaries. AB in Tur$estan. Because he is a#ove ever/ one e"se in his attainments. precocious as a #o/—. ( %a/farer in the countr/ of the 1et= ?4ats@ ?(f&hanistan@ $noc$s at the door of a Brahman fami"/. a series of thirt/2three patriarchs. THE PATRIARCHS OF THE NORTHERN BUDDHISTS. and of supernatura" acts. *eatures of (siatic "ife in the time of the patriarchs—Character. #ut %as $i""ed #/ the $in& of Candahar—The orthodox schoo" has on"/ t%ent/2four patriarchs—The contemp"ative schoo" has t%ent/2ei&ht—. AG CHAPTER V. #orn in the p. This meant that he %as to #ecome patriarch.a&adha. a patriarch is the chief defender of Buddhism a&ainst the heretics and opposers of his time. !e cares nothin& for "uxurious "ivin& or socia" ran$. and he penetrates into Buddha5s mind to a depth that cannot #e fathomed. !e can dive into men5s thou&hts. 8the pure secret of the e/e of ri&ht doctrine. and seventh patriarchs—Buddha5s prophec/ re&ardin& Buddhanandi. . It %as the mono&ram of 0ishnu and hiva. The fo""o%in& para&raphs are ta$en from papers I %rote man/ /ears a&o.rophec/ respectin& him—Rahu"ata ascends to heaven— an&$a/asheta5s discussion on the nature of sound—Converts five hundred hermits—Kumarada5s vie%s on the ine:ua"it/ of present retri#ution—Difficu"ties met %ith #/ . ( patriarch is represented as one %ho does not "oo$ at evi" and dis"i$e itQ nor does he. uch scenes as the fo""o%in&. %hen he sees that %hich is &ood. !e can accomp"ish inte""ectua" feats %here others fai". -et he has an ac:uaintance %ith &reat truths %hich is #e/ond #ein& measured. This. and p.GGG perfections. and $eeps up the di&nit/ of his position #/ the inf"uence of mind. 8>ho is no oneL8 The /oun& man. %ho succeeded him as patriarch ?the t%ent/2 fourth@. a distin&uished teacher %ou"d appear in the countr/ of the 1et=. superintended in succession the affairs of the re"i&ious communit/ he had founded. teacher. ( thousand /ears after Buddha5s death. and examp"e of the Buddhist doctrine and "ife.amin& &iven to the $in& of the 1et= to induce him to raise the sie&e of . the fourteenth—Converts ten thousand Brahmans—>rites the Ta-chï-tu-lun—0i&orous defence of Buddhism #/ Kanadeva—(ssassination of Kanadeva— an&hanandi. Upa&upta— Conversion of a %ic$ed %oman %hen d/in&—*ifth. !e "ives poor"/. of character. nor %ith the common c"ass. 8heart5s sea". It is sometimes ca""ed sin2/in. rain mi"$ B at %i"" from the air. fe"t that he %as understood.GGG. It is usua""/ p"aced on the heart of Buddha in ima&es and pictures of that divinit/. ca""ed Chen& fa2/en2tsan&. the #att"e2axe of Thor in candinavian inscriptions.8 The trave""er %as too %e"" tau&ht in Buddhism not to $no% the meanin& of this phi"osophica" nihi"ism. and sett"in& %hat shou"d #e received as canonica"—The part ta$en #/ (nanda in the authorship of the Buddhist #oo$s—(nanda. and invited the stran&er to enter. ( patriarch has ma&ica" po%ers. committed the secret of his m/steries to his discip"e. the seventh— tru&&"e #et%een fi"ia" "ove and Buddhist conviction in Buddhamitra—The %a/ in %hich he su#dued an un#e"ievin& $in&—.rad3n/atara. !e can f"/ throu&h p. The visitor %as the patriarch of the time ?seventeenth@. e"ected #/ the "ast patriarch from the cro%d of common discip"es. or. The superiorit/ of his menta" facu"ties to those of common men is most mar$ed. in Centra" India. %ith staff and rice #o%". !e sa/s. in (f&hanistan. and enter into a ver/ &reat variet/ of trances or samadhi. In anscrit it is ca""ed s/astika. !urried"/ he opened the door. means 8BG. communicated ora""/ %ithout #oo$s. he is ca""ed a patriarch. he at once proceeded to utter a statement that this /oun& man %as the o#3ect of a "on& foreto"d destin/. trave""ers %ere constant"/ seen on each foot2%orn mountain path proceedin& to some distant monaster/. the t%ent/2ei&hth.aha Kashiapa.anura in teachin& Buddhism in outhern and >estern India—( patriarch5s po%er over #irds—!a$"ena converts in&ha"aputra. he ta$es the chief p"ace ever after as champion of the Buddhist "a% and discip"ine. to spea$ honorifica""/. !is "od&in& is not %ith the sa&e. 8There is no one in this house. . In India.p. The appointment of Kashiapa to #e successor of Buddha and patriarch is descri#ed in the fo""o%in& mannerS—8The >or"d2honoured teacher ascended the p"atform . ( /oun& man %ithin ans%ers.8 It contains %ithin it the %ho"e mind of Buddha. %ho proceeds to China—!indoo $no%"ed&e of the Roman empire. an ornament on the cro%ns of the Bonpa deities in Thi#et. The succession %as #ro$en at the fifth Chinese patriarch.

the Tripitaka. !e a"so. These %ere—the p"ace of ha$/amuni "eavin& his home to #ecome a rec"use. ( $ind and friend"/ man as$ed him the reason. and did not comp"ete his dai"/ readin&s. and his sa&acit/. ho"din& in his hand a f"o%er.8 Kashiapa distin&uished himse"f #/ severe"/ ascetic practices. %ished to point out that the . This is %hat is ca""ed #/ Koeppen the *irst Buddhist counci". and openin& common %e""s. (fter this %e hear of his proceedin& to the four p"aces of pi"&rima&e to %orship. Both %ere a"i$e anxious to preserve the teachin& of BuddhaQ and the thousand (rhans. On the road. and #u""oc$s. performed the ei&hteen movements in the air. !e #ecame a discip"e at ei&ht /ears o"d. uttered a %ish that in five hundred future #irths he mi&ht a"%a/s %ear a ro#e of this $ind.from %hich he &ave his instructions. Other %a/s of actin& so as to reap happiness are improvin& roads. AA retention. and findin& ho% matters stood. and &ave him the pure m/ster/ of ri&ht doctrine. that true $no%"ed&e of existin& thin&s %hich consists in $no%in& them not to exist. and c"othin& of a #eautifu" &rass2c"oth.. he there #/ means of the samadhi of merc/. Kashiapa %as an o"d man. The second patriarch. as #ein& not inferior in merit. Buddha o#tained $no%"ed&e and tau&ht the "a%. The a&ed patriarch. and as there is some uncertaint/ as to its nature in some %riters on Buddhism. dra%n #/ &oats. as foreto"d #/ ha$/amuni. and raised a da&o#a over the re"ics.rat/e$a Buddha said. Buddha foreto"d of (nanda that he %ou"d u"timate"/ #ecome Buddha. The/ too$ do%n his %ords %hi"e he repeated the Dharma as he had heard it from Buddha. %ere se"ected from a vast mu"titude of those %ho had accepted Buddha as the "ion of the "a%. %ith a thousand secretaries #efore him. !e %as the second son of ha$/amuni5s unc"e. #ui"din& #rid&es. as he trave""ed.8 !is face %as "i$e the fu"" moon. chan&ed t%o poisonous /oun& Na&as into #ein&s havin& a &ood disposition. the mi&ht/ hero of the ne% and popu"ar re"i&ion. B This is %hat.8 To this he consented. he had met a . and entered the Nirv9na. and %as therefore first cousin of the sa&e. and to"d him the fo""o%in& stor/. that this narrative ma/ descri#e actua" dictation and the %or$ of a di"i&ent secretariat. !e #ui"t a to%er at the entrance of the p"ace of meetin&. used the fo""o%in& i""ustrationS—8( nota#"e man5s house too$ fire. %hich thro%s "i&ht on ancient Buddhism as represented #/ the Northern schoo". han&navasu co""ected fra&rant %ood. and "ive to #enefit man$ind. +vident"/ he had a &ood memor/. i. The $in&. he had to #ear heav/ #"ame from that ver/ instructor for %hom he #e&&ed. 8(ncient"/.e. and %ith it the Nirv9na of destruction shou"d #e entered. The part of (nanda %as to &rasp. such as %as he"d once in three /ears.5 The hami ceased to #e&. The "ast is that of . This %as to #e a re%ard for his 3o/ at hearin& the "a%. %hen he thus a""uded to the various modes of teachin& emp"o/ed #/ him to save men. and di"i&ence in "earnin& resu"ted from his meritorious treatment of the hami. In temp"es he is represented as the correspondin& fi&ure to the o"d man Kashiapa. of first preachin&. AF . In a former "ife he had #een a merchant. his po%er of p.aha/ana is superior to the others in capacit/. Kashiapa tau&ht after this for t%ent/ /ears. and then intrusted to (nanda the secret of pure doctrine. !e too$ the vo%s and #ecame an (rhan. !e %ent to sea. on one occasion. o#tained va"ua#"e pear"s. (nanda said to him. The . (t the assem#"/ of the )otus of the 1ood )a%.8 !e then too$ %in&.8 The third patriarch %as han&navasu of Ra3a&riha. !e then invited "ar&e num#ers to a free feastin& assem#"/ in a forest. and he commenced recitin& on the road as he %ent his rounds. and (nanda %as comparative"/ /oun&. adapta#i"it/. and &ave his %ho"e attention to recitations of the sacred #oo$s. and have a merit e:ua" to that of his present "ife. 8This is ca""ed the Shangna ro#e. #urned the #od/. respect to parents. The/ ma/ have committed to memor/ the sacred Dharma as (nanda &ave it. or compan/ of discip"es. The first are the methods of !ina/ana. This "ed him to fee" unhapp/. 1oin& a%a/ to the . This hami after%ards #ecame ha$/amuni Buddha. he had under his protection a 5 hami5 ?Shramanera@ %hom he re:uired to recite pra/ers and meditations constant"/. %hen he died. and his e/es "i$e the "otus f"o%er. !e after%ards &ave them a "oft/. #ut %ritin& #ecame the common mode of preservin& Buddhist teachin& so soon after. and his di"i&ent "istenin& to it. #road %a&&on.aha/ana. %ho received the sacred Dharma. The hami sometimes %ent out to #e& for his instructorQ #ut if he de"a/ed #e/ond the due time. as he %ept. care of the poor. dra%n #/ %hite #u""oc$s. %hen Tin&2$%an& *o %as a 5 hamen5 ? Shramana@. and #ecame a rich man. %ho %ere en&a&ed under Kashiapa in co""ectin& the #oo$ s containin& the sa/in&s of Buddha. Kashiapa. !is name means 83o/. deer. and poor"/ c"ad. It is not said that the/ %rote. #/ Buddhists. ho"d firm"/. !is $ind friend #ecame (nanda in a "ater #irth.8 Kashiapa understood that p. AD throne. (3atashatru. intrusted to (nanda the ver/ victorious "a%. ver/ sic$. !e &ave him medicine. !e tau&ht at Ra3a&riha after the Nirv9na. and %ished him to sit on the same seat %ith himse"f. On"/ Kashiapa sho%ed attention and p"easure in his countenance. !is discip"es %ere a"" re&ard"ess of his teachin&. the &ift of a $in&. Kashiapa appointed that (nanda shou"d sit on the "ion p. and the method of en"i&htenment and reformation. %ho acted as scri#es. >ith it the ac:uirement of %isdom can #e made. %here he stands on Buddha5s ri&ht hand. the p"ace of his #ecomin& Buddha. the secret heart of the Nirv9na. . addressed him as fo""o%sS—5Do not #e sad. Buddha understood %hat %as passin& in his mind. and save from destruction the Dharma as uttered #/ Buddha. supp"ied dai"/ %ith food for a %ho"e summer a thousand (rhans.para&raph continues< Buddha.anda mountain. and of enterin& the Nirv9na. But to this he %ou"d not consent. to rescue his sons. The Bodhi %as perceivedQ and the Dharma #ecame its em#odiment. and uti"it/. !e #rou&ht &oat2carts. Samadhi means ecstatic reverie. 8-ou shou"d "earn our doctrine. reprovin& him severe"/ if he fai"ed in readin& the %ho"e of his tas$s. fi&ures in man/ narratives as the constant attendant and discip"e of Buddha. !e a"so easi"/ comprehended the ideas of Buddha. is ca""ed so%in& the 8fie"d of happiness8 ?+u-t‘ien@.rat/e$a Buddha. (nanda. Buddha. In so doin& he a"so saved from o#"ivion the Dharma %hich %i"" #e uttered #/ comin& Buddhas. Buddha $ne% his exce""ence. In future I %i"" provide for /our %ants. and %as never deficient in the num#er of pa&es read.

hearin& of his upri&ht conduct. as that used in sna$e charmin& #/ Buddhists. are examp"es of an inactive samadhi. his successor. and not throu&h evi" desire. It %as in this %a/.ount Uda discoursin& to a "ar&e audience of #e"ievers. 8understand that of (nanda.8 he continued. -ou have #/ /our #eaut/ corrupted and ruined man/. AT %as then thro%n out amon& &raves in the open &round #e/ond the cit/. Upa&upta.aud&a"/a/ana mi&ht do an/thin& %onderfu". Upa&upta %as on a re"i&ious 3ourne/. The peop"e a"" %ept a"oud. The num#er of converts %as immense. reverie. But it has a"so a ma&ica" po%er. The $in& much desired to "earn at %hat spots he shou"d erect pa&odas in honour of Buddha. the third de&ree of saintship. or that from %hich there is 8no8 ?ana@ 8return8 ?gamin@. m/ #eaut/ &one. to #urn. he p. and #ecame the inferior &ods of a ne% pantheon. KG in virtue and %isdom. !is instructor. No% that I am maimed. #/ pointin& out to him a"" the p"aces %here Buddha had done an/thin& remar$a#"e durin& his "ife. and there propa&ated the doctrines of Buddhism a#out ei&ht/ /ears #efore the con:uests of ("exander. No% a"" miseries have &athered on /ou "i$e num#er"ess #oi"s and u"cers. >hen he had a #ad thou&ht he %as to thro% do%n into a #as$et a #"ac$ pe##"eQ %hen he had a &ood thou&ht he %as to thro% do%n a %hite pe##"e. sent messen&ers to him.para&raph continues< !e then exhi#ited five hundred different $inds of samadhi. The addition of an effort of %i"" ma$es an active samadhi. hearin& that he %as on . and o#tained the purification of her heart. erected a t‘a ?stupa@. %hich he offered for her acceptance.GGG %or$s of the c"ass of discip"ine. his pupi" . Nor do /ou understand mine. p. he #uried the /outh in a court of her house. !e came to the door of an e"der"/ man. han&navasu then undertoo$ to expound to him the four truths. %as #ein& much trou#"ed %ith five hundred pupi"s. The ta""ies fi""ed a storehouse %hich %as sixteen feet hi&h. p. >hen Upa&upta %ent out on his #e&&in& round he arrived at the spot. AE . #/ touchin& him on the cro%n of the head. 8renovatin& destin/ a"read/ ended8@. !e %as contemporar/ durin& the "ater /ears of his patriarchate %ith $in& (shX$a. #ut /ou refused. the thirt/2t%o points of characteristic #eaut/. Nor did inferior discip"es $no% the name of an/ samadhi #/ he"p of %hich . +ach of them thre% do%n a ta""/ four inches "on&. Upa&upta. and #ecame (rhans. Those phenomena %hich %e ca"" trance. he died. 8KK. (t that time a %oman of %ic$ed "ife in the same cit/ %ith Upa&upta. !e refused. 8cause. 8>hen I invited /ou to come and see me I had a #eautifu" face. There %as not existin& #et%een him and them the 8secret "in$ of inf"uence8 ?yuen. as is sometimes done no% in China. the fourth patriarch. The next point in the narrative is the arriva" of han&navasu himse"f f"/in& throu&h the air. To this the patriarch responded. Upon this the patriarch entered into the Nirv9na. The $in&. >hen he had finished his 3ourne/s for reformin& others. Buddha. The/ $ne% that this #eaut/ %ou"d not #e permanent. sa% that a"" the common methods of redemption %ere mar$ed #/ #itterness. !e %ent thence to Candahar. To fix the facu"ties in Buddhist contemp"ation is to enter into san-mei or samadhi. and %as hi&h"/ inte""i&ent and e"o:uent. the third patriarch. !e at once attained the fruit 8 rXt9panna8 ?Sü-t1o-hwan@. that %hen Buddha performed an/ ma&ica" act #/ samadhi. ya"un ?ya"ur@. AK it ma/ #e %e"" to dra% attention to this instance of sna$e2charmin&. and "earned or rather thou&ht at the same time. a fixin& of the mind and e/e %hich has an effect on the sna$e. at that time ca""ed Kipin. %ho %ere se"f2opinionated and proud.8 he said. sent messen&ers to invite him to &o and see her. !e founded a house to #e used #/ mon$s as a contemp"ation ha"" at the spot. (t first #ad thou&hts a#ounded. ordered the %oman to have her arms and "e&s cut off. a"most a Buddha.8 (fter this the five hundred pupi"s #itter"/ repented. and m/ death near. 8Nor do I.8 8>hen I enter the Nirv9na. han&navasu at once received him to the vo%s on his app"ication. !e %as then seventeen.8 ansc. It apt"/ i""ustrates the %a/ in %hich the re"i&ious princip"e in man %or$s out%ard. >hi"e this %as happenin&. This conviction he ac:uired in a samadhi. !e had a no#"e countenance %hich indicated his inte&rit/. a sort of human &od. This /outh she s"e%. "ac$in&. and #"ess him. Upa&upta #ecame. Other hi&h"/ venerated men of a secondar/ t/pe %ere in succession added. %hich the patriarch said %as the samadhi of a Na&a rushin& ea&er"/ for%ard. Upa&upta did as he %as to"d. #ro%n stud/. !e %as ha#ited most sha##i"/.e. he said to him. he performed the ei&hteen metamorphoses. that on"/ han&navasu cou"d reform them. nidana@ that %ou"d have overcome this difficu"t/. %as a native of the . #ecause a rich trave""er came %ith presents of va"ua#"e precious stones and pear"s. invitin& him to come to the cit/ %here the $in& %as. and non2permanence. The ta""ies in the house %ere used as offerin&s. Then the %hite and #"ac$ %ere a#out e:ua". !e "ived in the Siang2 ?e"ephant@ pe ?%hite@ mountain. !is re"ations came to see$ him and du& up the #od/. (t the same time he o#served to Upa&upta. and performed re&u"ar %orship #efore it. >h/ is thisL8 !e rep"ied. to #e in constant attendance on him as (nanda %as upon ha$/amuni. co""ected the 8re"ics8 ?sharira@. %ho as$ed him. %ho. and entered into a trance. the pupi"s stared an&ri"/ at him for darin& to do this. On the seventh da/ there %ere on"/ %hite pe##"es.GGG utras %i"" perish %ith meQ a"so BG.. and a"so her nose and ears. and at once attained the fruit (na&amin. /ou have come to see me. and seiRed on the sa"vation that consists in destruction. i. and perhaps the sna$es he tamed ma/ have #een $ept there in a #ox. ho%ever. Upa&upta received him to the vo%s at t%ent/ /ears o"d. Dri$ata. -ou %ere "i$e a painted vase a"%a/s &ivin& out evi" odours. -ou ou&ht di"i&ent"/ to see$ "i#eration #/ means %hich are in /our po%er. and as that of mesmerists. %as &iven #/ his father to Upa&upta as a discip"e.adura countr/. 8I have come to see /ou from a %ish to $no% %hat /ou tru"/ are. informed of %hat had occurred.8 The %oman as she "istened opened the e/e of Dharma. It means a mesmerisin& po%er. sat on his chair. But the account does not sa/. %as first %orshipped. to"d him to $eep #"ac$ and %hite pe##"es. But Upa&upta came #efore him and #o%ed to him most respectfu""/. and fra&rant mi"$ fe"" as if from a sprin& on the side of a hi&h mountain. and he #ecame an (""an. The son of a citiRen in &ood repute at a#out the same time %ent to sta/ %ith her. han&navasu pointed to the air. the fifth patriarch. It %as no p"easure to the tru"/ en"i&htened to approach /ou. This %as the resu"t of a samadhi. han&navasu. emptiness. !e fe"t that the/ %ere #e/ond his po%er to &uide and e"evate. received the patriarch5s instructions. and #"ac$ pe##"es %ere ver/ numerous. The samadhi here appears to #e an e"evated state of inspiration. and %hen he sat do%n on Upa&upta5s chair.aud&a"/a/ana did not $no% %hat samadhi it %as. In this examp"e of the saint %orship of Buddhism ma/ #e o#served the up&ro%th of superstitious practices. (t death she %as #orn ane% in paradise. %hi"e sti"" in the ecstatic state. and the 8accomp"ishment of destin/ in meetin&s %ith them8 ?hwa-yuen-yi-pi. Upa&upta. a .GGG hastras and EG. %hen sti"" a /outh.p. 8>h/ do /ou.

If /ou do not #e"ieve %hat I sa/.isucha$a@ %as a#out to die.icha$a to nominate Buddhanandi ?the ei&hth@ as his successor. Buddhamitra passed at once throu&h the steps of en"i&htenment. he said to his discip"es. >hen . that he must p. Their Buddha and /ou are not a"i$e. a re"i&ion %hich he despised.8 !e further said to the fatherS—8-our son former"/ met %ith Buddha.8 The heretic ca"cu"ated. %ho are m/ teachersL8 Buddhanandi rep"ied. 6irgrantha means a devotee %ho has cut the ties of food and c"othin&. and has feet. and %as as$ed #/ an o"d man %h/ he came. The $in& then entered himse"f into ar&ument %ith him. mentions . 8-ou are no% %or$in& B out punishment to /ourse"f. KH predecessor in the patriarchate in the fo""o%in& manner.icha$a too$ his p"ace in renovatin& man$ind #/ teachin& the Nirv9na.ho"/ sa&e. Chi2pJan. p. The Kiau2men %riters apparent"/ sa/ "itt"e a#out the s/nods or counci"s. 5(fter six $a"pas /ou sha"" meet %ith a fe""o% "earner. and %i"" fa"" into he"". >hen he met first %ith Dri$ata. #ecause the author is fu"" of anecdote. -our actin& in accordance %ith 5doctrine5 ?tau@ is the mind of the Buddhas. and announced his intention to fo""o% the Buddhist re"i&ion. The ans%er %as. In the same $in&dom %as a 8Nir&rantha8 ?6ikan@. %ishin& to #rin& this $in& to su#mission. !e %ent to search. p. The Dharma %hich I have tau&ht I intrust to /ou. 8. The seventh ?shou"d #e ei&hth@ patriarch %as Buddhanandi. to fi"" the vacanc/ caused #/ the omission of 0asumitra. %hi"e continuin& to ta$e the stor/ of their "ives from the interestin& pa&es of Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki. %hen trave""in& in Northern India. 8I am a man of $no%"ed&e. 8I %as former"/ #orn %ith /ou in the heaven of Brahma. 8If I have a son I %i"" respectfu""/ offer him to /ou. said to (nanda. and then pronounced the fo""o%in& -atha>—8If m/ father and mother are not m/ nearest of $in.icha$a came to his countr/. %ho has a mouth. 8In search of a discip"e. %ho %ou"d transmit the Dharma. KC have died soon after.C. The Buddha of the wai&tau ?heretica" teachers@ #e"on&s to the %or"d of forms. >hen Dri$ata died. %ho cou"d not "et him &o. #ut does not spea$. -ou shou"d $no% that /our rea" mind is neither c"ose"/ attached nor separated.8 8That.C. !e re3ects 0asumitra.8 Buddhamitra %ent to him and received information in re&ard to his ca"cu"ations. his companions. and he made eminent attainments. Throu&h him /ou sha"" o#tain the ho"/ fruit. The $in& at "ast as$ed %ho this man %as. 8*ormer"/ Buddha. and then %ent in search of Upa&upta. %ho /et %as ver/ distin&uished.adh/anti$a. #ut does not %a"$. 8is m/ discip"e. It ma/ #e /ou %ho %i"" #esto% this $indness. %ho favoured the contemp"atist schoo".8 This he did in Centra" India. %hose reasonin&s he at once su#verted. Buddhamitra rep"ied. The ninth patriarch. !e does not even mention 0asumitra. made o#eisance. !e neither spea$s nor %a"$s. . +ite" adds.8 Buddhamitra rose. and. B %ho tau&ht me the doctrine of the Rishis. %as found #/ his p. thou&h Chinese chrono"o&/ p"aces his death in B. KF and can "ive %ithout fee"in& hun&r/ or co"d.8 !e after%ards had a son %hom he named Dri$ata. and %as an expert ca"cu"ator. 8I have a son 3ust fift/. There %as a $in& then rei&nin& %ho fo""o%ed another schoo". trave" unattendedL8 !e rep"ied. in meetin& %ith /ou. perhaps #ecause the/ %ere presided over #/ the patriarchs. 8!o% can I .8 said Buddhanandi. %ho can discuss re"i&ion. unti" Dri$ata performed #efore them various ma&ica" transformations. he intrusted to Buddhanandi the correct Dharma to teach to man$ind. 8I remem#er that in a former $a"pa I presented to Buddha a throne. Buddhamitra. 8tie.5 To2da/. and #e&an to teach the correct Dharma. To this /our "ove for /our parents is not compara#"e. had &reat "on&in&s to #enefit others. #ut soon &ave %a/. and found Buddhanandi in the street "eadin& to the mar$et2p"ace. I %ish to #ecome a discip"e.icha$a said. uch is the statement of ChM2pJan of the Kiau2men in Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki. No one has &iven me an attendant discip"e. Can this #e the reason that ChM2pJan has ne&"ected the seventh patriarch and caused . The Nir&rantha spared no a#use in spea$in& of Buddha. !e thou&ht that there must #e a sa&e #eneath the c"oud. . The record of the Rishis said. Buddhanandi sa% on the cit/ #att"ements a &o"den2co"oured c"oud. at once "et him "eave the fami"/ to #ecome a mon$. %ho devoted himse"f in /outh to the stud/ of the utras and other #oo$s.i$$a$aQ in San-kiau-yi-su./ time for enterin& the Nirv9na is come. >hen Upa&upta %as o"d. and foreto"d that I shou"d in the 5$a"pa of the sa&es5 ? )hadrakalpa@ spread the Dharma far and %ide. and de"ivered a discourse. tr/ /our ca"cu"ations. a discip"e of (nanda. %ho revi"ed Buddhism.8 !e %ent to the door.8 The a&ed father hearin& this.icha$a ?in +ite". is it not the fu"fi"ment of destin/L8 Dri$ata then instructed him in Dharma.8 The o"d man rep"ied. 5Three hundred /ears after m/ death there %i"" #e a sa&e named Buddhanandi. !e %i"" ma$e the Dharma &reat in this re&ion. %ho is soL If the Buddhas are not m/ teachers. and %ished to destro/ the inf"uence of Buddhism. under Kanish$a. too$ a red f"a& in his hand. To this. and %hen he died ?seiRed on the Nirv9na@ Devas and men %ere sad. It %as on this account that he made reference to me. ma$in& him the seventhL *rom this point I prefer to fo""o% San-kiau-yi-su and +ite" in num#erin& the patriarchs. I met %ith (sita. as president of the third or fourth s/nod.icha$a %as the sixth patriarch. and found that it %as so.8 The e"der"/ man rep"ied. %hen the/ a"" #e"ieved and o#tained the fruit of doctrine. he has not spo$en nor %a"$ed. 8There is a sa&e here. KB . and discuss re"i&ion %ith him. did not #e"ieve. eein& a %hite "i&ht over a house. a native of Northern India. But #ecause he has thou&ht too much of his father5s and mother5s "ove. and carried it #efore the $in& for t%e"ve /ears. It %i"" #e /our dut/ to teach it in re&ions far and near. The Rishis. !e too$ a chief part in the "ast revision of the canon. It is from grantha.58 Buddhanandi rep"ied. Buddhamitra too$ his seat. he said to him. and am %ithout fami"/ ties. -ou met %ith &ood and %ise teachers %ho instructed /ou in the princip"es of Buddhism. Buddhanandi came to his countr/ to teach. ince this a&rees exact"/ %ith %hat /ou have said. DTG. Ra3ah of Cashmere. The rest dec"ined to ar&ue.8 !e at once o#tained the four fruits of en"i&htenment. 8I have "eft the %or"d.8 The $in& ordered an assem#"/ of Brahmans to meet him in a "ar&e ha"". 8-ou spea$ of /our nearest re"ative #ein& the heart. %a"$ed seven steps. >hen . B. !e then said to the Buddhist teacher. BDC. The Buddhist then said. . and /ou %i"" find %hether it is so or not. !e %as contemporar/ %ith han&navasu. stimu"ated #/ compassion. . he said to Dri$ata. the seventh patriarch of the contemp"atist schoo". %ho converted Cashmere. ( man %ea$ in $no%"ed&e %as pitted a&ainst him. o /our path differed from mine for a period of six $a"pas. Buddhamitra.

ata"iputra. ("" three %ou"d #e a#"e to drive a%a/ enemies. !e &ained a victor/. 8The Buddha nature %hich /ou. Deva. #ut tau&ht chief"/ at . The patriarch sat ca"m"/. and the #esie&in& $in& re:uired TGG. a Buddha5s rice #o%". !e soon #ecame chan&ed into a /oun& %oman. (fter seven da/s. The $in& of the 1et= %as de"i&hted. or 8Na&ar3una. 8This is no ordinar/ person.arshva came to the cit/ of 8. %hi"e he %as causin& the %hee" of the %onderfu" "a% to revo"ve.arthians attac$ed him.avoid this ca"amit/L8 The rep"/ %as. and too$ the tonsure. On this account he #ecame the o#3ect of the 3ea"ous dis"i$e of the o"der schoo" of the )esser Conve/ance. The patriarch said. and issued an order that there shou"d #e no more chantin&. The countr/ %ou"d #ecome poorer. >herever this hastra came. and entered on the mon$ish "ife. The Ra3ah as$ed. %ho sho%ed marve""ous po%er. 8>ho is this manL8 !e rep"ied for himse"f.amin& and said. and repented of his former fau"ts.8 he disappeared. The patriarch. . Buddhamitra then said. 8Kapimara. There %ou"d #e fe%er %or$ers. a sa&e must #e here. and entered a vacant room. %hat %as the extent of his po%ers.GGG &o"d pieces. %as addressed to him. and found that his demerit %as &one. !e %as received to the vo%s #/ . to the Ra3ah5s astonishment. The Ra3ah reverentia""/ performed a prostration #efore )un&2shu. .GGG pieces of &o"d as a ransom. 8I am a man possessin& a"" $inds of $no%"ed&e. and #ecame his successor.amin&. some ears and noses of the &iants fe"" on the &round.aha/ana schoo".8 !e did this.8 as$ed the patriarch. Kapimara #ecame a #e"iever.ethod of 1reat >isdom. 8Can /ou. If /ou dou#t this. KA . )un&2shu %rote severa" important hastras. %hich hid itse"f under the chair of the patriarch. and p"aced themse"ves under the protection of the Three . Ten thousand Brahmans %ho %ere at the time in the ha"" of audience a"" 3oined in praisin& the marve""ous virtue of the patriarch. made a prostration and a penitent confession.8 !e set the insect free. the pupi"s #ro$e open the door. The patriarch said.arshva. a sma"" insect appeared. or #aming.ata"iputra &ave him .una/a3a. does not consist in si&hts and sounds. and the e"eventh . This %ou"d "ead to diminution in popu"ation. and.ata"iputra.amin&5s %isdom %as unriva""ed. !e pointed to the &round and said. 8This is the demon in an assumed shape come stea"thi"/ to hear m/ teachin&.una/a3a arrived. KK Lung-shu. and must have had its effect in "eadin& man/ persons to reso"ve on "eadin& the Buddhist "ife.8 (s soon as he had said this. One da/. p.8 In the cit/ of . -ou ma/ then have this demerit annu""ed.GGG men in the cit/. (t this 3uncture the $in& of the 1et= ?Indo2 c/thians@ #esie&ed . The patriarch then said to the demon. comprehended him. !e had . dre% #ac$ his troops.8 >hen the in:uir/. . The tenth patriarch %as . !e and five hundred of his fo""o%ers 3o/fu""/ enro""ed themse"ves as Buddhist mon$s. Buddha had #ound"ess virtue. in a trice. ma$e $no%n to us. 8If /ou on"/ p"ace /ourse"f under the direction of the Three . %ho too$ it up and said to the assem#"/.amin& exp"ained that the ph/sica" %or"d rests on this mora" nature for its existence. 8transform the 5sea of the mora" nature5 ? sing-hai@L8 !e ans%ered that he did not $no% %hat %as meant. that /ou ma/ $no% it to #e so.recious Thin&s. !is pupi". and immediate"/ . the . fe%er tax2pa/ers. This decree %as "eve""ed a&ainst the use of some ver/ popu"ar and s%eet music introduced #/ .8 No sooner %as this said than he vanished.8 The demon at once returned to his ori&ina" shape. )un& shu %ished to convert him.8 )un&2shu intrusted to him the care of the Dharma. as$in& him his name.8 >hen he pointed into the air. /ou ma/ at once o#tain marve""ous po%ers. I must expe" him.8 p. Then. o a"so the po%ers of samadhi. and $i""ed TGG. (s he did not come out for a da/. and for seven /ears carried a red #anner #efore him %hen trave""in&. (mon& them %as that one ca""ed Ta-chï-tu-lun. and said. and a coc$.8 In a moment the/ #ecame a%are of the conf"ict of s%ords in the s$/. and returned to his countr/.8 Nir&rantha ?or the Nir&rantha@ upon this. . 8>hat are the Devas no% doin&L8 !e rep"ied. 8a horse nei&hin&. ca""ed the 8 hastra of the Non2e&o. the demons and heretics %ere pitia#"/ discomfited. a man %ith a &o"den s$in rose out of the &round. The $in& of . #ut the demon in it cou"d not move. !is numerous fo""o%ers spread the Buddhist re"i&ion in outhern India. the &round chan&ed its co"our.ata"iputra8 ?Chinese. and three thousand of his adherents a"" entered the ran$s of the shaven mon$s. The music must have excited &reat attention. #ut sa% no forms. and rested under a tree.GGG of the enem/. five hundred /ouths of prince"/ fami"ies #ecame at one time converts p. a &o"den dra&on appeared. )et me receive the mar$ of 4u"ai. !e #e"on&ed to outhern India. 8( demon must #e comin& to stru&&"e %ith me.para&raph continues< There %as a vio"ent %ind and heav/ rain. The s$/ #ecame dar$. /ou %i"" certain"/ #e #orn in one of the heaven"/ paradises. shaved their "oc$s. and shoo$ the mountains. 8If this earth shou"d chan&e to a &o"den co"our. ma$e the ca"cu"ations. in %hich he on"/ heard %ords of the Dharma. a"so depend on this for a"" their va"ue.8 %as the fourteenth patriarch. and the demon5s a&enc/ came to an end. and to"d it to &o. fe%er so"diers. The coc$ %ou"d not drin$ %ater that had insects in it. an o"d man sudden"/ fe"" on the &round 3ust #efore him. he rep"ied that to transform the sea %as eas/ to him.8 !e %as one of the most pro"ific authors of the .amin&. %ho pointed %ith her ri&ht hand at . The $in& feared that his $in&dom %ou"d #ecome depopu"ated. 8!avin& performed these meritorious actions. Kapimara #ecame the thirteenth patriarch. >hen dra%in& near the end of his "ife.arshva.amin& %as #orn at Benares. he unexpected"/ fe"" one da/ into the trance ca""ed the samadhi of the moon5s %hee". !e compi"ed a hastra ? Lun@. The t%e"fth patriarch %as (sh%a&osha. he rep"ied. There %ere TGG. KD to his doctrine.8 It extended to the "en&th of BGG -athas ?Kie@. The patriarch remar$ed. and a mercifu" heart. and fe%er traders. and that he %ou"d #e #orn in heaven. ( $in& there %as ver/ much opposed to Buddhism. pronounced five hundred sentences in praise of Buddha. and of far2reachin& perception on the part of Buddhist proficients. Hwa-shï@. (fter a time.8 The Ra3ah as$ed. o#servin& that each of these &ifts %as %orth CGG. and inf"uenced #/ %hat that re"i&ion ca""s 8depraved vie%s8 ?sie-kien@.ata"iputra. and at once su#mitted themse"ves to the tonsure. 84ust no% the Devas are fi&htin& %ith the (suras. There %i"" #e some remar$a#"e appearance. The patriarch ca""ed in five thousand (rhans to aid in administerin& the vo%s to this "ar&e cro%d of app"icants. m/ teacher. 8-ou shou"d #ecome a #e"iever in Buddha. 8The demon is indeed come. 8 hastra of the .recious Thin&s. 8I #o% to the a&ed and honoured patriarch.

fu"" of a"" virtue and merit. Rahu"ata %as a#"e to comprehend the %ho"e %hen he had heard Kanadeva5s exp"anation. The seventeenth patriarch. at the sound of the #e"". and s"o%"/ entered the earth. at the time of their sufferin& their retri#ution.8 !e then cast off the #od/. and too$ his p"ace. the earth %as at peace and the %aters made ever/thin& #eautifu"Q #ut after his death. and cannot #e in3ured.aitre/a that to"d /ou this. spear in hand. Na&ar3una %as a#"e p. named an&hanandi. On this. it chan&ed to #"ood. The/ on"/ "oved marve""ous po%ers and deeds that astonish. !e ver/ soon understood the princip"es of Buddha5s teachin&. The tree #ecame sti"" more "uxuriant"/ #eautifu". (fter his destined %or$ of reformation and instruction %as done. it is m/ p. 5>hen /ou suffer the pena"t/ of /our sin I %i"" certain"/ come and see /ou. The/ a"" repented of their thou&ht.GGG -athas. 8One #orn of the race of the %hee" $in&s %as neither Buddha nor an (rhan. 8These &hosts %ere in a former "ife m/ son2in2"a% and dau&hter2in2"a%. >hen a certain Brahman %rote a %or$ of BGG. and %ith a %hee" ma$e it into a porce"ain ima&e. an&$a/asheta sa% in the house t%o hun&r/ &hosts. >hat that man has in3ured is the form of retri#ution for m/ past. a native of outh p. 8("" methods and s/stems are empt/. the patriarch said. Kanadeva responded to the ca"". erected a da&o#a. a"" the heretics %ere %orsted. Rahu"ata said. !e cou"d spea$ as soon as he %as #orn. T%o /ears "ater. ( "ar&e e"ephant a"so came to tr/ his stren&th. men had "ost faith. una#"e to so"ve this pro#"em. Rahu"ata came to the #an$s of the 1o"den2%ater river and said. and entered the state of destruction and sa"vation. Rahu"ata then said. had assem#"ed for food.aitre/a.8 The/ rep"ied. I arrived at a certain p"ace %here mon$s. 8!un&er is the &reatest evi". and &o :uic$"/ to m/ discip"es and inform them. in the front ran$. In rep"/ to the $in&5s in:uiries. and #ecame himse"f an instructor. I then too$ an oath and said. The/ did not #e"ieve the true form of #eaut/. sa/in&. came there. KT to understand the %ho"e at first hearin&. ("" %ondered. >hen men %ere invited to act as &uards. temp"es %ere erected for him. pointin& %ith his fin&er. 8If an/ one can van:uish me in re&ard to these three theses. he came to a temp"e and %ent into it to #e& food.@ There is no happiness ?or merit@ on earth e:ua" to that of the Buddhist mon$. !e had no sooner ended.8 >hen his destined course %as finished. The corpse cou"d not #e removed #/ his discip"es on account of its &reat %ei&ht. KE . It is in /ourse"ves. Before "ife %as extinct.8 !e then desired an&hanandi to distri#ute the food and eat %ith the others. %as much enra&ed. and read the #oo$s of Buddha %hen an infant. !e %ent %ith it to the #oundar/ of the diamond %hee" re&ion. %ent to the paradises of the Devas. and paid him the re&u"ar honours of %orship. This he #rou&ht #ac$ to the assem#"/. and %ith his s%ord pierced him throu&h. !e %ho $no%s the rea"it/ of Dharma that there is in this statement.8 The pupi"s came to see their master %ith "oud "amentation. %ho %i"". !ere Kanadeva proposed three thesesS—?B. (ction is the &reatest sufferin&. he said he %as a man %ho studied %isdom and practised ar&umentative orator/. succeed him on the throne of purit/. !e %as not received #/ after a&es as rea". as a cicada does its outer coverin&. an&hanandi tried his po%ers #/ a :uestion. 8It must have #een .8 8seiRed on8@ the Nirv9na. nor %as he a . and Kanadeva at the second hearin&. !is discip"es co""ected the re"ics after his cremation. that if an/ amon& them have not made pro&ress. than he seiRed a cr/sta" 3ar. !e said to them. 8(t a distance of five hundred li from this spot.para&raph continues< India.8 an&hanandi o#served that %hen Buddha %as p. !e had 3ust a%a$ed from a trance of t%ent/2one da/s. of the cit/ hravasti. 8The fau"t is not in me. /ou had not attained to the ran$ of (rhan. extreme"/ difficu"t to exp"ain. The ei&hteenth patriarch %as named an&$a/asheta. !is host said.8 >a"$in& on the sea2side. 8>hat is the meanin& of thisL8 he as$ed. %hen ei&ht hundred /ears had passed. !e attac$ed him %hi"e en&a&ed in %ritin& a controversia" %or$. 8It is neither the #e""s nor the %ind.rat/e$a Buddha. #ut on"/ rea"ised the first three fruits of the monastic "ife. and he %as honoured as if he %ere Buddha. a native of Kapi"a. ( da&o#a %as erected. 8Is it the #e""s that ma$e the sound. his teacher as$ed him. I consent to have m/ head ta$en off. I do not receive "ove or hatred from an/. and performed the process of cremation. the Brahman said. #ut %as una#"e to move it. an&hanandi.8 !e %as invited to enter and supp"ied %ith food. It is not I m/se"f. and the re"ics %ere %orshipped. >hen he heard the #e""s of a temp"e rin&in& on account of the %ind #"o%in&. and died. and reso"ved to $i"" Kanadeva.8 !e then #ecame a #e"iever. and the mon$s #e&an to use their #o%"s and . %ho rep"ied. and %hen I instructed them the/ refused to "isten. The $in& of his countr/ fo""o%ed a form of depraved doctrine. The discip"es then pi"ed up fra&rant %ood a&ainst the tree. 8!e is a Buddha of #/&one times. Rahu"ata entered ?the %ord is 8too$. !o%ever. the/ shou"d $eep firm"/ to their purpose %ithout despairin&.8 Rahu"ata "ed his discip"es to see him. !o% can this ima&e compare %ith the sa&es or #e continued to "ater &enerationsL8 The (rhan came #ac$ %ith this ans%er. The $in& opened for him a discussion ha"".8 The (rhan. under the inf"uence of &reat astonishment. In a"" the $in&doms of India.8 In the discussion that ensued. %as the son of the $in&. (n (rhan. and at once desired to ta$e the monastic vo%s. The/ %ere an&r/ #ecause I &ave a%a/ food in charit/. dischar&in& his duties in so re&u"ar and exemp"ar/ a manner that the $in&5s attention %as attracted. and fi""ed it %ith the 8drin$ of the immorta"s8 ?kan-lu@. 8The hramana $no%s it as c"ear"/ as if he had $no%n it a"" of o"d. ma/ enter the path of Nirv9na. or the %indL8 The /outh rep"ied.&one into a state of samadhi. This Buddha of the past has sti"" secret dou#ts. EB mind. he &rasped a tree %ith his ri&ht hand. ( fo""o%er of one of the scho"ars %ho %ere van:uished in ar&ument fe"t ashamed for his master. EG "ivin&. there is a ho"/ person. and as$ed permission to #ecome mon$s. and /ou a"so %ere discip"es of the "a% of Buddha in a&es "on& past. (t seven /ears o"d he formed a dis"i$e to a %or"d"/ "ife. The sixteenth patriarch %as Rahu"ata. 8The custom of the %or"d is to form a "ump of c"a/. !is parents tried in vain to chec$ him in reso"vin& to #e a mon$.5 (ccordin&"/. a thousand /ears after Buddha. I do not exist. 8-ou can ta$e m/ ro#e and rice #o%".@ No "a% can compare %ith the "a% of BuddhaQ ?C.@ Buddha is the most exce""ent of sa&esQ ?H. On a sudden the/ dis"i$ed its taste. >hen the food %as near"/ a"" eaten. and than$ed him. and p"aced #efore them. One da/ Rahu"ata ascended to the heaven of Brahma %ith a &o"den rice #o%" in his hand to o#tain rice for a mu"titude of #e"ievin& Buddhists. and as$ed . 8The marve""ous po%er of our teacher can "ead to faith. The fifteenth patriarch %as Kanadeva. na$ed and chained. an&hanandi rep"ied.

comes from dou#t. !is attendants cou"d not sa/ %hat %as the occasion of its #ein& erected. and a#andoned it in favour of the Buddhist faith. Their nei&h#our %as a #utcher. the 8t%ent/2first8 patriarch. and +astern India. the )a%. 8!o% can the/ #e removedL8 . 8If /ou do an/thin& there is no merit in it. (t seven /ears o"d he #e&an to re#u$e those peop"e %ho visited temp"es to sacrifice to the &ods. Shï-tsï@. in Northern.8 The #irds hearin& these %ords.anura spo$e some sentences in the form of 1athas.8 On a sudden the temp"e and ima&es fe"" do%n in ruins. and %as p. There %ere differences in "oca"ities. . 8These are the f"oc$ that are no% fo""o%in& /ou. is inc"uded an ans%er he &ave to a /outh %ho %as puRR"ed at the ine:ua"it/ of re%ards and punishments in the present p. >h/ shou"d a man %hose #usiness it %as to ta$e anima" "ife escape retri#ution from this sinL Kumarada to"d him that the ine:ua"it/ of men5s condition in the present "ife is main"/ on account of sins and virtuous acts in a former "ife. In seven da/s he advanced to the fourth &rade of the understandin& of Buddhist doctrine. and en3o/ed an immunit/ from a"" sic$ness and pain. and #ecame a discip"e.D.anura %as %e"" s$i""ed in the ana"/sis of a"pha#etic sounds. !e found >estern India under the contro" of $in& Teda. .8 %as the rep"/. there %as &reat perversit/ of vie%.5 I as$ed them to te"" me %hat the/ had done. %ho one da/ %hen trave""in& passed a sma"" pa&oda. !appiness and miser/ are the recompense of the virtue and vice of the past. B. . . udden"/ the/ %ent a%a/. EC of Buddhist teachin& is said to #e eas/. he converted them to Buddhism #/ praisin& Buddha.8 an&$a/asheta %ent on the sea and sa% a"" the five hundred he""s. !e is author of the <i(hasha&Shastra. The virtue and vice of the present %i"" #e re%arded in the future "ife. The t%ent/2third patriarch %as !a$"ena. and too$ the name of Buddhists. ome heretics %ere &ui"t/ of &ross crimes. and %ithout "ife or death. (t thirt/2ei&ht /ears of a&e he met %ith . !e attained the ran$ of (rhan.un3a# and Cashmere in (.anura &ave the %or$ of reformin& the $in&dom #/ Buddhist teachin& into the hands of the $in&. The t%ent/2fourth patriarch %as in&ha"aputra.D. %hich at that time %ere first committed to %ritin&. HGT ?Chinese chrono"o&/@. +vident"/ he %ou"d aid in &ivin& a"pha#ets to the Tami" and other "an&ua&es. This %as the cause of their present retri#ution. >hi"e he %as teachin& in the presence of a Ra3ah. ome parts of India %ere more favoura#"e to Buddhism than others. to proceed to >estern and outhern India to teach Buddhism. and himse"f too$ vo%s as a mon$. !e %as of the countr/ of the 1et= ?Candahar@. !e %ent to Candahar ? Ki-pin@. and said. on account of sma"" merit. action and inaction.8 Kumarada died (. B/ doin& nothin&.D. and the 8utterers of charms8 ?chen-shu@. EF instructed. The/ came to %orship. the %or$ p. %hen Bi$shus came as$in& food. 8>ho are the/L8 !a$"ena rep"ied. 8%astin& the "ives of innocent catt"e. %ho formed three c"asses of the communit/ of that da/. t%o men appeared dressed in dar$ red mant"es and %hite to&as. there rea""/ must #e dar$ness. . and the . Centra". in fi&htin& %ith one another. 5>h/ are /ou savin& of foodL The miser/ %e #ear no% is a recompense for the past. such a fate as to #e condemned to "ive there. (t the turnin&2points of revo"ution. victor/ or defeat.C. Kumarada a"so said to him. !e &ave over his ro/a" authorit/ to his son. and %ent himse"f to the $in&dom of the Indian 1et.riesthood. 8(ctivit/. The/ did not $no%. f"e% a%a/ %ith "oud cries. >estern and outhern India. /ou attain a position %here there is no 3o/ or sorro%. In the account of the "ife of . the/ had #een &ui"t/ on one occasion. The Ra3ah as$ed. %ho—retreatin& %est%ard #efore the !iun&2nu. %ishin& to de"ude /ou into sho%in& them favour. of concea"in& their store and an&ri"/ refusin& to share it %ith them. a"" stated to #e to the north of the 1au&es. it is said that in the t%o Indias south of the 1an&es. !e as$ed the 8Brahmans of pure "ife8 ?Fan-hing@.8 !is most promisin& discip"e %as in&ha"aputra ?)ion sonQ in Chinese. are a dream and a de"usion. and sta/ed a "on& time. and there #rou&ht over ver/ man/ persons to Buddhism. that in the time of Kashiapa Buddha.anura to"d him that former"/ five hundred of his discip"es had. /ou %i"" comp"/ %ith the s/stem of Buddha. 8To %hat must I &ive m/ chief attention if I %ou"d attain the true $no%"ed&e of thin&sL8 8Do nothin&. action or retri#ution. and /ou %i"" then have attained the same eminence as the Buddhas of the past. dou#t from $no%"ed&e. The/ rep"ied. The campai&n of . The %or$ of the patriarchs %as to en&a&e in a perpetua" ar&ument a&ainst un#e"ief. 4a/ata %as charmed %ith this conversation. BC. he entered the Nirv9na. EH "ife. #/ %ron& statements of the causes of ca"amities and of happiness. !e as$ed !a$"ena. %hich is a ver/ &reat evi". !e specia""/ made use of a #oo$ #/ the t%e"fth patriarch ca""ed the Sutra&o+&the&6otme. This is inserted #/ the Chinese #io&rapher as an examp"e of a patriarch5s po%er over the anima" creation. 8The/ are the sons of the Devas of the sun and moon.other utensi"s emp"o/ed at mea"s. and cut off the head of the patriarch. #/ some means. 0irtue and vice #e"on& to the present. !is dou#ts %ere dissipated. 8Besides. BHA. !e said the/ %ere deceivers of the peop"e. !a$"ena %ent to Centra" India.8 !a$"ena as$ed him.anura. in %hich /ou have hitherto #e"ieved. !e su#se:uent"/ #ecame the t%entieth patriarch. B/ fo""o%in& the stream and reco&nisin& the true nature. in Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki ?#ut rea""/ the t%ent/2second@. and %hich had no% come to "i&ht throu&h the &ood fortune of the $in&. a native of Centra" India. ("" vice and virtue. . the nineteenth patriarch. >hen his destined course %as run.anura5s teachin&. HC. and findin& in a %ood five hundred 8hermits8 ?sien@ %ho %ere practisin& ascetic ru"es. and the a#sence of perception from the mind5s #ein& in a mor#id state. %ho had former"/ #e"ieved in Brahmanism. B.anura %as then as$edQ %ho said it %as a pa&oda erected #/ $in& (shX$a. The /outh5s parents %ere devout Buddhists. )et /our mind #e pure and at rest. $no%"ed&e from a man5s not possessin& the perceptive po%er. -a3a undertoo$ to teach in this part of India. 8The mind fo""o%s the ten thousand forms in their revo"utions. and the desire to avoid. B The $in& %as much impressed %ith .anura is descri#ed as a "on& stru&&"e %ith errors and heresies. /ou are.C. The $in& #ecame an&r/ a&ainst Buddhism. On the other hand.anura tau&ht in >estern India and in *er&hana in the third Christian centur/.anura. In the account of Kumarada. the 8contemp"atists8 ?ch‘un-kwan@. and %as recommended #/ a "earned Buddhist named -a3a.8 he said. #ut in ver/ fee#"e hea"th.8 !a$"ena died (. This tau&ht him fear. BEG—con:uered the . #een #orn as stor$s.

D. the 8essentia" nature8 ?sing@ of Dharma is the &reatest. B@. fine.D. *or man/ centuries there %as an active discussion on the c"aims of the "ast four and the Chinese patriarchs to the honour of the name.8 Fu. &ood fortune is a"%a/s deserved #/ some &ood action done. and reco&nise no superiorit/ in the t%ent/2four universa""/ ac$no%"ed&ed patriarchs over the remainin& four. the second son of the $in&. v. In China the do&matic reason &iven for not ac$no%"ed&in& the "ast four patriarchs %as that. The %ord used is hiang-"u. p.On account of this unhapp/ fate of the patriarch. (nother reason for terminatin& the "ist of p. $no%"ed&e is the #ri&htest. %hen under instruction. !is successor. ho%ever. !is s/stem made the monasteries much "ess educationa" and much more m/stica" and meditative than #efore. $etch of the !istor/ of Buddhism in China acred Texts Buddhism Index . The readin& of #oo$s %as the "ife and sou" of man/ monasteries. and there too$ under his instructions Bodhidharma. and "eft as his successor the pupi" 3ust mentioned. In (. 8(mon& a"" precious thin&s the Buddhist Dharma is the most precious. 9schscholt7ia&cristata. )overs of $no%"ed&e amon& the Buddhists %ou"d dis"i$e his s/stem. and died (. The contemp"ative schoo". %hich are round and #ri&ht. KFSB Tsau-tsui. Bodhidharma decried #oo$ readin&. !e died (. or schoo" of Bodhidharma. there %i"" #e t%ent/2four honoura#"e teachers. in the 8Dharmapita$a utra. !e %as a Kshatr/a of outhern India.8 is in a Buddhist sense 8merit. 8po%er of the $in&5s merit. and possi#"/ his enemies %ere not on"/ the Brahmans.revious Next . the 1et=. %ho %i"" appear in the %or"d and teach m/ "a%8 ? Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki. #ut died in China #efore accomp"ishin& this purpose. (mon& a"" #ri&ht thin&s. !e represents a schoo" that despises #oo$s and reduces Buddhist teachin& to the simp"est possi#"e princip"es. BHAT. the succession.D. 8(fter m/ enterin& the Nirv9na. accordin& to some authors. >hen an (rhan is #orn this p"ant is found &ro%in& in some c"ean spot. and stron&. Footnotes AHSB This is stated in the "ife of han&navasu. north. !e trave""ed into Centra" and outhern India. either in the present or in some former "ife. the third patriarch. ECSB 81ood fortune. decides a&ainst them. and the 8Roman empire. The sixt/2nine /ears that passed #et%een the death of his predecessor and his departure from India formed the #asis of the prediction a#ove mentioned. !e died in (.8 Buddha had said. a native of Centra" India. and a native of Candahar. %as Basiasita. B/ the $in&dom of the 1et= the Chinese author meant some &reat empire #et%een Rome and China. to have #een that the remainin& patriarchs %ere not foreto"d #/ Buddha #/ name. and converted him. a""ied to the vervain. . and %hose names are &iven. at Nin&po. The p"ant of %hich it %as made had nine sta"$s. In the C/c"op=dia Fa-yuen-chu-lin.— 9itel. The 81et=8 ?4ats@ mentioned in the account of !a$"ena are ca""ed ue-ti #/ the Chinese. constructed %e must suppose after the event. (mon& a"" thin&s. %here he found the $in& under the inf"uence of heretica" doctrine. %ho trave""ed to the southern part of the peninsu"a. Bodhidharma "eft outhern India for China #/ sea. The difference of vie%s %ou"d not therefore #e an unfriend"/ one. #ut a"so fe""o%2Buddhists. NextS Chapter 0I.8 i. The patriarch ans%ered. This is a statement dra%n from Indian sources.8 B/ the "a% of hidden causation. The t%ent/2fifth patriarch. !o% man/ patriarchs cou"d there #eL Bodhidharma %ished to return to India. it is said that the &reat $in&doms to the east. he foreto"d. %ou"d visit China sixt/2 nine /ears after%ards. ChM2pJan. DHA. 8fra&rant mi"$. accordin& to the contemp"ative schoo". pear"s. thic$. have retained the t%ent/2ei&ht names. is said.. %as . and doctrines. CEE. %as #ro$en off at this point. %hat he had to sa/ a#out precious thin&s. !e %as a Brahman. ED patriarchs here. ome of the friends %ho revie%ed his %or$. CHE. are China.D. %ho. !e visited +astern India. (mon& a"" thin&s. AASB This c"oth %as #rou&ht to China from Thi#et and other %estern countries in the TJan& d/nast/.utnomita %as the next ?t%ent/2sixth@ that received the c"oa$ and secret s/m#o"s of the patriarchs.8 Ta-ts‘in.8 This is the name of a mi"$/ p"ant. the t%ent/2seventh patriarch.—5illiams. %ritin& in (. #e"on&ed to the contemp"ative schoo". ha$/amuni %as his s"ave in a former #irth. This %ou"d #e the case in China and in India. and %est of India. 8creatin& sin. in and its punishment are confused and "oose"/ identified.D. FDK. (mon& a"" c"ear thin&s. !e %as an ascetic of the first %ater. 8happiness.e. #/ the author of Fa-tsu-t‘ung-hi.8 Bodhidharma %as the t%ent/2ei&hth patriarch.rad3]atara. The cause of his departure %as pro#a#"/ persecution and disaster. the punishment of sin. Bodhidharma as$ed him. KBSB ( Rishi %ho %as a#"e to detect the mar$s of Buddha on a chi"d. and did not e:ua" in &ifts and honour those that preceded. a c"ear mind is the c"earest. !e %as a sectarian even in Buddhism.8 +u-li. (fter this %hat cou"d #e done #ut ta$e the statement as a fina" ans%er to the in:uir/. It %as %hite. EA other men and I are the hi&hest.

Under the /ear (. are facts that shou"d #e remem#ered in connection %ith the histor/ of the Chinese "an&ua&e. (. FDB—Indian em#assies to China in the un& d/nast/—Opposition of the Confucianists to Buddhism—Discussions on doctrine—Buddhist prosperit/ in the Northern >ei $in&dom and the )ian& $in&dom—Bodhidharma— un&2/In sent to India—Bodhidharma "eaves )ian& >u2ti and &oes to Northern China—!is "atter /ears and death—+m#assies from Buddhist countries m the south—Re"ics—The )ian& emperor >u2ti #ecomes a mon$—+m#assies from India and Ce/"on—Inf"uence of anscrit %ritin& in &ivin& the Chinese the $no%"ed&e of an a"pha#et— /""a#ic spe""in&—Confucian opposition to Buddhism in the TJan& d/nast/—The five successors of Bodhidharma—!iuen2tsan&5s trave"s in India—>or$ as a trans"ator—.8 It is added in the commentar/ to the T1ung-kien-kang-muh.ersecution #/ the Cheu d/nast/—+xtensive erection of pa&odas in the un& d/nast/—+ncoura&ement of anscrit studies—. that the name is a"so pronounced. in conse:uence of a dream. that the prince of the Ch6au $in&dom in the time of the +astern Ts6in d/nast/. after mentionin& this in the Fo% kou%&ki. adds that.D. The numerous proper names and other %ords transferred from anscrit. in order to propa&ate their re"i&ion. (mon& other thin&s. BHH Chan& KJien. %ith others. EE severa" thousand mi"es to the south2east of the capita". returned from the countr/ of the 1et=. (. had not /et commenced. it is stated that in B. .BETC<. !e %as inf"uenced #/ an Indian named Buddo3an&a. Before this. and the persecution of the Brahmans. (. EK CHAPTER VI. KBF—!indoo ca"endar in China—(mo&ha introduces the festiva" for hun&r/ &hosts—Opposition of !an -I to Buddhism—. and died at )o2/an&. !e trans"ated a sma"" #ut important he said. !ere a &o"den statue %as ta$en. (. (t this period. *a2hien visits India—!is #oo$—. the modern i2an fu. This is an important epoch for the histor/ of Chinese Buddhist "iterature. ca""ed the utra of *ort/2t%o ections.e2chi2"i and han2si. produced the first version of the 8)otus of the 1ood )a%. to%ards the /ear B. at sacred2texts. It had a"so extended itse"f throu&hout India and Ce/"on. of the $in&doms and customs existin& in the sends an em#ass/ to India for ima&es. Kumara3iva %as #rou&ht to China from Kui2tsi. CCD—Buddo3an&a—( pa&oda at Nan$in&.C. an Indian Buddhist.Juto—Re&u"ations for receivin& the vo%s—!indoo Buddhists in China in the un& d/nast/—The . a countr/ #e/ond -ar$and.D. +ar"/ in the fourth centur/. #ut it %as no% for the first time that the peop"e of the countr/ %ere suffered to #ecome 8 hamen8 H ?Shramanas@. under the /ear CCD. a countr/ p. and that it is the countr/ of the #ar#arians ca""ed Buddha. Ch6au. The name of India no% occurs for the first time in their anna"s. a $in&dom in Thi#et. FGD—The Chinese trave""er. erected a pa&oda in his pa"ace at Nan$in&. The emperor .atsu—Triumph of the . CEB.andarin is no% spo$en. insti&ated part"/ #/ controversia" fee"in&. native Chinese #e&an to ta$e the Buddhist monastic vo%s. BHH. Kumara3iva %as commanded #/ the emperor to trans"ate the sacred #oo$s of India. CEB—The trans"ator Kumara3iva. in the /ear (. FGD. The $in& of Ts6in had sent an arm/ to invade that countr/. ET the south2east of the Dah=@. east of the Ts6un&2"in& mountains. and informed the !an emperor >u2ti.D.C. %as in the modern .Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. I sa% #am#oo staves from K6iun& and c"oth from M2 ch6uen. The seat of the ancient $in&dom of Ts6in %as in the southern p. )on& #efore this. "ar&e monasteries #e&an to #e esta#"ished in North China. a fe% /ears previous"/.com Chinese&)uddhism. . for %e read that at the c"ose of the second centur/. SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF BUDDHISM IN CHINA. that the Chinese emperor . That this re"i&ion %as then f"ourishin& in the most norther"/ provinces of the empire. sa/s the historian.D. accompanied them #ac$. Their histor/ sa/s. and other circumstances of the trans"ations are preserved.on&o" d/nast/ favoured Buddhism—The "ast Chinese Buddhist %ho visited India—The . AB—Kashiapmadan&a arrives in China— pread of Buddhism in (. as the trave"s of the patriarchs indicate.D. to as$ for Buddhist #oo$s and teachers. (. 8>hen I %as in the countr/ of the Dah=. and nine2tenths of the common peop"e.ersecution. HBK."aces of pi"&rima&e—. Remusat. natives of India had #een a""o%ed to #ui"d temp"es in the "ar&e cities. a %ar"i$e expedition of the Chinese "ed them to !ieou2thou. an Indian residin& at Ch6an&2an. and that the date.D.GGG Chinese mi"es distant to the south2%est.ersecution of EFD—Teachin& of .D. are of &reat assistance in ascertainin& %hat sounds %ere then &iven to those characters in the re&ion %here . in %hich he sa% the ima&e of a forei&n &od. AB.5 a countr/ far to p. Buddhism %as in favour at court. the Chinese chronic"es record that the $in& of the Ts6in countr/ &ave a hi&h office to d/nast/ "imits the ri&ht of accumu"atin& "and—Roman Catho"ic controvers/ %ith Buddhists—Kan&2hi of the . and to the present da/ his name ma/ #e seen on the first pa&e of the principa" Buddhist c"assics. Indians had arrived at the capita" of China in hen2si. fo""o%ed the faith of the &reat Indian sa&e. permitted his su#3ects to do so. and #rou&ht to the emperor. and more #/ a desire to increase their caste inf"uence. and %ritten %ith the Chinese characters.C.D.ersecution. FHA—Buddhism prosperous. IT %as in the /ear (. B ( native of Centra" India named Kashiapmadan&a. In the /ear B. a Chinese am#assador.aha/ana—Budhiruchi—. (t this period the &eo&raphica" $no%"ed&e of the Chinese rapid"/ increased. of the Ts6in d/nast/.com p. p"ace ?Ch6an&2an@.D. B %ho pretended to ma&ica" po%ers. Kan-do and T1in-do. The re"i&ion had no% "on& #een esta#"ished in Nepau" and Independent Tartar/.anchu d/nast/ opposes Buddhism—The "iterati sti"" condemn Buddhism. I %as to"d that the/ %ere artic"es of traffic at Shin-do ?5 cinde. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. The first trans"ations of the Buddhist #oo$s had #een a"read/ made. another $in&dom %here. On as$in& %hence the/ came. H BH. sent messen&ers to India. The Chinese author states that this %as the ori&in of the statues of Buddha that %ere after%ards in use.8 The emperor !iau >u. or discip"es of Buddha. TG part of the provinces hen2si and Kan2su.

in (f&hanistan %here the "an&ua&e and customs of Centra" India then prevai"ed. an ardent discip"e of the ne% faith. T%o "etters of . %hose sno%s fed the streams that %atered it. $no%n in histor/ as the >ei d/nast/. TH . and the assem#"/ of priests. FDB.D. he reached ChJan&2an in the /ear FBF. another Indian monarch. The e"dest son of the Tartar chief of the >ei $in&dom made man/ attempts to induce his father to dea" "ess harsh"/ to%ards a re"i&ion to %hich he himse"f %as stron&"/ attached. a""udes to the f"ourishin& state of Buddhism in the countries from %hich these em#assies came. TC as the #enefactors and civi"isers of the %or"d. and the other "ands %atered #/ the Indus and its tri#utar/ rivers. caused the %hee" of the honoured "a% to revo"ve. $in& of (ratan. and in the north professors of the prohi#ited re"i&ion %ere su#3ected to severe persecution. it %as his %ish p. The peop"e %ere %arned a&ainst &ivin& them she"ter. To produce them in a form more accurate and comp"ete %as the tas$ underta$en #/ the "earned Buddhist 3ust mentioned. The former trans"ations of the Buddhist sacred #oo$s %ere to a &reat extent erroneous. ho%ever. Officia" in:uiries shou"d #e instituted to prevent further evi"s. %hose rei&n of more than thirt/ /ears c"osed in FDC. In the %ho"e 4am#u continent. Re"ics of Buddha %ere %ide"/ spread—num#er"ess pa&odas erected. and man/ priests put to death. su#3ected the four demons. occasioned s/mpath/ e"se%here. and the . and in the /ear FHA an edict %as issued a&ainst them. >hi"e man/ ne% temp"es %ere erected for the sa$e of disp"a/. and %hoever %ished to cast #raRen statues shou"d first o#tain permission from the authorities. his re"i&ious instructor. The "etter of the $in& of 4e#a#ada.D. and to pave the %a/ for fre:uent intercourse on the &round of identit/ in re"i&ion. attained the state of perfect perception.ersia and China %as fre:uent"/ traversed. that thou&h separated #/ a %ide sea. ( native d/nast/. these sentiments of reverence had &iven p"ace to frivo"it/. %as made a capita" crime. and it %as not ti"" severa" /ears had e"apsed that at the re:uest of Kumara3iva. The $in& a"so mentions the attachment of his ancestors to the %orship of Buddha. The ro/a" pa"aces and %a""s %ere "i$e those of the Tau"i heaven. situated to the north2%est of Benares. TF to have em#assies passin& and repassin& #et%een the t%o countries. the #irthp"ace of ha$/amuni. . #ut in vain. un"ess the emperor commands it.8 ( fe% /ears after%ards ?(. there %ere no $in&doms from %hich em#assies did not come %ith tri#ute to the &reat un& emperor of the -an&2cheu B $in&dom. p. and the $in& himse"f. so favoura#"e to the pro&ress of Buddhism. in the most sp"endid manner. The extensive intercourse that then #e&an to exist #et%een China and India ma/ #e &athered from the fact that Ce/"on B a"so sent an em#ass/ and a "etter to un& >en2 ti. Their chief o#3ect %as to con&ratu"ate the ru"in& emperor on the prosperit/ of Buddhism in his em#assies came from the countries "/in& #et%een India and China durin& the time of un& >en2ti. after insertin& this document. !e then introduces a memoria" from a ma&istrate representin& the disorders that had sprun& from the %ide2spread inf"uence of this re"i&ion. after fifteen /ears6 a#sence. and %ith it in :uic$ succession the pett/ $in&doms into %hich China %as at that time divided. (mon& those that have #een preserved. the *ccount&o+&)uddhist&Kingdoms. B #/ *a2hien. and its ru"ers p. there are constant communications #et%een them. to this emperor are preserved in the histor/ of this d/nast/. in Centra" India and in Ce/"on. !e had &iven rest to the inha#itants of heaven and earth.ore than three hundred vo"umes %ere thus prepared. FDE@ a conspirac/ %as detected in %hich a chief part/ %as a Buddhist priest.a&odas and temp"es %ere up%ards of a thousand in num#er. ("" the treasures of the re"i&ion ?Buddha. are no% enou&h. 1oin& #ac$ #/ sea from Ce/"on. The princes of these $in&doms %ere at first hosti"e to Buddhism. to induce an/ of the educated c"ass amon& them to "eave their homes. and fort/ or fift/ of the inha#itants to #ecome priests. In this "etter it is said. !e descri#es his $in&dom as "/in& in the shado% of the !ima"a/as.para&raph continues< Ima&e ma$in& and the #ui"din& of temp"es %ere for#idden. The emperor himse"f performed the tonsure for some %ho too$ the monastic vo%s. That document sa/s that 8Buddhism had durin& four d/nasties #een mu"tip"/in& its ima&es and sacred edifices. expresses his admiration of the same emperor in &"o%in& "an&ua&e. FHG@. %as exp"orin& India and co""ectin& #oo$s. The earnestness and vi&our of the Chinese Buddhists at that ear"/ period.isha#arma. . and a succession of Chinese Buddhists thus found their %a/ to the parent p. issued an edict permittin& a Buddhist temp"e to #e erected in each cit/. On enterin& them the visitor5s heart %as affected. and #/ the renovatin& po%er of the Buddhist re"i&ion #rou&ht them into the happiness of the Nirv9na. ru"ed in the southern provinces. a Chinese trave""er. ho"din& the o"d copies in his hand as the %or$ of correction proceeded. The Ts6in d/nast/ no% fe"" ?(. is that from 8Kapi"i8 ?Kapi"avastu@. or construct ima&es of earth or #rass. a native of India. !e then undertoo$ %ith the he"p of . Neither re"i&ion nor the "ove of seein& forei&n "ands. To %orship forei&n divinities. *a2hien had severa" companions. . The rapid advancement of Buddhism in China %as not unnoticed in nei&h#ourin& $in&doms. )ate"/. p. is sho%n sufficient"/ #/ the repeated 3ourne/s that the/ made a"on& the tedious and dan&erous route #/ Centra" (sia to India. is perhaps the most interestin& and va"ua#"e. !e praises China B as the most prosperous of $in&doms.D. The next of these curious memoria"s from Buddhist $in&s preserved in the anna"s of the same Chinese emperor. he pu#"ished his trave"s. %as proceedin&. %as present at the conference. and recommendin& imperia" interference. evera" of them on their return %rote narratives of %hat the/ had seen. the )a%. in accordance %ith %hich the #oo$s and ima&es of Buddha %ere destro/ed. The same prosperit/ that a%o$e the 3ea"ous/ of the civi" &overnment in the countr/ itse"f. . in the /ear (. %as "i$e the marsha""ed conste""ations of heaven. Instead of aimin& at sincerit/ and purit/ of "ife.%ith directions not to return %ithout the Indian %hose fame had spread amon& a"" the nei&h#ourin& nations. The compi"er of the un& anna"s. the o"dest of them. and %hen he departed he fe"t desirous to invite others to the practices of piet/. #ut death and other causes &radua""/ deprived him of them a"". TD .ore than ei&ht hundred priests %ere ca""ed to assist. and firm in their foundations as the umeru mountain. and in China itse"f. the tas$ of editin& the %or$s he had #rou&ht %ith him.a"ats6an&a. amon& the Oui&hours and the tri#es residin& %est of the Caspian ea. no one thou&ht of re#ui"din& the o"d ones. the first of the name un&. pure in their "ives. B >hi"e this %or$. *a2hien. The extension of the re"i&ion that %as then propa&ated %ith such Rea" and fervour ver/ much promoted the mutua" intercourse of (siatic countries. The northern provinces #ecame the possession of a po%erfu" Tartar fami"/. The diffusion of the sacred #oo$s and the "a% of Buddha %as "i$e the #ri&ht shinin& of the sun. TB "and of the "e&ends and superstitions in %hich the/ #e"ieved. !e descri#es the f"ourishin& condition of Buddhism in the steppes of Tartar/. !e adds. that thou&h the countries are distant three /ears6 3ourne/ #/ sea and "and. saved mu"titudes of "ivin& #ein&s. The road #et%een +astern . &aud/ finer/ and mutua" 3ea"ousies prevai"ed. The %or$ of this $in& %as undone #/ his successor %ho.riesthood@ %ere as #eautifu" in appearance. at the desire of the $in&.

8 and his opponent that of 8the %hite. #ecause he expects a harvest. Those %ho are &ui"t/ must #e put to death. The time of >u2ti. It saves from the &reatest dan&ers. that in the /ear FAK he caused an ima&e to #e constructed 8fort/2three feet8 in hei&ht ?thirt/2five +n&"ish feet@.8 These sentiments are rep"ied to. TA future "ife. are unchec$ed. 8. there are some fra&ments of a discussion he maintained in favour of Buddhism. and te""s him of 5the #odi"/ form of the "a%5 ?+a-shen@. B as that "ast. as the Buddhist immorta"it/ em#races the past as %e"" as the future. !is discip"e. on %hich the e/e can &aRe.ersonatin& the Confucianists. mar$ed as it %as #/ the arriva" in China of Ta-mo ?Bodhidharma@. turnin& entire"/ on the advanta&e to #e derived from the doctrine of the future state for the incu"cation of virtue. contained in the #io&raphica" section of the History&o+&the&Sung&dynasty>—8The instructions of Confucius inc"ude on"/ a sin&"e "ifeQ the/ do not reach to a future state of existence.8 The author. a Buddhist. cannot #ear comparison %ith doin& %hat is ri&ht for its o%n sa$e.en %i"" not act spontaneous"/ and immediate"/ %ithout p. more than sharpness can remain %hen the $nife is no more. If he had no such hope. &o #e/ond %or"d"/ honour. nor does the recompense of &ui"t inc"ude an/thin& %orse than o#scurit/ and povert/. in mu"tip"/in& virtuous actions. ( distinct conception of the controvers/ as it then existed ma/ #e o#tained from the fo""o%in& extracts from an account of a native Buddhist. !e a"so %rote on the destruction of the sou".8 To this the advocate of Buddhism is said to have #een una#"e to rep"/. made to secure a hundredfo"d recompense to the &iver. It soars in thou&ht into the upper %or"d. representin& men %ho are #orn in hum#"e "ife. !e sa/s. he sa/s that. The advances of Buddhism "ater in the fifth centur/ %ere too rapid not to excite much opposition from the "iterati of the time. It %as after%ards enacted that such mon$s as %ou"d not $eep their vo%s of a#stinence and se"f2denia" shou"d return to their fami"ies and previous occupations. on the other hand.otives derived from a future state are necessar/ to "ead men to virtue. "it. The %ho"e is preserved in a #eautifu""/ finished st/"e of composition. It %as %ith fair %ords "i$e these. Be&innin& from a space no "ar&er than the %e""5s mouth in a court/ard. The author of the piece %as re%arded for it #/ the rei&nin& emperor. . "i$e those %hose "ot is cast in pa"aces. the first emperor of the )ian& p. and #/ the extraordinar/ prosperit/ of the Buddhist re"i&ion under the imperia" favour. ( hundred pecu"s of #rass. tends to produce in men a "ove of the marve""ous. it is inconsistent to use the desire of heaven as a motive to virtue. TT d/nast/. %hi"e he condemns %ithout f"inchin& the difficu"ties that he sees in the s/stem he opposes. performed for the sa$e of o#tainin& for&iveness of sins. is not so &ood as to &overn the heart from a fee"in& of dut/. In the northern provinces Buddhism %as no% f"ourishin&. the dar$er shades of Buddhism #ein& $ept out of vie%. !istor/ sa/s. then ho% can /ou account for the difference in the condition of the rich and the poorL8 !is opponent sa/s. Be/ond the $en of the senses nothin& is $no%nQ such i&norance is me"ancho"/. thus attestin& the extent of its inf"uence on the nation at "ar&e. . The "an&ua&e of dai"/ "ife is no% thorou&h"/ impre&nated %ith the phraseo"o&/ of retri#ution and a separate state. accordin& to this s/stem. B/ /our s/stem. the t%ent/2ei&hth of the patriarchs. It spea$s of he"". The countr/man is di"i&ent in p"ou&hin& his "and. (t the #e&innin& of the sixth centur/. 5"on& return5@. The sou" cannot continue to exist after the destruction of the #od/.8 To these ar&uments for the o"der Chinese s/stem. Other%ise ho% cou"d the evi" tendencies of the present "ife #e ad3ustedL . 8To #e ur&ed #/ the desire of heaven to the performance of virtue. &ro%in& to&ether and #ent and scattered #/ the same #reeRe.en are "i$e f"o%ers on trees. 0ices do #ut entai" &reater present sufferin&s as their punishment. a#out the same time. There is no re&ion to %hich its inf"uence does not reach. the num#er of Indians in China %as up%ards of three thousand. The/ too$ advanta&e of their assumed character to contrive ne% modes of doin& mischief. and the passa&es in the c"assica" #oo$s that seem to indicate the $no%"ed&e of a separate "ife for the sou" after death. !o"din& such cheer"ess vie%s as the/ did of the destin/ of man. forms an era in the histor/ of Chinese Buddhism. the popu"ar notions and "an&ua&e of China extend to a precedin& "ife as much as to a comin& one. *our /ears after. in the ima&inar/ dia"o&ue in %hich the/ occur. must examine narro%"/ into the conduct of the mon$s. %ere used. that amon& the priests man/ %ere men %ho had f"ed from 3ustice and too$ the monastic vo%s for safet/. and soon &o do%n for ever 5#e"o% the nine fountains. The prince of the >ei $in&dom spared no expense in promotin& it. (cts of %orship. In the #io&raph/ of TsM )ian&.para&raph continues< (n edict issued on the occasion #/ the emperor sa/s. the renovation of a"" "ivin& #ein&s cannot satisf/ p. and the/ a"" desire its happiness. It points to the Nirv9na as the spirit5s 5fina" home5 ? ch1ang-kwei. TK it. Riches and povert/. !eaven and earth are not sufficient to #ound its $no%"ed&e. 8The 5sou"5 ?shin@ is to the 5#od/5 ?hing@ as sharpness to the $nife. The constituted authorities. FEC@.D. and is a specimen of the va"ua#"e materia"s contained in the Chinese d/nastic histories for specia" in:uiries on man/ su#3ects not concerned %ith the &enera" histor/ of the countr/. seen #/ the advanced discip"e. and adopt a more con&enia" s/stem. the/ %ere too imperfect and indistinct to restrain the "iterati from the most direct anta&onism on this su#3ect %ith the ear"/ Buddhists. %hich are c"ose at hand. 8If /ou do not #e"ieve in 5retri#ution of mora" actions5 ?yin-kwo@. /et a"" #ein&s. merc/ see$in& to save. that the contest %as maintained in those da/s #/ such as %ou"d introduce a forei&n form of %orship. and removes ever/ care from the heart. >hen. The prince of the >ei $in&dom exerted himse"f &reat"/ to . or more than five tons. The re%ards of the &ood do not.58 B The Confucian ans%ers that 8re"i&ion8 ?tau@ consistin& in the repression of a"" desires. the Buddhist comes for%ard %ith a re3oinderS—8-our conc"usions are %ron&. can #e accounted for %ithout the doctrine of retri#ution. cannot come from pure in%ard sincerit/. distant &ood is "oo$ed for. he %as severe"/ re#u$ed #/ some of his mandarins. %hi"e others drop amon& heaps of fi"th. To praise the happiness of the Nirv9na promotes a "aR/ inactivit/. Nuns %ere a"so for#idden to enter the pa"ace and converse %ith the emperor5s %ives. To $eep the #od/ under restraint from the fear of he"". on"/ #rin&s happiness to his posterit/. %ithout exception. have them. it extends its $no%"ed&e to the %ho"e ad3acent mansion. The aims of the doctrine of ha$/a. he resi&ned his throne to his son. a minister of state under the emperor Ts6i >u2ti ?(. The fresh trou#"es thus constant"/ occurrin& excite the indi&nation of &ods and men. and a re"i&ious controvers/ %as the resu"t. TE somethin& to hope for. and the peop"e fear to sinQ of heaven.. %hi"e the desires of the anima" nature. ome fa"" upon curtains and carpets. #est spectac"e. (nd. has &iven its fu"" force to the Confucian reasonin&. he %ou"d sit id"e at home. The discussion is continued %ith &reat spirit throu&h severa" pa&es. ( &ift. it is not to #e %ondered at that the common peop"e shou"d desert their standard. ("" c"asses ma$e use of ver/ man/ expressions in common intercourse %hich have #een ori&inated #/ Buddhism. >hatever ma/ #e thou&ht of notions connected %ith ancestra" %orship. To spea$ hi&h"/ of the #eaut/ of the em#odied idea" representation of Buddhist doctrine. The Buddhist champion is ca""ed the teacher of the 8#"ac$ doctrine. and #ecame a mon$. %ith its intermina#"e resu"ts. a&ainst the adherents to the maxims of Confucius. and six pecu"s of &o"d. the un& emperor erected a ma&nificent Buddhist temp"e. then. %ho sa/s. do not sprin& from piet/. #/ a Confucian.8 These extracts sho% that some of the Confucianists of that a&e denied an/ providentia" retri#ution in the present or a p. Thou&h /ou sa/ that the Bodhisatt%a is freed from these desires. !avin& as its one sentiment. it is added. are i""imita#"e.

as in those of Nepau". %ere man/ narratives fu"" of marve"s and impossi#i"ities. #ahayana.8 The emperorS 8Then %hat is true meritL8 The patriarchS 8It consists in purit/ and en"i&htenment. Bodhidharma. %hi"e sno% %as fa""in&. These charms are ca""ed Dharani. The su#se:uent addition of a m/tho"o&/ suited to the taste of the common peop"e %as. he determined to return to India. Bodhidharma. transcri#in& sacred #oo$s. and inspected the remains of Bodhidharma. (fter a fe% centuries. used %i"d music to %in fo""o%ers. !e trave""ed to Candahar. oon after this. severed his arm. It &ro%s. %hich a%a$ens the human emotions to their intensest exercise. %ho revere the anscrit as their sacred "an&ua&e. and &ive &reater po%er to the priests. )ian& >u2ti. This extract exhi#its Buddhism ver/ distinct"/ in its m/stic phase. The/ occur in the 1reat Deve"opment c"assics. . depth and comp"eteness. and the kasha ?ro#e %orn #/ Buddhists@ as the s/m#o" of /our out%ard teachin&. too$ a sharp $nife. it shou"d #e remem#ered. or 81reat Deve"opment8 p. erected on the most #eautifu" sites. %as "ost to his $in&dom.8 The emperorS 8>ho is he that thus rep"ies to meL8 The patriarchS 8I do not $no%. that such an act %as not %orth/ of comparison %ith the acts of the Buddhas.8 #iau-+a-lien-hwa-king ?Fa-hwa-king@. It is the shado% that fo""o%s the su#stance. the s/m#o" of the hidden "a% of Buddha. and in various Buddhist %or$s. and %as #uried at the !iun&2er mountains #et%een !o2nan and hen2si. !e %as accompanied #/ !%ei2shen&. These %or$s are ca""ed the Ta-ch1eng.8 !e further said. and the c"aim to ma&ica" po%ers. This state of mind. BGC &ain #/ it.8 The emperorS 8(nd %h/ no meritL8 The patriarchS 8("" this is #ut the insi&nificant effect of an imperfect cause not comp"ete in itse"f. !e represented the attainment of the Buddhist5s aim as #ein& entire"/ the %or$ of the heart. DBD@ for practisin& ma&ica" arts. and aimed on"/ at murder and distur#ance. he repented and sent messen&ers to invite him to return. !e said to him on this occasion. sta/ed t%o /ears in Ud/ana. as$ed him %hat he hoped to p. I have #een incessant"/ #ui"din& temp"es. 8I &ive /ou the sea" of the "a% as the si&n of /our adherence to the true doctrine in%ard"/. he to"d him. returned. (nother nove"t/ %as the pretence of %or$in& enchantments #/ means of uninte""i&i#"e formu"=. to ma$e these most u"timate of ne&ations pa"ata#"e and popu"ar. founded as the/ are on phi"osophica" meditations eminent"/ a#stract. The superadded m/tho"o&/ and c"aim to ma&ica" po%ers of the Buddhists. and the non2rea"it/ of the materia" %or"dQ and. ver/ "itt"e virtue or reso"ution. The native annotator sa/s that Ta-ch1eng is the hi&hest of three states of inte""i&ence to %hich a discip"e of Buddha can attain. severa" priests %ere put to death ?(. he"d his court. The emperor said to him—8*rom m/ accession to the throne. and that the correspondin& anscrit %ord. and then. and admittin& ne% mon$s to ta$e the vo%s. mi&ht %ith more reason occasion surprise. 8*ormer"/. In carr/in& out his m/stic vie%s. #/ the %ide diffusion of them. %ho had #een sent to India a fe% /ears previous"/ for Buddhist #oo$s. %ithout attempt at exp"anation. out of the mind itse"f. and p"aced it #efore the patriarch. !e died of o"d a&e after five attempts to poison him. a""/in& itse"f indifferent"/ to error and to truth. The peop"e ca""ed him the 8>a""2&aRin& Brahman. Its appearance ma/ #e more natura""/ expected in the histor/ of a re"i&ion "i$e Christianit/. a priest. The/ fai"ed in their errand. %hich opens the door to the heart of Buddha. or thre% themse"ves do%n a precipice to feed a famishin& ti&er. !e %as received %ith the honour due to his a&e and character. . !is discip"e. !is narrative has #een trans"ated #/ .8 The patriarch rep"ied. BGH atheism. ro""ed their hair in the mud. and hence the numerous m/stic sects of Church histor/. The "atter expressed his hi&h approva" of the deed. ho%ever.rofessor Neumann into 1erman. the )ian& $in&dom. his fo""o%ers preserved his apophthe&ms in %ritin&.8 Ta2mo5s further instructions to his successor as to the nature and duties of the patriarchate are fu""/ detai"ed in the Chï-yue-luh. he refused to treat for peace %ith the am#assadors of his southern nei&h#our. >hat can I doL8 (ccordin&"/. %here the emperor of outhern China. too$ #"ood from their arms to &ive to the hun&r/. to spread Buddhism throu&h so &reat a mass of human$ind. and is fitted to en"i&hten a"" "ivin& men. The temp"es had mu"tip"ied to thirteen thousand. It re:uired. stun& %ith the ans%er. reached Canton #/ sea. This is an offence attri#uted more than once #/ the Chinese historians to the ear"/ Buddhists. un&2/In %as sent to India #/ the prince of the >ei countr/ for Buddhist #oo$s.8 The emperor—sa/s the Buddhist narrator—sti"" remained unen"i&htened. he appointed the discip"e %ho had performed it to succeed him as patriarch in China. The prince of the >ei countr/ is recorded to have discoursed pu#"ic"/ on the Buddhist c"assics. a numerous schoo" of contemp"atists %as ori&inated. as Burnouf has sho%n.8 The emperorS 8>hich is the most important of the ho"/ doctrinesL8 The patriarchS 8>here a"" is emptiness. BGB invited to Nan$in&. amon& the additions made #/ the Northern Buddhists to popu"arise the re"i&ion. is thus sho%n to #e of pure"/ su#3ective ori&in. said to himse" of them resided at )o2/an&.D. for the sa$e of re"i&ion. DBE. The account &iven in the T1ung-kien-kang-muh of the professed ma&ician %ho "ed the priests referred to a#ove. Of this the Confucian historian ta$es advanta&e. and returned %ith BKD Buddhist %or$s. The/ came as refu&ees from the Brahmanica" persecution. the modern !o2nan fu. (s he "a/ in his coffin he he"d one . the division of Buddhism #/ Burnouf into a Northern and outhern schoo" has #een ri&ht"/ made. %hi"e. men #ro$e open their #ones and extracted the marro%./sticism can attach itse"f to the most a#stract phi"osophica" do&mas. and. such as the 8)otus of the 1ood )a%. after havin& &ro%n o"d in outhern India. it favours the extended use of the contemp"ative facu"ties. DHA. and their &reat num#er %i"" assist materia""/ in accountin& for the &ro%th of the re"i&ion the/ propa&ated in China. annihi"ation. In the /ear (. %ho possessed the precious heir"oom of ha$/a. after nine /ears6 a#sence. !o% much merit ma/ I #e supposed to have accumu"atedL8 The rep"/ %as. In (. he exposed himse"f to it ti"" it had risen a#ove his $nees. !is teachin&. fa"se"/ attri#uted to primitive Buddhism. %as occupied simp"/ %ith mora"s and his pecu"iar phi"osoph/. 8I a"so consi&n to /ou the Lenga&Sutra in four sections. contri#utin&. and %hen. The o#3ective doctrines that ca"" it into existence ma/ #e of the most opposite $ind. and said. the succession of patriarchs %i"" cease. and its $indred s/stems. Thus one of them.para&raph continues< utras. sa/s that he st/"ed himse"f Ta-ch1eng. that the &reat teacher. in man/ %a/s.provide maintenance for them in monasteries. The propa&ation of Buddhism in his native countr/ he &ave in char&e to one of his discip"es durin& his a#sence. and immediate"/ p. . in con3unction %ith these :uietist and ascetic tendencies. #/ the encoura&ement of m/sticism and the monastic "ife. another po%erfu" cause. %e are to"d. Thou&h he professed not to ma$e use of #oo$s. crossed the -an&2tsRe $ean& into the >ei $in&dom and remained at )o2/an&. These s/m#o"s must #e de"ivered do%n from one to another for t%o hundred /ears after m/ death. the narrative sa/s. These countries havin& the same additions to the creed of ha$/a. nothin& can #e ca""ed 5ho"/5 ? sheng@. The /oun& aspirant to the victor/ over se"f %ept at the :uestion. !ere. tau&ht them to disso"ve a"" the ties of $indred. sa/s the "e&end. 8None. (t this 3uncture un&2 /In. 8I on"/ desire that merc/ ma/ open a path to save the %ho"e race of man$ind. char&in& him %ith inconsistenc/ in #ein& attached to a re"i&ion that for#ids crue"t/ and #"oodshed. It %as reserved for the fantastic &enius of India to construct a re"i&ion out of three such e"ements as p. under the name of Ch‘an-hio ?dhyana doctrine@ and Ch‘an-men ?dhyana schoo"@. %hen the patriarch o#servin& him.D.D. BGG . %hich are preserved in the #oo$s of the Chinese Buddhists. %hi"e he sho%ed such fondness for %ar. Its occurrence in Buddhism. he sat %ith his face to a %a"" for nine /ears. the "a% of Buddha havin& spread throu&h the %ho"e nation. The use of charms.8 B >hen it %as represented to the )ian& emperor. 3ust as %e"" as to those of a proper"/ re"i&ious $ind. do not appear to have #e"on&ed to the s/stem as it %as "eft #/ ha$/amuni. and in #ein& %rapped in thou&ht %hi"e surrounded #/ vacanc/ and sti""ness. and is %ithout rea" existence. Ta2mo discoura&ed the use of the sacred #oo$s.erit such as this cannot #e sou&ht #/ %or"d"/ means. distin&uish them from their co2re"i&ionists %ho preserve their traditions in the . (t the same time.8 It is here that the resem#"ance is most stri$in& #et%een the Buddhism of China and that of other countries %here it is professed in the north. The dec"ine of Buddhism in its mother"and drove man/ of the !indoos to the north of the !ima"a/as. means 8Bound"ess revo"ution and unsurpassed $no%"ed&e.a"i ton&ue. not #ein& satisfied %ith the resu"t of his intervie% %ith ro/a"t/. therefore. The presence of the Indian sa&e excited the more ardent Chinese Buddhists to ma$e &reat efforts to con:uer the sensations.

On p. %as succeeded #/ a son %ho favoured Tauism. the 8 orro%"ess $in&. CET. #ecame a mon$. and that he %ou"d do %ise"/ if he sent him an em#ass/. the prince of the Cheu $in&dom issued an edict prohi#itin& #oth Buddhism and Tauism. of %hich one2nineteenth %ere assi&ned to China. a true 8sharira8 ?she-li@ %ith pictures and miniature pa&odasQ a"so "eaves of the Bodhi. the simi"arit/ %as found to #e perfect.8 This description a&rees. Burnouf supposes that the discip"es of Buddha. that Buddha5s hair %as #"ue and fine. BGD comparin& it %ith his o%n picture. The History&o+&the&6orthern&5ei&dynasty contains some detai"s on the ear"/ anscrit trans"ations in addition to %hat has #een a"read/ inserted in this narrative. %hich is more than ha"f a centur/ too soon. ha$/a himse"f sa/s. after three times assumin& the. such and such thin&s %ou"d happen. #ut even men "i$e Bodhidharma %ou"d %ithho"d their approva". The $in& pa/in& no attention to the %arnin&. is app"ied to him. unQ2/In as$ed him %hither he %as &oin&. #ut to un#e"ievin& e/es it presents a rather insi&nificant appearance. %hi"e derived dia"ects %ere used #/ the common peop"e. The co"our is said to var/ %ith the state of mind of the visitor. #ead"i$e su#stance that constitutes the re"ic. and #rin& it home. the $in& of Ban#an sent as his tri#utar/ offerin&. a monaster/ and pa&oda to $in& *-yo ?(shX$a@. and situated fift/2 t%o li east%ard of Nin&po. and "on& after%ards. B . !e put to death four Tauist priests for refusin& to su#mit to the tonsure and #ecome %orshippers of Buddha. 8To the >estern heaven. as at the monaster/ near Nin&po. The $in& of Bunam. The coffin %as after%ards opened and found empt/. BGK .8 a trans"ation of the anscrit %ord. and no% no one $no%s %here it is. !e no% sent am#assadors and an artist %ith instructions to paint a "i$eness of the Chinese monarch from "ife. the shoe %as preserved as a sacred re"ic in the monaster/. The common"/ received chrono"o&/ of the Chinese Buddhists is too "on&. a sharira. in #ui"din&. %ou"d natura""/ pu#"ish their sacred #oo$s in more than one "an&ua&eQ anscrit #ein& then.ata"iputra@. !e %i"" have a son named Bindupa"a. 8>hen I %as former"/ in m/ father5s pa"ace. The theor/ is a safe one. This emperor. the $in&. and measurin& it. and he a&ain %i"" have a son usima.8 had #een found under the o"d pa&oda. %ith a hair of a #"ue "avender co"our.C. it "en&thened ad&li(itum. for there is 3ust o#scurit/ enou&h to render the tint of the p. The $in& of another countr/ in the Birmese peninsu"a had a dream. and a"" professors of these re"i&ions compe""ed to a#andon them. On a%a$in&. the critic sa/s. Kin& (shX$a. %ith an ar&ument for the o"d nationa" s/stem. Boo$s and ima&es %ere destro/ed. as the History&o+&the&Liang&dynasty informs us. there %as an interva" of EDF /ears from Buddha5s death to the accession of Chandra&upta.para&raph continues< . t%e"ve feet in "en&th. DDE it is re"ated that >u2ti. DHK.shoe in his hand. B The pioneers in the %or$ of trans"ation %ere Kashiapmadan&a and Chu2fa2"an. it cur"ed into a spira" form. In !iuen2 tsan&5s narrative. B/ *a2hien (shX$a is ca""ed *-yo&5ang. In (.D. the soverei&n of the Ts6i $in&dom endeavoured to com#ine these t%o re"i&ions. CGD. a priest of the 8(n2si8 ?(rsaces@ countr/ in +astern . The "atter a"so trans"ated the 8 utra of the ten points of rest. ma$in& that event to #e in B. the ancient iam. %hich is so c"ear"/ ri&ht. This hair %as so e"astic that %hen the priests pu""ed it. (fter this there %as no more resistance. DHC. the name 5u-yeu&wang. Three /ears #efore this. to &ive ?no% Nin&po@. The tope and re"ic here a""uded to are those of the hi"" o-wang&shan. BDG.D. and conducted the monarch to the court of )ian& >u2ti. has trans"ated a "on& "e&end of %hich (shX$a is the hero. B/ this s/nchronism of 1ree$ and Indian "iterature. and Buddha in the fourth and fifth. In reference to the emperor5s #ecomin& a priest. BGE . BGF The em#assies from Buddhist $in&doms in the time of )ian& >u2ti afford other i""ustrations of the passion for re"ics and mementoes of venerated persona&es.C. Buddha sa/s to (nanda. and %hich is a"so contained in the Chinese %or$. In the an2mei2$in&. from >i"son5s <ishnu& !urana. To Buddhist pi"&rims comin& from far and near to this sacred spot. in %hich a priest appeared to him and foreto"d to him that the ne% prince of the )ian& d/nast/ %ou"d soon raise Buddhism to the summit of prosperit/. the . The commencement in the "atter differs a "itt"e from that &iven #/ Burnouf.ersia is . un&2/In then returned home. in %hich Buddha is made to sa/ that in a definite num#er of /ears after his death. (ccordin& to the #aha/anso. Buddhist vo%s and expoundin& the utras to his assem#"ed courtiers. Chandragupta@. %as one of the most ce"e#rated of the Buddhist $in&s of India. an emperor of the Ch6in d/nast/. encoura&ed #/ the Buddhist priests. ome /ears after%ards. is so p"aced in its "antern2shaped receptac"e. The sma"".8 In (. %e"" $no%n to forei&n visitors. BGA precious remains of ha$/a5s #urnt #od/ some%hat #/ imperia" command. that it does not admit of much "i&ht #ein& thro%n upon it. (s mi&ht #e expected. it is satisfactori"/ sho%n that (shX$a "ived in the second centur/ #efore Christ. consists so"e"/ of a "ament over the sad necessit/ of advertin& to Buddhism in the imperia" anna"s of the nation. ( fe% /ears after. %ho conc"uded a treat/ %ith e"eucus Nicator. Buddha5s favourite tree. %ith that of the hair found #/ the emperor. made use of anscrit utras. The %riter in the T‘ung-kien-kang-muh adds. Turnour thin$s the discrepanc/ cannot #e accounted for #ut #/ supposin& a %i"fu" perversion of the chrono"o&/. the same emperor re#ui"t the Ch6an&2ts6ien monaster/ five le to the south of 8Nan$in&. 8that not on"/ %ou"d the man of common inte""i&ence condemn such conduct in the ru"er of a common%ea"th. -e""o% is that of happiest omen. #ecame a mon$ and entered the Tun&2tai monaster/ in Nan$in&. reddish. I com#ed m/ hair. Fa-yuen-chu-lin. 8-ou shou"d $no% that in the cit/ 5. there %i"" #e a $in& named 5The moon protected5 ? ue-huQ in anscrit. or 8re"ic of Buddha. this event ca""s forth a "on& and severe criti:ue from the Confucian historian. spo$en #/ the "iterati.a"input5 ?. (fter%ards in the TJan& d/nast/ it %as sto"en. >hen "et &o.para&raph continues< Northern Buddhists %rote in anscrit. Burnouf in his =ntroduction&?&l1Histoire&du&)uddhisme& =ndien. The 8 en&2&a utra8 ?king@ sa/s. and succeeded his father as $in&. dre% the "i$eness of the emperor as he had seen him in his dream. #/ more than five hundred /ears. therefore. to %hom this temp"e is dedicated. it is added. In (. so Rea"ous a promoter of Buddhism.8 ( fe% /ears after%ards.a"i histor/ of the Buddhist patriarchs. the 1ree$ $in& of /ria. The p. that a true re"ic of Buddha5s #od/ is preserved near 8. The )ian& emperor >u2ti. %ho %or$ed con3oint"/ in the time of p. %ho %as himse"f an accomp"ished painter.riests %ere sent from the Chinese court to meet it. found that it %as t%e"ve feet in "en&th. .8 %as the rep"/. The Indian $in& andracottus. The preface to the histor/ of the d/nast/ esta#"ished #/ this prince.8 in %hich %as the tope ?shrine for re"ics@ of *-yo or (shX$a. the priest appeared a&ain in a second dream. The historian :uotes t%o Buddhist %or$s in i"""/ this fraud %as effected to verif/ predictions found in certain utras.D. These statements are :uoted in !ard/5s 9astern&#onachism. and %ere anxious to vindicate the correctness of a"" predictions found in them. The same record is made in the histor/ t%o /ears after%ards. the she-li is an o#3ect of reverentia" %orship. that the %ish to deviate from it sho%s a man to #e %ron&. (shX$a erected EG.D. exceptin& that one of the patriarch5s shoes %as "/in& there.8 (shX$a %as the son of Bindupa"a #/ another %ife. and %hen "et a"one cur"ed into a spira" form. %as identified %ith Chandra&upta #/ ch"e&e" and >i"son. in the /ear (.GGG topes. %rote to the emperor that he had a hair of Buddha. B/ imperia" command. the t%ent/2sixth of his rei&n. B. p.

%ho had come to China.8 and the #ing-king. Kumara3iva found that in the corrections he proposed to ma$e in the sacred #oo$s. Tau2an. states those of the Buddhist sect to #e BTDG distinct %or$s. The finishin& touch to the Chinese composition of these trans"ations %as &iven p. . identified #/ Remusat %ith Khoten. findin& the sacred #oo$s disfi&ured #/ errors. #/ means of t%o sets of representative characters. a priest of the 1et= nation. The Indian Dharmara$sha #rou&ht to China a ne% anscrit cop/ of the 6ir/. *a2"in& %as another Chinese %ho proceeded from 8-an&2cheu8 ?Kian&2nan@ to Northern India and #rou&ht #ac$ the utra Hwa-yen-king and the !en-ting-lü. HTG. a %or$ in the <inaya or 8Discip"ine8 #ranch of Buddhist #oo$s. %ith the aid of an Indian named Bhadra.8 The ta#"es of initia"s and fina"s found in the Chinese native dictionaries %ere first formed in the third centur/. can #e divided into t%o in the )ian& d/nast/. The Indian here mentioned. Fa-hwa.8 (t this time there %ere severa" tens of forei&n priests at ChJan&2an.ata"iputra. %ho ru"ed China for the short period of thirt/2seven /ears.D. T%o of them %ere -ashaita and Budanandi. in %hich. and the Seng-ki-lü %ere made #/ Chi2men& in the countr/ Kau-ch‘ang. and "oo$in& #ri&hter as he %ent farther a%a/. an&adeva. It %as thou&ht #etter to use characters a"read/ $no%n to the peop"e. It is ca""ed Si-yo&hu-shu or 8*orei&n >ritin& of the >estern countries. returned to his former mode of "ife as a mon$. that Tau2an %as dead. !e reached Udin or Khodin. %hose "iterar/ "a#ours do%n to the midd"e of the sixth centur/ are here recorded. as in the da/s of the +uropean schoo" of the tit"es are &iven. and %hen the ver/ severe pena" "a%s then enacted a&ainst Buddhism %ere p. a priest of the ro/a" fami"/ of the Kipin $in&dom in Northern India. trans"ated the 5ei-ma and Fa-hwa. professed to forete"" po"itica" events #/ the use of charms. received %ith &reat respect a Roman merchant at his court. The divisions into sections and sentences %ere formed %ith care. had conceived an extraordinar/ re&ard for him. and it %as ver/ soon universa""/ adopted. and descri#ed the voca" or&ans #/ %hich the/ are formed. . %ho had trave""ed to India. noticed in a previous pa&e. and C‘heng-shih ?comp"ete@ utras. #ut the most distin&uished amon& them for a#i"it/ %as Kumara3iva.a T%an2"in a"so mentions a !indoo %ho. (#out (. %ho. a"thou&h the popu"ation has increased ver/ &reat"/ in the interva". !e a"so trans"ated the Kin-kwangking. Before *a2hien5s time. FGG.noticed as an exce""ent trans"ator. a#out (. >ith his assistants he made c"ear the sense of man/ profound and extensive 8 utras8 ?King@ and 8 hastras8 ?Lun@. issued an edict &ivin& fu"" to"eration to this sect.8 a cit/ to the %est%ard. prince of the >u state. On his return. he trans"ated the Seng-kï-lü ?*sangkhyea&<inaya@. It %as the %ea$ness of a&e. (ccordin& to the same histor/ there %ere then in China t%o mi""ions of priests and thirt/ thousand temp"es. *a2hien in his trave"s did his utmost to procure copies of the Discip"ine and the other sacred #oo$s. ca""ed Ti-ch‘ï-lun ?fixed position@. %ere #rou&ht to )o2/an&. %hi"e the/ sometimes en3o/ed the imperia" favour. The/ a"so constructed ta#"es. %hich is pro#a#"/ over the mar$. B Buddhism received no chec$ from the ui emperors. (#out (. To%ards the c"ose of his rei&n he prohi#ited the destruction or ma"treatment of an/ of the ima&es of the Buddhist or Tauist sects. trans"ated t%o of the *gama&Sutras. ( serious defect attended this method. have #een communicated at this time to the Chinese. trans"ated some hastras of the 1reat Deve"opment ?Ta-ch‘eng@ schoo". This ma/ account for the date—near"/ correct—assi&ned to the #irth of Buddha in the History&o+&the&5ei&dynasty. #/ Dharmara$sha and some others. or %hat is no% 8+astern Thi#et. to&ether form the -reat&$e/elopment course of p. himse"f a man of hi&h inte""i&ence. !e derived instruction from Buddo3an&a and %ished much to converse %ith Kumara3iva. app"ied himse"f to correct them. and o#tained a utra of ninet/ sections. he had #een comp"ete"/ anticipated #/ his Chinese fe""o%2re"i&ionist.D. #ut the/ usua""/ refuse to #e"ieve that a trisection of the sound is practica#"e. %ere it not a"read/ sufficient"/ "on&. and in the chain of Buddhist $in&doms extendin&—#efore the inroads of .ra3na utra@. su#divided into schoo"s. the 8(dditiona" (&ama utra8 #/ Dharmanandi. a#out (. from %hich these facts are ta$en.D.D. throu&h their means. a Chinese named Chu M2hin& %ent to Northern India for Buddhist #oo$s. The next Indian mentioned is Dharma$a$a"a. a forei&n priest. a mode of spe""in& %ords %as exhi#ited. the 8Discip"ine of the Ten Chants8 C #/ Kumara3iva.8 #ut the %or$ %as imperfect"/ done. BBH c"assics. Thus a metaph/sica" theo"o&/. compared it %ith Chi2men&5s cop/ for critica" purposes. . a %or$ on discip"ine. and amon& them are not a fe% treatin& of the mode of %ritin& #/ a"pha#etic s/m#o"s used in the $in&doms from %hence Buddhism came. 8Bri&ht utra. produced a version of the 6ir/. BKG. ihien. ChM2$un&2min&. a Chinese Buddhist.ohammedanism—from their native "and into . BBG instruction. DGH. The ana"/sis %as not carried far enou&h. and in that of the ui d/nast/ %hich soon fo""o%ed. a priest of the 1et= nation. (#out the /ear FAG it appears from the histor/ that five Buddhists from Ce/"on arrived in China #/ the Thi#etan route. had to #ear their part in the reverses to %hich their re"i&ion %as exposed. The/ #rou&ht ima&es.etaph/sics8 ? *(hidharma-lun@ #/ Dharma/a&ama. In some monasteries the former %or$s %ere studied #/ the rec"usesQ in others the "atter. The Chinese trave""ers in India.arcus (ure"ius (ntoninus. and trans"ated there #/ Chufahu. BGT #/ en&2chau.8 The trans"ator had o#tained them at Hwa-shï or 8. that the Buddhist #oo$s %ere at this time ten times more numerous than the Confucian p. Kumara3iva is commended for his accurate $no%"ed&e of the Chinese "an&ua&e as %e"" as of his o%n. CGG. Inte""i&ent Chinese understand that a sound. (#out (. B treated %ith e:ua" re&ard an Indian priest %ho trans"ated for him some of the #oo$s of Buddha. or 81o"den )i&ht utra. The 8)on&er (&ama utra8 B and the 8Discip"ine of the *our Divisions8 H %ere trans"ated #/ Buddha/asha. The "atter. t%e"ve %or$s in a"". The first of them. (t the same time the s/stem %as much easier to "earn than if forei&n s/m#o"s had #een emp"o/ed. The Sui&History in the di&est it &ives of a"" the #oo$s of the time. #ut a"pha#etic s/m#o"s %ere not adopted to %rite the separated e"ements. %ith the tit"e Fang-kwang-pat-nia-king ?)i&ht2emittin& . BBB remitted. to China. !e trans"ated it in !o2nan. !is trans"ations of the 5ei-ma. These to&ether formed the Smaller&$e/elopment course. a Chinese Buddhist. a native of India. ome other names mi&ht #e added to the "ist of !indoo trans"ators. one of the Three Kin&doms. and the 8 hastra of . 8Brahmanica" %ritin&. formed the su#3ect of stud/ in the (siatic mon$ish esta#"ishments.D. !e a"so procured the !en-ting-lü. and "amented much %hen he came to Ch6an&2an from )ian&2cheu at the north2%estern corner of China %here he had "on& resided. %ith the three 3ust mentioned. Those constructed #/ the "atter had the propert/ of diminishin& in apparent siRe as the visitor dre% nearer. %hich has since #een re&arded as a standard %or$. un K6iuen. The "atter %as after%ards #rou&ht to ChJan&2an and pu#"ished in thirt/ chapters. in times of persecution assumed the dis&uise of a ph/sician. The 8!%a2/en utra8 %as soon after%ards #rou&ht from Udin #/ Chi *a2"in&. and %as a contemporar/ of the Chinese 3ust mentioned. &ivin& %a/ to superstitions that "ed him to such an act as this. m and anQ for the/ have #een "on& accustomed to the s/stem of phonetic #isection here a""uded to.ersia. The !indoo Buddhists in China. Thou&h a "iterar/ character is not attri#uted to them. H 8)otus of the 1ood )a% utras. some time after the em#ass/ of . 0ersions of the 8Nirv9na utra8 ?6i-wan-king@. and a version of it made at Nan$in&. such as man. &ive us the opportunit/ of $no%in& ho% %ide"/ there as %e"" as in China the monastic "ife and the stud/ of these #oo$s %ere spread. accordin& to the mode" of the anscrit a"pha#et. there %i"" #e #ut that num#er at the present time. one for the initia"s and another for the fina"s. %ho trans"ated the 80ina/a8 or Kiai-lü ?Discip"ine@ at )o2/an&. It %as then that the !indoos.8 and a"so )a-la-men-shu. The same commentator on the histor/ of the period sa/s. on assumin& the tit"e of emperor in DEB. The first a"pha#et that %as thus introduced appears to have #een one of fourteen s/m#o"s. Dharmara$sha %as put to death for refusin& to come to court on the re:uisition of one of the >ei and &oin& to Kau2chJan&. Chitsin. The Chinese %ere no% tau&ht for the first time that monos/""a#ic sounds are divisi#"e into parts. and Shi-ti-lun ?the ten of these #oo$s at that time so coveted. the outhern Buddhist traditions mi&ht. a s/stem of thirt/2six initia" "etters. assisted in formin&. #ut more fu""/ ear"/ in the sixth centur/. a native of 8Cophen8 ? Kipin@. This account must #e exa&&eratedQ for if %e a""o% a thousand to each district. sa/s the Confucian historian. . the Roman emperor.

andarin provinces. that the hi&hest of the virtues %ere "o/a"t/ and fi"ia" piet/. #ut %hen the/ need to %rite phonetica""/ the/ prefer the s/stem. it %ou"d a"most necessari"/ #e undetected.hen2$un&. BCAG. the historian of t%o d/nasties. The 8six states of #ein&8 B into %hich the sou"s of men mi&ht #e #orn %ere entire"/ fictitious. !e "in&ered for a "on& time in the countries throu&h %hich the 1an&es f"o%s. to four in the sixth centur/ of our era. that Buddha %as a 8sa&e8 ? shing-"en@. and the mon$s. The retri#ution of vice and virtue %as the province of the prince. %ith a "ar&e num#er of discip"es. "oo$in& to%ards the ramparts. and rendered unnecessar/ the introduction of ne% s/m#o"s. since the da/s of Cadmus. and Canton have #een %ritten do%n #/ native authors each %ith its one s/stem of tones and a"pha#etic e"ements. the impertur#a#"e o"d man mere"/ he"d out his nec$ to the s%ord in to$en of his %i""in&ness to die. #/ #ein& em#raced in ever/ instance in the fina". (s for iau ^. rich as the/ %ere in reminiscences and re"ics of primitive Buddhism. and. is sufficient evidence of their in&enuit/. is a vo"ume fu"" of interest for the histor/ of Buddhism and p. !e spent the rest of his da/s in trans"atin& from the anscrit ori&ina"s the Buddhist %or$s he had #rou&ht %ith him from India. perhaps. a friend of the Buddhists. 4u"ien. and %as made use of in a"" dictionaries and educationa" %or$s. ACT. %ho had never $no%n articu"ate sounds to #e %ithout it. %ou"d readi"/ distin&uish a ne% phenomenon "i$e this. if he refused to &o. #/ iau ^. BBD The first emperor of the TJan& d/nast/ %as induced #/ the representations of *u -i. It ma/ then have #een as ear"/ as this that the/ had an a"pha#et. disre&arded them #oth.ra3na. #/ patient industr/.8 Tung-tsu. #ut the %ritin& no% in use dates from a#out (. is attri#uted the discover/ of the four tones. and so on to their present state. a stern enem/ of the ne% re"i&ion. The patriarch advised his fo""o%ers to recite the 81reat . The emperor respected his firmness. a priest. %hi"e to a native spea$er. proposed that the mon$s and nuns shou"d #e compe""ed to marr/ and #rin& up fami"ies. he added. In this %a/ it is that the traditions of o"d sounds needed to exp"ain the rh/mes and metre of the ancient nationa" poetr/ are preserved. The reason that the/ adopted the ascetic "ife. an extensive %or$. #/ patience and a true scientific instinct. )ife and death %ere re&u"ated #/ a 8natura" necessit/8 %ith %hich man had nothin& to do ? yeu-ü-tsï-"an@. and the common editions of the c"assica" #oo$s. on"/ seven /ears #efore !iuen2tsan&5s return.8 It ma/ #e %e"" dou#ted if the credit of arrivin& unassisted at the $no%"ed&e of this fact is due to him. #ut it ma/ #e su&&ested that the phi"o"o&/ of the +astern "an&ua&es must %ithout it #e necessari"/ incomp"ete. Then #endin& his steps to the south%ards. The same emperor.r. B That the !indoo Buddhists shou"d have tau&ht the Chinese p. *e% forei&n investi&ators have /et entered on this fie"d of research. and no% the %ords thus spe"t are read correct"/ on"/ #/ those natives %ho happen to spea$ the dia"ects that most near"/ resem#"e in sound the o"d pronunciation. The fourth of them %as invited to court #/ the second emperor of the TJan& d/nast/.. to the Buddhists. and the dictionar/ ü-p1ien %as one of the first extensive %or$s in %hich it %as emp"o/ed. Corean am#assadors came in the rei&n of )ian& >u2ti to as$ for the 8Nirv9na8 and other Buddhistic c"assics. The/ are st/"ed %ith him the six 8+astern patriarchs. The Confucianists &ained the victor/. TJai2tsun&. !e resided at the court of )ian& >u2ti. and conse:uent"/ retired. The same emperor. The mon$s "ived an id"e "ife. %ho had arrived in (. returned across the Indus. %as a phi"o"o&ica" impu"se more successfu" than that thus communicated from India to the Chinese. The dia"ects of the . The pu#"ic manners had de&enerated "amenta#"/ throu&h the inf"uence of Buddhism. The Chinese have since #ecome ac:uainted %ith severa" a"pha#ets %ith forei&n s/m#o"s. if the extent of its adoption #e the criterion. %as to avoid contri#utin& to the revenue. the &reat patron of the Indian stran&ers. as . and that the Chinese. and is not the "east of the services the/ have done to the sons of !an. in %hich the most a#stract do&mas of Buddhist phi"osoph/ are ver/ fu""/ deve"oped. To hen -o. have p"aced the materia"s in such a form that "itt"e "a#our is needed to &ather from them the facts that the/ contain. imperfect as it is. It %as #/ imperia" command that these trans"ations %ere underta$en. and severe restrictions %ere imposed on the professors of the forei&n faith. and that *u -i havin& spo$en i"" of a sa&e. he proceeded %est%ard to the re&ion %atered #/ the Oxus and 4axartes %here the Tur$s B %ere then sett"ed. BBF to %ritin&. received %ith e:ua" favour the /rian Christians. B/ the same method the sounds of modern dia"ects that have deviated extensive"/ from the o"d t/pe have #een committed p. ome /ears previous"/. >hen a messen&er came for the fourth time and informed him that. The/ have not on"/ #/ the use of the s/""a#ic spe""in& thus tau&ht them. To this *u -i ans%ered. is said to have #een the author of the s/stem. and author of severa" detached historica" pieces. pro#a#"/. he had &one to a cit/ in hansi. The/ "ed :uiet "ives. and he received the trave""er %ith the utmost distinction. >hat the/ he"d a#out the fate of man$ind dependin& on the %i"" of Buddha %as fa"se.5 to ma$e $no%n %hat men for thousands of /ears had not understood—the %onderfu" fact %hich he a"one in the si"ence of his #reast came to perceive. the tones are du"/ represented. B p. ("open and his companions. and repeated"/ dec"ined the honour. The extent of inf"uence %hich this nomenc"ature for sounds has attained in the native "iterature is $no%n to a"" %ho are fami"iar %ith its dictionaries. have discovered the ear"/ histor/ of the "an&ua&e. %hi"e riches and povert/ %ere the recompense provo$ed #/ our o%n actions. sho%in& ho% the num#er of tones increased from t%o to three #/ the time of Confucius. iau ^ 3oined his hands and mere"/ rep"ied to him. BBK after%ards crossed the !indoo2$ush and proceeded into India. of Northern and outhern *u2$ien. %as sti"" rei&nin&. Never. he had orders to ta$e his head #ac$ %ith him.D. cott has sho%n. o%e their a"pha#ets. . he %as—#ein& the advocate of such a s/stem—as destitute as the/ p. accustomed to the unriva""ed accurac/ in phonetic ana"/sis of the anscrit a"pha#et. The cit/ %as soon after "aid sie&e to #/ re#e"s. BBE . !e p. But the "an&ua&e chan&ed. the Coreans a"so. that he"" %as made for such men as he. The Histoire&de&la&<ie&de&Hiouen-thsang. BBA of these virtues. and reached home in the sixteenth /ear after his departure. The/. thou&ht the/ sa% a #and of spirit2so"diers in arra/ a&ainst them. TJai2tsun&. The successors of Bodhidharma %ere five in num#er. to ca"" a counci" for de"i#eration on the mode of action to #e adopted in re&ard to Buddhism. that does not o#"i&e them to a#andon the hiero&"/phic si&ns transmitted #/ their ancestors.8 #a-ha-pat-nia. To this it %as rep"ied in the counci". #ut. and %ere unprofita#"e mem#ers of the common%ea"th. It ans%ered %e"" for severa" centuries. co""ected the materia"s for phi"o"o&ica" research afforded #/ the modern dia"ects. and the/ have a"" ta$en the method introduced #/ the Buddhists as their &uide.assin& from )ian&2cheu at the north2%estern extremit/ of China. he said. %as &ui"t/ of a &reat crime. castin& off as the/ did their prince and their parents. BBC ho% to %rite the sounds of this "an&ua&e #/ an artifice %hich re:uired nothin& #ut their o%n hiero&"/phics. The Thi#etans.D. one of his ministers. trans"ated #/ . !is #io&rapher sa/s of him in the 8)ian& !istor/S8—8!e %rote his 5Treatise on the *our Tones. #ut the/ %ere ta$en off a"most immediate"/ after. the o"d sounds %ere #ro$en up. In the s/""a#ic spe""in& that the/ formed. The enem/. *u -i. In the /ear AHT the ce"e#rated !iuen2tsan& set out on his 3ourne/ to India to procure anscrit #oo$s. he comp"eted the tour of the Indian peninsu"a. %hich are #oth arran&ed in the anscrit mode.

BBT . and readin& the Brahmanica" "iterature as %e"" as that of Buddhism. exemp"if/in& the dec"ensions of nouns. and the %or$ ca""ed Tat‘ang-si-yü-ki %as the resu"t. (mon& other %or$s that he #rou&ht to China. T%o %ords %ere added to the tit"e %hich Kumara3iva had omitted. !e had #rou&ht %ith him BBD &rains of re"ics ta$en from Buddha5s chairQ a &o"d statue of Buddha. after "istenin& to the trave""er5s account of %hat he had seen. and reso"ved to &ive the one hundred and t%ent/ vo"umes entire. )a-ga-/am is used in the utra o-sï-lieu-li-kwang-"u-lai-kung-te-king. are here found in their primar/ form pro#a#"/. and a )exicon. and other detai"s. !e "ived nineteen /ears after his return. !ere. . The "atter is at the present da/ the most common. etc. sa/s the critic. C feet C inches in hei&ht. Shing-ming-lun and !e-ye-kie-la-nan. ma$e the #oo$ interestin&. on the #an$s of the 1an&es. to the 8(ccount of Buddhist $in&doms8 #/ *a2hien. )haga/at. The emperor—praised #/ 1i##on as the (u&ustus of the +ast—%as residin& at )o2/an&. in so "ar&e a %or$ as this.8 This spe""in& near"/ coincides %ith that of the Nepau"ese anscrit. are found in a fra&mentar/ and %orm2eaten state in man/ of the "ar&er Buddhist temp"es near han&hai and e"se%here at the present time. 8. BHG . The trans"ation of the "ar&er %or$ %as not comp"eted ti"" (. Kia2she2pi2/e2pu ?K9sh/ap\/as@. That !iuen2tsan&. !iuen2tsan& %as summoned on his arriva" to appear at court. =n-ming-lun. that %hen he %as meditatin& on the propriet/ of imitatin& Kumara3iva. as a trans"ator.endicant discip"e. as the/ %ere tau&ht #/ ha$/amuni himse"f. so that. The #oo$ %as ori&ina""/ %ritten #/ t%o friends of !iuen2tsan&. he %rote a preface to themQ and at the re:uest of !iuen2tsan& issued an edict that five ne% mon$s shou"d #e received in ever/ convent in the empire. %ere carried #/ t%ent/2t%o horses. ( sufficient conception of the vo"uminous contri#utions then made to Chinese "iterature from India %i"" #e o#tained #/ enumeratin& some of the names. in BCCD #oo$s.hi"osophica" %or$s of the fo""o%in& schoo"sS— han&2tso2pu ? arv9stiv9das@. (mon& them %ere three %or$s on )o&ic.8 and of )a-ga-/am instead of )ut for 8Buddha. =n-ming-shukiai. %as a stron& "itera"ist. The emperor.para&raph continues< These %or$s. The ne% trans"ation of this %or$ did not supp"ant the o"d one—that of Kumara3iva. the accomp"ished trans"ator added to his unriva""ed $no%"ed&e of the Chinese "an&ua&e an extensive ac:uaintance %ith anscrit. !e comp"eted KFG %or$s.ah\sh9sha$as@. BHF utras. The name of the cit/ hravasti %as spe"t %ith five characters instead of t%o. Nine others %ere appointed to revise the composition. of Buddhist "iterature possessed #/ !iuen 2 tsan& himse"f. %ith their ei&ht cases and three num#ers.8 of a"" #oo$s in the Buddhist temp"es and monasteries. and spent near"/ the %ho"e of that time in trans"atin&. ma/ #e inferred from the fact. stud/in& the "an&ua&e. *(hidharma&Kosha. to %hich cit/ the trave""er proceeded. !iuen2tsan& no% corrected the trans"ation of the ce"e#rated utra Kin-kang-pat-nia-pa-la-mi-ta-king ?in anscrit. amountin& %ith others to ADK.odern reprints of !iuen2tsan&5s trans"ation of the hastras ca""ed *(hidharma. . %ith this specia" o#3ect. (mon& the ne% ortho&raphies that he introduced %as that of )i-ch‘u for )i-k‘u. !iuen2tsan& remained five /ears in the monaster/ of Na"anda. B p. commanded him to %rite a description of the >estern countries. On the Discip"ine and . The convents then amounted to CKBA. and is in the hands of a"most ever/ mon$. -o-dam. BHB The modern Chinese editor of the 8Description of >estern Countries8 comp"ains of its author5s superstition. Of the 1reat Deve"opment schoo". Li-men-lun. he adds. in a"" their %earisome reiteration of metaph/sica" paradoxes. %ho omitted repetitions and superf"uities.para&raph continues< Buddhist "iterature. he cannot #e compared %ith 6gai&4u-lio ?4u"ius ("eni. and %as assisted #/ t%e"ve mon$s. !is co""ection of anscrit #oo$s %as ver/ extensive.ra/ers. and ans%er for his conduct.. carce"/ does the name of a p"ace or a #oo$ occur in the narrative %hich he has not identified and &iven to the reader in its anscrit form. h%o2i2tsie2/eu2pu ? arv9stiv9das@ p. ome %ho had "earned anscrit a"so 3oined him in the %or$. he te""s us. This %or$ contains the &erm of the "ar&er compi"ation !ra"na&paramita in one hundred and t%ent/ vo"umes. #ut it is %ritten in a st/"e much more ornamenta". viR. The "osses of Buddhism from the persecutions to %hich it had #een exposed %ere thus repaired. The a#stractions of Buddhist phi"osoph/. %ere treatises on 1rammar. and others of si"ver and carved in sanda"2%ood. In the . C feet D inches in hei&ht. the con3u&ation of the su#stantive ver#.D. The ne% tit"e read 6eng-twan-kin. B !iuen2tsan& %ent to Ch‘ang-an ? i2an2fu@ to trans"ate. except the 8Dai"/ . and the e"e&ant st/"e of his assistants.i2sha2se2pu ?. %ith a transparent pedesta"Q a second. (t the emperor5s instance. he %as deterred #/ a dream from the idea. in Chinese. ac:uired %hen he %as a"read/ advanced in "ife. <a"ra-chedika-pra"napara-mita&Sutra@. (nxiet/ to detai" ever/ Buddhist %onder has #een accompanied #/ ne&"ect of the ph/sica" features of the countries that came under revie%. one of the ear"/ 4esuits@ in the Chih-+ang-wai-ki ?a %e""2$no%n &eo&raphica" %or$ #/ that missionar/@. On presentin& a series of trans"ations to the emperor. Y Y Y Y Y .a"i versions he is ca""ed 81autama. an2mi2ti2pu ? ammit\/as@. the reader does not &o to s"eep over it.para&raph continues< AAB.8 %hich is a patron/mic. *a2mi2pu ?Dharma&uptas@. %hich %ere after%ards ramified to such a formida#"e extent as these num#ers indicate.. p. (s a preparation for the tas$. thou&h it contains not a "itt"e that is fa"se. It inc"udes a specimen of anscrit &rammar. in "eavin& his countr/ and underta$in& so "on& a 3ourne/ %ithout the imperia" permission. The extensive $no%"ed&e. In truthfu"ness this %or$ is not e:ua". BD BD HH BK FH AK %or$s.

founder of the Nan2n&o schoo"Q ?C. The %riter.D. to the a#odes of the &enii. !is readers #ecome fami"iar %ith a"" those ima&inar/ deities.@ Chen ChM2$Jai of TJien2tJai and founder of that schoo". he is rather #rief.oetr/ of the Tsin&2tu schoo". and the ei&ht natives are not an/ of them amon& the five re&u"ar successors of Bodhidharma. apparent"/ a Tauist. (fter this he &ives the p. for these four patriarchs %ere either natives of outhern India or %ere at "east en&a&ed in active "a#ours there. and the trans"ation of those %hose hearts have #een purified #/ meditation and retirement. as the ornaments of a fictitious narrative. the p. %as outhern India. of the contemp"ative schoo". and t%ent/2ei&hth. It mi&ht have #een supposed that the %i"d romance of India %as unsuited to the Chinese p. . It is ca""ed the Si-yeu-ki or Si-yeu-chents‘euen. ch‘an. and #/ trans"atin& them into his native ton&ue. !e #ecame the chief founder of the esoteric schoo"s. after descri#in& the "ife of Buddha in four chapters. and #een %ide"/ propa&ated for severa" centuries. The hero.erhaps it %i"" #e #etter to sa/ that the 4ains and the schoo" of Bodhidharma are #oth of them offshoots from a common stoc$. em#racin& the t%ent/2fifth. The/ ma/ #e assumed to #e the same %ith the 4aina t%ent/2four patriarchs. %hich reco&nised patriarchs from the time of Kashiapa. BDA . EAE—!is monument on the #an$ of the !u2to river in Chi2"i—Resem#"ance to +uropean specu"ation on the a#so"ute—Is Buddhism pantheisticL—+xoteric sects—Lü-men. acred Texts Buddhism Index . BDD CHAPTER VII.@ Kau !%ei2%en. to promote the spread of that superstition amon& his countr/men. and %as heretica" as vie%ed from the 4ains6 standpoint—!e founded the contemp"ative schoo" in China—Na&ar3una. >e are to"d that %hen the use of #oo$s %as carried to excess. (mon& the nine. races hosti"e to the ear"/ !indoos. at sacred2texts. The effort and the success that cro%ns it. The "ocation of this offshoot of the patriarchs. (fter this he finds room for the schoo" of Bodhidharma. THE SCHOOLS OF CHINESE BUDDHISM. spea$in& of the %aracs or Chinese&)uddhism. is represented as the hi&hest possi#"e examp"e of the exce""ence at %hich the Buddhist aims. BHH #oo$s of Buddhism. or sect of the 8. Na&ar3una is the on"/ forei&ner. "ar&e and sma"". The author of Fo-tsu-t‘ung-ki. (mon& them %ere ?r. &ives an account of the t%ent/2four patriarchs in his fifth chapter. Then he se"ects ei&ht others. that the/ %orship t%ent/2four &reat teachers. The five others I sha"" not mention.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. #ut our author does not hesitate to adopt it. Dr.para&raph continues< anscrit $hyana. %hose fi&ures the/ see in the Buddhist temp"es. #efore an/thin& %as heard of schoo"s. and of nine se"ected patriarchs in his sixth and seventh chapters. had entered China. no% ca""ed in the modern sound &iven to the character. Tirtha is an incarnation or an heretica" teacher or non2Buddhist ascetic of an/ sect. . The common %ord for the esoteric schoo"s is dan. !e has invented a most eventfu" account of the #irth of !iuen2tsan&. DDGQ ?H. ma$es un"imited use of the t%o m/tho"o&ies—that of his o%n re"i&ion and that of his hero—as the machiner/ of his ta"e. The &ro%th of esoteric sects in India—The 4ains—Their series of t%ent/2four patriarchs—Bodhidharma headed a ne% schoo" in outhern India. !ami"ton sa/s. t%ent/2sixth. that men #/ #ecomin& conscious of their o%n nature %ou"d attain the state of Buddha.adh/ami$a—*a2sin&—Tsing-tu.The "ife and adventures of !iuen2tsan& have #een made the #asis of a "on& nove". a sti"" existin& Buddhist sect in India. BDK histor/ of the succession in each case ti"" he has re"ated the "ives of an immense num#er of teachers of schoo"s. in underta$in& so distant and dan&erous a 3ourne/ to o#tain the sacred p.@ )i !%ei2sM.rofesses strict discip"ine—Its founder died (. The Chinese have the series of t%ent/2four patriarchs. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. and of its man/ su#divisions. and the true nature of humanit/ vei"ed from vie%. the author of the most revered #oo$s of this schoo"—Tsun&2men— Kiau2men—Divisions of Tsun&2men—The Tsun&2men sects are heretica" in the vie% of the o"d orthodox/— pecimen of the teachin& of the Tsun&2men—)in2tsi schoo"—. Bodhidharma arrived %ith a tradition of his o%n teachin&. Bodhidharma %i"" then #e a heretic and continuator of an offshoot from the 4aina "ist of patriarchs. important and unimportant. BUDD!I . %ho are ca""ed either */atars or Tirthancaras.. commencin& %ith Basiasita. are identified %ith the aspiration of the Tauist after the e"ixir of immorta"it/Q the hermit5s e"evation to the state of Buddha. ?0ina/a@—-o&achara—*a2sian&—. . B Rhode supposed the 4ains to #e descendants of the (suras and Ra$shas. %hich %ere divided into five principa" #ranches. 1radua""/ the Chinese Buddhists came to $no% of patriarchs. as a re"i&ion of #oo$s and ima&es. (. H But the/ %ere rather a schoo". on %hich. %hich is universa""/ read at the present time. %ith the vo% of ce"i#ac/ and the monastic s/stem. ho%ever. t%ent/2seventh. and maintained esoteric doctrine from that time.BETC<.D.ure "and8 or 8>estern heaven8—TJien2tJai—.

and !i2$Jiau or hM2tJeu. the "ine of %hom %as comp"eted #/ Bodhidharma. it is important to $no% the 4ain traditions as the/ %ere ear"/ in the sixth centur/ of our era. The sou" has neither existence nor non2existence. %as . T%o %ere instructed #/ the successor of Bodhidharma. %ho. Nan2n&o and Ts6in&2/uen. his schoo" $eep ima&es. and spo$e the contents of more than five hundred %or$s. the most important founder of the . %ou"d #e comp"ete. and the seven Buddhas terminatin& in 1autama or ha$/amuni. %hich reduces ever/thin& to #a"d a#stractions and then denies them. and it %as #e"ieved to #e the tradition of the words of Buddha. One of the "atter. 84u"ai8 ? Tath. The histor/ of ancient schoo"s sprin&in& up "on& a&o in the Buddhist communities of India. accordin& to San-kiau-yi-su. 5u-yeu-tso-wang ?the perfect $in& %ithout an/ dissatisfaction@. %hi"e presentin& of necessit/ a different aspect. -an&imara. retained the names. and six #/ the fifth. the h/pothetica". The/ a"" profess to derive their doctrines throu&h a succession of teachers. the chief inf"uence in the formation of the Nan2n&o and of the TsJin&2/uen %as that of the sixth patriarch upon the mind of Tu !%ai23an& and )ieu !in&2sM. and thus esta#"ished the Tsung-men. BAG schoo"s in China. that of this "ater #oo$ is a #etter indication of the most preva"ent opinions of modern Chinese mon$s. thus compares Buddha and Bodhidharma. s%ept a%a/ the parasitic and a"ien &ro%th of #oo$ instruction.8 the empt/. hariputra. in rep"/.ara@. 5ei-ma. )i !%ei2sM. In this character he %ou"d preserve on"/ as much as he p"eased of the traditions and o#servances of his fe""o% re"i&ionists. denominated Nan2n&o ? outh . and a"so that of three #ranches of %isdom—viR. Thou&h the t%o s/stems have %or$ed harmonious"/ to&ether. The former is near !en&2cheu. . Their ritua" a"so is most e"a#orate. and of his %or$ the &eo&raphica" section in the 8Boo$ of !istor/8 is the record.adh/ami$a s/stem. The former. fa#u"ous p. The Buddhism of #oo$s and ancient traditions has #ecome the Buddhism of m/stic contemp"ation. a "ine is readi"/ dra%n in their "iterature. and &ained an a"most comp"ete victor/ over stead/ orthodox/. thou&h the/ ho"d that the/ ma/ #e dispensed %ith. Their successors %ere . uch %as his teachin&. as he had expressed it.a2tsu in Kian&2si. a"read/ :uoted. the "atter havin& temp"es and an externa" %orship. the orthodox authorit/. %ere !%ai23an& and !in&2sM. #ui"t up his ideas on those of !%ei2%en. %ho &ave them the impu"se to ref"ection. The fo""o%ers of Bodhidharma have extended themse"ves on ever/ hand. matter is nothin&Q the mind5s anno/ances are nothin&Q the temptations throu&h the senses are nothin&. !e specia""/ ori&inated the . Thus in the Fa-yuen-chu-lin. and so further up in the series to ha$/amuni himse"f and the ear"ier Buddhas.8 chung-kwan. To separate the productions of these t%o &reat schoo"s is then an important step in the c"assification of the Buddhist #oo$s in China. and the media". ei&ht #/ the fourth patriarch. Thou&h Bodhidharma %as nomina" founder of the esoteric p. !e %as the traditiona" civi"iser. T%o schoo"s %ere formed #/ his discip"es. %ho studied the hastra Ta-chï-tu-lun. the prince 6a-t‘o. !en&2shan is the o"d Confucianist mountain $no%n #/ that name. and opened the fountain of contemp"ation in the +ast. If Chi2pJan5s vie% is a #etter representation of the o"d and orthodox Buddhist opinion. *urther. In the five peta"s the f"o%er. !e #ecame the instructor of men and Devas. hin2sieu.ountain@ and Ts6in&2/uen. of the schoo"s %here the/ had #een tau&ht. the "atter near TsJiuen2cheu. and never thin$ of dispensin& %ith them. Chang-pi-mo-wang ?the $in& %ho resists . . a "ar&e co""ection of misce""aneous Buddhist information comin& do%n from the TJan& d/nast/. Shants‘ai ?&ood a#i"it/@. %hi"e the/ chan&ed their residences and #ecame themse"ves teachers of the esoteric doctrine. BDT or rea". he adds. (mon& the traditions preserved in the histor/ of the patriarchs are notices of some of the discip"es of Buddha and other eminent persons. and sent out to teach the doctrine of Bodhidharma. and $7in-(a-da. %as Na&ar3una. Kwang-ngo-to-rï. the rea" phi"osophic thin$er. and %e can see the reason of this. The others are T‘ien-ts‘in&p‘u-sa ?0asu#andu Bodhisatt%a@.—? ee in +ite"@. In tracin& the rise of the various schoo"s of esoteric Buddhism it must #e $ept in mind that a princip"e some%hat simi"ar to the do&ma of aposto"ica" succession #e"on&s to them a"". and in their vie% he %as pro#a#"/ in man/ points a heretic.indu"o. The "ast of the patriarchs resided at TsJau2$Ji. the first of the Tsun&2men. The ta#"et of -I %as said to #e discovered there. each instructed persona""/ #/ his predecessor. The second native %riter.aha/ana schoo". %hen the patriarch Bodhidharma removed to China. !e saved mu"titudes. The monastic ha#it and rice #o%" that had descended to him %ere in accordance %ith %hat Bodhidharma had said. !ence arose the Kiau-men. -et. !e pointed direct"/ to Buddha5s heart and nature. the cana" ma$er and em#an$ment en&ineer of the !ia d/nast/. and that their chrono"o&/ a"so differs. uch is the statement of ChM2pJan. of the Nan2n&o schoo". and transmitted to ChM2$Jai the 8trip"e &aRe. In see$in& the #est exp"anation of the Chinese and 4apanese narrative of the patriarchs. or esoteric #ranch of the s/stem. in !u2nan. and a"so as Nan2n&o.The author of San-kiau-yi-su p"aces Bodhidharma in a much more important and e"evated position. he himse"f. the first of the six. ti"" the time of Bodhidharma. In these schoo"s there %as no ver/ rea" difference in sentiment from the doctrine of the parent stem. form #ut one %ho"e.an3usiri is the first. Bodhidharma #rou&ht from the >estern heaven 8the sea" of truth8 ?true sea"@. !is s/stem inf"uenced Kau !%ei%en. The #io&raphica" record of the Tsun&2men teachers in the ChM2/ue2"uh contains notices of priests trained #/ the predecessors of the sixth patriarch. in *u2$ieu. The founders of these t%o schoo"s.ossi#"/ some "i&ht ma/ #e thro%n #ac$ #/ China upon the re"i&ious histor/ of the countr/ from %hich Buddhism came. from the spots %here the teachers resided. #ein& the stem on %hich the others &re%.gata@. BDE him out as himse"f a &reat sect founder. The a#sence of the esoteric e"ement ?at "east that distinct and hi&h"/2deve"oped form of it %hich #e"on&s to China@ from modern 4ainism %ou"d fo""o% the departure of the "ast patriarch. or exoteric #ranch of the s/stem. It is neither permanent nor non2permanent. In no part of the stor/ is aid to the recover/ of this "ost $no%"ed&e more "i$e"/ to #e found than in the accounts of the patriarchs. . and mastered the idea of 8centra" &aRin&. It %as the southern "imit of the Chinese empire of that time. in Kian&2si. the t%o #ranches. nothin& is said of Bodhidharma or his s/stem. u#hVti. not communicated to a ne% patriarch. tau&ht &reat truths and the causes of thin&s. can no% #e on"/ ver/ partia""/ recovered. But. it ma/ #e o#served that the fame and inf"uence of Bodhidharma in China mar$ p. containin& the tradition of the heart of Buddha. If it occur as an o#3ection to this h/pothesis that the discrepancies no% existin& #et%een the schoo" of Bodhidharma and of the !indoo 4ains are ver/ &reat. The/ are &iven in an extended form in the %or$ Chï-yue-luh. The sixth Chinese patriarch did not appoint a successor. Orthodox Buddhism has in China s"o%"/ #ut steadi"/ #ecome heterodox.

To ma$e offerin&s to a"" the past Buddhas is not to #e compared %ith offerin& to one man %ho has #ecome superior to menta" passions and sensationa" inf"uences. Be&innin& in hantun&. The )in2tsi schoo" has #een ver/ successfu". and spread over the north and south of China to an enormous extent. To "oo$ in %ard is to #e Buddha. The reason for this carefu" record of ecc"esiastica" ancestr/ is to #e sou&ht in the princip"e of un#ro$en "inea" descent. ( mind c"ear and en"i&htened. . Nothin& is said of the schoo"s ori&inated in various provinces #/ these teachers. To $no% it. and addin& to them. To re"/ on the performance of particu"ar acts is not true $no%"ed&e. *rom him a series of discip"es. aim at nothin&. is a"" that is needfu". divided out in its activit/ in ever/ part of the #od/. attention to the"ed the sixth patriarch for North China.8 !is teacher. !e a"so %rote his vie% in versesS— 8There is no such thin& as a $no%"ed&e tree. ince their o#3ect %as to dra% neoph/tes a%a/ from the inordinate stud/ of the #oo$s of the re"i&ion. ("" that the &reat Bodhisatt%as have tau&ht. and adhered more c"ose"/ to the tradition of the patriarchs. !e ma$es himse"f c"ear"/ visi#"eQ not the thinnest separatin& fi"m hides him. and dependence on #oo$ $no%"ed&e and the performance of out%ard rites. ( mind pure. In the e/e it is ca""ed seein&. thin$s. The pure vacanc/ of . Then there %i"" #e no difference #et%een "ivin& in the %or"d and enterin& the Nirv9na. the fifth patriarch. in the ear it is hearin&. %hi"e !%ai2nen&. %as p"eased %ith this mode of representin& the importance of %atchin& over the heart. or aim at doin&. 8Records of the sa/in&s8 of ce"e#rated teachers. That ca""ed *a2/en #e"on&s to the ninth. To do. There is no mode of attainin& to the state ca""ed Buddha #ut #/ the mind itse"f.an3usiri. )et the mind do nothin&. there is de"iverance ever/%here. The -In2men #e"on&s to the ei&hth &eneration. the "ast2mentioned hierarch. the mind. and at rest. and the %ho"e series em#races a#out four hundred /ears. In the fifth appears that of )in2tsi and TsJau2tun&. (n examp"e of the mode in %hich the contemp"ative Buddhists carried on their discussions %i"" here #e &iven. )est dust shou"d #e attracted to it. BAB for the outh. accordin& to custom. p. covet. ceases at the sixteenth descent. the merc/ of K%an2/in. It is on"/ the successors of !%ai2nen&. re3oice. To "oo$ out%ard is to #e a common man. The method tau&ht #/ a"" the Buddhas is no other than this. The fountain of $no%"ed&e is the pure. the "e&itimate successor of Bodhidharma. %hich is indispensa#"e to the maintenance of esoteric tradition. There is nothin& that has a rea" existence. the purit/ of 80ima$ita8 ?5ei-mo@—a"" these various princip"es are in the heart. The/ are ca""ed ü-luh. The ri&ht method is in the mindQ it is the mind itse"f. -et it does not appear that there %as an/ secret doctrine %hich those %ho $ne% it %ou"d not divu"&e. (ccordin& to the s/stem he"d in common #/ these schoo"s. o#serve nothin&. >hat is the difference #et%een /ou and the sa&es of anti:uit/L Do /ou come short in an/thin&L >hat is BuddhaL *ns. If the mind does not come to conscious existence. In the "atter its specu"ative tendenc/—den/in& ever/thin& externa" to the mind—is #rou&ht to vie%.5 5u-wei-chen-"en. #ri&ht. >hat is the "a%L *ns. in t%e"ve divisions. ho"d fast to nothin&Q that is Buddha. Then ho% can dust #e attractedL8 In the former appears ver/ distinct"/ the practica" part of the esoteric s/stem. It shou"d #e constant"/ and carefu""/ #rushed. BAF mind permeates ever/ part. men have in themse"ves. ac:uires $no%"ed&e. The/ sa/.8 The o#3ect of the )in2tsi has #een to teach Buddhism. 8>ithin the #od/ %hich admits sensations. the %ithdra%a" p. The/ are denominated co""ective"/ the >u2tsun&. >h/ do /ou not reco&nise himL The invisi#"e po%er of the p. and the doctrine he tau&ht. There is no such thin& as a mirror2stand. B >hi"e revisin& these papers. and acts. (n extensive series of %or$s containin& records of the instructions of these teachers has #een the resu"t. >hat the/ he"d %as simp"/ a protest a&ainst the ne&"ect of the heart. Buddha. But it is not essentia" that differences shou"d #e &reat to ma$e them the su#3ect of controvers/ and the cause of division. %hat is virtuous or %hat is vicious is to "eave the heart and &o out into the visi#"e tan&i#"e %or"d. a"" #ecome identica". I here insert a #rief account of the )in2tsi schoo". The #io&raph/ in the Chï-yue-luh. This mind has neither #e&innin& nor end.Ju2hien. the $no%"ed&e of hM2chi. It has pushed out the other sects.odern mon$s of these schoo"s trace their succession in a simi"ar manner. se"f2en"i&htenin& mind. These names are ta$en from the p"aces %here the founders of the respective schoo"s resided. that are re&arded as deservin& a memoria". In the fourth &eneration from him the !%ei2nian& schoo" %as formed. In rea"it/ man is the same thin& as Buddha. evera" #ranch schoo"s %ere ori&inated #/ the successors of the sixth patriarch. accordin& to a more recent arran&ement. In ever/ p"ace a#sence of impediments and pure en"i&htenment. It is a sin&"e inte""i&ent a&ent. To #ecome Buddha the mind on"/ needs to #e freed from ever/ one of its affections. BAC of the thou&hts from the %or"d of sensations recommended #/ . BETT@. and much trou#"e and vexation in the other. from residin& in the southern provinces. there is the 5True man %ithout a position. opposed it %ith vehemence. These three are one. and in 4apan. But !%ai2nen&. as the most popu"ar exponent of the teachin& of the contemp"ative schoo". hin2 sieu tau&ht his doctrine in the fo""o%in& versesS— 8The #od/ is "i$e the $no%"ed&e tree. not to "ove or hate. BAH The differences that existed #et%een these schoo"s and the parent doctrine %ere not &reat. the sixth patriarch. The mind is "i$e a mirror on its stand.8 to distin&uish them from those %hich preceded them. This %as at the #e&innin& of the t%e"fth centur/. the /ears of imperia" rei&ns and d/nasties. co"our nor form. the heart is Buddha. so that the/ ma/ form a distinct #oo$ on Chinese Buddhism ?(u&ust BB. or 8*ive schoo"s. it has #een accepted throu&hout the ei&hteen provinces. so that each mon$ shou"d fee" that there is difficu"t/ . It is to #ecome entan&"ed in the metemps/chosis in the one case. This mode of expression is used instead of mentionin&.in& d/nast/. %as ca""ed the sixth patriarch p. Then human nature. instruction %as &iven ora""/. a"" #ecomin& 8teachers8 ?ch‘an-sï@ in their turn. >hat is Tau@ *ns. a #oo$ of the . or fear. are counted to the sixteenth &eneration.

8 the 8rea". ThusS 8Is it to search in the &rass %here there is the shado% of the stic$ that /ou have a"read/ come hereL8 8To $i"" a man.8 chau. %ou"d in their vie% #e e:ua""/ inconsistent. in the manner of the o"der schoo"s. Dou#t"ess the/ mean somethin& :uite in harmon/ %ith the fundamenta" princip"es of Buddhism. and sin$in& to a much sma""er one in the %inter. BAA the paths of se"f2improvement. a difference. it #ecomes at once incorrect to sa/ that he is 1odQ his persona"it/ #ein& strict"/ human. This treatment &ives an improved tone to the mind and fee"in&s. the founder of the )in2tsi schoo" spent much of his "ife in a sma"" monaster/. as the (#so"ute. sa/ nothin& of the metemps/chosis. on the other hand. and not divine. to stri$e %ith the s%ord a dividin& #"o%. fact or do&ma. %here %heat and mi""et have #een so%n from time immemoria"Q and here he ac:uired a reputation for ma&ica" po%ers. 8uti"it/ or use. instead of den/in& the existence of 1od. on the &round that the doctrine of metemps/chosis ma$es a"" nature instinct %ith p. The/ have a"so the 8Three 5important. CBE2CHF. Buddha is "oo$ed upon as havin& historica" persona"it/. The founder of the )in2tsi schoo" died (.8 the Kiau-min of Chinese Buddhism. These eni&mas are &iven in dar$ "an&ua&e difficu"t even for adepts to exp"ain. and further deve"oped #/ the Chinese in the esoteric schoo"s a#ove descri#ed. sp"it roc$s. Neander. usua""/ content themse"ves %ith sa/in& nothin& a#out !im. On the #an$s of this river to the south2east of the cit/ of Chen2cheu. There is. and the same su#divisions into schoo"s occur there amon& its fo""o%ers. the denia" of the existence of ever/thin& #ut se"f. and the com#ination of the t%o. and a"" discussion ceases. and #"o%s %ith the fists under the ri#s. #urst open precipices. %ith pit/ on %orshippers of ever/ c"ass as necessari"/ missin& %hat the/ aim at. and imitatin& him. %hen it is froRen hard enou&h to #e passed #/ "oaded %a&&ons. $eepin& ri&id"/ to their one doctrine. and that he has in himse"f the po%er to con:uer that difficu"t/. BAK "ife. Their aim is to $eep the mind from an/ distinct action or movement of an/ $ind. the paradise of the >estern heaven.8 t‘i. "oo$ %ithin instead of %ithout.8 To the $ind of phi"osoph/ sprin&in& up in India. formin& a #road and continuous chain on the %est. and such as are "earnin& thro% a%a/ %hat the/ had #een &raspin& firm"/. The/ have a p"a/ on the %ords 8&uest8 and 8host. This s/stem a"so exists in 4apan. princip"es. The &uest ma/ "earn from another &uest. and that #ecause the/ aim at itQ and as havin& no prospect of escapin& from the miser/ of "ife unti" the/ a#andon a"" specia" dependencies and doctrines. and seiRe ardent"/ on %hat the/ approve. and of the eni&matica" "an&ua&e in %hich the/ are couched. is the state to%ards %hich nature and man are returnin&.8 The exp"anations of these eni&mas are not &iven in the #oo$ I have consu"ted.8 The &uest ma/ "earn from the host #/ seein& ho% he meets circumstances. The host ma/ "earn from the &uest. The Indian Buddhists %ere professed atheistsQ #ut those of China. !e cannot #e approached. pp. the 8forma". The (siatic specu"ator underta$es to rea"ise his s/stem. This river f"o%s throu&h the prefecture of Chen2tin& fu to the 1rand Cana". ( da&o#a %as erected over his ashes in the south part of the province of Chi2"i. %a"$ upon ice. on the north2%est an&"e not far from the cit/. ma/. ii. !e resided for some /ears on the #an$s of the river !u2tJo. that Deit/ not #ein& a se"f2conscious free actin& *irst cause. The 8true man %ithout a position. BAD In their discip"ine the/ have three #"o%s %ith the cane. #e considered as the correspondin& term to Buddha in this s/stem. vo". ? ee Bur&er5s account of re"i&ious sects in 4apan. as %hen those %ho are a"read/ %ise discuss points. EAE. %hich rushes %ith &reat force of current out of han2si into Chi2"i. as Chen2tin& fu %as then ca""ed. other%ise the )in2tsi schoo" %ou"d not #e so popu"ar as it is. or an/ other of the more materia" parts of the Buddhist s/stem. and move a"on& the ed&e of a p. ho%ever. and that that "ife is the Deit/ assumin& different forms of persona"it/. (n infant cannot understand the seven eni&mas.8 5u-wei-chen-"en. as %hen the "earner is "aden %ith the heav/ %ooden nec$ co""ar and iron "oc$. That a#straction %hich is the pantheist5s 1od. even if he attempts to sho% ho% a practica" re"i&ion ma/ #e #ased on a s/stem of a#stractions—as %as done #/ *ichte—never serious"/ thin$s of carr/in& it into execution. . !ere he %as in a :uiet spot surrounded #/ the o#3ects of a %e""2cu"tivated p"ain. as %hen those %ho are a"read/ profound in %isdom ma$e constant in:uiries from their visitors. and emp"o/s the monastic institute or other aids for the purpose. the identit/ of se"f and 1od. there %i"" #e an ora" exp"anation #/ the tutorQ and so step #/ step the pupi"s %i"" ac:uire a $no%"ed&e of the )in2tsi schoo" doctrines and discip"ine. The/ have the 8Three 5dar$. fo""o%in& chmidt and Baur. is %rapped in a pric$"/ she"" "i$e the chestnut. the Buddha %ithin /ou. and the #od/ shou"d not enter the %ater. %ithout vio"ence to the meanin& of %ords.D. >e see here the *inite &oin& #ac$ into the (#so"ute. and the a"ternation of speech and si"ence. %ith the s%ift river %hich f"o%ed #/ his monaster/ %ith a fu"" and foamin& stream in the summer months. %ho "oo$ %ith contempt on the ima&e %orship of the mu"titude. and of the su#3ect and o#3ect. #ut an a""2pervadin& spirit. The main features in the "andscape on %hich he "oo$ed %ere the #"ue mountains of han2si. princip"es. near Ta2min& fu.. ho%ever. therefore. there is much that is simi"ar in recent +uropean specu"ation. 8i""umination. >hen. a description %hich ans%ers to the notion here a""uded to of the state ca""ed Buddha. for Lin-tsi means 8Comin& to the ford.&Rep. It %as this river that &ave a name to the schoo". The esoteric Buddhists of China.5 yau.@ It is in hi&h estimation amon& the ref"ectin& c"ass of Chinese. The sharp reproof of discip"ine is s/m#o"ised #/ s"aps on the chee$ %ith the pa"m of the hand. and attend to the voice"ess teachin& of the mind itse"f. The host ma/ "earn from another host. This is Buddha. at the distance of a mu"e5s 3ourne/ of five da/s from . The +uropean theoriser.e$in& on the south2%est. >here the meanin& of such m/sterious teachin& is not c"ear. *or 1od. represents Buddhism as one form of pantheism.8 These are.8 yung. %i"" no% #e presented to the reader. The/ "oo$. (n account of the 8+xoteric sects.5 hiuen. To den/ or affirm an/ specia" existence. hopin& thus to escape from the chains of sense and passion into the freedom of pure a#straction. and the 8practica". p.8 shï. !e cou"d stro$e the #eard of a fierce ti&er. Chin.8 yung. three successive reproofs.

%hich p.8 %hich %ou"d terminate the present kalpa.au2chM. %as their most distin&uished discip"e. a s/stem of forms or 8Ima&e %orship. noted for their %ritin&s and pu#"ic discussions in exp"anation and defence of the Buddhist s/stem. The popu"ar Buddhism of China #e"on&s to the second of these deve"opments. !iuen2tsan&. the #est $no%n of them a"". The founder of the schoo" #ased on the doctrines of that #oo$ %as a Chinese of the Northern TJsi $in&dom in the sixth centur/. BAT %as admitted into the 8Three pita$a8 ?San-tsang@ at the counci" he"d after Buddha5s death ?/ide !ard/5s 9astern&#onachism@. even chiefs of this sect are enumerated. and the/ are the first of the Three co""ections that constitute the standard #oo$s of Buddhism. the priest %ho opposed . and ori&inated the schoo" in his native countr/. those of the %ritten doctrine. The/ %ere a"" natives of China. 8The secret teachin& of -o&a. consistin& of thirteen 8chapters8 ? kiuen@.para&raph continues< 8(mida Buddha8 ?*-mi-to&Fo@. !ence the residences of Buddhist priests %ere ca""ed sï ?ga-lam. is emp"o/ed as a &enera" term for #oo$s 8containin& secret doctrines8 ?referrin& to ma&ic@. (ssociated %ith his countr/man Chu2fa2"an. is that ca""ed Lien-tsung ?)otus schoo"@. %ou"d prevai". and founded the -In2tsi monaster/ near !an&2cheu. and simi"ar %or$s. The first of the ei&ht %ho are thus distin&uished is Kashiapmadan&a. datin& from the !an d/nast/. Next to him %as the trave""er !iuen2tsan&. %ho is #etter $no%n as a %onder %or$er and a founder of monasteries ?he erected ETC@ than a trans"ator. The &reat anti:uit/ of this schoo" is evident from the ear"/ date of the trans"ation of the *mida&Sutra. for a thousand /ears. It %as #rou&ht to China a#out (. !%ei2sM of Nan2n&o. Tau2an. a fa#u"ous persona&e %orshipped assiduous"/—"i$e K%an2/in—#/ the Northern Buddhists. '-pa-li@. %as honoured %ith the tit"e Kwo-shï ?Nationa" instructor@ in the rei&n of TJai2tsun& ?KAG (. indicatin& that its aim is in action to &uard a&ainst error and chec$ vice.an2 cheu. There %as at Nan$in&. it is added.ure "and@. and Ce/"on. and divided it into four su#ordinate schoo"s. under the %ord 8-o&atchara. The first Chinese amon& them is in the fifth centur/. and arran&in& those forms of Buddhist instruction ca""ed the Three 8Deve"opments8 ? ana@. a native of Tun2h%an&. ?F. These #oo$s %ere %ritten #/ the t%o Bodhisatt%as >u2cho B and TJien2tsJin. named from their su#3ects. (nother exoteric schoo" para""e" %ith these. Kiai2hien. a !indoo residin& p. KHG #/ Kin-kang-chï ?0a3ramati@. inconsistent %ith the doctrine of Nirv9na. !is vie%s differed "itt"e from those of TJien2tJai. the use of the senses.D. a monaster/ %here this s/stem %as in operation. That %or$ %as %ritten #/ the !indoo Lung-shu. >hen he came to )o2/an& in the first centur/ of our era. To this schoo" #e"on&s the ver/ popu"ar festiva" of the hun&r/ &hosts. are #/ the author of the San-kiau-yi-su p"aced #efore the five schoo"s into %hich he divides the exoteric Buddhists. !is name is often &iven to the s/stem that he %ith his predecessors and successors recommended. Its extent of inf"uence is seen in the attachment of the Thi#etans and . t%o other !indoos are mentioned.8@ ?C. he trans"ated five utras. an ancient $in&dom in %hat is no% Thi#et.8 Siang-kiaou. The -o&a or -o&achara schoo" is a"so ca""ed the Tantra schoo". To the same schoo" #e"on&s Chu2hun&. and %ere p"aced in the nationa" co""ection of Buddhist #oo$s. and !ien2sheu. and han2h%ei. *or more than thirt/ /ears he tau&ht the doctrine of the 8. 8Kumara3iva5s8 ?Kieu-mo-to-shï@ name is the third. 8Na&ar3una8 ?Dra&on tree@. in %or$s and "etters sti"" extant.riests of this schoo" at the present time dress in #"ac$. %hi"e the more a#struse and m/stica" parts of his teachin& %ere de"ivered %hen he %as #ecome an o"d man. To it #e"on&s the popu"ar "e&end of the >estern heaven. The sixth in order %as ChM2$io.@ (nother of these schoo"s derives its name from the hastra ca""ed Chung-lun. #ut un$no%n in iam.ha$/amuni is said to have foreto"d that. as has #een pointed out #/ chott in his %or$ on the Buddhism of !i&h (sia and China. BKG at the monaster/ Na"anda. The %ord oga is exp"ained as 8Correspondence8 and. 8monasteriesQ8 for the anscrit. he"d in the seventh month. ( commentar/ on the Tau-te-king of )au2tsi came from his pen. The remainin& four names most noted in the ear"/ histor/ of Chinese Buddhism are ChM2tun. and in the fact that the name of this fictitious persona&e is more common"/ heard in the dai"/ conversation of the Chinese peop"e than that of the historica" Buddha ha$/amuni. and this seems to #e the proper #usiness of the schoo". for protection in storms.@ The "ast exoteric schoo" is that %hich %as founded #/ *a2shun. The founder of this schoo" in China %as a native of han2si. The/ are %ritten in anscrit or Thi#etan "etters. It %as this form that it first assumed p.8 The name of this schoo" is Hing-sï-+ang-+ei-chï-ngo. he "od&ed in the !e-ma&sï ?>hite horse temp"e@. and founders of the Kiau2men. In the counci" that %as then he"d.D. for five centuries after his death. (fter his entrance into the Nirv9na. !%ei2/uen. ?H. !e &ave his chief attention to the 8!%a2/en utra.@ That named from the 0ina/a or second division of the sacred #oo$s. The five su#divisions of exoteric Buddhism %i"" no% #e considered.atteo Ricci. !is successor %as a mon$ of one of the sects that fo""o%ed the teachin& of Bodhidharma. and the fourth that of 8Buddo3an&a8 ?Fo-t‘u-cheng@. BKB . Buddha is said to have tau&ht the doctrines of this s/stem in ear"/ "ife. This %ou"d su#se:uent"/ &ive p"ace to another ca""ed the 8fina" s/stem. and %as principa""/ concerned in esta#"ishin& this schoo". .8 The third "eader of the schoo" %as !ien2sheu.@ -o2&a2mi2$iau. Oc. . sangarama@. It is a"so ca""ed the 6an-shan ? outhern hi""@ schoo". %ho received the hastra mentioned a#ove from Kiai2hien. or Tsing-tu ?.@ >ei2shi2sian&2$iau. (fter that. and of the 5u-liang-sheu-king. of the Tsin d/nast/ ?fourth centur/@. event/2t%o %or$s came from the pen of the "atter. !is numerous discip"es "earned to repeat charms %ith &reat effect. This schoo" occupied itse"f %ith the stud/ of the hastra 5ei-shï-lun. . or the 8 choo" that exhi#its the nature8 and meanin& of the Buddhist %ritten doctrines.—? ee in +ite". It is ca""ed usua""/ Fa-sing-tsung. %hich came from the hands of Kumara3iva. %ho %as succeeded #/ . is the first. the a#ode of p.8 The founder of this s/stem is ca""ed Kin-kang-sat-wa ?0a3rasatt%a@. !e %as succeeded #/ his pupi" K%ei2$i. This schoo" is ca""ed Fa-siang-tsung. one of the ten chief discip"es of ha$/amuni. The %riter of the 80ina/a8 ?Lü@ and founder of this schoo" %as 8Up_"i8 ? eu&po-li: in o"d Chinese. #ut p"aced separate"/ in the c"assification. . !e %as succeeded #/ ChM2$Jai of TJien2tJai shan.u2$Jun&. !e %rote the i pu2"it. The >estern paradise promised to the %orshippers of (mida Buddha is. the true doctrine %ou"d #e fo""o%ed. !e tau&ht the s/stem of the %or$ ca""ed 8Discip"ine of *our Divisions.8 persuadin& mu"titudes to adopt it. ?B. %ho deve"oped the s/stem to a much &reater extent. ?D.on&o"s to the %orship of this Buddha. It promises immorta"it/ instead of annihi"ation. his successor. and action. true human nature. The second 8patriarch8 ? tsu@ of this schoo" %as K%an&2min& of the seventh centur/.@.ure "and. the 8 choo" of the true nature8 of the %ritten doctrine. these utras %ere adopted as an authentic account of the Buddhist doctrine. BAE on enterin& China. #efore the TJai2pin& re#e""ion. Birmah. The #io&raphica" notices of the principa" trans"ators of the utras. The "atter after%ards trans"ated five more. #ecause it tau&ht the use of ma&ic formu"= or uninte""i&i#"e charms used for rain. (mon& the nine "eaders of this schoo". !e %as ver/ fond of savin& fish and cra#s from #ein& $i""ed and eaten. (nanda compi"ed the 8 utras8 ? King@.

@ fa"se. !app/ the/ %ho to that 3o/fu" re&ion have &oneW In num#er"ess kalpas their time f"o%s on.@ centra". Convinced of its exce""$ the f"o%ers of the "otus encirc"in& his seat (s if of themse"ves the/ spran& up round his feet. are found (ssem#"ed in conference "on& and profound. *or the sands of the 1an&es in num#er are "essQ .8 The %ord 8diamond8 is used in the sense of 8uncon:uered and uncon:uera#"e. +ver sits the compassionate Buddha. The "a% of Tath9&ata H sun& #/ each #ird *rom thic$et and &rove in s%eet music is heard. B/ that ha"o of "i&ht that encirc"es his head. or to the divinities that support his throne and act as his protectors. >hoever %ou"d enter the home of the #"est In his innermost thou&hts shou"d incessant"/ rest On that #eautifu" form "i$e the c"ear moon on hi&h >hen she marches fu""2or#ed throu&h an unc"ouded s$/. (nd "on& a&es of &ratitude cannot repa/. streamin& forth radiance for thousands of mi"es. This he re&arded as the "imit of re"i&ious meditation on the surroundin& universe. ?H. p. a native of 8Northern China8 ? !e-ts‘i@. Chinese versifiers have.ID( BUDD!(. (nd the soi" that the/ tread on is #ri&ht /e""o% &o"d. the/ are at "east a &enuine description. On the moment of reachin& it #/ a ne% #irth. and the diction conse:uent"/ ver/ terse.8 and ma/ refer either to Buddha5s po%er as a teacher. sa/ %hat "an&ua&e can te"" Its #eaut/ and ma3est/ There ever d%e"" The men of this %or"d and the Devas B of heaven. (nd to each has the same %reath of &"or/ #een &iven. Their rest is un#ro$en #/ care or #/ fear. (round are &reen %oods. a"" m/steries made c"ear. The sun never scorches. In that "and of true p"easure the f"o%ers never fade. 8 ee %here. vie%in& the %or"d as ?B. Our +n&"ish ton&ue is different. UT!+ >+ T+RN !+(0+N. p. he instituted 8three sorts of meditation8 ? san-kwan@. ( metre "i$e that here adopted has more room in it than others for unaccented s/""a#"es.8 These descriptions are ta$en from a co""ection of poems ca""ed Tsing-tu-shï. heds fra&rance around in those thrice "ove"/ #o%ers. ("" his features of #eaut/ no %ords can express. each from the %or"d that he &overns. *or there is no re&ion so happ/ and #"est. The ten supreme Buddhas %ho cease not to te"" The praise of the "and %here the &enii B d%e"". (s the heaven of &reat (mida far in the %est. BKH . It is not much of the Buddhist s/stem that easi"/ admits of #ein& put into this form of composition. +ach terraced ascent is of diamond and 3ade. The fo""o%in& verses trans"ated from the poetr/ of the Tsin&2tu sect %i"" serve to i""ustrate the doctrine of that schoo". the fourteenth patriarch. 1ivin& 3o/ to the victims of sorro% and strife >ho are saved #/ his "a% from the sorro%s of "ife.para&raph continues< Lung-shu@. Neither summer nor %inter are there ever $no%n In the "and of the )a% and the Diamond ThroneQ ("" errors corrected. If the reader shou"d thin$ the conceptions are poor. This circumstance renders it convenient. %ritten #/ the !indoo ca""ed 8Con:ueror of the Dra&on8 ?Lung-sheng or p. That is seen from afar to #e &"o%in& %ith "i&ht. so far as the/ &o. It has often #een used #/ trans"ators.@ empt/. The materia" #od/ of men %hi"e on earth Is exchan&ed for another etherea" and #ri&ht. %ho &ave his name to the schoo". ho%ever. The measure in the ori&ina" is the usua" one of seven %ords in a "ine. The un%itherin& Upata. C fairest of f"o%ers.8 !e a"so founded his doctrine part"/ on the Fa-hwa-king. found some materia"s more to their taste in the >estern heaven of (mida Buddha. U(. The Chinese %ords are monos/""a#"es. There is nothin& a$in to the spirit of poetr/ in the tur&id sp"endour and %earisome reiteration of the "e&ends that a#ound in the #oo$s of this re"i&ion. and therefore ca""ed his s/stem Chï-kwan. The sun at noonda/ is "ess &"orious than #e. and %as fo""o%ed #/ !%ei2sM and ChM2che of TJien2tJai. *or his merc/ is such as none e"se can disp"a/. In the "atter part of the sixth centur/ !%ei2%en. a"read/ partia""/ descri#ed. and smi"es. or ?C. . !is compassion resem#"es a #ottom"ess sea. 8The pure "and of the >est. (nd the truth that #efore "a/ in dar$ness concea"ed )i$e a &em %ithout fracture or f"a% is revea"ed. The secrets of %isdom unvei"ed the/ #eho"d. of the heaven of the Northern Buddhists. co"d %inds never rise. and the orphans that &rieve. 8Ref"ection carried to its "imitin& point. BKC There. BKF >ithout ceasin& his arms are outstretched to re"ieve The aff"icted that %eep.The on"/ remainin& schoo" is that of TJien2tJai. and a#ove them c"ear s$ies. studied the Chung-lun ?Centra" hastra@. On a"" "ivin& #ein&s a radiance is shed.

%hich. 8The "a%. The/ are inferior in po%er and sp"endour to human nature %hen e"evated to the ran$ of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. It has much natura" #eaut/. a midd"e s/stem—Re&u"ations. and indu"&in& his ima&ination %ith the hope that he %i"" one da/ #e #orn from a "otus f"o%er.&der&Hindus. so far as it is historica". a p"ace of &reat note in Chinese Buddhism—ChM2$Jai resided there in the sixth centur/—!is c"oa$ and rice #o%"—*u2"un&2fen&—*an&2$%an& sM and the roc$ #rid&e—)e&end of the )o2hans—T%e"ve monasteries founded—!e tau&ht the Fa-hwa-king— /stem of threefo"d contemp"ation— ix connectives—+i&ht modes of characterisin& Buddhism—Ten steps in pro&ress—Derived much from Na&ar3una—TJien2tJai. ChJih2chJen&. pours its p. DCE. is conspicuous from the time%orn %a""s of the cit/ of TJien2tJai. is capa#"e of #earin& #oats of considera#"e siRe %hen it reaches the #us/ "itt"e cit/ 3ust p. #ut its interest. t‘ien@.In these descriptions there is a prominent materia"ism in the expressions. Buddha is here made popu"arQ there is no a#struse specu"ation. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. R2ligiose&)ildung&u. and the favourite 3ade2stone. !ere there are f"o%ers. ca""ed Twan-tsi-sin-yau. The #oasted Nirv9na is a#andoned. Sien-"en.BETC<.ahashasa$a schoo". The c"uster of hi""s that compose TJien2tJai terminate a#rupt"/ to the south2%est. This is the southern extremit/ of the hi""/ re&ion $no%n #/ the same name. It had #een visited #efore #/ Tauist rec"uses. TJien2tJai. i a simp"e2minded dreamer spends his da/s in meditatin& on this picture.assin& on it #ends to the south2east. increasin& in %idth as it traverses the p"ain. Footnotes BDASB Transactions&o+&the&Royal&*siatic&Society. BKHSC ("so spe"t Utampata"a. BEG mi"es south2east of !an&2cheu.8 In anscrit.aitre/a in the Tushita paradise. B an imposin& hi"" cro%ned %ith a pa&oda. Rishi: in Chinese. )eavin& the #eautifu" site %here after%ards stood the K%o2tsJin& monaster/. and arrivin& at TJai2chen. !e first tau&ht the .8 %as ori&ina""/ a fo""o%er of the . vo". BACSB This description is ta$en from a "itt"e %or$ of the TJan& d/nast/. *rom a va""e/ on its "eft f"o%s a mountain stream. in the ver/ 3o/fu" %or"d of (mida.&w. an important sea2port. .@ BKHSB $e/as. near the end of the sixth centur/. centres chief"/ round the ancient mon$ %ho is the su#3ect of this notice. Buddha in the >estern heavens is thou&ht of as "i$e the monstrous &i"t ima&e seen #/ the %orshippers as the/ &o to a temp"e on a &a"a da/. T!+R+ is no Buddhist esta#"ishment #etter $no%n in China than TJien2tJai. . 8>ithout attachment. and "ive there for ever &aRin& on his sacred form. and %rote a #oo$ %hich he said %as dictated to him #/ .aha/ana s/stem. a tit"e of BuddhaQ in Chinese&)uddhism. NextS Chapter 0III. Ido"atr/ "oves to #orro% from nature. On Chi2KJai and the TJien2TJai choo" of Buddhism acred Texts Buddhism Index . BKG of the -o&a schoo". and a paradise &ratif/in& to the senses ta$es its p"ace. BKCSB 81enii. after a short course of ten or fifteen mi"es. .revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. 3ust #e"o% four hi""s no% covered to their summits %ith rich . —? ee in +ite". BDASH Rhode. BKHSH Tath. BKA %aters.gata. Then he #ecause the founder p. #ut it %as he that #/ se"ectin& it for his a#ode &ave it its hi&h reputation as a spot consecrated to the meditative "ife. at sacred2texts. BATSB *sengha. 4ulai. It %as up one of the feeders of this stream that. ChM2$Jai %ended his %a/ in search of a "one"/ mountain residence suited to his meditative cast of mind. BKD CHAPTER VIII. into the ocean. ON CHI-K‘AI AND THE T‘IEN-T‘AI SCHOOL OF BUDDHISM. the 8&ods8 of the !indoos ?in Chinese. and %rote the #oo$s %hich contain the >ei2shi doctrines.&s.8 is the doctrine proc"aimed #/ Buddha. and sin&in&2#irds.

in commemoration of the circumstance. united to &ive this spot an air of &randeur in the hermit5s mind. >hen he determined on removin& to TJien2tJai. or his "ove of %i"d nature.8 ( "itt"e farther to the north is !%a2tin&. a ce"e#rated Buddhist %ho "ived a centur/ anterior to ChM2$Jai. and five mi"es to the east of the natura" #rid&e. #ut returned to die at the mountain residence to %hich he %as so much attached. These #oo$s %ere in the /ear (. he set out to recover the fu&itive #oo$. and formed a favourite cover for deer. in %hich he remained sixteen /ears. %ith a "on& inscription of the ui d/nast/. It is said to have #een the c"oa$ %orn #/ ChM2$Jai. if /ou see$ a residence for contemp"ation. !e a"so made one visit home to !u2nan. (fter penetratin& severa" mi"es farther to the north%est in this hi""/ and deso"ate re&ion. and near the >an2nien monaster/. and composed a commentar/ on the 8Boo$ of the Nirv9na. is not so surprisin& as that common Chinese minds. he met on the TJien2fen& rid&e an o"d man %ho said to him. and formed the out"ines of another. The )o2hans. %hich he no% entered. had a"read/ #een erected #/ Te2shau. shou"d sti"" fo""o% his examp"e. ( meta" #o%". he ascended a "on& and romantic va""e/. #ut he p. or caused a modest #ui"din& to #e erected. Kin-kang-king. )oca" traditions point out %here he "ived and ref"ected. %ho encoura&ed him to sta/ there. %hich he tau&ht to mu"titudes of admirin& discip"es. the t%o mountain #roo$s unitin& #efore the/ reach the cataract. In fact a "e&end on the su#3ect soon &re% into pu#"ic #e"ief. BKT #ein&. ChM2$Jai arrived H at the remar$a#"e roc$ #rid&e %here the *an&2$%an& monaster/ no% stands. and *-mi-ta-king. and the c"ose2set %oods on the hi""s around. and exp"ained the sacred #oo$s of his re"i&ion to the emperor and his court. those exa"ted discip"es of Buddha %hose po%er and $no%"ed&e are so &reat. >ith his tin2headed staff in his hand to assist him in the search. even that %hich consisted of Buddha5s o%n %ords. #efittin& the re"ics of our hero sti"" preserved there. and &ive himse"f up to stud/. !e resided at Nan$in&. occup/in& man/ s:uare mi"es. !ere he composed his s/stem of doctrine ca""ed Chï-kwan. its name and contents. !e after%ards #ecame dissatisfied %ith the Ch‘an-men ?Contemp"ative schoo"@. 8 ir. in ChM2$Jai5s time had scarce"/ ever p. and the #oo$ fe"" to the &round. the more se"f2den/in& spend their da/s and ni&hts chantin& in honour of Buddha. Our hero continued his %anderin&s in this e"evated re&ion. %here the va""e/s do not sin$ farther than BDGG feet a#ove the sea2"eve". BKE at that si"ent hour made the %oods resound %ith harmon/. In this %i"derness of hi""s and va""e/s. o"itude rei&ns here for man/ mi"es round. In ever/ monaster/ of this re&ion a ha"" devoted to ima&es of the five hundred )o2hans no% exists. That ChM2$Jai. a"" inc"uded in the Buddhist Tripita$a ?Co""ection of sacred %ritin&s@ of China. BEG p"eaded indisposition and remained at TJien2tJai. %orn #/ "on& use. uch a co"on/ of Buddha5s superhuman discip"es served to invest this %i"d mountainous district %ith a sacred character. The histor/ of the manuscript. as that sect is ca""ed. is another curiosit/. evera" hundred mon$s no% #e"on& to the societ/. ( choir of five hundred p. No fe%er than t%e"ve monasteries mar$ the spots %here he formed a cotta&e of stones and stra%. BKK #een visited. out of si&ht of an/ human p. !e did not ta$e up his a#ode at one p"ace exc"usive"/. more comforta#"e than the #"ea$ huts %here. at some distance to the %est of the roc$ #rid&e. !e comp"ied on one occasion on"/. But the va""e/ %here it stands. and the music of the )o2hans %as said to #e heard at times a "itt"e #efore da%n #/ priests "/in& a%a$e in their ce""s. (n accident "ed our hero there. BGHF. 8)imited or perfected o#servation. and the heart nurse itse"f into a state of perfection #/ re3ectin& ever/thin& externa" and &ivin& itse"f up to an unconscious s"eep2"i$e existence. near"/ FGGG feet hi&h. and maintained a hi&h reputation. the emperor for#ade him. in one of the most dense"/2popu"ated provinces of China. The monaster/. he %as one da/ exp"ainin& to his discip"es the Tsing-ming-king ? utra of . The "oud roar of the %aterfa"". (s he approached the pea$ of !%a2tin&. It %as not. and thence pursuin& their %a/ to the north. (n anti:ue mauso"eum. The #ui"din& has an o"d "oo$.8 ChM2$Jai had in ear"/ "ife fo""o%ed the teachin& of the schoo" esta#"ished #/ Bodhidharma. (fter a pursuit of a mi"e and a ha"f the %ind ceased. shou"d choose such an a#ode. The %oodcutter and herdsman se"dom %andered to this %i"d spot. The monaster/ is an extensive thatched ran&e of #ui"din&s. !e %rote commentaries on the Fa-hwa-king. ho%ever. secondar/ in interest to a anscrit manuscript %hich escaped a fire some centuries a&o. On the hi"" a#ove—*u2"un&2fen&—near %here the 8stJupa8 ? t‘ah@ that contains his ashes is sti"" standin&. to one %ho is not a specia" admirer of the monastic "ife. not a&reein& %ith its princip"e that #oo$ "earnin& shou"d #e discarded. >hen the K%o2tsJin& monaster/ %as destro/ed #/ fire. and capa#"e of ho"din& severa" mea"s of rice for an a#stemious mon$. #ut a""o%ed him to "eave %hen he sa% that his mind %as made up. and on the side of the natura" #rid&e is a sma"" shrine containin& five hundred sma"" stone fi&ures. and so averse to mountain trave""in&. !e accordin&"/ constructed a hut there. a "ar&e part of them residin& in hermita&es on the hi"". then passin& #eneath the natura" #rid&e do%n the fa"". and %hich is #/ its "one"iness %e"" suited for the ascetic. are un$no%n to the resident priests. It seemed a home for supernatura" #ein&s. (t a "itt"e distance from it the Kau2min& monaster/ comes into vie%. !e caused a #ui"din& to #e erected at the spot. ChM2$Jai &re% tired of this s/stem. a"thou&h un$no%n to the a&ricu"turist. These memoria"s of this ear"/ Buddhist %i"" appear. .ure name@ %hen a &ust of %ind #"e% a%a/ the "eaves far into the deep ho""o% #e"o%. the founder of a f"ourishin& sect. The visitor %i"" have sho%n to him a "ar&e s:uare si"$ &arment. %hich are %orshipped #/ those %ho venture to cross #/ the narro% and dan&erous path that spans the cataract. It is the/ that cause the unusua" appearances of nature. the !indoo patriarch %ho had died in Northern China thirt/ /ears #efore. enve"opin& these rude cotta&es %ith their visionar/ inmatesQ and sno% often remains unme"ted for man/ months.8 The mon$ soon after encountered a Buddhist from Corea named !an-shï ?Roc$@. the capita" of the $in&dom ?ChJen d/nast/@. This monaster/ is even no% difficu"t of access. he /et found some fe% residin& %hose vie%s of human "ife %ere con&enia" to his o%n. It is in a deep va""e/ shut a"" round #/ %ooded hei&hts.D. Three times after%ards an imperia" messa&e re:uired his attendance at court. %hich #ecame one of the t%e"ve esta#"ishments that o%e their ori&in to him. a man of deep ref"ection. and is one of the fe% remains of that "iterature sti"" existin& in China. %ithout his profound thin$in&. so fond of cities and cro%ds. Certain"/ theirs is a &"oom/ home. It is handsome"/ em#roidered after a pattern evident"/ ver/ anti:ue. ti"" man/ /ears after that the present monaster/ %as erected and its modern name assi&ned to it. ( thic$ mist usua""/ rests on the summit and spreads do%n the sides of the mountain. and in a direction that seemed to "ead no%here #ut farther a%a/ from the ha#itations of men. the manuscript spo$en of a#ove %as removed to Kau2min& for &reater safet/. (nother spot %here ChM2$Jai once resided is i2tso. It is hard to exp"ain ho% a peop"e so socia" as the Chinese. ho%ever. !e %as trave""in& in a re&ion threaded #/ fe% paths. B It %as fi""ed %ith forest trees and thic$ #rush%ood. can supp"/ hermits to "ive in residences "i$e these. %ith severa" ori&ina" %or$s. the hi&hest &round in Che2$ian& exceptin& TJien2mu shan. and in "ove %ith so"itude. se"ect the p"ace %here /ou meet a roc$. mi&ht reside here. mar$s the p"ace %here his ashes %ere"ia&e. !e expired %hi"e sittin& cross2"e&&ed and &ivin& instruction to his fo""o%ers. #earin& the same name as the mountain.

do%n to the sma""est insects. B ChM2$Jai divided the Buddhist s/stem accordin& to its characteristics into 8+i&ht parts8 ?!a-kiau@S—?B. the popu"ar #rin&s them into existence. recitation.8 kiai-t‘o. In these successive steps of mora" improvement there is some resem#"ance to the common Buddhist vie% of the materia" universe. the dust of the %or"d. first advances. under the head of sufferin&. assertin& their nothin&ness.erfection itse"f #ein& difficu"t to &ain. 8to see8@ of human actions. I&norance is for ever &one. These three modes of vie%in& the %or"d are comp"ete in each other and insepara#"e.@ The Bodhisatt%aQ ?D. the Bodhisatt%a. sometimes it is exp"ained and e"se%here defended. #"ossoms. *or constructin& doctrines and institutions. The vacant mode destro/s the i""usions of the senses. ("" "ivin& #ein&s. A. These ta$en in their order hide from vie% the #eaut/ of the re"i&ious "ife.erfected o#servation. and therefore instruction is necessar/ to produce #e"ief and remove %hat is fa"se. prevent mora" improvement.@ The secretQ ?F. unproductive $no%"ed&e. and constructs the virtue of !ra"na ?Kno%"ed&e@. B. p. >ith re&ard to Collection. he introduced to his fo""o%ers his o%n s/stem. earth. *or esta#"ishin& and confirmin& man5s mora" nature. have received a mora" nature. the "i$eness to it ma/ #e reached. !avin& proceeded thus far. as a"read/ exp"ained. BEB thou&hts and senses. the %ron& set ri&ht. and at "ast produces fruit. The/ a"so em#race the five c"asses of instructed and en"i&htened #ein&sS—?B.@ The comp"iantQ ?H. /et in the course of the %or"d. he ca""ed Chï-kwan. 8. and that the conception of a "ivin& persona" Buddha shou"d #e a#andoned. F. Ten inc"inations. /inaya. fades. and have Buddha p. the three em#odiments of the re"i&ious "ife are thus comp"eted—viR. H. thirt/2seven steps in se"f2 $no%"ed&e and improvement. there are three $inds—the true. the most successfu" method is to vie% a"" thin&s in 8vacanc/8 ?k‘ung@.8 In the course of the #oo$.8 ChM2$Jai divided the teachin& of ha$/amuni into five periods. on o#servin& the %or"d in this state.rat/e$a Buddha. and the mean p"aces them a"" to&ether and chooses the midd"e path. or 8media"8 ?chung@.@ The indeterminateQ ?D. BEH %ithin them. and the mean. lun. or sutra. and the activit/ of the p. . %as that men5s o%n notions are fa"se and not to #e trustedQ that in true $no%"ed&e there is no distinction of %hat is m/se"f and %hat is not m/se"f. must then #e emp"o/ed. *or removin& the deceptions that #"ind men5s minds. perception. The/ re&ard it as divided accordin& to a mora" sca"e into sta&es accurate"/ defina#"e. assi&ns at death the position of ever/ sou" in the fift/ or sixt/ &rades of #ein& #e"on&in& to heaven. ti"" fearin& "est his fo""o%ers shou"d #e in error as to the method of se"f2reformation. and fa"" into one2sided vie%s. These inc"ude. (fter this c"assification of the sacred #oo$s. and he"".@ The Buddha. Ten menta" states.@ The %ise. ChM2$Jai deve"oped his threefo"d s/stem of o#servation. Ten modes of action. the/ attain their perfection. D. Confirmation. Other%ise men cou"d not return to their true mora" nature. In re&ard to opinions. #e&innin& %ith the Hwa-yen-king. There are five states %hich the student ma/ occup/—viR. To restore man5s true mora" nature there must #e 8o#servation8 ? kwan. )i$eness. and he""Q a"so the ei&ht/2ei&ht causes of human de"usionQ and further. the ei&ht convictions of the true sa&e. (#ove these are found the states of Buddha5s discip"es and that %hich is itse"f ca""ed Buddha. 8em#odiment8 ? shen@ of the 8"a%8 ?faAB of 8recompense8 ?pau@. in severa" su#divisionsQ ?H. there are ten steps—viR. ("thou&h reason is the same in a"" #ein&s. ida&am. BEC >ith re&ard to !rogress. The fee"in& of Buddha. that of Completion. and constructs the 8re"i&ious character8 ?+a-shen@. and operate a&ainst pure menta" vacanc/. O#servation of human action. !e thus exp"ained its nameS—8(s the "otus &ro%s out of the mire and /et preserves its freshness and purit/. The #iau&+a-lien-hwa-king ?)otus of the 1ood )a%@ %as his favourite #oo$. in four &rades— uda%an.@ .@ Co""ectionQ ?A. he formed a series of %hat he ca""ed the ix connectives.@ Comp"etion. and fa""s #/ a succession of chan&es. ever/thin& is vie%ed as perfect. %hich. 8h/pothetica"8 ?kia@.!is schoo" continued to f"ourish for a "on& period at the K%o2tsJin& and *u2"un& monasteries.. Instruction havin& #een imparted and #e"ief produced.. so the doctrines of this #oo$.@ DistinctionQ ?E. Names and terms. of 8renovation8 ?hwa@. there are em#raced in it Ten modes of faith.@ The perfect"/ inte""i&entQ ?F. (na&am. The "ast four are ca""ed ChM2$Jai5s 8*our modes of contemp"ation8 ? Sï-kwan@. the t%ent/2five c"asses of #ein&s that inha#it heaven. and the Buddha.8 This o#servation is 8empt/8 ?k‘ung@. and a(idharma.aha Ish%ara. The deceptions that prevent men from perceivin& the truth are threefo"dS i&norance. #ecause the &ift of reason is e:ua""/ #esto%ed. mora" nature a%a$in&. The true deve"opment of human nature. king. #/ a ri&id "a% of mora" retri#ution. the . C.. at other times #/ i""ustration. The true is 8destructive of a"" methods and doctrines8 ?idea"ism@. lü. as he #e"ieves it to #e conc"usive of controvers/ and perfect"/ satisfactor/. earth. the media" method is the most effective. and endin& %ith the Fa-hwa-king and the Nirv9na. 3ust as the "otus f"o%er #uds. resem#"in& the three e/es of the &od . assist men to retain their ori&ina" nature unsu""ied and undistur#ed amidst the miser/ and corruption around them.@ The &radua"Q ?C. The mind #ecomes perfect"/ inte""i&ent. The inventive mode destro/s the de"udin& effects of the dust of the %or"d. The metemps/chosis. 8Reason8 ?li@. Constant"/ restin& in this. to&ether %ith the hi&hest $no%"ed&e in t%o separate forms. p"easure. the/ %i"" not come to the $no%"ed&e and use of it. The media" method destro/s the de"usion that resu"ts from i&norance. In reference to the "ast c"ass. . >ith re&ard to the exce""ence termed $istinction. the common.@ The discip"e. he addedS 8Truth is sometimes tau&ht in a#stract. the threefo"d mode of vie%in& the %or"d. and constructs the virtue of 8rescue ?from a"" errors and evi"s@. con:uest of the passions. (rhanQ ?C. +ach of these six steps #ein& Buddha. %hich is reached #/ the Bodhisatt%a on"/. the &ood " ?K. Ten modes of firm adherence. the 8inventive8 ?kia@ method is the #est. the sacred #oo$s %ere em#raced in three divisions.

@ Comp"etion. to attain the state of samadhi tau&ht #/ him to . Interpretin& the idea of )rahma. and to add a third reconci"in& princip"e %hich distin&uishes the others. the/ ma/ #e said to contain the meanin& of the media" ?chung@ path. se"f. o much as is here presented %i"" i""ustrate the manner in %hich ref"ectin& Buddhists comment on the doctrines of their re"i&ion. #ut rather promoted it.5 This Brahma is one of the %hee" $in&s of a sin&"e &eneration. and of the va"idit/ of the information afforded #/ our senses.@ . and ta$in& the correct vie%. B . the/ #enefit themse"ves. *urther. i. that the/ %i"" not #e content %ith an independent se"f2evo"ved structure of metaph/sica" thou&ht. and of ten modes of o#servin& the true nature and end of human actions. arriva" at the centra" point of contemp"ation. accordin& to that method %hich o#serves p.5 ome sa/ it contains three meanin&s. to attain another state of samadhi tau&ht #/ BuddhaQ ?C. viR.5 or the 5extricated man.@ Co""ection.@ Constant sittin&. fo""o%in& the midd"e path. and the media". and ?F. the a#so"ute—these are the on"/ existences a""o%ed #/ this arro&ant phi"osoph/ to remain in the universe. >hen a man sees the true mora" nature of his mind. This %or$ &ave rise to the #adhyamika schoo" ?the Centra" phi"osoph/@ in Thi#et. The commentator sa/sS 8The %ord (rhan expresses rank. the empt/.e. The specia" o#3ect of the TJien2tJai schoo" has #een to stri$e a midd"e path #et%een the credu"ous acceptance of the sacred #oo$s as "itera""/ true. $in&s and divinities. the/ encoura&e the faith of the vu"&ar in the !indoo m/tho"o&/ and the more recent inventions of their o%n s/stem.@ Neither sittin& nor movin&. is the #enefit %hich the (rhans have o#tained. %ho had o#tained #enefits for themse"ves. B To &ive these numerous divisions of Buddhist doctrine more minute"/ is here unnecessar/. The/ ma/ a"so #e ca""ed 5invented5 ?kia@ names. and su&&ests a resem#"ance to the ha#its of the +uropean schoo"men. the commentar/ sa/sS 8The %ord )rahma means 5"eavin& the desires.58 B These extracts exemp"if/ ho% the m/tho"o&ica" apparatus of the Buddhist utras. aim at the overthro% of a"" the o#3ects of popu"ar #e"ief. Because the/ can &ive happiness to a"" the nine c"asses of #ein&s. %ho had #ro$en a"" ties. the %ord imp"ies. Their denia" of the rea"it/ of %or"d"/ phenomena. The %ho"e machiner/ of Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. BEK sittin& and part"/ movin&. *reedom from #irth expresses their comp"ete rescue from "ife and death.edia" hastra8 ?Chung-lun@.8 >hen Brahma appears #efore Buddha as a discip"e.8 is exp"ained a%a/. the second in their expu"sion of evi". ori&inated %ith 8Na&ar3una8 ? Lung& shu@. has not #een a chec$ to popu"ar ima&e %orship. and are intended to produce more reverentia" fee"in&s in the minds of those en&a&in& in the ceremonia" than is common in Buddhist %orship. to attain the state of samadhi or reverie tau&ht to . This is the sense accordin& to the p. BEF schoo"s. and %hat fo""o%s. In conformit/ %ith this vie%. and that is the meanin& of their defects havin& #een o#"iterated. But for the t%o hi&her princip"es. correct practice of the ten ru"es. and media".5 It is a"so said to mean 5hi&h5 and pure. and trans"ated into Chinese ear"/ in the fifth centur/.art"/ p. %hich he receives accordin& to his %ish and capacit/. The fundamenta" su#division of the TJien2tJai s/stem into three modes of contemp"ation.@ Distinction. $i""er of ro##ers in the sense of #ein& de"ivered from perceptions and sensations. )i$e a hidden treasure. %hich in the hi&her re&ion of these t%o princip"es is a"so deservin& of extinction. #ut assumin& the critica" office. it means 5contemp"atin& the remova" of a"" po""utions. and in their hearts possessed peace. %ho as$s instruction of Buddha.8 This is the text. disappears under this process. The author sa/s in this %or$S 8The methods and doctrines sprin&in& from various causes. mou"ded it to its present form as the TJien2tJai2$iau. the first is exemp"ified in their %isdom. (rhan is various"/ exp"ained as the 5true man.. as the #asis. The fo""o%in& extract from a commentar/ on the Fa-hwa-king %i"" i""ustrate the %a/ in %hich the princip"es of this schoo" are app"ied in interpretin& the sacred #oo$sS —U("" %ere 5(rhans5 ?Lo-hans@ %hose defects %ere o#"iterated. >hi"e the ref"ectin& Buddhists ho"d these vie%s. +astern and >estern pantheism are a"i$e in this.@ . not on"/ the $i""in& of ro##ers. and ascendin& to the co"oured heavens. Kno%"ed&e. +ven these are made identica". and ChM2$Jai. the inventive. from the "icense that it &ave them to countenance "/in& "e&ends and invent ne% additions ad&li(itum to the !indoo pantheon. character. ?C. the/ do not err on the side of the empt/ or inventive mode of o#servation.. fo""o%in& him. ( series of t%ent/2five auxi"iaries to $no%"ed&e and virtue. and fina""/ exp"ained into nothin&. re&u"ations for the practice of his fo""o%ers %ere instituted #/ ChM2$JaiS—?B. the/ o#tain de"iverance from "ife and death.8 !%ei2%en erected a s/stem on this. puttin& in practice the ten ru"es. B/ expe""in& i&norance and evi".ro&ress. the/ $i"" ro##ers. compares and com#ines them. and the third in their em#odiment of the re"i&ious "ife. or 8 acred #oo$s of the first c"ass. The/ are ver/ minute. therefore the/ are said to deserve honour. BED princip"es of ?B. that is ca""ed the hi&her state of confirmation. and then chooses the path #et%een them. the ro##ers of the mind. reserved for m/se"f. and $eepin& the heart from a one2sided position. to attain sti"" another form of re"i&ious reverie. there are a"so three modifications of the sense. fo""o% the precedin&.Ju2hienQ ?F. I dec"are to #e a"" 5emptiness5 ?k‘ung@. BEA the heart. for %hom there %as no more sufferin&. a#andonin& earth"/ ties. B/ their %isdom. The sorro% of the heart is &one. $i""in& the thieves of i&norance. UInterpretin& accordin& to the Threefo"d contemp"ation.@ Constant movin&. and exhi#its the same fondness for a numerica" arran&ement of propositions ramif/in& end"ess"/. and ?H. This s/mmetrica" c"assification of doctrines in round num#ers pervades the %ho"e Buddhist "iterature. #ut of non2ro##ers. B/ their em#odiment of the re"i&ious "ife. %hich a"so #e"on&s to other Buddhist p. It contains a s$etch of the opinions of one of the o"dest and most inf"uentia" schoo"s in China. and deservin& honour. The vie%s %hich the TJien2tJai2$iau have #orro%ed from him are contained in the 8. %ho "ived in North2%estern India a#out t%o centuries after Christ. empt/.ra3na paramita. The re&u"ations for chantin& as fo""o%ed #/ this schoo" %ere e"a#orated #/ a priest named *a2chM %ho "ived some centuries after ChM2$Jai.instructin&.. inventive. viR. and their entire re3ection #/ extreme idea"ism. freedom from #irth.an3usiriQ ?H. a %or$ in five hundred stanRas #ased on the princip"es of the . 8Interpretin& accordin& to the contemp"ation of the heart. It %as thou&ht #est to reco&nise #oth these modifications of Buddhism as &enuine deve"opments of the s/stem. the Nirv9na. In the transition from the inventive to the empt/.

and 8actin& from &ood causes8 ?yin2yuen@. The Ten virtues that correspond to the Ten vices are there stated to #e—preservin& "ife. spea$s of Ten vices and Ten virtues as #e"on&in& to man$ind. peacefu" %ords. p"ain unadorned %ords. revi"in&. and e"e&ant %ords ?uttered p. The Buddhist .D.8 8. a#use. %hich succeeded them. stea"in&. . sins %i"" rush upon him "i$e %ater to the sea. The Ten virtues and Ten vices—The cause of human stupidit/ is in the passions—The *ive prohi#itions—The Ten prohi#itions—K"aproth5s praise of Buddhism—But it is atheistic. If a #ad man #ecomes sensi#"e of his fau"ts. his sin %i"" da/ #/ da/ diminish and #e destro/ed. ma"ice. and ho"din& erroneous opinions. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. BECSB San-kiau-yi-su. havin& man/ fau"ts. #ut a aviour—. merc/. and adu"ter/Q four of the "ips—s"anderin&. and 8fo""/8 ?ch‘ï@.8 In the %or$ Kiau-ch‘eng-+a-shu. THE BUDDHIST MORAL SYSTEM. ti"" he o#tains fu"" en"i& p. /ie"din& %ords. and fo""/. and unprofita#"e conversation.r. s"ander. !ard/.. the "ast of %hich inc"udes not #e"ievin& in 8the !onoured Three8 ?)uddha. !ordern5s praise of Buddhism in Birmah—The Birmese inte""ectua""/ inferior to the Chinese—Kindness to anima"s $no%n to the Chinese #efore the/ received Buddhism—Buddha5s reasons for not eatin& f"esh. BEHSB Chï-yue-lu.aradise of the >estern heaven—*i&urative interpretation of this "e&end—The contemp"ative schoo" identifies &ood and evi"—No mora" distinctions in the Nirv9na—Buddhism has fai"ed to produce hi&h mora"it/—The Confucianist condemnation of the Buddhists—. a 8pure and virtuous "ife8 ?+an-hing@. and #e"on&in& to the former c"ass. BKKSB T‘ien-t‘ai-shan-chï. DKD. The opposites of these are the Ten virtues. The vices areS three of the #od/—$i""in&. $harma.ora" /stem acred Texts Buddhism Index . BEE CHAPTER I . #ut a""o%s his heart to #e at Chinese&)uddhism. The 8Boo$ of *ort/2t%o ections.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. at sacred2texts.Footnotes BKDSB The 8Red %a"". BET %ith a vicious intention@Q three of the mind—3ea"ous/. truthfu" %ords.8 so ca""ed from its co"our and precipitous appearance. T!+ #oo$s of primitive Buddhism exhi#it a hi&her mora" tone than is found in the "ar&er %or$s fu"" of metaph/sica" a#stractions.BETC<. The three sins of the mind he states to #e—covetousness. the three vices of the mind are descri#ed as—covetousness. if he does not repent. and scepticism. a#andons them and acts virtuous"/. . BEKSB Re&u"ations of the TJien2tJai2$iau.ora" inf"uence of the . hatred. "/in&. . in the "itur&ica" %or$ ca""ed Ta-pei-ts‘an. a#stinence from :uarre""in&. in descri#in& the Buddhism of Ce/"on. NextS Chapter IN. In the same %or$ Buddha sa/sS 8That %hich causes the stupidit/ and de"usion of man is "ove and the desires. Bio&raph/ in T‘ien-t‘ai-han-chï. >hen vice has thus #ecome more po%erfu" it is sti"" harder than #efore to a#andon it. BKKSH (. BEASB Fa-hwa-hwei-i. and therefore this praise shou"d #e :ua"ified—Kindness to anima"s #ased on the fiction of transmi&ration—Buddhism teaches compassion for sufferin& %ithout incu"catin& o#edience to divine "a%— tor/ of ha$/amuni— in not distin&uished from miser/—Buddhists teach that the mora" sense is innate—The/ assi&n a mora" nature to anima"s—The ix paths of the metemps/chosis—!indoo notions of heaven and he""—Count"ess a&es of 3o/ and sufferin&—+xamp"es—+xemption from punishment &ained #/ meritorious actions—Ten $in&s of future 3ud&ment—*ate or Karma—Buddhism depreciates heaven and the &ods—Buddha not 1od. a"ms&ivin&.8 trans"ated in the first centur/. states the four sins of speech to #e—"/in&. hatred.

But the prince. The dis&uised Deva then ascended into the air and disappeared.@ not to drin$ %ine. >hen the priest appears at the door.8 In !ard/5s #anual& o+&)uddhism. as at TJien2tJun&. !ere he "ived as a hermit for six /ears. But much more &ood %ou"d have #een done if the/ had rested on a #etter #asis. or "/in&. Other "ists of prohi#itions mi&ht #e transcri#ed amountin& to t%o hundred and fift/. The son of a Deva came do%n to praise the #eaut/ of the &ardens and &roves. are p"aced to preserve them from death.@ "/in&Q ?D. The prince as$ed in each case the reason of %hat he sa%. it is to de"iver men from sufferin&. then ei&hteen /ears o"d. or s"anderin&. and sma"" she""2fish. BTG of #irth in heaven throu&h $eepin& the ten prohi#itions. "est in so doin& the/ shou"d cause death to some deceased re"ative or ancestor %hose sou" animates the insect. BTC . (ccordin& to the vie% thus presented of the &reat o#3ect of Buddha5s teachin&.The discip"e of Buddha. and their effects on the character of nations.@ adu"ter/Q ?F.eop"e must &ro% o"d. K"aproth affirms that. p. 1oats and other "and anima"s are a"so &iven over sometimes to the care of the mon$s. and #een supported #/ a different vie% of the future state. and #ecame prepared for the office he %as to assume. BTH and $no%s ho% to act on the occasion. This %as the side the Buddhists too$ in their controversies %ith the Brahmans in India. the "itt"e #ird. is not 1od. or ho"din& fa"se opinions. !e said. This accords %ith the anecdote a"read/ re"ated of ha$/amuni in his /outh. The $in& sent him %ith a %ise minister to attend him. ( Deva appeared at one of the cit/ &ates transformed into an o"d man restin& on a staff.@ stea"in&Q ?C. 5#/5 ?par@ matter %hich does not exist except in i""usion. !e sa/sS 8The %i"d nomades of Centra" (sia have #een chan&ed #/ it into amia#"e and virtuous men.@ praisin& one5s2se"f and defamin& othersQ ?E. seein& a Deva dressed as a mon$.@ id"enessQ ?F. %hich ascri#es the same immorta" sou" to anima"s that it does to man. The Ten vices are . the Ten prohi#itions are identified %ith the Ten vices.@ $i""in&Q ?H. 8( hamen B %ho has "eft the %or"d.8 constant"/ app"ied #/ the Buddhist priests and common peop"e of China to the preservation of the "ives of anima"s. and deathQ he therefore "eft the %or"d to see$ truth and save "ivin& #ein&s.@ not to $i""Q ?H. (t another &ate a Deva appeared as a sic$ person in pain and he"p"ess. ha$/amuni is said to have &one throu&h the air on horse#ac$ t%o hundred and fift/ mi"es to Ba&a..riesthood@.para&raph continues< !ima"a/as. This is done #/ persuadin& them to enter on the monastic or hermit "ife. #ut the/ do not ho"d that one supreme spirit ru"es over the %ho"e co""ection of %or"ds. and the next da/. B/ the Chinese Buddhists each %or"d is he"d to #e presided over #/ an individua" Buddha. and refusin& to #e correctedQ ?BG. or stea"in&. and act in o#edience to the directions of Buddha. that the prince his son %ou"d %ish to a#andon the %or"d.@ improper associationQ ?D. %here ever/thin& fascinatin& %as p"aced to $eep him from such a purpose. a mountain #e"on&in& to the p. %hether he enters a monaster/ or %ears the prescri#ed dress and continues in the fami"/. five evi"s to #e avoided are mentioned—viR.@ revi"in& the Three . avoided the necessit/ of admittin& a supreme 1od. sic$ness. o"d a&e. tortoises.recious Ones. and even hi&her num#ers. #/ ascri#in& the creation. and cou"d not #e avoided. he dismounted from his horse and as$ed him %ho he %as. The prince %as not satisfied. p. This s/stem "oo$s on man$ind as invo"ved in miser/ rather than &ui"t.8 The prince as$ed him %h/ he had "eft the %or"d. 1ood has resu"ted dou#t"ess in man/ instances from the prominent exhi#ition made #/ this s/stem of the virtues and vices enumerated. must p"ed&e himse"f to the five fo""o%in& thin&sS— ?B. The mon$s are ve&etarians for the same reasons.@ not to commit adu"ter/Q ?F. 8The five prohi#itions. K"aproth. These are ca""ed 5u-kiai.recious Ones8 ?Buddha. or committin& adu"ter/. f"ies to receive the &ift. The rep"/ %as. On this account the correspondin& virtue is stated to #e +ang-sheng. (t nineteen.@ not to "ieQ ?D. a %or$ of the 1reat Deve"opment schoo" in the Discip"ine division. and must die. The/ a#stain from f"esh #ecause the/ %i"" not share in the s"au&hter of "ivin& #ein&s. The crime of $i""in& rests chief"/ on the doctrine of metemps/chosis. and the . (t another &ate he sa% a corpse attac$ed #/ ravens—a"so a Deva.@ se""in& %ineQ ?A. and its #eneficent inf"uence has #een fe"t even in Northern i#eria. 8to save "ife. The %ise counse""or to"d him these sufferin&s came from the natura" state of the %or"d. as a re%ard for reverencin& the 8Three . #rou&ht #/ %orshippers of Buddha.@ &am#"in&Q ?C. In the comment on the Fan-wang-king. *aithfu" Buddhists are to"d not to $i"" the "east insect. or eatin& f"esh. individua"ised under innumera#"e forms. ho%ever. In the %or$ Kiau-ch‘eng&+a-shu. erected for him three pa"aces. In the Buddhist account of human sins and duties no o#"i&ation is inc"uded except the dut/ of "essenin& the sum of human miser/ and promotin& happiness. or deceivin&.8 a Deva informs Buddha that he %as #orn in the 8heaven of the Thirt/2three Devas8 ?that of Indra ha$ra@. or covetin&.@ drin$in& intoxicatin& "i:uorsQ ?H. 8The #oo$ p.@ spea$in& of others5 fau"tsQ ?K. 8the universe is animated #/ a sin&"e spirit. #ecause he sa% men exposed to the evi"s of #irth. sna$es. to feed a #ird %ith a fe% &rains of rice 3ust #efore the mornin& mea" has commenced.reserver. !is father. the universa" Creator and . assisted #/ the Devas. . near Nin&po. for not inf"ictin& death.8 The #eneficent inf"uence of this re"i&ion %ou"d have #een much &reater had it reco&nised the "ove and fear of 1od as the first of a"" the virtues.8 This spirit.@ an&er. the Ten prohi#itions are stated to #eS—?B.@ fre:uentin& p"aces of amusement. Buddhism. or drin$in& %ine. %hich is %atchin& in the nei&h#ourhood. in %hich fish. the )a%. The/ a"so construct reservoirs of %ater near the monasteries. %ished to &o out and see the cit/. *or these it %i"" #e sufficient to refer to the %or$s a"read/ mentioned. remem#erin& the fore%arnin& of a hermit. #/ ChM2hiI. BTB (theism is one point in the faith of the outhern Buddhists. the Buddhists and the other !indoos.@ not to stea"Q ?C. and separated from the %or"d #/ !is ever"astin& persona"it/. In the %or$ ca""ed Sheng-t‘ien-shïh-kiai-king. must suffer from sic$ness. and it is a custom in some monasteries. accordin& to. and destruction of the %or"d to an ever2chan&in& fate. #ut in the text the prohi#itions are &iven as in the "ast :uotation. continuance. ?B.@ parsimon/ 3oined %ith scoffin&Q ?T. spea$s of Buddhism as #ein& of a"" re"i&ions next to Christianit/ in e"evatin& the human race. havin& in vie% these mora" precepts.

Re"i&ious %orship. The decree #/ %hich men are #orn into the ix states of the metemps/chosis is mere"/ that of fate. or made an offerin& to him. are punished in a simi"ar %a/. -et the/ do not mean #/ this %i"fu" sin. emp"o/in& one . (fter a thousand $a"pas more he %i"" a&ain #ecome a man. admit the existence of conscience. after a thousand kalpas #ecome an anima". uch are a fe% specimens of the doctrine of retri#ution as tau&ht to the popu"ar mind. that to meet Buddha and #e instructed. or a Buddha. dra%n from a future state of retri#ution in this s/stem. to #e #orn in the time of a &ood $in&.rather to #e re&arded as fau"ts. is decided #/ the Buddhists.@ 8he""8 ?nara$a@Q ?D. so that no unp"easant sound ma/ enter their ears. a c"ose connection %ith 8sin8 ?tsui@. and. #ut it is a"so "i$e"/ to induce those %ho are thus tau&ht to "oo$ "enient"/ on their o%n vices as ori&inatin& so"e"/ in the inf"uences of the outside %or"d. are punished %ith an a#ode in the p"ace of sufferin& ca""ed 5u-kien-ti-yü. BTF in#orn mora" sense. expressed in the %ords yin-kwo. and cannot #e made to understand mora" distinctions %ithout it. >hen the state of man has #een attained. if the authorit/ of 1od %ere reco&nised as the &reat reason for actin& %e""—the source of mora" o#"i&ation. a fi"ia" dau&hter.8 If an/ p. The/ ma/ #e said to appea" to a natura" conscience. is further increased #/ its assi&nin& the same ori&ina""/ &ood nature to each mem#er of the anima" creation that it does to man. and it is on"/ #/ fa""in& into evi" ha#its su#se:uent"/ that the/ #ecome vicious. and the true character of sin #e more fe"t #/ the peop"e.para&raph continues< ?&ods@Q ?H. The common peop"e in China. in comp"iment to human nature. the !indoo $in& of death. Or the/ refer the ca"amit/ to the sins of a former "ife. The effect of Buddhism in part %as to ur&e the Chinese mind to see in !eaven on"/ impersona" and materia" po%er. Their punishment %i"" "ast for ten mi""ions of mi""ions of kalpas. and the restoration of direct communication %ith 1od #/ the for&iveness of sin. is chan&ed into an instrument for ac:uirin& various $inds of materia" happiness. indeed. and %oundin&. she %i"".8 or. or repeated that Bodhisatt%a5s name. The o#3ects for %hich the common peop"e in China %orship in the Buddhist temp"es are a"most a"" of a ver/ inferior nature. is difficu"t. The :uestion that has #een raised #/ +uropean mora"ists as to %hether man has from his natura" constitution an p.@ hun&r/ &hostsQ ?A. or stea"in& from a mon$. see in ever/ attac$ of sic$ness. Buddha saidS 8To "eave the three evi" states is difficu"t. %hether virtuous or vicious. The motives to %e""2doin&. 8cause and effect. %hose phraseo"o&/ is extensive"/ infected %ith Buddhist ideas. This is an examp"e of the mode in %hich the #etter tendencies of the Buddhist s/stem are neutra"ised #/ its omissions. into %hich men fa"" from de"usion and i&norance. #/ the Confucianists and the Buddhists. B in a discourse de"ivered in the heaven of Indra ha$ra. that it can #e attained #/ repentance and meritorious actions. (n/ one %ho s"anders or ridicu"es a %orshipper of this Bodhisatt%a %i"" #e transported to the 8(vichi nara$a8 ?. The first three are assi&ned to the &ood. H The existence of a s/stem of virtues and vices sho%s the operation of conscience on the ma$er of it. and in conse:uence performed an act of praise or %orship. 8-ama8 ? en-lo@ ho"ds a hi&h p"ace as the administrator of the punishments of he"". Its mora" precepts. %ith natura" &oodness. and that this princip"e of &ood is on"/ prevented from ma$in& men virtuous and happ/ #/ contact %ith the %or"d and the de"usions of the senses. as treadin& on an insect. o#scures its true character as the 3ud&e #et%een ri&ht and %ron&. the/ sha"" have hundreds and thousands of spirits to protect them da/ and ni&ht. . %hich ou&ht to concern the recover/ of man to pure virtue. BTD . %hen the/ teach that a"" men have %ithin them a &ood mora" nature. and offer incense. (nd to te"" men that the/ are natura""/ &ood is not on"/ assumin&. that %hatever &ood man or %oman heard the name of Ti2tsan& Bodhisatt%a. or misusin& paper that has the native characters upon it. the/ %i"" #e re"eased. %ou"d have more po%er. thou&h %ithout ho"din& a controvers/ on the su#3ect. or in chi"dhood. 8If a %oman %ith an u&"/ countenance and sic$"/ constitution pra/s to this Bodhisatt%a. and its recompense kwo ?fruit@. or #rea$in& the vo%s. >hen this is attained. The mora" action is ca""ed yin ?cause@. ("" #ein&s. ( definite amount of &ifts and %orship %i"" &ain the remova" of a correspondin& amount of sin and its attendant sufferin&. !e %i"" then #e #orn a %anderin& hun&r/ &host. than positive sins. and to #e"ieve %ith the heart in the Three !onoured Ones. The same Bodhisatt%a te""s the mother of Buddha. !ence the/ re&ard themse"ves as more to #e pitied than #"amed for the tsui or 8sin8 of %hich their i"" fortune &ives evidence. #e #orn %ith a #eautifu" countenance. and in other misfortunes. %astin& rice2crum#s. to #e #orn in the fami"/ of a Bodhisatt%a. It is eas/ to see that such sensua" conceptions of the future existence of man must de&rade the common notions of the peop"e on dut/ and virtue. unti" saved #/ the teachin& of Buddha. #ut some improper act done unconscious"/. are a"" difficu"t. or %oundin& the person of Buddha. "anderin& the Three . %ho resides in the paradise 3ust mentioned. Nine others are 3oined %ith him of Chinese ori&in. can o#tain the rescue of a mother from he"". Buddhism shoo$ the faith of the Chinese in !eaven as a persona" ru"er. are derived from the !indoo popu"ar account of heaven and he"".recious Ones. The opinion the Buddhists ho"d on the for&iveness of sin is. In the popu"ar vie% of the future state. continue to #e re2#orn in one of these six states. for a mi""ion of kalpas. B in %ords or #/ imp"ication. to #e #orn in Centra" India is hard. that Udiso#edience to parents. The/ are ca""ed the Ten $in&s. ho%ever. To have the senses and mind and #od/ a"" sound is hard. or dre% a picture of him.8 !e continues to sa/. that a"" men are #orn &ood.@ 8(suras8 ?monsters@Q ?F. The identification of conscience. Thus the &ood effect of its mora" teachin& %as neutra"isedQ and then the Chinese had &ood mora" teachin& #efore. Buddha said. This is simi"ar to the Confucian doctrine. Thus. and put the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as in the p"ace of that persona" ru"er. or dishonourin& the sacred #oo$s. the "atter three to the %ic$ed. %ith s"a/in&. as the use of that s/stem in mora" instruction invo"ves an appea" to conscience in the discip"e. The/ ho"d that sin is the cause of sufferin&. as the source of mora" o#"i&ation.@ menQ ?C. such a person %ou"d certain"/ #e #orn in the heaven of Indra ha$ra.ost s/stems of mora"s.-pi&ti-yü@ ti"" the end of this kalpa. a fact that shou"d #e proved. Then their sin #ein& compensated for #/ sufficient sufferin&. The fee#"eness of the Buddhist appea" to conscience. BTA men or %omen perform music #efore the ima&e of the same deit/. sin&.@ anima"s. #/ a certain num#er of da/s spent in %orshippin& a Bodhisatt%a. The %ic$ed at death are conducted to them to receive 3ud&ment. &ood as most of them are. in the affirmative. to "eave the fema"e sex and #e #orn in the ma"e. The ix "ife2paths into %hich "ivin& #ein&s can #e #orn are—?B.@ 8Devas8 p. #ecause a"" men possess it.

as he thin$s. These notions on"/ come into existence throu&h the imperfection of the present state. on adoptin& this mode of commentin& on the fa#"e of the >estern heaven. The mass of the peop"e have &ained from it the notion of a future retri#ution. founded #/ Bodhidharma. 8causation. as an o#3ect of popu"ar %orship.arshman of erampore@ for sa/in&. >hat virtue the peop"e have amon& them is due to the Confucian s/stem. and such a representation is in accordance %ith !indoo notions. #/ a#andonin& the Nirv9na in favour of a sensua" heaven. It ma/ #e said that a para""e" #et%een 1od and Buddha %ou"d #e more 3ust. mora" or ph/sica". nor to act as the 3ud&e of man$ind. The/ disappear a"to&ether %hen an escape from it is effected. the distinction of vice and virtue is "ost. and at rest. BTK factor on"/. No thorou&h2&oin& discip"e of Confucius %ou"d thin$ this "an&ua&e too stron& if on"/ Buddhism #e 3ud&ed from the standpoint of po"itica" and socia" mora"it/. cannot #e considered a stron& one. ure"/ if the Confucianist cannot see ho% the mon$. It is common for inte""i&ent priests in China of the contemp"ative schoo" to defend their s/stem of ido"atr/ #/ sa/in& that the/ do not %orship ima&es themse"ves. pure. p. administered #/ a mora" fate. a terror to the $in&s of the Devas. . Re"i&ion #ein& pure"/ a matter of the heart. is not in opposition to ethica" distinctions. But Buddha is a %or"d2#orn man. and particu"ar"/ the "otus. %hen the Devas and their fe"icit/ are s/stematica""/ depreciated. the Christian a"so ma/ #e permitted to criticise %ith severit/ a s/stem %hich denies the authorit/ of 1od. ("" actions are the same to him. >hi"e such is the character of Buddha as he is descri#ed in #oo$s. and to rise #/ Buddha5s teachin& to that perfection %here ever/ such diversit/. The description of this paradise consists entire"/ of thin&s p"easin& to the senses. 8Unhappi"/ for man$ind. has on"/ provided them %ith a convenient means for char&in& their sinfu"ness and their misfortunes on a former "ife. The music means the harmon/ of virtues in the mind. not an authoritative superior. This exemp"ifies ho% %hat is re&arded as a hi&h"/ virtuous action in the common peop"e.8 These modes of expression are not. BTE ( #rief notice %i"" here #e ta$en of the ethica" vie%s of some of the Chinese sects. !e simp"/ aims to raise himse"f a#ove a"" the common fee"in&s of human "ife. in the Curse&o+&Kehama. This s/stemQ p. outhe/. %ithout an/thin& definite attached to it. It ma$es #irth in the >estern heaven. dou#t"ess. c"ear. offerin&s. #/ superior $no%"ed&e. It is evident that. the >estern heaven means the mora" nature. ceases to #e so in the case of one %ho. The ro%s of trees mean the mind cu"tivatin& the virtues. o in Chinese Buddhist temp"es. virtue and vice occup/ an inferior position. he is. The motive to a &ood "ife. has fai"ed to produce hi&h mora"it/ amon& its p. the a#ode of (mita#ha Buddha. the visitor sees the hi&hest of ce"estia" #ein&s "istenin& hum#"/ to Buddha.p. 81ood actions8 are a"so sometimes ca""ed yin-yuen. In fact. and amuses the ima&ination %ith the most monstrous fictions of the unseen %or"d and of the future state. a"thou&h a man. The o#3ect of his "ife and teachin& is to rescue "ivin& #ein&s from their miser/. as the/ are in Buddhism. and &radua""/ attains the Nirv9na. identifies the mora" nature of men and anima"s.g. yin-yuen. (ccordin& to this exp"anation. offerin&s and prostrations are rea""/ unnecessar/. 0irtue and vice. "i$e the &reat Bodhisatt%as. (mita#ha means the mind. and a fa"se vie% of the future state. ho%ever. It on"/ aims to enter a hi&her sphere. is to #e excused from heav/ condemnation. %as no% fitted to spread its #anefu" inf"uence to an/ extent. It see$s to attain a sort of Nirv9na even in the present "ife. %ho. The #eautifu" #irds mean the mind #ecomin& chan&ed and renovated. "ife and death. has made some pro&ress to%ards the state of Buddha. dra%n from heaven"/ happiness. and the !indoo deities. !e is not said to create the universe. >e cannot %onder that the Buddhist s/stem of ethics havin& such deficiencies and such fau"ts as have #een pointed out. ome men attain to near"/ the same po%er as the &ods. #ut %hat is the use of this %hen the promised state #e/ond death consists mere"/ of c"ums/ fictionL The metemps/chosis. HGG votaries. pain or p"easure.8 or 8fate8 ?karma@. #ecause the/ u"timate"/ #rin& happiness to the doer. ("" #ein&s shou"d strive to #e freed from them. passes out of the %or"d of de"usion.. teaches man$ind to "oo$ to man instead of to 1od for redemption. The/ are intended for the i&norant %ho cannot comprehend the deeper princip"es of their re"i&ion. to attract men to &ood actions. are a"" condemned to&ether as constitutin& a "o%er state of existence. #/ an/ means too stron& to descri#e the effects of this re"i&ion in China if %e accept the Confucianist vie% of Buddhism. %hether &ood or evi". happiness and miser/. K"aproth comp"ains of 8a %orth/ and "earned +n&"ish missionar/8 ?Dr. #/ penances. has made that persona&e. simp"/ re&arded as a po%erfu" divinit/. !e does not ma$e offerin&s or pra/. . except in the "o%er modes of "ife. It ma/ #e said that it is not correct to institute or imp"/ a para""e" #et%een 1od as !e is in the vie% of the Christian. mean the mind openin& to consciousness and inte""i&ence. to redeem the Tsin&2tu schoo" from the discredit into %hich it had fa""en. and "imited in po%er. (ccordin& to this vie% the consistent Buddhist %i"" offer %orship to no #ein& %hatever. Thus there is no p"ace for ethics. #ut has not contri#uted to ma$e the peop"e more virtuous. the character ascri#ed to Buddha is rather that of a aviour than that of 1od. for nothin& is sin to him. It is a#so"ute and pure i""umination. The Nirv9na does not admit an/ such distinctions as those 3ust mentioned. Krishna. it cannot an/ "on&er #e honest"/ he"d out as a future state of re%ard. confirmed. The f"o%ers. t‘ien@ are a"" morta". %hi"e the/ did not tr/ to prevent its #ein& accepted as rea" #/ the i&norant and unin:uirin&. The tie #/ %hich the discip"e is attached to him is that of vo"untar/ not compu"sor/ o#edience. %ho forsa$es his fami"/ and his duties as a %or$in& citiRen. %i"" #e "ost in unit/. #/ admission into the hi&her re&ion of pure en"i&htenment. To the mind that is &iven up to its o%n a#stract meditations. In the #oo$s of this schoo". ( person %ho attends simp"/ to his o%n heart ma/ revi"e Buddha %ithout sin. the re%ard of virtue. !is attitude to%ards his discip"es is simp"/ that of an instructor. The o#3ect of this fi&urative interpretation of the >estern paradise of (mita#ha %as. In the contemp"ative schoo". !e is simp"/ a teacher of the most exa"ted $ind. and en"i&htened. The 8Devas8 ?or popu"ar !indoo &odsQ in Chinese. . and the teachin& of some en"i&htened instructor. The Tsin&2tu schoo" su#stitutes a paradise of pure"/ Buddhist invention for that of !indoo m/tho"o&/. %ho %ashes a%a/ his sins "i$e others. BTT ho%ever. as in others %here the unrea"it/ of a"" sensi#"e phenomena is maintained. The ori&ina" inventors of the fiction must a"so have had such a notion of it as that here &iven. #ut the founder of the -In2tsJi schoo" in his commentar/ on the 8(mita#ha utra. . the antithetica" states ori&inated in the %or"d of de"usions to %hich %e #e"on&.8 B exp"ains it as fi&urative. The state of man ma/ #e so e"evated as to approach to that of the paradise of the Devas. Buddhism has added to it on"/ ido"atr/. Buddhism . It is popu"ar"/ re&arded as rea". the outer %or"d #ecomes o#"iterated. e.

In the end"ess chan&es of the metemps/chosis. to #e true and 3ust in a"" his dea"in&s.8 It is other%ise in China. HGH mora" code is fee#"eness itse"f compared %ith the Confucianist. Then in re&ard to the po%er of Buddhism to e"evate a peop"e a#ove the vain sho%s of the %or"d and render then devotiona". sa/s. . -et it cannot fair"/ #e denied that #eneficia" effects must fo""o% from the &reat prominence and pu#"icit/ assi&ned to compassion as an attri#ute of Buddha to #e imitated #/ ever/ devout #e"iever. The/ are invaria#"/ conscious of 8mora" fate. havin& no inte""ectua" deve"opment of its o%n. and ordered it to #e chan&ed for a sheep. (mon& the reasons the Buddhists &ive for sparin& the "ife of a"" anima"s. and to this he %as prompted #/ disinterested pit/. nor do the/ sa/ that Buddha has a soverei&n po%er to ma$e "a%s. even in the teachin&.r. from time to time.8 the karma. %itness dai"/ that %hich %ou"d ma$e him crue". Confucianism assumes that pit/ for anima"s is natura" for the human heart. 8Throu&hout Birmah it is a dai"/ thin& to see men. ( %ide"/2extended monastic s/stem does not approve itse"f to the Chinese po"itica" consciousness an/ more than it has done to +uropean &overnments in times of revo"ution. (t present. On"/ in one point it is not so. Boo$s containin& hard metaph/sica" do&ma such as the non2existence of matter. %hi"e Confucianism has ceased to persecute Buddhism.encius moved her residence from the nei&h#ourhood of a #utcher5s shop #ecause she %ou"d not have her #o/. Tsi iuen2%an&. HGB #efore the #irth of Christ men %ere tau&ht #/ the "ife and doctrine of one of the &reatest men %ho ever "ived "essons of the purest mora"it/. "i$e other matters.u#"ic Instruction in Birmah. and he havin& made this "a% it must #e o#e/ed.r. it has never %ithdra%n its indictment a&ainst it on the &round of mora"it/. %hich. The !indoo mind cannot dominate the Chinese mind. independent"/ of the e"ement of inte""ectua" superiorit/. on %hich pit/ for anima"s is often made to rest for its #asis. !ordern. %hich. >ith Buddhist temp"es and mon$s ever/%here. . HGC . or the/ are #ased on do&matised necessit/.. and even the pecu"iar"/ Christian precepts of the for&iveness of in3uries and the mee$ acceptance of insu"t %ere a"read/ tau&ht in the farthest +ast. Their reasons are of a "o%er sort. p.rofessor . the devotions of the mass of the popu"ation is amon& the most interestin& spectac"es in the %ho"e +ast. The mon$s are su#3ect constant"/ to the Confucianist criticism that the/ are not fi"ia" to parents nor usefu" %or$in& mem#ers of the common%ea"th. This the Confucianists %ou"d pro#a#"/ admit.8 . Centuries p. The Chinese inte""ect is stron& and independent in its 3ud&ments. %ith the Thi#etans. .encius made the compassion fe"t #/ a prince. a"" the force of the mora" teachin& of the Chinese is in Confucianism and not in Buddhism. %hich %as done. The mother of . to the Bod race. Bishop Bi&andet B sa/sS UThe Birmese %ant the capa#i"it/ to understand the Buddhist metaph/sics. pervadin& the universe #/ an inevita#"e and uncon:uera#"e p. The Buddhist p. as crue"t/ %i"" cause misfortune. for a #u""oc$ a#out to #e s"au& . Indeed. The sme"" and taste are not c"ean. some of the anima"s used for food. su#3u&ated #oth 1reece and Rome %ithout aid from inte""ectua" superiorit/. the Director of . %hi"e of tender /ears. and their faces turned devout"/ to a distant pa&odaQ %hi"e at the %ee$"/ festiva"s. Thus . Kindness to anima"s is sure to #rin& happiness.8 I 3ust add here that the Confucianists do not a""o% that $indness to anima"s %as first tau&ht them #/ Buddhism. 8The mora" code of Buddhism is one of the most perfect the %or"d has ever $no%n. and chi"dren $nee"in& on the road side. the conc"usion to #e dra%n from the effect of this re"i&ion in the Chinese is ver/ different from that adopted #/ . is #/ the Buddhists treated in a thorou&h"/ uti"itarian and se"fish %a/. If the Buddhist mora" code in itse"f has the po%er to inf"uence a peop"e so far as to render them virtuous and devotiona". It is the mora" sense of the Chinese themse"ves that is ener&etic and inf"uentia" so far as the/ are rea""/ a mora" peop"e. %e sti"" "ac$ the evidence of it. or the fu"" moons. The fo""o%in& are the reasons &iven #/ Buddha for a#stinence from anima" foodS— First. The superiorit/ of !indoo arts and civi"isation he"ped Buddhism to ma$e this con:uest. the Chinese do not accept the teachin& that the sou"s of men mi&rate into anima"s. This. their hands c"asped. UThe poor heathen is &uided in his dai"/ "ife #/ precepts o"der and not "ess no#"e than the precepts of Christianit/. !ordern in re&ard to Birmah. To avoid eatin& m/ re"ations I ou&ht to a#stain. The forei&n resident in China does not %itness the appearance of devotion %hich has %on the admiration of . +ver/ shade of vice %as &uarded #/ specia" precepts. The chi"d %as tau&ht to o#e/ his parents and to #e tender of a"" anima" "ife. !ordern in Birmah.The mora"it/ of Buddhism has received ver/ hi&h praise from more recent %riters. a &round for his exhi#itin& compassion sti"" more for the peop"e he &overned. the/ do not mention the dut/ of not inf"ictin& unnecessar/ pain. the man to "ove his nei&h#our as himse"f. and of the metemps/chosis and metaph/sica" nihi"ism as do&ma. The po%er sho%n #/ Buddhism to %in the faith of the Birmese I shou"d rather trace to the superiorit/ of the !indoo race over the mountain tri#es of the Indo2Chinese peninsu"a. %hi"e the/ %ou"d never a""o% that there is an/ &round to #e"ieve in the Buddhist metemps/chosis. and it does not accept the fictions of Buddhism. This is part"/ #ecause it is entan&"ed #/ the coexistence %ith it of mon$er/ as a "ife. form much more the su#3ect of dai"/ readin&. The char&e of "aRiness and ne&"ect of socia" duties %as made the &round of persecution in former da/s.I""er sa/s. Second. 8The success of Buddhism is in this respect the reverse of the success of Christianit/. and the contemp"ative "ife has no attractions for the countr/men of Confucius. HGF force. ori&inatin& in 4udea. !e had #een distressed at the shudderin& of the #u""oc$ chosen for sacrifice. accepted the !indoo re"i&ion %hen #rou&ht them #/ the Buddhist teachers. and to "oo$ #e/ond the vain sho%s of the %or"d for true happiness. persons in the re"ation to me of an/ of the six divisions of $indred have #ecome.r. %omen.para&raph continues< The/ find it in their o%n ancient #oo$s. The Birmese #e"on&. The sa"vation of mu"titudes from sufferin& is he"d up as his &reat achievement. )ove in its %idest sense of universa" charit/ %as dec"ared to #e the mother of a"" the virtues. Thou&h the Buddhists have &ood precepts the/ are ver/ much ne&"ected. nor do the mon$s cordia""/ maintain it.

8 contains instructions for the o#servance of a"" fasts and festiva"s throu&h the /ear. The sme"" causes fear amon& the various anima"s. 8 acred festiva". Footnotes BTHSB In anscrit. $ay&o+&recei/ing&an&imperial&message&at&the&monastery. To eat anima" food prevents charms and other ma&ica" devices from ta$in& p. at sacred2texts. BTFSH .Third. It is ca""ed Sheng-tsie.-mi-to-king-su-ts‘au. #/ 4oseph +d$ins.a"e/ and those %ho side %ith him. NextS Chapter Chinese&)uddhism. Nationa" festiva"s—*estiva"s in honour of ce"estia" #ein&s—In honour of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as—In honour of characters in Chinese Buddhist histor/— upp"ementa" anniversaries— in&ha"ese Buddhists $eep a different da/ for Buddha5s #irthda/—In the TJan& d/nast/ !indoo astronomers reformed the ca"endar— 1audamsiddha—The %ee$ of India and Ba#/"on $no%n to the Chinese—>ord mit for unda/—. Fourth. BTESB . %ho have attempted to construct a mora" s/stem %ithout a natura" sense of ri&ht and %ron& in man. did not add the certaint/ of the retri#ution of the karma.— ix persons are sent out 8five li8 ?near"/ t%o mi"es@ to p. Not on"/ do the fasts and festiva"s $ept #/ a peop"e point out in succession %ho are the persona&es he"d #/ them in the hi&hest honourQ the/ a"so contain an epitome of the histor/ and doctrines of the re"i&ion the/ #e"ieve. 9mperorCs&(irthday. . ON+ of the most instructive i""ustrations of a re"i&ion is its ca"endar. The Buddhist Ca"endar acred Texts Buddhism Index . N(TION().eacoc$ utra—The !indoo Rahu and Ketu. #ut this is understood and "ies underneath a"" Buddhistic thou&ht. The %or$ ca""ed Ts‘ing-kwei. HGA . 8Re&u"ations of the .ora"it/ is no% accounted for #/ evo"ution. HGD CHAPTER . BTDSB 0ide Ti-tsang-king. The %riter %ho invented these reasons and put them in the mouth of Buddha. #/ )ieu2sM2ta2shM.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. HGHSB ee <ie&de&-audama. *rom it are extracted the fo""o%in& detai"s of anniversariesS— B. p.BETC<. -et a"" the (siatic re"i&ions ma$e it their #asis.8 ha$amanan&a. must #e excepted. The choo" of Dar%in and pencer refuses to accept mora" "a% as eterna". meanin& 8Di"i&ence and cessation.8 9mpressCs&(irthday.—The ceremonia" for this anniversar/ "asts a %ee$. Shramana: #ut accordin& to the commentator on the 8)ife of Buddha. THE BUDDHIST CALENDAR. as an additiona" motive for sho%in& compassion to o#3ects possessed of "ife.8 BTFSB . FBH. em#racin& three da/s #efore and three after the da/ in :uestion. and especia""/ aid in openin& to o#servation the popu"ar re"i&ious "ife.riesthood.

and foreto"d his destin/. he is ca""ed in fu"" ue-kung-t‘ai-yin-tsun-t‘ien-p‘u-sa. honoured Deva and Bodhisatt%a.—The Buddhists sa/. Hu-"ï. Cd&day. Hd&month.ahadevas. >hen the supp"ies of the monaster/ fai". 8(ttained the summit of $no%"ed&e and virtue. HGK !rayer&+or&rain. %ho #ecame a Chinese priest in the TJan& d/nast/. the 8Teacher of the %or"d durin& the present kalpa. of the !indoo o"der m/tho"o&/. Ath&month. or 6aga-ra"a. 8The Bri&ht utra of 1o"den )i&ht. the various Buddhas.@ !%a2$%an&. HFth da/. Oc. This is a "ame defence of %hat is evident"/ a se"f2interested accommodation to popu"ar notions. On its approach. )irthday&o+&#i-li&Fo ?. the sun and moon are addressed as 8Bodhisatt%as8 ?!‘u-sa@.@ Kwan-ti. BDth&day. CGth&day. demons. the 81od of %ar. Fth&month. DEF.—One of the Bodhisatt%as of Northern Buddhism. and the po%er of Buddha is invo$ed to de"iver them. !rayer&to&5ei-to ?0eda@. !ence the name of the service. Four&monthly&+easts. HFth&day.—The %or"d &overned #/ this Buddha is in the +ast. and %as appointed at death to preside over the ve&etarian diet of the mon$s.8 the introductor/ formu"a of %orship. p.8 9clipses&o+&the&Sun&and&#oon. and other divinities.8 The/ receive the same honours that are a%arded to >ei2to. 6amo. and pra/ers offered to the Dra&on $in&. Fth&month. Ra$shas. and &rants the re:uest of a"" those %ho pra/ to him to admit them to the >estern heaven. that the Kitchen &od the/ %orship is not the Tsau2$iIn venerated common"/ #/ the peop"e.—("" the chief persona&es. Ath&month. C. 8Tath9&ata8 or 4ulai.D.aitre/a Buddha@. )irthday&o+&the&+emale&)uddhaB&Chun-ti.—The Deva >ei2to is the protector of the Buddhist re"i&ion. Bst&day. )irthday&o+&.—The &round for this o#servance is that this da/ and Tth monthsQ #ecause then the &reat outhern continent %as pra/ed for.@ Lung-wang. Tth month.—Ditto.aitre/a %as visited in one of the paradises #/ ha$/amuni. )irthday&o+&the&Kitchen&god. HEth da/Q ?H. 8De"iverin& the sun and moon. BCth da/. Bhaisha3/a&uru Buddha@.-mi-to&Fo&or 8*mida8 ?(mita#ha@ )uddha. Tth&month. issue from the monaster/. Ath month. spirits. to rep"enish them. . the moon5s #irthda/. headed #/ their chief. These three persona&es ta$e the p"ace of ei&hteen %orshipped in India.@ )irthdays&o+&the&di/ine&protectors&o+&the&monasteries. (suras. BKth&day. !e is chief &enera" of the arm/ of the four . T!+ BUDD!( (ND BOD!I (TT>( . Fth&day. Hu-yue.—The Buddha %ho is to succeed ha$/amuni in the &overnment of the %or"d. )irthday&o+&5ei-to.—.—!e is a"so ca""ed Buddha. C+)+ TI() B+IN1 $ay&o+&worshipping&the&$e/as ?Kung-T‘ien@. he is pra/ed to. p. !rayer&against&locusts.8 !rayer&+or&+ine&weather.—In the services for these da/s. Dth. in %hich China is inc"uded. Cd&day:&according&to&some&the BCth&day. and 1autama. Eth&day. Sacri+ice&to&the&#oon. and on the Eth and HCd of the month. Cd&month. the 8Dra&on Kin&Q8 ?C. the mon$s. HGE and is revered as !un-shï. (s in the service for ec"ipses. Ath&day. accordin& to nationa" tradition. 8The four feasts i""ustrious"/ decreed. .—The Buddha %ho ru"es in the universe to the %est of that &overned #/ ha$/a. The/ are ca""ed Kin-ming&sï-chai.—The phrase in use is Ch‘eng-tau.—>ei2to is a deit/ of !indoo m/tho"o&/. Eth&month. are %orshipped on this occasion.8 The pra/ers offered for them are considered as &ratitude for their "i&ht. to excuse themse"ves for adoptin& a Tauist superstition.8 Dth month. )irthday&o+&Shakyamuni.8 *nni/ersary&o+&ShakyamuniCs&ele/ation&to&the&rank&o+&)uddha.ra/er to various Buddhas. ? ee Remusat5s Notes to Fo% kou%&ki.—These are at the ne% and fu"" moons. H. )irthday&o+ 85en-shu&p‘u-sa8 ?. Oc. BDth&day.8 *nni/ersary&o+&)uddhaCs&entrance&into&the&6ir/.—Those of the present d/nast/ on"/ are inc"uded. %hether Devas.—The/ are threeS—?B.—To various Devas and spirits. and BHth&month.an3usiri Bodhisatt%a@. Bst&month. accordin& to the common accountQ #ut accordin& to his #io&raph/ in the nationa" anna"s. BHth&month.—>orship is performed to%ards the +ast. re:uirin& the specia" o#servance of the month"/ feasts in the Bst. "uminar/ of ni&ht. 8!onour to.8 The "ast t%o %ords refer to a decree of an emperor of the ui d/nast/ in (.meet it. BBth&month. *nni/ersaries&o+&emperors1&deaths.—1reat po%ers of sorcer/ are attri#uted to this persona&e. Eth&month. %ho protects three of the four continents into %hich the %or"d is divided. !rayer&+or&snow. Eth&day. #ut a $in& of the 8Kinnaras8 ?a fa#u"ous race of ce"estia" #ein&s@. This o#servance rests for its authorit/ on the Kin-kwang-ming-king. )irthday&o+& o-shï&Fo ?The Buddha %ho instructs in hea"in&. and #o% their foreheads to the &round three times. is used in addressin& the moon. HFth&day. One of them is the %e""2$no%n hero of the 8Three Kin&doms. 8The moon in her mansion.

)irthday&o+&the&)odhisattwa 8Lung-shu8 ?6agar"una@. 8the Three a&es of the >est8 ?Si-+ang-san-sheng@.anua" of Buddhist Re&u"ations and *estiva"s.8 Fth&month. First&day&o+&the&year. *nni/ersary&o+&the&death&o+ 8)odhidharma8 ?Ta-mo@. BBth&month.(NNI0+R (RI+ .)+.8 it shou"d #e remem#ered that fema"e attri#utes are on"/ temporari"/ assumed #/ the Bodhisatt%a in :uestion. 8. 5inter&solstice.8 identified %ith the %e""2$no%n Tauist divinit/ ü-ti. )irthday&o+&Ti-tsang&p‘u-sa. U. BGth&month. $eath&o+&the&+ounder&o+&the&monastery. )irthday&o+ 8Kwan-shï-yin&p‘u-sa8 ?(va"X$it`sh%ara@. )irthday&o+&Shakra. BAth&day..—The authorit/ for this festiva" is the ü-lan-p‘en&Sutra. HBG and remained associated under strict monastic ru"e durin& the hot months.—This fa#u"ous Bodhisatt%a has in China #een usua""/ represented %ith fema"e attri#utes.edica" $in& and Bodhisatt%a.—The founder of the TJien2tJai schoo". BDth&day. 81oddess of merc/. >hen Kwan-yin is trans"ated.— pecia" %orship.—( founder of a schoo" #earin& his name.—!e %as the fourteenth patriarch. Ath&day. The method of o#servin& these anniversaries. BCth&day. Tth&day. and as #ein& &uided in such vo"untar/ metamorphoses #/ a constant desire to proc"aim the Buddhist doctrine to those %ho need it. trans"ated into Chinese a#out (. as the precedin& #e&an it.—This anniversar/ is traced to the usa&e of the ear"iest !indoo Buddhists. not inappropriate"/. )irthday&o+ 8 o-wang&p‘u-sa8 ?)h.)irthday&o+ 8!‘u-hien&p‘u-sa8 ? amanta#hadra@. are ver/ minute"/ detai"ed in the #oo$ from %hich these notices are trans"ated. CGth&day.D. Kth&month."a@.8 Kth&month. came to&ether p. The anscrit 5Indra ha$ra5 is rendered in Chinese Ti-shï ?former"/ shak@. BDth&day. Fth&month. BTth&day. &od of the atmosphere. F. Dth&day. Eth&month.isha"yar. Orienta" re"i&ions are so mutua""/ comp"imentar/.—The first of the six patriarchs. Bst&month. HKG. BDth&day. HTth&day. $eath&o+&Hwei-yuen. Bst&month. of the priests %ho admitted him to the vo%s. Kwan-yin is descri#ed as #ein& a#"e to assume an/ form at p"easure. Eth&month. BGth&month. that the/ sometimes adopt each other5s divinities %ithout scrup"e. the/ #e&an their #e&&in& excursions afresh. Kiai-tung@. or Indra. Kth&month. in the form most "i$e"/ to effect the o#3ect. or others.—!e %as a teacher of Bodhidharma5s s/stem in the TJan& d/nast/. )irthday&o+&the&)odhisattwa&Hwa-yen. $eath&o+&Tau-siuen. near the end of the Fa-hwa-king. %hen summer arrived. 8. !e %rote the %or$ Ts‘ing-kwei from %hich these notices of fasts and festiva"s are ta$en. The/ are st/"ed to&ether. BFth&day. %ho. ? ee the 8K%an2/in8 section. Hd&month. D. and Bst&month. 8)i&ht "amp8 ?$ipankara&)uddha@. and advocatin& the 81reat Deve"opment8 s/stem ?Ta-ch‘eng@.—( founder of the Tsin&2tu schoo". HBst&day. . Kth&month. and the pra/ers to #e used. BBth&month. Commencement&o+&summer ?Li-hia@. Kth&month. HFth&day. HGT an/ of the inha#itants of the Saha ?or a#a@ %or"d. BDth&day. i. BGth&month. 8 ü-lan-p‘en8 ?'-lam@ ceremonyB&+or&+eeding&hungry&ghosts.— ha$ra. Devas.8 one of the most noted of the Buddhist hastras. It terminates the summer. In the Fa-hwa-king.—a"so of a priest5s o%n re"i&ious instructor. Commencement&and&end&o+&winter ?Li-tung. 9nd&o+&summer. or 8Dra&on2tree. and of his parents. and author of the 8!undred Discourses. Cd&day.—The position of this Bodhisatt%a is to the ri&ht of (mita#ha Buddha. in the modern editions of !e-chang-ts‘ing-kwei. C!(R(CT+R IN C!IN+ + BUDD!I T !I TOR-. %hi"e K%an2/in ta$es the "eft.e. $eath&o+&!e-Chang. )irthday&o+&the&ancient&)uddha&4an-teng. %hether that of Buddhas. K%an2/in is thus a#"e to save p. the present race of man$ind.. HDth&day.—( fictitious Bodhisatt%a of Northern Buddhism. Hd&month. is. HHd&day. BAth&day. men.@ )irthday&o+&Ta-shï-chï&p‘u-sa. $eath&o+&Hien-sheu. This period over.—( founder of the Discip"ine schoo". BTth&day.+NT(R. $eath&o+&Chï-k‘ai.— ha$/amuni in a former $a"pa %as a discip"e of this Buddha.— pecia" %orship. BHth&month.

84upiterQ8 T‘ai-pe. #ut no attempt has #een made to interfere %ith the Chinese seasons of three months each. iam.ithras. p. NextS Chapter NI.e$in& on one occasion. there is no mention of an/thin& astronomica"Q /et in the TJan& d/nast/ Buddhist ca"cu"ators from India %ere invited to underta$e the improvement of the imperia" ca"endar. there #ein& severa" of the &reat Bodhisatt%as %ho are not mentioned in %or$s #/ forei&n authors treatin& of the Buddhism of those countries. 8. in the ei&hth centur/.r.8 the da/s of the %ee$ are a"so &iven. those of Ce/"on. HBC .revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. . . The education the/ received em#raced a %ide ran&e. >/"ie. This %or$ is a trans"ation #/ a Chinese priest named -i2tsin&. In it the da/s of the %ee$ are apportioned amon& the p"anets in the fo""o%in& orderS ung-hwo.8 The/ constitute the m/tho"o&ica" %ee$ of seven da/s. medicine. Thus the ascendin& and descendin& nodes of the moon5s or#it %ere $no%n as t%o monsters.ercur/Q8 Sui-sing. FG2FD. . It is the %ord ouighour. #ecomin& risi#"e on"/ at ec"ipses. and a""o%ed to ta$e it home %ith us for a fe% da/s. HBB It ma/ #e dou#ted %hether more than a ver/ fe% of them are identica" %ith the festiva"s of the outhern Buddhists. astronom/.arsQ8 Ch‘en-sing.eacoc$ utra8 in the "i#rar/.para&raph continues< >e %ere courteous"/ received. ca""ed 8Rahu8 and 8Ketu. 8. %ith the sun and moon. form the ts‘i-yau. This differs irreconci"a#"/. the Chinese stor/ of a %i"d do& eatin& the sun and moon is derived from this piece of !indoo m/tho"o&/.. In native a"manacs these names are preserved in the nomenc"ature of astro"o&/. 8.r. 80enusQ8 Chen-sing. But add to . In this popu"ar ca" superstitious #e"iefs and o#servances native to India %ere imported to China #/ the !indoo Buddhists. >hen . and the conception is encoura&ed that the earth5s shado% crossin& the moon is a dar$ heaven"/ #od/.r. pu#"ished a %or$ ca""ed Kieu-chï-li. and in pa&e E.BETC<. Lo-heu and Ki-tu.on&o"ia. BEKH. 8 aturn. Re"ation of Buddhism to the O"der !indoo . and Birmah. 8On the Kno%"ed&e of a %ee$"/ a##ath in China.8 pp. 1audamsiddha. This term Hwei-hwei is one of the names for the . and a sort of p"anet of a dar$ nature. the .etaph/sics. ome Chinese a"manacs ca"" unda/ the da/ of #it. and spread to India. and a"so to +urope in the da/s of the Roman empire. >/"ie %as visitin& . .ersian 8./tho"o&/ acred Texts Buddhism Index . In Ce/"on the preva"ent "e&end of 1autama5s "ife states that he %as #orn on the da/ of the fu"" moon in the second month of sprin&. Footnotes HBBSB ee Chinese&Recorder. The Indian /ear of three seasons is descri#ed.The dates are those of the "unar months of the Chinese nationa" a"manac.8 in modern Chinese.ersian "an&ua&e amon& the Chinese. pro#a#"/ much as the/ are no% in the "amaseries of . #/ 4oseph +d$ins.8 a name for the sun. >/"ie5s ver/ fu"" and interestin& statements. The Buddhists have arran&ed their ca"endar of festiva"s and fasts to suit the Chinese months. In the Kung-ch‘io-king. %hich spran& up in Ba#/"onia. p. at sacred2texts. HBH .ithras8 here. (t ec" Chinese&)uddhism.8 B These p"anets. viR. #it is spo$en of as a Hwei-hwei %ord. he %ent %ith me to a monaster/ to consu"t the 8. that #it is 8.eacoc$ utra. and other su#3ects %ere tau&ht in India in the o"d times of Buddhist prosperit/.com p. The/ tau&ht much that %as not at a"" pure"/ Buddhist. 8seven #ri&ht ce"estia" o#3ects. It is a trans"ation from a !indoo ori&ina".

ei&ht/ thousand a"so came.CHAPTER I. ha$ra and Brahma. and man/ notices of the retinues of the $in&s.ost of the names.8 8. . %ith the sacred #oo$s of the Brahmans. %hether &reat or sma"". $in& of the dead—Creation is denied to the !indoo &ods in the Chung-lun and other %or$s. %as a"so there. and their retinue of thirt/ thousand sons of Devas. 4am#udvipa. the four castes.r. 0isitors in Chinese temp"es %i"" have noticed t%o %ar"i$e ima&es on each side. %ith a suite of man/ thousands. There %ere a"so the sons of the Devas Chandra. inc"udin& a"" the !indoo &ods that are mentioned. are omitted for #revit/. in a"" six thousand.ah9pra39pat\@ came %ith fema"e discip"es and their fo""o%ers. in Chinese Buddhist %or$s. 0aishramana is at the head of the -a$shas and Ra$shasas. ha$ra or Indra is met %ith in Buddhist "e&ends more fre:uent"/ than Brahma.8 %here severa" names #/ %hich ha$ra is common"/ $no%n are exp"ained. <ishnu. 8Thus have I heard. and their retinue of t%ent/ thousand. sa/s.8 (ccordin& to the Chinese renderin&. in the Chinese version is one2third shorter than in that of the *rench trans"ator. 8se"f2existent. (3atashatru $in& of . The anscrit names in most instances are ta$en from Burnouf5s trans"ation of the Nepau"ese ori&ina". the existence of the 0edas and their m/tho"o&/ at "east five or six centuries #efore the Christian era must #e re&arded as an esta#"ished fact. contains an extract from the 8Centra" (&ama utra. The "ord of the universe 8 a#a8 ?Saha@.8 8Of Bodhisatt%as. Brahma. that this term is app"ied to hiva and 0ishnu as a tit"e of authorit/Q 8#ut shou"d an/ other of the innumera#"e de/atas #e ca""ed Ish%ara.8 !ere fo""o% the names of man/ of Buddha5s discip"es. The 8Na&as. rendered #/ tsï-tsai. on the mountain 1ridhra$uta. The four #ahara"as.para&raph continues< Indra and -ama.retas—. the descriptive passa&es. Oc. and that the truth of their m/tho"o&/ %as not denied #/ the founder of Buddhism or his fo""o%ers.8 8Their names are . and that the 0edas %ith their re"i&ion. HBF . and Shi/a. The Kinnaras are ce"estia" choristers "oo$in& "i$e horses %ith horned p. >en&er5s "etter. four of the (suras. 8In the %ho"e universe there is #ut one $in&. No m/tho"o&/ perhaps has ever spread so far as the !indoo.utanas. 8 e"f2existent. #ein& mere"/ the discip"e of Buddha. ho%ever. the term is app"ied as a distinctive name to t%o of these de/atas. and is perfect"/ untena#"e %hen recourse is had for information to the Buddhist #oo$s. and these names have thus #ecome $no%n from 4apan to . preside each over one of the four continents into %hich the !indoos divide the %or"d.5 The (psaras are ca""ed T‘ien-nü or 8*ema"e Devas. o far from opposin& the popu"ar #e"ief in such #ein&s as p. Kumara3iva did not scrup"e to pare off the redundancies of this and other %or$s that he trans"ated. HBD heaven5 ?Fan-t‘ien-wang@ a"so came. %ith the t%o &reat Brahmas. HBK . so far as it a&reed %ith its o%n do&mas—The &ods Indra. and at other times transferred. it %ou"d #e an unusua" thin&. a"" of them (rhans. and 1andharvas. some havin& $no%"ed&e and some havin& none. and Ish%ara "isten as discip"es to Buddha—+i&ht c"asses of Devas—*our $in&s of Devas—-a$shas—. or 8)otus of the 1ood )a%. T%o of the principa" !indoo divinities occur in this extract. amanta&andha. for the +astern continent. #ut this is not authorised #/ the text. and disa&rees %ith common usa&e.8 The Devas. %ith their retinues. the/ are inc"uded in the m/tho"o&ica" personnel of the ne% re"i&ion. four $in&s of the Kinnaras. that the four 0edas %ere a"read/ venerated as the sacred #oo$s of the nation. It is often app"ied to others of the chief Devas or &ods %ith distinctive names. +ach "eads an arm/ of spiritua" #ein&s to protect man$ind and Buddhism. )e&&e5s 6otions&o+&the&Chinese&concerning&-od&and&Spirits. In the North. (t the head of the 1andharvas and 0aisha3as is Dhritar9shtra. the Indra of the Devas@. 8There %ere a"so t%o thousand more. On a time Buddha %as residin& at the cit/ 5Ra3a&riha5 ?5ang-she@. formin& as it does a part of the peop"e5s re"i&ion in a"" Buddhist countries. and four of the 1arudas.8 the term =shwara stron&"/ resem#"es the !e#re% name 4eho/ah.ahora&as—.8 and as such is trans"ated into Chinese #/ Ti or Chu. The %ord Ish%ara. Buddhism accepted the !indoo m/tho"o&/. The Buddhist compi"ation. The son of >a\d`h\. %i"" sho% the p"ace assi&ned in the utras of the 1reat Deve"opment c"ass to these fictitious #ein&s.8 in Chinese Fa-hwa-king.ersia. *O))O>IN1 the &uidance of the Buddhist #oo$s. as %e"" as in its mother2"and. his most fre:uent appe""ation. The names of various c"asses of m/tho"o&ica" #ein&s are sometimes trans"ated. the 5Kin& of the Brahma p.para&raph continues< Christian sense. The "atter is the first in the %e""2$no%n triumvirate of &ods. and ca"" for somethin& "i$e an exp"anation. T%o other Brahmas %i"" #e o#served to accompan/ the chief Brahma.8 is the term used #/ missionaries in India for 1od. Co"one" /$es and others have maintained the h/pothesis that Buddhism %as the ori&ina" re"i&ion of !indostan. The inha#itants of the outh. Fa-yuen-chu-lin.8 In the Buddhist passa&e cited a#ove.8 and 8Destro/er.ah`sh%ara5 ?Ta-tsï-tsai-t‘ien@. and from 4ava to the ("tai mountains. . 3ust %ithin the enterin& door. 8)ord8 or 8Ru"er. )rahma. #a-ha-pa-"a-pa-ti B ?. and the anscrit "an&ua&e itse"f %ere a"" invented at a "ater date #/ the Brahmans. are rendered #/ the %ord Lung. H %ith a retinue of t%ent/ thousand sons of Devas. K%an2shM2/in. Then there %ere the sons of the 5Deva Ish%ara5 ?Tsï-tsai-t‘ien@ and of the 5Deva . %ith t%o thousand Bi$shus. This con3ecture has "itt"e to support it from an/ source of evidence. 5Dra&on. and this is he. %hich is perhaps one reason of their permanent popu"arit/. There %ere a"so ei&ht 5Dra&on $in&s5 ?6agara"a@. are ca""ed T‘ien ?!eaven@. indicatin& a difference in the Brahmanica" and Buddhist use of the %ord.8 from their form. Re"i&ious divisions had then a"read/ arisen in the socia" "ife of the !indoos. Devas. (n account of the openin& scene of the Saddharma-pundarika. four of the 1andharvas. or the 8Creator. hi$hin and 4/otishpra#ha. RELATION OF BUDDHISM TO THE OLDER HINDOO MYTHOLOGY. in the p.8 These constitute Buddha5s audience %hi"e he de"ivers the instructions contained in this utra.8 !ere he occupies a hum#"er position. or 81reat $in&s8 of the Devas.8 There came a"so Shak-de-wan-yin ? ha$ra. 0irupa$sha commands an arm/ of 8dra&ons8 ? nagas@ and . *rom them it is c"ear that the Brahmans %ere in anta&onism %ith the s/stem of ha$/amuni from the first. The commentator on the 8*an2%an& utra8 identifies the &reat Ish%ara %ith Brahma. In the >est.an3usiri. inserted in Dr. The %ho"e account. Besides these there %ere the four 81reat $in&s8 of the Devas ? #ahara"a@.reserver. HBA .a&adha ?Bahar@ and father of (shX$a. %ith a suite of ten thousand sons of Devas.aras—-ama. is a term of office. %hich ma$es them different persona&es. are protected #/ 0irudha$a %ith an arm/ of Ku#9ndas. and numerous adherents of a"" castes %ere 3oinin& the ne%"/2raised standard of Buddhism. Indra. and Ratnapra#ha. %ho has fo""o%ed the anscrit text. the (suras. !e adds. The/ are the Devas here a""uded to. In some Chinese temp"es their ima&es are said to form a pair amon& the auditors of ha$/amuni.

a"thou&h the/ inha#it one of the lokas or 8heavens8 of the !indoo cosmo&on/. and hence the custom so preva"ent in China of feedin& the hun&r/ &hosts #oth of re"atives and of others. The . In the Ti-tsang&Sutra. 8he %ho $i""s. *or this the/ "ive and ru"e.aras8 ?#o-kwei@ is ca""ed !o-siün and #o2?#a@ wang. d%e""in& in so"itar/ %oods and mountain ho""o%s. >hen the/ appear to men it must #e in their o%n form. from the dra&ons do%n%ards.8 . The unexamp"ed viciousness of the recent !indoo %orship %ou"d a"so he an insupera#"e #ar to its adoption in China. and is attended #/ man/ thousand p. %ho 3ud&e men and %omen respective"/. The %ord shen is a"so used &enerica""/ for the ei&ht c"asses of #ein&s #efore mentioned. #ut the ma3orit/ are adopted %ithout a"teration. or in the "an&ua&e of idea"ism the causation of a"" sensationa" phenomena. nor of the &od 80ishnu8 ?<e-nu&$e/a: a"so %ritten <e-shi-nu@Q nor did concourse and commixture. %hen in the utras the/ appear #efore Buddha. ma/ #e #orn at some future period to #ecome their successors. . and feed on the f"esh of the dead ? /ide !ard/5s #anual&o+&) of them former"/ #e"on&ed to the %or"d of men. in !indoo m/tho"o&/ the ru"er of the dead.aras are enemies of Buddha5s doctrine. HBE #odies are interred. 8he"". and incredi#"e. to the Tau2"i heaven. It %i"" #e o#served that a"" these #ein&s. Bein&s inferior to the Devas are ca""ed co""ective"/ the 8+i&ht c"asses8 ? !a-pu@. kwei. nothin& can a"ter or postpone it. It &ives to the %ise man the honour that is due on"/ to 1od. fai"ed to perceive that the creation and &overnment of the universe are united in one a""2%ise eterna" mind. Their po%er is &reat.heads. ome names are ne%. The usua" !indoo name ma/ #e reco&nised in en-ma and em-ma. it must #e supposed that the extended popu"ar %orship of #oth these %e""2$no%n deities %as su#se:uent to the time %hen the Buddhist #oo$s %ere %ritten. ome are condemned #/ -ama to certain prisons. such as the modern hiva and Dur&a. !e ma/ #e pointed to as the most remar$a#"e examp"e of the inf"uence of !indoo m/tho"o&/ on the popu"ar mind of China.para&raph continues< !indoo m/tho"o&/ has #een spread in China. The ver/ hi&hest acts of deit/. Others haunt the &raves %here their former p. his name constant"/ occurs in the conversation of the common peop"e in China. (mon& such are rec$oned—as a Buddhist %or$ :uoted in the Fa-yuen-chu-lin informs us—the shen or 8&enii8 of mountains. The ear"/ Buddhist apo"o&ists. or minute atoms. do not occur. of a &ood disposition. such as the creation of a"" thin&s. Their authorit/ as ru"ers of the %or"d is sti"" reco&nised. in some instances. over %hich Fan-t‘ienwang ?. often represented as ma"i&nant in their disposition to%ards man. The/ #e"ieve that he fixes the hour of disso"ution. The $in& of the 8. Other !indoo &ods. 4am-ma-ra"a means the 8Ro/a" pair. The . and #e 3ud&ed #/ him %ith the strictest impartia"it/. The -a$shas are a species of demons "ivin& in the earth and %aters. to hear ha$/amuni Buddha de"iver a utra there. Devas. or chan&e. it shou"d #e remem#ered that the Tauists have copied from the Buddhist #oo$s in the most s"avish manner. he is descri#ed as comin& from the iron mountain %a"" %here the Buddhist he"" is situated. The/ promote virtue and the Buddhist re"i&ion. %hich are other desi&nations app"ied to him in Chinese #oo$s. or necessit/. inc"udin& the most venerated and po%erfu" of the &ods. the !indoo vie% of the universe. The 1andharvas are a"so musicians %ho p"a/ and sin& for the amusement of the Devas.8 The $in& of the kwei or 8demons8 is -ama. are denied them. constant"/ used shen for 8sou". #ut it is surpassed #/ that of Buddha. 8demon. un"ess concea"ed under names %hich c"oser examination ma/ decipher. !e is c"assed amon& the sons of Devas. and that the decision once made.retas. The . The %ord #ara is exp"ained. in p"eadin& for the immorta"it/ of the sou" as a part of the doctrine of metemps/chosis. on occasions %hen a"" the chief persons in the universe are present. cause the creation of the universe. in Chinese.ahora&as are the &enii of the "ar&e serpent ca""ed in Chinese the . #ut nothin& open"/ opposed to &ood mora"it/. and other natura" o#3ects.8 a #rother and sister. and is ver/ fre:uent"/ emp"o/ed #/ the Buddhists for the sou" of man. The 8Centra" hastra8 ?Chung-lun@ sets out %ith provin& that creation %as not the act of the &reat 8 e"f2existent &od8 ?=shwara&$e/a@. (suras. are introduced as discip"es of Buddha. %ith its numerous c"asses of #ein&s hi&her than and inferior to man. and are connected %ith ec"ipses ? /ide !ard/5s #anual&o+&)uddhism@. The . The com#ination of ascetic eminence and profound phi"osoph/ in ha$/amuni raise him to a position hi&her than an/ of them. #ut Buddhism #/ a simp"e stretch of the ima&ination ma$es a universe a thousand times as "ar&e to form the $in&dom of Buddha. and men #/ certain virtuous acts %hich are specified. The 8Brahmas8 ?Fan: former"/ )am.aras fi&ure in the %ritin&s of this native sect. perhaps more than in an/ other sense. seas. and its mu"tip"icit/ of %or"ds. The !indoos havin& #ecome acute metaph/sicians. (ssociated %ith -en2"o are nine $in&s %ho preside to&ether over the state of the dead. The/ "ive in the forest of !im9"a. The Ra$shasas resem#"e the -a$shas. or <am@ are the inha#itants of the heaven ca""ed 8Brahma2"o$a8 ?Fan-t‘ien@. !is ima&e is p"aced %ith theirs in temp"es. In formin& an estimate of the extent to %hich the o"der p. In the Buddhist vie%. Bein&s of ever/ ran$ in earth or heaven confess their inferiorit/ to the human Buddha #/ #ecomin& his hum#"e and attentive auditors. The/ ma$e %ar %ith the Devas.8 are the inha#itants of the narakas or 8su#terranean8 and 8other prisons8 ca""ed ti-yü. accompanied %ith various representations suited to remind the spectator of the %or"d of torment. It "oo$ed no further than the %isdom of a human sa&e. The 1arudas are &o"den2%in&ed #irds %ho are "ar&e enou&h to devour the Na&as. HHG .8 The kwei are. !e is ca""ed en-mo-lo-she ?former"/ 4am-ma-la-"a@. ince neither 0ishnu nor hiva occur amon& the auditors of Buddha. or the nature of thin&s. The (suras are #ein&s of &i&antic siRe. has #ecome the common #e"ief of the Chinese peop"e. some for happiness. In such a countr/ on"/ %hat is decorous in the ima&es and %orship of an/ sect cou"d #e to"erated. and others for torment.retas. Brahmas. The/ are ca""ed 6ats #/ the Birmese. In the Buddhist #oo$s of China there is a#undance of %hat is pueri"e. Buddhism.aha#rahma@ or the chief Brahma presides. %hi"e it thus aimed to find some inte""i&ence and po%er hi&her than those of the popu"ar divinities. These various #ein&s. HBT $in&s of demons. these deities are a"so su#3ect to death. On this account the/ are considered as demons. and as$ for instruction "i$e an/ other of his auditors. *urther on in the same %or$ other names occur. and %ithin the Christian era. or time. hun&er for food. perform to him an act of %orship. superstitious. B/ the com#ined inf"uence of these t%o re"i&ions. and it is a"" emp"o/ed to extend his fame and doctrines. The rise of their %orship in India %as at too recent a date to a""o% of their #ein& introduced into the ear"/ Buddhist "iterature. and the innate &oodness and se"f2e"evatin& po%er of the human mind. The common peop"e a"" expect to meet en-lo-wang ?-ama@ after death. #ut the/ have not the po%er "i$e them to assume an/ shape at p"easure. and . The pra/er2#oo$s used in chantin& #/ the Tauist priests are from #e&innin& to end an imitation of the Buddhist utras. *rom his office as 3ud&e of future punishments. %hich is a##reviated to en-lo. thou&ht themse"ves superior to ever/ #ein& in the universe. Rama and a"so 8the cu"prit.

Footnotes HBFSB This %as ha$/amuni5s aunt, %ho too$ care of him %hen an infant at the death of his mother. he #ecame a "eader in the fema"e propa&anda of Buddhism, and acted a conspicuous part in the scene of Buddha5s entrance into the Nirv9na. HBFSH $e-wan is 8the Devas.8 in is 8Indra.8

NextS Chapter NII. The Buddhist Universe acred Texts Buddhism Index ,revious Next

Bu/ this Boo$ at (

Chinese&)uddhism, #/ 4oseph +d$ins, ;BETC<, at

p. HHB


THE BUDDHIST UNIVERSE. The universe passes throu&h incessant chan&es—Kalpas of various "en&ths—Kalpas of esta#"ishment, of destruction, Oc.— aha %or"d— umeru mountain—The outhern continent is 4am#udvipa—!eaven of the thirt/2three—Tushita paradise—Upper tier of paradises—!eavens of form and of desire—!eavens %ithout form— Brahma5s paradise—No %ise man is #orn there, #ecause Brahma sa/s he created the universe—The he""s— tor/ from the 8Ti2tsan& utra.8 T!+ universe, accordin& to the Buddhists, is in a constant state of chan&e. The periods in %hich its chan&es ta$e p"ace are ca""ed kalpas ?kie-po or kie.@ +i&ht/ sma"" kalpas ma$e one "ar&e kalpa. The inha#itants of the Brahma heaven "ive throu&h t%ent/ sma"" kalpas, and their chief, .aha#rahma, throu&h sixt/. Kalpas are divided into the sma"" kalpa, the kalpa of esta#"ishment and destruction, and the &reat kalpa. In the sma"" kalpa, the a&e of man$ind diminishes from an immeasura#"e "en&th to ten /ears, and then increases to a "en&th of from ten to ei&ht/ thousand /ears. In t%ent/ of such periods the %or"d is comp"eted. Throu&h t%ent/ more it remains in the same state. (fter t%ent/ more the %or"d is destro/ed, and there remains nothin& #ut vacanc/ durin& t%ent/ more. The first fort/ mean kalpas ma$e up the kalpa of esta#"ishment. The other fort/ compose that of destruction. ("" of them ta$en to&ether form a &reat kalpa. >e "ive in the second intermediate kalpa, or that p. HHH in %hich the %or"d continues in its comp"eted state, in a period ca""ed the hien&kalpa or 8(&e of %ise men8 ?#aha(hadra-kalpa@. There are sti"" e"even sma"" $a"pas to #e passed #efore the a&e of destruction commences. Durin& the 8ei&hth kalpa8 ?#andu-kalpa@, immediate"/ precedin& the present, a hundred Buddhas successive"/ appear. ha$/amuni is the fourth Buddha of the #aha(hadra-kalpa. In his time the a&e of man had a"read/ &radua""/ diminished to a hundred /ears, and the same process of &radua" su#traction #/ one /ear at a time is sti"" &oin& on. In the centre of the aha %or"d, or that ru"ed #/ ha$/amuni, is the umeru mountain. ( %ide sea separates this from ei&ht other mountains. Outside these mountains, #e/ond another %ide sea, is a &reat circu"ar mountain mass of iron. ( thousand such circu"ar iron mountain chains constitute one 8sma"" %or"d8 ?siau-ts‘ien-shï-kiai@. Three thousand such %a""s form a 8&reat %or"d8 ?ta-ts‘ien-shï-kiai@. This is the aha %or"d. >ithin each iron %a"" are four continents, and a sun and moon to shine upon them. It is in the southernmost of these continents, 4am#udvipa in the case of our o%n %or"d, that India and a"" countries $no%n to the !indoos are situated. *ar to the north is the umeru mountain, one mi""ion one hundred and t%ent/ thousand mi"es hi&h, and %hose depth in the sea is e:ua""/ &reat. It is composed of &o"d on its east side, of 8"apis2"aRu"i8 ? lieu-li, spe"t in fu"", accordin& to the o"d pronunciation, (e-luli and (e-du-li: in anscrit, /aiduria B@ on the south, of 8cr/sta"8 ?p‘o-li, 8&"assQ8 in anscrit, sp‘atika@ on the north, and si"ver on the %est. Trave""in& south from 4am#udvipa across the outhern p. HHC ocean, there are three hundred and sixt/ thousand six hundred and sixt/2three 8/o3anas8 B ?yeu-siün@ to the circu"ar mountain mass of iron. This mountain5s depth in the sea is three hundred and t%e"ve /o3anas, and its hei&ht a#out the same. Its circumference is three mi""ion six hundred and ten thousand three hundred and fift/ /o3anas. +ach iron2#ound %or"d has a umeru mountain in its centre. upposin& the %or"d to #e under the eterna" "a% of chan&e s$etched a#ove, Buddhist authorities &ive no account of its first ori&in, not fee"in& the need of a doctrine of creation. The ph/sica" causes en&a&ed in its periodica" formation and destruction are %ater, %ind, and fire. These are three of the four e"ements ti, shui, hwo, +eng, 8earth, %ater, fire, and air,8 %hich are supposed to form the #asis of a"" thin&s. The/ are perhaps to #e ta$en in the sense of e"ementa" causes rather than e"ementa" atoms. Over and under this %or"d of mountains, seas, and continents are t%o others, heaven and he"". Of ce"estia" re&ions there are thirt/2t%o inha#ited #/ the divinities of the o"der !indoo m/tho"o&/. *or the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as, pecu"iar to Buddhism, other a#odes are found. (mon& the thirt/2t%o heaven"/ re&ions, ten are ca""ed %or"ds of desireQ inc"udin&, amon& others, the heaven of the sun and moon, the heaven of the four $in&s of Devas, and the heaven of the thirt/2three or paradise of Indra ha$ra, %ho has under him thirt/2three po%erfu" Devas. There are a"so the -ama paradise, the Tushita paradise, the 8Nima"a paradise8 ? Hwa-lo@, and the paradise of 8,aranimita8 ?T‘a-hwa-tsï-tsai@. (t the #ase of the umeru mountain reside shens, 8spirits,8 and -a$shas. !a"f2%a/ up the mountain is the paradise of the *our $in&s of Devas. On the summit is the Tau-li or 8Tra/astrinsha8 ?thirt/2three@ heaven,

p. HHF i,e,, the paradise of ha$ra, $in& of the &ods. The rest of these ce"estia" a#odes are fixed in vacanc/, each as hi&h a&ain as the one #eneath it. The next tier of these paradisiaca" re&ions consists of ei&hteen. The/ are ca""ed heavens of form, denotin& that the senses are sti"" in activit/ there, thou&h there is freedom from that inf"uence of the passions %hich is sti"" fe"t in the re&ions of desire near the %or"d of men. The ei&hteen heavens of form are divided into sta&es of contemp"ation. Three #e"on& to the first, second, and third sta&es, and nine to the fourth. The first sta&e is appropriated to the Brahmas, divided into three c"asses, the ?.aha#rahma or@ 8$in&,8 officers of state, and peop"e. +ach of these c"asses has a paradise assi&ned to it. The heavens a#ove these have various names compounded of the ideas of purit/, "i&ht, virtue, a#straction, and tran:ui""it/. In the hi&hest of them a"", ($anitJa, resides 8.aha Ish%ara,8 or #a-he-shwa-ra. The uppermost tier of four, 8form"ess,8 as the/ are ca""ed, derive their names from the notions of vacanc/, $no%"ed&e, destitution of a"" properties, and ne&ation of a"" thou&ht. Of these thirt/2t%o heavens, five are inha#ited on"/ #/ sa&es, t%ent/2five #/ sa&es and common men to&ether, and t%o #/ common men a"one. One of the "atter is the paradise of .aha#rahma. ( %ise man can never #e #orn in the a#ode of Brahma, sa/ the Buddhist cosmo&onists, #ecause that deit/, in his i&norance of causes, asserts that he can create heaven, earth, and a"" thin&s. !e #ein& so arro&ant as this, no %ise man %ou"d &o to "ive in his heaven. The other is the paradise of a#straction, %here those heretics %ho dis#e"ieve in the Nirv9na, #ut aim to &ain a state of perfect menta" a#straction, %i"" hereafter #e #orn. The/ %i"" there en3o/ five hundred /ears of freedom from the sufferin&s of "ife in a state of mind"ess vacanc/Q #ut since the/ %i"" not tread the path of the Nirv9na, evi" desires must after%ards arise, and the/ must p. HHD #e #orn su#se:uent"/ in he"". No %ise man, therefore, %ou"d %i""in&"/ &o to that heaven. One of the hi&her %or"ds is assi&ned for the residence of those discip"es of Buddha %ho have attained the ran$ of (na&amins and )o2hares. Those %ho are short"/ to #ecome Buddha are first #orn into the Tushita paradise. .ara, $in& of the 8demons8 ?mo-kwei@, resides in the space #e"o% the Brahma heaven. These heavens are peop"ed #/ Devas. .en from the four continents of our o%n %or"d ma/ #e #orn into them #/ transmi&ration into the #od/ of a Deva. The Devas are #orn and die, their #odies are of &reat stature, the/ %ear c"othin&, have horses and e"ephants to ride upon, marr/, eat and drin$, and perform man/ other actions resem#"in& man$ind. (#ove the %or"ds of desire, there is no distinction of sexes. To #ecome an inha#itant of these %or"ds is re&arded as a re%ard for &ood actions, for those %ho have "ived previous"/ in "o%er states of existence. But it is sti"" a punishment %hen vie%ed in comparison %ith the attainment of Nirv9na or an/ of the hi&her &rades of discip"eship under the teachin& of Buddha. The Buddhist 8he""s8 ?in anscrit, niliya or naraka@, the prisons of the "ost, are in some cases situated under the re&ion inha#ited #/ man. T%ent/ thousand /o3anas ?HEG,GGG mi"es@ #e"o% the 4am#u continent is one ca""ed the */ichi&naraka, or the 8!e"" of unintermitted torments.8 The -ama nara$a is ha"f2%a/ #et%een. Others are amon& fa#"ed mountains, or on the shores of a &reat sea. In Chinese #oo$s the/ are ca""ed #/ a common name ti-yü, 8earth2prisons.8 In the 8Ti2tsan& utra8 is a stor/ of a maiden of the Brahman caste, %hose mother had #een condemned to the 5u-kien&ti-yü, or 8(vichi nara$a.8 *u"" of distress, she %ent to a temp"e to pra/ for he"p from an ancient Buddha %hose ima&e %as there adored. In rep"/ to her offerin&s and pra/ers a voice addressed her—that of the Buddha p. HHA represented #/ the ima&e. he %as to"d to sit at home and meditate on the name of the same Buddha. >hi"e doin& so she fe"", after a da/ thus spent, into a state of deep reverie, and found herse"f on the #an$s of an ocean. !ere she sa% man/ #easts of pre/ %ith iron #odies, f"/in& and %a"$in& on the sea. .u"titudes of unhapp/ men and %omen %ere a"so s%immin& there, and %ere constant"/ #itten #/ these ferocious anima"s. The maiden, supported #/ the po%er of Buddha, did not fee" terrified. ( demon $in& addressed her $ind"/, and informed her that she %as come to the &reat iron mountain &ird"e that surrounds the %or"d. 8I have heard,8 said the maiden, 8that he"" is hereQ ho% can I reach itL8 *ns. 8On"/ #/ spiritua" po%er, and of merit se"f2ac:uired.8 Du. 8(nd %ho are these unhapp/ crimina"s sufferin& in this seaL8 *ns. 8The/ are the %ic$ed inha#itants of the 4am#u continent %ho have recent"/ died. (fter fort/2five da/s, if no one performs an/ meritorious act for their #enefit, the/ must first #e transported to this p"ace. +ast%ard are t%o other 5seas of miser/5 ?k‘u-hai@, %here the punishment inf"icted is sti"" &reater.8 Du. 8But %here is he""L8 *ns. 8>ithin these three seas there are man/ thousand prisons, #ut of the "ar&er $ind on"/ ei&hteen.8 Du. 8./ mother died not "on& sinceQ %here no% is her sou"L8 The &ood2hearted demon $in& ans%ered this :uestion #/ another. Du. 8O Bodhisatt%a, %hat sort of "ife did /our mother former"/ "eadL8 *ns. 8./ mother he"d heretica" opinions. he ridicu"ed and s"andered the 5Three treasures5 ?Buddha, the )a%, and the ,riesthood@. If she #ecame a #e"iever for a time, she soon ceased to honour them.8 Du. 8>hat %as her nameL8 *ns. 8./ father and mother %ere #oth of the Brahman caste. Their names %ere hira and -eti"i.8 The demon $in&, ho"din& up his 3oined hands respectfu""/ to the Bodhisatt%a, said, 8!o"/ maiden, return. Dismiss a"" sad thou&hts. It is no% three da/s since the sinfu" -eti"i %as #orn an inha#itant of paradise. The fi"ia" "ove that prompted such acts to save a parent, and such piet/ p. HHK to%ards an ancient Buddha, are sufficient not on"/ to preserve a mother from he"", #ut a"so to raise innumera#"e other persons to heaven.8 The Brahman maiden then returned to consciousness as from a dream. Ref"ectin& on %hat had happened, she visited a&ain the shrine of the ancient Buddha, and made a vo% that throu&h innumera#"e comin& kalpas she %ou"d perform acts of merit for the de"iverance from sufferin& of mu"titudes of "ivin& #ein&s. ha$/amuni Buddha added, addressin& .an3usiri, 8That demon $in& and Brahman maiden have no% #ecome the Tsai2sheu Bodhisatt%a and the Ti2tsan& Bodhisatt%a.8 This stor/ must serve instead of a detai"ed description of the Buddhist he""s. It %i"" #e sufficient to sa/ of them that the/ com#ine a"" that is horri#"e to each of the senses. +ver/ form of torment, menta" and ph/sica", that can #efa"" the unhapp/ vio"ators of a &ood conscience and of the Buddhist "a%, are found there. The extremes of co"d and heat, cuttin&, f"a/in&, #itin&, insu"tin&, and tanta"isin&, have to #e endured #/ such persons accordin& to their deserts. Demons of the most monstrous shapes and most crue" dispositions terrif/ them in ever/ possi#"e %a/. ("" that fire and %ater, $nives and c"u#s, can #/ in&enuit/ #e made to do in tormentin&, is there done. The precedin& #rief s$etch of the 8three %or"ds8 ?san-kiai@ a"most a"" refers to %hat is common to the other native !indoo sects. Buddhism adopted the nationa" #e"ief in re&ard to the form of the universe, inc"udin& the %or"ds of re%ard and punishment. It #e"on&s to a"" forms of Buddhism in China or e"se%here.

The Northern Buddhists have, ho%ever, &one further, and framed a much more extensive cosmo&on/, %hich deserves a separate consideration.

Footnotes HHHSB The d and t in these t%o anscrit %ords are the cere#ra" d and t, usua""/ printed %ith a dot under them. The/ approach the sound of l. The Buddhist dictionar/, i-ts‘ie-king-yin-i, sa/s, that the %ord p1o-li is in its fu"" anscrit form, sa-p‘a-ti-ka. In KJan&2hi, %e are to"d, 8the Roman empire has &"ass of five co"ours,8 ta-ts‘inyeu-wu-se-p‘o-li. In Buddhist #oo$s it means 8roc$ cr/sta".8 >h/ the aspirate is not preserved in the common co""o:uia" term po-li 8&"ass,8 is not c"ear. HHCSB There are t%o $inds of yo"ana. One consists of four goshalas, the other of ei&ht. ( goshala is the distance at %hich the #e""o%in& of a #u"" can #e heard, or near"/ t%o mi"es.

NextS Chapter NIII. The +xtended Universe of the Northern Buddhists acred Texts Buddhism Index ,revious Next

Bu/ this Boo$ at (

Chinese&)uddhism, #/ 4oseph +d$ins, ;BETC<, at

p. HHE


THE E TENDED UNIVERSE OF THE NORTHERN BUDDHISTS. ,rimitive Buddhism aimed at mora" improvement and the Nirv9na—Its m/tho"o&/ %as of popu"ar &ro%th—The .aha/ana m/tho"o&/ %as introduced #/ the metaph/sicians of Buddhism itse"f—Na&ar3una, the chief inventor—Hwa-yen-king—(n extended universe invented to i""ustrate do&ma—Ten %or"ds #e/ond the aha %or"d in ten different directions—Ne% divinities to %orship—(mita#ha—!is %or"d in the >est—K%an2/in and Ta2shM2chM—The %or"d of (chJo#h/a Buddha in the +ast—>or"d of -o2shM *o, the hea"in& teacher—.erc/, %isdom, Oc., are s/m#o"ised in the Bodhisatt%as—>u2tJai shan in China is introduced in the Hwa-yen-king. (BOUT four centuries after the time of ha$/amuni, or 1autama as he is more common"/ ca""ed in Birmah and Ce/"on, a &reat increase to the anscrit "iterature of the Buddhist re"i&ion #e&an to #e made. 0er/ "itt"e had #een added to the nationa" m/tho"o&/ #/ the founder and first propa&ators of this s/stem, except %hat respected Buddha himse"f. Their aim %as to incu"cate virtue, encoura&e the ascetic "ife, and ur&e persons of a"" castes and #oth sexes to aim at de"iverance from the evi"s of existence and the attainment of the Nirv9na. The/ #ased their teachin& on the existin& doctrine of metemps/chosis, of the &ods and other c"asses of #ein&s, and of heaven and he"". These had #een united from the ear"iest infanc/ of the !indoo nation in one s/stem. B/ the transmi&ration of sou"s, a"" in heaven or earth, %hether &ods, men, demons, or inferior anima"s, are "in$ed to&ether into one chain of animated existence, and compose one %or"d. It is the p. HHT #usiness of a Buddha and a Bodhisatt%a to instruct these #ein&s in mora" truths, and assist them to escape from a"" the six forms of "ife, into a state of perfect en"i&htenment and tran:ui""it/. The m/tho"o&ica" e"ement, as it existed in ear"/ Buddhism, %as even then an o"d creation of the popu"ar mind that had &ro%n up %ith the first "iterar/ efforts of the nation. In this respect it a&rees %ith most other m/tho"o&ies, in the fact of its ori&inatin&, not in phi"osophica" schoo"s, #ut amon& the peop"e themse"ves. To this %as added a "e&endar/ e"ement. )on& ta"es %ere invented to i""ustrate the &reat merits and po%ers of Buddha. *ree use %as made in these narratives of those vast periods of time into %hich the !indoos divide the past histor/ of the %or"d. The #io&raph/ of the &reat sa&e %as extended #/ attri#utin& to him num#er"ess previous "ives. The manner in %hich, from sma"" #e&innin&s, he rose #/ se"f2sacrificin& and meritorious acts to #e "ord of the %or"d, and 8teacher of &ods and men8 ?t‘ien-"en-shï@, is minute"/ recorded. But the scene is not extended in an/ other %a/. Ne% %or"ds are not invented in far distant space. The %riters of these "e&ends, %hi"e the/ represent their hero as visitin& the ce"estia" re&ions to instruct their inha#itants, or as #ecomin& #/ transmi&ration an inha#itant of those paradisiaca" residences for "on& terms of /ears, do not trans&ress the "imits of the popu"ar !indoo universe. The Northern Buddhists, ho%ever, a#out the #e&innin& of the Christian era, pushed the #ounds of their s/stem much further. .en appeared at that time in Northern India devoted to metaph/sica" discussion, %ho aimed to deve"op to the utmost the princip"es of Buddhism. B In addin& to the num#er of Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as, the/ fe"t it necessar/ to frame ne% %or"ds to serve as suita#"e a#odes for them. >ith their pecu"iar phi"osoph/ it %as eas/ to do this. Not #e"ievin& in the existence of the p. HCG %or"d of the senses, there %as no more difficu"t/ in admittin& to their s/stem an un"imited num#er of fictitious %or"ds and fictitious Buddhas than in continuin& to reco&nise the universe of their predecessors. The/ named their s/stem .aha/ana, Ta-ch‘eng, or 81reat Deve"opment.8 (mon& these teachers the "eadin& mind %as Lung-shu, or 8Na&ar3una,8 as he is ca""ed #/ the Thi#etans. Csoma Karasi, cited in !ard/5s #anual&o+&)uddhism, sa/s, 8>ith Na&ar3una ori&inated %hat is $no%n in Thi#et as the .adh/ami$a s/stem in phi"osoph/. The phi"osophers in India had tau&ht either a perpetua" duration or a tota" annihi"ation %ith respect to the sou". !e

5en-shu ?. %hich the inha#itants p"uc$ to present as offerin&s to the thousands and mi""ions of Buddhas that reside in other parts of space. Buddha te""s a ta"e of a $in& in a former kalpa %ho "eft the %or"d. each havin& a &overnin& Buddha. Ten kalpas since. reference must #e made to the more popu"ar persona&es and #etter2$no%n %or"ds in the ne% m/tho"o&/. "astin& throu&h p. assumed the name Fa-tsang. The Buddha of 8%isdom unmoved8 presides there. the cousin and favourite discip"e of the sa&e in his dec"inin& /ears. *a"sehood is invo"ved in the ver/ form of the Buddhist utras. These names are formed s/mmetrica""/. It %as thus that these Buddhist phi"osophers emp"o/ed the ima&ination as an instrument of mora" instruction. therefore. (nanda. To the east. there is one termed the &o"den2co"oured %or"d. The/ radiate "i&ht over three thousand &reat %or"ds.riesthood. on one occasion. to fu"fi" his fort/2ei&ht %ishes for the #enefit of man$ind. the )a%.8 and #ecame. havin& reference to the &ood he desired to accomp"ish for a"" "ivin& #ein&s. and carr/ the reader and the %orshipper round a circ"e of Buddhist ideas. anxious to save a mu"titude of "ivin& #ein&s. Their metaph/sica" creed %ou"d prevent it.8 B@ Buddha accordin&"/ entered on a description of the $in&doms of the Buddhas. a#undant"/ sho%. hence the name of this sect. There is no fear of #ecomin& a hun&r/ &host. and north. is put p. HCB &oodness. and the other directions as #efore. HCC for%ard as the compi"er from memor/ of a"" these %or$s. cora". It %as the extreme scepticism of the Buddhist phi"osophers that paved their %a/ to this mode of teachin& their s/stem. The Hwa-yen-king sa/s that. (mon& these fa#"ed %or"ds "ocated in distant space. and north2%est. he received that tit"e %ith the name 8(mita#ha8 ?. "apis2"aRu"i. that he can thin$ on"/ of Buddha. and to the north2east. a stone ca""ed ch‘a-ku. !e there found three forms of the Hwa-yen-king. and occup/in&. To the Buddha %ho %as his teacher he uttered fort/2ei&ht %ishes. ch‘a-ta-la: in anscrit. Birds of the most #eautifu" p"uma&e sin& da/ and ni&ht of the five princip"es of virtue. distin&uished #/ various hi&h attri#utes of p. (ccordin& to the exp"anation of the TJien2tJai schoo". #e"ieve in the truth of these fancifu" creations. The Chinese preface to that %or$ sa/s that )un&2shu pJu2sa. as the hastras. as in the former .chose a midd"e %a/. In the 5u-liang-sheu-king ?(mita#ha utra@. the %ho"e of this fictitious universe %as meant to i""ustrate certain Buddhist do&mas. and of the esoteric Buddhists. a Bodhisatt%a. am#er. %or$s #/ the same authors. %est. In the TJien2tJai commentar/ on the Fa-hwa-king. The/ %ere men %hose minds %ere cu"tivated to the utmost su#t"et/ in ar&ument. 8Bound"ess a&e8@. and he must therefore #e re&arded as its author. To the south. and ma&ica" po%er. The next consisted of t%e"ve hundred sections. %ho. for the/ are attri#uted unhesitatin&"/ in a"" their mu"titudinous variet/ and vo"uminous extent to ha$/amuni himse"f. as he sits on a "ion dais surrounded #/ "otus f"o%ers. The *mita(ha&Sutra. are %orshipped assiduous"/ #/ the Northern Buddhists. havin& exhausted the stud/ of a"" human "iterature. 3ust as %estern authors %rite a poem or a nove" for a simi"ar end. 8Treasure of the "a%. Oc. and ta$en up exc"usive"/ %ith phi"osophica" discussions. and hum#"/ receive his instructions. There is there no umeru mountain. descri#es nine other %or"ds at a correspondin& distance from our o%n. %est. HCF count"ess kalpas. HCH and a count"ess num#er of Bodhisatt%as. Buddha %as presidin& over an assem#"/ at a p"ace of meetin& ca""ed (ran/a$a.—? ee Fa-hwa-hwei-i@. sa/s the 5u-liang-sheu-king. and corne"ian.-mi-to&Fo@.an3usiri@ and a cro%d of other Bodhisatt%as attend his instructions. %hose doctrine is #ased on that %or$. Oc. in %hich he is to #e addressed under ten different names. south2east. for such modes of "ife are un$no%n there. To%ards the Renith and nadir t%o other %or"ds ma$e up the num#er ten. after passin& %or"ds e:ua" in num#er to the dust of ten of these $in&doms. are other %or"ds at a distance e:ua""/ &reat. on the east. and the . This circumstance thro%s "i&ht on the o#3ects of )un&2shu in composin& the utras of %hich he %as the author. The same %or$ a"so descri#es the ten %or"ds that come next to the one in %hich %e "ive. se"f2possessed %isdom. The "istener is so affected #/ their music. entered the Dra&on pa"ace to examine the Buddhist 8pita$a8 ?san-tsang@. T%o Bodhisatt%as reside there. and %ere re%arded #/ #irth into the >estern paradise of (mita#ha. %hich #ears his name as the author. to %hom pra/ers are to #e offered.8 ? Fo 8ch‘ah. K%an2shM2/in and Ta2shM2chM. There are a"" $inds of #eautifu" f"o%ers. !e sa% approachin& a mu"titude of Bodhisatt%as from distant %or"ds. %ho perform to him an act of %orship. To i""ustrate these statements more fu""/. Thus the si&nifications of the appe""ations &iven to the Buddhas are such as surpassin& %isdom. The practice of %orshippin& the divinities introduced in these ne% m/tho"o&ica" creations %as a"so direct"/ encoura&ed. The/ attained their ran$ #/ &ood deeds performed in our o%n %or"d. and the seven steps in $no%"ed&e. +ach of them is ru"ed #/ a Buddha. The "ar&est %as divided into sections %hose num#er is expressed #/ the partic"es contained in a %or"d of dust. si"ver. if he shou"d attain the ran$ of Buddha. This and other %or$s of the 1reat Deve"opment c"ass contain a &reat extension of the m/tho"o&ica" e"ement of Buddhism. chief in merit. Brahmanica" %isdom.8 spe""ed in fu"" in the o"d pronunciation. after minute"/ di"atin& on this paradise. in the $in&dom of . The/ did not. nor iron mountain &ird"e. the s/m#o"ica" method of interpretin& this m/tho"o&ica" creation of the fanc/ ma/ #e seen exemp"ified. 8"and. The "ife2time of this Buddha is %ithout "imit. nor are there an/ prisons for punishment. The mora" import of these %or"ds and their Buddhas is contained in the names that are &iven them. The "eadin& Bodhisatt%as receive such denominations as chief in the "a%. The "ast and "east he &ave to the %or"d %ith its present tit"e. $no%"ed&e. But the %ho"e of this ima&inative creation %as pro#a#"/ intended #/ the authors to #e s/m#o"ica". and the sma""est of fort/2ei&ht sections.a&adha. and north. the #est $no%n is the paradise of (mita#ha. But %hat sha"" #e said to the mora"it/ of such modes of teachin& a re"i&ionL These sceptica" %riters cannot #e shie"ded from the char&e of practisin& a vast and s/stematic deception on the common peop"e. chief in visua" po%er. To afford room for the disp"a/ of these attri#utes. . ome specimens of this m/tho"o&/ %i"" no% #e &iven. The ver/ popu"ar and inf"uentia" utra ca""ed Hwa-yen-king came from the pen of )un&2shu. south2%est. ne% Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as here appear. in inducin& them to re&ard these ima&inar/ #ein&s %ith re"i&ious reverence. and of %hich )un&2shu is conse:uent"/ re&arded as the first founder. It is composed of &o"d. or an anima" #/ transmi&ration. #/ his rapid &ro%th in $no%"ed&e and virtue. and there is not %antin& such indirect evidence to the fact as has #een a"read/ adduced. and his opinions ma/ therefore #e re&arded as near"/ those of the TJien2tJai schoo". and this ne% ido"atr/ spread %ith &reat rapidit/ throu&hout the countries %here Northern Buddhism prevai"s. *or this schoo" &ives a s/m#o"ica" interpretation to the m/tho"o&/ of the Buddhist #oo$s. adopted the mon$ish "ife. Ten mi""ion $in&doms of Buddhas separate his %or"d from our o%n. and therefore he is ca""ed 8(mita#ha8 ?5u-liang-sheu.8 The Chinese 8Centra" hastra8 ? Chung-lun@. ne% %or"ds are "ocated at p"easure in the #ound"ess re&ions of space. The/ as$ed to #e instructed in re&ard to the 8"ands %here the Buddhas resided. ksh0tra. p. contains this s/stem. the five sources of mora" po%er. and no% resides in a %or"d far in the >est. %ith (mita#ha. The/ are.

accordin& to the common "a% of pro&ress in human perversit/. and that the/ "ived in a time %hen this mountain had a"read/ #ecome a favourite a#ode of the devotees of this re"i&ion in that countr/. is said to have poured forth from his e/e#ro%s a f"ood of &o"den "i&ht %hich shone to a"" the surroundin& %or"ds. #ut the other names do not harmoniseQ so that in severa" cases ne% Buddhas are ima&ined in re&ions preoccupied #/ those created at an ear"ier date. %ith the Renith and nadir. %e have here an examp"e of the %a/ in %hich such a ne% ido"atr/ %i"" possi#"/ #e introduced. in %hich the authors of this "iterature indu"&ed. in >en2shuQ and happiness. the Ki-to-shï-kiai. >e "earn from the .case. resu"t in po"/theism. %hose names. as is o#served #/ the author of the o-shï-king. p. is cited in this %or$ as recordin& an assem#"/ of num#er"ess Bodhisatt%as at >u2tJai. %ho p"a/ in it such an important part. In another #oo$ :uoted #/ the author.8 The %or"d in %hich he resides is composed of "apis2"aRu"i. the account a&reein& in this respect %ith that in the *mita(ha&Sutra.para&raph continues< . and ue-kwang-pien-chau. amon& %hom . that it is his dut/ to see$ the instruction and sa"vation of the Chinese #/ ma$in& his home at . the Bodhisatt%a honoured at >u2tJai shah in North China. and %ho are the o#3ects of such extended popu"ar %orship in the Buddhist countries of the North. $in&doms of Buddhas to the num#er of ten times the sands of the 1an&es. is descri#ed. Ne%"/2 invented %or"ds %ou"d #e "ocated in re&ions a"read/ appropriated #/ previous %riters. the pantheism of 1erman/ %i"". %hen he %as a Bodhisatt%a.an3usiri is informed #/ Buddha. %hen seated in the midst of his discip"es. and >u2tJai one of the mountains. inc"udin& the remova" of various #odi"/ and menta" ca"amities from those %ho are aff"icted %ith them. is descri#ed %ith minuteness. !is %isdom is perfect. even China is made one of the countries. The s/m#o"ica" character of this m/tho"o&/ is seen ver/ c"ear"/ in the attri#utes of the Bodhisatt%as. as some thin$. another "i$e a cr/sta" mirror. 8The hea"in& Teacher. to affect the reader5s or "istener5s mind. ( near para""e" to this is the settin& up of the ima&e of Reason to #e popu"ar"/ adored. #/ scenes of vastness and sp"endour. ( simi"ar account is &iven of the other %or"ds and their Buddhas. thus resem#"in&. 4i-kwang-pien-chau.an3usiri. %here Buddha de"ivered discourses. In the "ast2mentioned %or$. uttered t%e"ve &reat %ishes for the #enefit of "ivin& #ein&s. each proc"aimin& the doctrine that instructs and saves to the inha#itants of his o%n $in&dom.on&o" account of >u2tJai. The Hwa-yen-king. *or examp"e. But as %e $no% that Na&ar3una %as the rea" %riter of this %or$. To faithfu" Buddhists. merc/ is s/m#o"isedQ %isdom. that p.an3usiri is conspicuous in po%er and in honour. a circ"e of ei&ht %or"ds. si&nif/ the 8*ar2shinin& "i&ht of the sun8 and 8of the moon. There intervene #et%een that %or"d and ours. In the Fa-hwa-king. of a Chinese mountain. one in the south2east %ith its Buddha. %hose ver/ numerous pu#"ications. of %hich a f"o%er is the s/m#o". -o2shM *o is one of those %ho are ver/ se"dom omitted in the arran&ement of these edifices.Ju2hien. in a discourse of Buddha. #ut a"" the evidence &oes to sho% that the/ %ere invented #/ the former c"ass of Buddhists.langgi&sodar. (nother of these creations %hich has &ained considera#"e notoriet/ is a %or"d in the +ast ru"ed #/ o-shï&Fo ?Bhaisha3/a&uru Buddha@. another of "otus f"o%ers. These notices %i"" a"so sho% ho% in the expansion of the m/tho"o&/ %hich %e meet %ith in the utras of the 1reat Deve"opment. This "i&ht returnin& %as seen #/ the assem#"/ to form itse"f into a &o"den to%er on Buddha5s head. The t%o utras a"read/ cited. If. The freedom of ima&ination in creatin& ne% %or"ds and ne% deities.an3usiri is addressed in pra/er as the en"i&htener of the %or"d. and #/ its sp"endour man/ $in&doms of Buddhas %ere revea"ed to vie%.aradise of (mita#ha. In K%an2/in. is evidence of the superhuman $no%"ed&e of the sa&e.para&raph continues< (mita#ha and (chJo#h/a occur in the %est and east respective"/. or 8.on&o" . #/ the atheists of the first *rench revo"ution. %ith t%o Buddhas to each. This is an examp"e of the manner in %hich the inventors of this m/tho"o&/ intended. and cuts $nots %hich cannot other%ise #e so"ved. !e is said to drive a%a/ fa"sehood and i&norance from the minds of a"" "ivin& #ein&s. HCK . (ccounts of man/ more of these fancied %or"ds mi&ht #e co""ected from other %or$s. >hi"e man/ of the fa#u"ous #ein&s introduced in the "iterature of Northern Buddhism have no ima&e or shrine in the temp"es of the present da/. and is in fact the s/m#o" of these ideas. and on this &round the "ama %ho compi"es the #oo$s pra/s to him for $no%"ed&e in reverentia" terms. -o2shM *o and the others are nothin& #ut si&ns of ideas. I append here some further account of . %e "oo$ upon it rather as proof that the &eo&raph/ of China %as $no%n to the trans"ators of the %or$s of this copious author. another %as "i$e the pa"ace of Ish%ara. the cardina" points and intermediate positions. %ou"d natura""/ "ead to incon&ruities. Buddha. are entire"/ occupied %ith (mita#ha and his paradise. p. to&ether %ith one ca""ed Kwan-wu-liang-sheu-king. This persona&e. These three %or$s form the text#oo$s of the Tsin&2tu schoo". its streets of &o"d.8 !e is %orshipped as a deit/ %ho removes sufferin&s and "en&thens "ife. One %as constructed of the even precious stones and meta"s. the mention. and pa"med upon the peop"e #/ them as rea" #ein&s proper to #e %orshipped. these persona&es. !e is a"so represented as ho"din& in his hand a vo"ume of Buddha5s teachin&. It %as "i$e the umeru mountain.8 In attendance on him are t%o "eadin& Bodhisatt%as. are ver/ %ide"/ disseminated amon& the Chinese peop"e at the present da/. its %a""s and pa"aces of the seven precious stones and meta"s. in the !ei-hwa-king. %ith (mita#ha. and Buddha to"d him ho% he mi&ht have his desire &ratified. numerous as the sands of the 1an&es. !ence his name. ( discip"e. HCD expressed a desire to #e #orn in the >estern heaven. To the phi"osophic Buddhists. *ee"in&s favoura#"e to the inf"uence of Buddhist ideas %ere thus to #e ca""ed into action. . in . HCA . ca""ed in . struc$ #/ this ma&nificent disp"a/. !e is st/"ed a"so the "amp of %isdom and of supernatura" po%er. and the "en&thenin& of their "ife. suited to the popu"ar taste. and is s/m#o"ised #/ the s%ord he ho"ds in his ri&ht handQ #ecause his inte""ect pierces the deepest recesses of Buddhist thou&ht. and #ased on the doctrine of these utras. (chJo#h/a and other Buddhas ru"e in the +ast. The uninstructed Buddhists #e"ieve in their rea" existence.

The/ #esto% a"" $inds of happiness on those that honour the San-pau ?Three treasures@.an3usiri #e #orn from its amp"e couch of "eavesL The ma&ica" po%er of Buddha causes a "otus to &ro% from the seed of a certain tree.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. The others have #"ue. In the 8enterin& ha""8 ?sï-i‘ien&wang-tien@.8 The/ are ca""ed in Chinese To-wen. are not found. !e has a #"ac$ countenance and ferocious expression. Tseng-chang. and cro%ned #/ five various"/2shaped pa&odas. to %hich #e"on& the ro/a" fami"ies of India. >ei2to—Chief ha"" Ta-hiung-pau-tien— ha$/amuni—(nanda—Kashiapa—K%an2/in. the Kshatryas #ein& )ords of the soi". It %ou"d #e curious to note %hat the ori&ina" sa/s in those passa&es %here China is introduced #/ the trans"ators. that this %ord. viR. #ut as seen in temp"es the/ are dressed in different modes. (nother has an um#re""a in his hand. These are the #ah. the )a%. and the . Thus he %as %ithout father or mother.i2"i *o—Behind him.ount umeru. p. HFG In the Kin-kwang-ming-king. at the sound of %hich a"" the %or"d #e&ins to "isten. It is too co"d. NextS Chapter NI0. or some other anima" hosti"e to man. !e of the outh ho"ds a s%ord. .com p. 8!e %ho has heard muchQ8 8Dhritarashtra8 ?T‘ Chinese&)uddhism. p.aha/ana utras in the TJan& d/nast/—in order to supp"/ this %ant—did not scrup"e to insert %hat the/ p"eased in their trans"ations. Ti2tsan&. 8. in his =ntroduction&?&l1Histoire&du&)uddhisme&=ndien.. and %hite faces. the supposed centre of the %or"d.e$in&—Tan2cho2sM sna$e—. HCT CHAPTER IV.rotector of $in&domsQ8 80irudha$a8 ?!ileu-le-cha@. and %as not stained %ith the 8po""ution of the common %or"d8 ?orchilang@. and the Ten $in&s—Representation of the ei&ht miseries from %hich K%an2/in de"ivers—Temp"es in Ce/"on—Ima&es in temp"es near . ho%ever. "i$e those of the same re"i&ion in India and 4ava. The "otus %i"" not &ro% at >u2tJai. . Temp"es cut in roc$. HCE The "e&end of .8 or Sï-ta-t‘ien-wang. at the e"evation of %hich a vio"ent storm of thunder and rain commencesQ or. The anscrit names are exp"ainedS 80aishramana8 ?!i-sha-men@. as some sa/. #ut #/ his po%er made su#missive and instrumenta" to the %ishes of its con:ueror."as. red. and on hi"" sides ima&es are sometimes cut from the stone. accordin& to others. t%o co"ossa" %ooden statues meet the e/e on each side.BETC<.>u2tJai. and there causin& the %hee" of the "a% to revo"ve incessant"/ on the five mountains of the five different co"ours. . The/ &overn the continents "/in& in the direction of the four cardina" points from . . T!+ temp"es of the Buddhists. Temp"es—+nterin& ha"". present. Certain"/ >u2tJai %as not a Buddhist esta#"ishment ti"" some centuries after Na&ar3una.riesthood. Buddha. Their architecture a"so is simi"ar. the/ %ithdra% their protection. usua""/ "oo$ south. the second of the four castes. and other Bodhisatt%as—Buddha represented as teachin&—Buddha of the past.r. Temp"es consist of severa" ha""s and chape"s ca""ed #/ a common name. tien. !o% sha"" . universa" dar$ness ensues. "i$e other Chinese structures.i2/In2sM—!a"" of )o2hans—Diamond throne of Buddha—Co"ossa" ima&es of .usica" instruments—Ref"ections. 8)ar&e e/es.8 is the root of the %ord Kshatrya. Buddhist Ima&es and Ima&e >orship acred Texts Buddhism Index . (nother ho"ds in his hand a sna$e. HCBSB The dictionar/ i-ts‘ie-king-yin-i adds. or. >hen $in&s and nations ne&"ect the "a% of Buddha. used for 8"and or 8$in&dom. If some anscrit scho"ar %ou"d consu"t the Nepau"ese Hwa-yen-king. at sacred2texts. >en2shu. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. and future— Chape"s to O2mi2to *o. the/ are descri#ed as active"/ interferin& in the affairs of the %or"d. or 8*our &reat $in&s of Devas. and Kwang-mu. The trans"ators of the . the camps of his enemies ta$e fire. 8Increased &randeurQ8 and 0irupa$sha ?!i-lieu-pa-cha@. BUDDHIST IMAGES AND IMAGE !ORSHIP. One ho"ds in his hands a 8&uitar8 ?pJi2pa@.aitre/a—.roper"/ the/ are a"" %ar"i$e.an3usiri at >u2tJai seemed to re:uire the authorit/ of Buddha. Sï-ta-t‘ien-wang—These four $in&s descri#ed—The "au&hin& Buddha. Footnotes HHTSB <ide Burnouf5s account of the third Buddhist counci" he"d in Cashmere. he %ou"d pro#a#"/ find nothin& there a#out >u2tJai shan. In natura" caves. Ch‘ï-kwo.

hariputra. HFB usua""/ restin& on the &round. This Bodhisatt%a. (fter three thousand /ears he %i"" appear in the %or"d and open a ne% era. that of Bodhisatt%a.. Behind. In the monasteries of Ce/"on. or the Buddha to come. The *our $in&s of Devas are occasiona""/ emp"o/ed for this purpose. Lung-nü. ometimes K%an2/in appears %ith a thousand hands.Bet%een them and the south %a"" are sometimes p"aced t%o fi&ures in mi"itar/ attire and %ith fierce countenances.aitre/a. and are ca""ed sheng-wen. of %hich he so often forms the principa" fi&ure. %ho in some temp"es ma$e t%o of six auditors of Buddha. The shrine in %hich these t%o ido"s are p"aced forms a screen to a door #ehind. no% resides in the Tushita paradise. and . !e is surrounded %ith c"oud and roc$ carvin&.aud&a"/a/ana. from %hich at the appointed time he %i"" descend to the earth. and that of ha$/amuni. severa" sma""er persona&es are added to "end variet/ to the scene. !is face has a "au&hin& expression.. . on the a#utments of %hich are seen the ten $in&s of he"". >en2shu. )oo$in& at the arran&ements of these t%o parts of a Buddhist temp"e from another point of vie%. The/ are represented as possessin& various $inds of supernatura" po%er. HFF . HFH a"to2re"ievo. is a"so sometimes p"aced in this ha"" on one side of the north door. c"oud. is usua""/ p"aced an ima&e of K%an2/in %ith roc$.Ju2hien. and sti"" more fre:uent"/ a fema"e fi&ure. To the hi&hest ran$ of a"" in %isdom and po%er. and after%ards passes on to the a#ode of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. de"ivered from the %or"d of "ife and death. 8precious. s/m#o"isin& his desire to save a"" man$ind. K%an2/in. viR. the principa" monaster/ in han&hai. the hi&hest and "ar&est #ui"din& in the %ho"e monaster/. (nother metamorphosis of K%an2/in is represented in a fema"e fi&ure. hM2chM. and painted a dar$ #"ue. (n ima&e of K%an2fu2tsM the Chinese deified hero. sittin& on a "otus2"eaf dbisQ (nanda.Ju2hien often ta$e the ri&ht and "eft of the centra" Buddha.Ju2hien. e. The ran$ a#ove this. so the ha"" of the *our Diamond $in&s. The 8(rhans8 ?*-lo-han@. the compi"ation of the utrasQ the other restin& on a staff. spea$ for themse"ves as to the extraordinar/ po%er. Ta-hiung.8 The ima&e of K%an2/in has severa" forms correspondin& to the various metamorphoses %hich he or she assumes. #/ their attitudes as con:uerors of evi". and #/ the expression of inte""i&ence and p"easure %hich the artist has attempted to depict on their countenances. is occasiona""/ occupied #/ another ha"". "oo$in& north%ards. Discip"es of the "o%er ran$s. an o"d man. HFC of the five hundred (rhans is p"aced over the more po%erfu" and #etter $no%n ei&hteen (rhans in the ha"" of ha$/amuni.g. Behind . 4an2ten&.8 are represented in (nanda and KashiapaQ the one ho"din& a %ritten scro"" em#"ematic of his &reat %or$. This is the arran&ement at the K%an&2fu2sM. >en2shu and . and &ratification %hich the/ have &ained throu&h "istenin& to the teachin& of Buddha. means the 8.ercifu" one. In the "ar&e c"oud2and2%ater picture in p. 8Dau&hter of the Dra&on $in&. It is in reference to this ima&e that a para""e" has often #een instituted #et%een K%an2/in and the 0ir&in . %ith >en2shu and . or $in&s of the Devas. s/m#o"ised in some instances #/ %i"d anima"s crouchin& su#missive"/ #eside them. opposite the door. 8the t%o &enera"s Heng and Ho. The presence of . The anscrit name. The !indoo &od 8-ama8 ? en-to-wang@ is the fifth of them. (s the principa" ha"" is appropriated to the four hi&hest c"asses of #ein&s reco&nised #/ Buddhism. >ei2to and the *our $in&s %ith their attendants a"" #e"on& to the c"ass of Devas or inha#itants of heaven. as at )un&2h%a. The/ a"" "isten to the instructions of this Bodhisatt%a. !e is &enera" under the *our $in&s. In other instances this representation p. unitin& &reat $no%"ed&e and po%er %ith stron& desire to save those #ein&s %ho are sti"" invo"ved in the metemps/chosis. an ancient Buddha. that of Buddha. %ho then sits a"one on his dbis in the midst of the ha"". The interva" #et%een the ha"" of the *our &reat $in&s of the Devas. %ith the #reast and upper a#domen exposed to vie%. The/ "isten to Buddha. and defenders of &ood. !e is not /et therefore exempt from the metemps/chosis. It is in part from such resem#"ances that !ue has adopted the h/pothesis that the modern form of Buddhism in Thi#et arose from a mixture of Christianit/ %ith that re"i&ion. On the east and %est sides of the ha"" are arran&ed ei&hteen fi&ures of 8(rhans8 ?Lo-hans@. are p"aced on his ri&ht and "eft. and ocean scener/ rude"/ carved in %ood and &audi"/ painted. ho%ever.Ju2hien %earin& cro%ns &i"t and ornamented in the "otus2"eaf shape. or the 8Deva %ho protects the Buddhist re"i&ion. #e"on& ha$/amuni. some %ith thou&htfu"ness. The/ are p"aced on the protu#erances of a rou&h a"to2re"ievo scene such as those a#ove descri#ed. <irah—%ith the addition of the %ord pau. !e is represented in an attitude of contemp"ation. the s/m#o" of his office. contains the ima&es of those #ein&s sti"" invo"ved in the %hee" of the metemps/chosis.aitre/a Buddha8 ?#i-li&Fo@. ( stran&er %ho did not ta$e notice of minute pecu"iarities in dress. %here are found on the east and %est %a""s.8 and a /outh ca""ed Shan-ts‘ai. ("on& the north %a"" are often to #e seen the ima&es of 4an2ten&. is usua""/ an ima&e of 8.aitre/a there ma/ #e accounted for #/ the fact. ta$es its name from one of Buddha5s tit"es. representatives of a"" the four ran$s a#ove the ran&e of the metemps/chosis are found. %ho are. a sma"" temp"e termed De%9"a is p"aced #efore the chief #ui"din&. T%o of the commonest are those of the Northern and outhern sea. and "oo$in& north%ards. This is appropriated to the ima&es of ha$/amuni Buddha and a se"ect num#er of his discip"es. near han&hai. that he as the predicted successor of ha$/amuni in the office of Buddha. and of six Bodhisatt%as and discip"es of ha$/amuni. in his capacit/ as protector of the Buddhist re"i&ion.8 !e is represented c"ad in comp"ete armour and ho"ds a sceptre2shaped %eapon of assau"t p.para&raph continues< Buddhists as proper to #e %orshipped. is often found a scene in honour of Ti2tsan& Bodhisatt%a.8 !e is a"%a/s represented as ver/ stout. the others #ein& (nanda and Kashiapa. sma"" carved fi&ures of the five hundred (rhans of Buddhist "e&ends. and mista$e the chi"d %hich the &oddess presents to mothers pra/in& for posterit/. and his instructor in a former "ife. . a /oun&2"oo$in& fi&ure. ometimes in this intermediate space there is a structure ca""ed the ha"" of the )o2hans. K%an2/in of the outhern sea ma/ #e seen here pictured %ith his usua" attendants. Behind the three centra" ima&es. %ho see$s to save man$ind from the punishments over the inf"iction of %hich the/ preside. the "ar&e centra" ha"" a"read/ descri#ed is intended to s/m#o"ise . Thus in #oth cases. the visitor arrives first at the ha"" %here the metemps/chosis sti"" prevai"s. and Kashiapa. In the centra" ha"". 8Brahma8 ?Fan-t‘ien@ and 8 ha$ra8 ?Ti-shih@. The/ are #areheaded and c"ose 8"isteners.8 In the same #ui"din&. The/ have short cur"/ hair formed of she""s. so far as the/ are considered #/ the p. some %ith p"easure. a Deva %ho is sti"ed Hu-+a-wei-to. ho"din& in her arms a chi"d. K%an2/in occup/in& the centre. . %hich opens into the court of the 81reat ha""8 ca""ed Ta-hiung-pau-tien. Devas sometimes appear there. to assume the duties assi&ned him. for the infant aviour.Ju2hien and >enshu. and dedicated to the %orship of the Devas ? /ide !ard/5s 9astern& #onachism@. ca""ed Heng-Ho-er-tsiang. as successor of Buddha in the patriarchate. %ou"d ver/ natura""/ have the idea of simi"arit/ presented to him. is represented in >en2shu and . immediate"/ #ehind ha$/amuni. %ho form inter"ocutors in some of the utras. or 81reat hero8—in anscrit. This ha"". ei&hteen in num#er. $no%"ed&e. is sometimes p"aced in front. as %i"" #e seen from the precedin& detai"s.aitre/a is the ima&e of 5ei-to.

HFA another some trave""er escapes from a %i"d #east. (s he advances into the presence of Buddha. In some instances. K%an2ti. ten on each side. K%an2/in is sometimes represented in ei&ht metamorphoses. )un&2%an&. Ti2tsan& is often attended #/ the ten $in&s of he"". as for examp"e in the K%an2/in2tien. except -ama.. are -o2tsan& pJu2sa and -o2%an& pJu2sa. Others refer to attri#utes. has a"read/ #een i""ustrated in the description of the *our $in&s and of >ei2to. o#vious"/ to attract those %ho in time of sic$ness see$ aid from supernatura" sources. have Chinese names. O2mi2to *o. or the cit/ of KJai2fen& fu. there are t%o ima&es. These preside over medicine.8 The usua" ri&ht and "eft supporters of -o2shM *o. such as the ha"" of the thousand Buddhas. #ut the 3urisdiction of the Buddha himse"f is not "imited to hea"in&Q it inc"udes a"" $inds of ca"amit/. HFD +xceptions to this ru"e occur. are p"aced here in vacant spaces. as . Ti2tsan& is represented #/ the priests as the son of a $in& of iam.8 chuenlun. or the 8Buddha %ho recei/es sufferin& morta"s to the rest of the >estern paradise over %hich he presides. HFE . >hen the %orshipper enters he is met %ith the idea of 8protection8 from ce"estia" #ein&s. stand %ith the usua" fi&ures on the ri&ht and "eft of ha$/amuni. and the ten $in&s of he"".in2$un& and . representin& the future and the past. denotin& the past. are t%o other fi&ures of Buddha. the usua" head furniture of a Bodhisatt%a.8 the fruit of "on& and thou&htfu" contemp"ation. Oc. %i"" not #e descri#ed here. The former %as a Chinese %ho &ave the "and at Kieu2h%a. This accords %ith the descriptions &iven in the utras of the audience &athered round Buddha on remar$a#"e occasions. and a $in& of the Devas. T%o other discip"es. #ut these are the most common. *or examp"e. from %hose punishments he see$s to save man$ind. that of presentin& to the mind of the visitor a picture of the conception of Buddha.ost of the names of these ten $in&s are of Chinese ori&in and not man/ centuries o"d. as proper"/ #e"on&in& to Tauism. and future. instead of the t%o discip"es on each side of 4u"ai. Ce"e#rated Chinese Buddhists have a"so ima&es %here the arran&ements of a temp"e are comp"ete. The ido"s ca""ed . >ei2to. The carr/in& out of this thou&ht is dou#t"ess the prevai"in& aim in the choice of persona&es. !e has a fu"" round countenance of mi"d aspect.. and to %hich he guides them. #ut if in the presence of Buddha the/ stand.8 K%an2/in is a"so occasiona""/ found in a su#ordinate position. that the #ein&s ca""ed K‘ia-lan ?1a2"am@ or protectors of the 8monasteries8 ?sangarama@. viR. in one part of the carvin&. . %hi"e the "eadin& idea of the enterin& ha"" is the representation of the po%erfu" protection #/ ce"estia" #ein&s en3o/ed #/ the Buddhist re"i&ion and its professors. The/ are appropriated to -o2shM *o. In some "ar&e temp"es. and !%a2$%an& have #een forma""/ adopted #/ the sect as protectin& divinities. ho%ever. %hen the inha#itants of the various ce"estia" mansions ho"d a conspicuous position amon& the cro%d of his discip"es. and others. has a"so a shrine #esto%ed on him. ome of them point to particu"ar "oca"ities. There are a"so man/ others.in2tsi is his son. +"se%here . on %hich is erected a "ar&e monaster/ in honour of Ti2tsan&. and each of them %ears the c"ose2fittin& s$u""2cap of painted she""s %hich is a"%a/s appropriated to Buddha. presides. one "i&ht enou&h to #e carried in a sedan chair for processions. as one of the t%o supporters of 8(mita#ha Buddha8 ? . ho"din& a pa&oda in his hand.in2tsi ta$e this position. The de"iverer K%an2/in stands #/.. u"cers.ien2ch6en&. Oc. !e is sometimes represented "i$e ha$/amuni %ith three ima&es. and a"" is in a&reement %ith the 8Deve"oped8 utras or those of the . dress.uh2$ien2"ien and . attitudes. the Buddha of the +ast. 8!e %ho presides over riches. in "ar&e temp"es. each ima&e exhi#itin& a distinct feature of the idea" %ho"e to the contemp"ation of the %orshipper. are a"so sometimes p"aced at the south end of the t%o ro%s of (rhans that "ine the eastern and %estern %a""s. %hose popu"arit/ is unriva""ed amon& a"" the Chinese divinities. (ccordin& to the exp"anations of the phi"osophic Buddhists. the 8turner of the %hee" ?of doctrine@. the sma""2pox. the princip"e of arran&ement and the use of ido"s tit a"" must #e vie%ed as s/m#o"ica". %ho act as 8servants8 of the Bodhisatt%a ?shï-che@. T%ent/ Devas. and the sic$ in "ar&e num#ers see$ their assistance. fo""o%ed much "ess fre:uent"/ than the former. as in a suita#"e spot. 8even. The three ima&es are much a"i$e. the/ ma/ sit. . Tauist ido"s are numerous"/ emp"o/ed in the Buddhist temp"es. in its most expanded form. %hich. *acts of this "atter c"ass point to another aim as inf"uencin& the arran&ement of the fi&ures. The/ are ca""ed to&ether the three sa&es of the %est. ("" of them. The other 8chape"s8 ?tien@ or ha""s are erected on the side of or #ehind the centra" structure. he #ein& "itt"e superior to them in ran$. Other names occur. are a"so represented #/ t%o other sma""er fi&ures. discip"es of ha$/amuni Buddha. as the centra" one does the present. evera" of a medica" character are a"so extensive"/ made use of. ü-ti. The idea of ce"estia" protection as prevai"in& in the arran&ement of the enterin& ha"".8 Crimina"s receivin& punishments and attendants are a"so represented #/ sma"" earthen or %ooden fi&ures. such as San-kwan. HFK The fi&ures on his ri&ht and "eft are sometimes . TJai2shan is a mountain of han2tun&.-mi-to&Fo@. 8the K%an2/in of ei&ht $inds of sufferin&. p. a Tauist divinit/. In the p. as a"so that of the founder of the monaster/. o a"so. Diseases of the e/e.Ju2sa sit %hen in their o%n shrines. K%an2ti. present. hM2chM #ein& the other. In p. It ma/ #e further o#served. the hi"" some mi"es %est of Nan$in&. as p‘ing-teng. That of 8Bodhidharma8 ? Ta-mo&ch‘u-shï@ is fre:uent"/ met %ith in temp"es %here priests of the tsun&2men reside. the ima&e of this divinit/ is thus repeated ei&ht times.aha/ana c"ass used #/ the Northern Buddhists. p. The %ho"e is ca""ed !a-nan&Kwan-yin. fi&ures i""ustratin& the thirt/2t%o points of persona" #eaut/ #e"on&in& to Buddha are in some temp"es p"aced %here the (rhans are usua""/ found. #esides the "ar&er one in the centre. assumed for the purpose of savin& men from ei&ht $inds of sufferin&. as a"read/ remar$ed. The ten $in&s a"" stand %hen in the presence of Ti2tsan& pJu2saQ #ut if Tun&2n&o2ti2$iIn. and positions. O2mi2to is a"so ca""ed Tsie-yin&Fe.Jan&2$I2shM. and #odi"/ ai"ments in &enera" are assi&ned to the care of various heaven"/ #ein&s. In a scene of this $ind. the &od of %ar. he sees in his ima&e 8inte""i&ence. This princip"e of arran&ement is. hip%rec$ed sai"ors. Ti2tsan& pJu2sa. are seen reachin& the shore.Buddha &ivin& his instructions to an assem#"/ of discip"es. another "ar&er for dai"/ %orship. %ith a "otus2"eaf cro%n.8 Ts‘ai-shen.

a2"i2ch%an& pa&oda %ou"d #e a +eng-shui protector on the north of the ancient cit/. and the form of the #od/ are the same. In the series of painted ta#"eaux. The fo""o%in& is the arran&ement of the ima&es in a temp"e at the >estern hi""s near . near . In the TJan& d/nast/ a vast num#er of temp"es and pa&odas %ere erected.o&a""ana. There %ere a"so oi" "amps. I noticed a pictoria" representation of heaven and he"". ha$/amuni and the t%o favourite discip"es %ho usua""/ accompan/ him are sometimes seen made of copper or %hite copper.e$in& custom in ma$in& "ar&e ima&es. is to construct them %ith the interna" or&ans as comp"ete as possi#"e. Three Buddhas %ere represented. In front there are three "ar&e fans ?a c/"indrica" c"oth is so ca""ed@. In paintin& them on %a""s trave""ers are seen. and I $no% not %hat more. >hen he #o%s #efore these ima&es. and ma$es his offerin& of incense. %hich are stron&"/ #ui"t of stone. %hich came into vo&ue in the time of that d/nast/. One tooth I sa% at the temp"e ca""ed Teu2sh%ai2sM %as t%o inches and a ha"f thic$ and ten #/ thirteen in %idth.8 he sees the first step in pro&ress to%ards the Nirv9na. and their shape is that found in dra%in&s of the or&ans in . On the inside face of the screen %ere ima&es of 0ishnu and Brahma. In the monasteries in North China are sometimes found a tooth of Buddha. In . The ima&e of Buddha is remar$a#"/ "i$e %hat it is in China. To these #ands sma"" #e""s are attached. and intervenes #et%een the trave""ers and the #anditti. %ood. ( fe% cotta&es of the in&ha"ese %ere near. The dbis on %hich are the three ima&es is supported #/ "ions. Brahma and 0ishnu %ere the $in&s of the Devas represented. The/ %ere made ei&hteen at a "ater period. this a"so is a s/m#o". a#out six feet hi&h. The p. %ith other Devas. as in China. t%o Buddhist temp"es. and save the trave""ers #/ renderin& them invisi#"e. ori&inatin& %ith %e do not $no% %hom. %hich rin& %hen sha$en %ith the %ind. >hi"e the sma""er ima&es are fi""ed %ith Thi#etan incense or cotton %oo". chi"d"essness. The heads are a"%a/s empt/. the #areheaded 8discip"e. to #ui"d pa&odas for "uc$ as %e"" as to contain re"ics. under the inf"uence of the superstition of +eng-shui. ("a#aster. or some other re"ic. In the (rhans he sees those %ho have #ecome 8venera#"e8 #/ /ears. These are ce"e#rated as havin& #een carved in the TJan& d/nast/. and heaven on the ri&ht. han&in& from the roof2#eams. The sixteen %ere !indoo. One of the forms. %ith his pupi"s. In North China it is a"so common to see pictures of Buddhist su#3ects painted more or "ess rude"/ on the %a""s of the ha""s %here the ima&es are seen. The s$u""2cap. and "osin& si&ht of the mora" and inte""ectua" o#3ects of the s/stem. Both temp"es %ere on an eminence in sec"uded spots and encirc"ed #/ trees. %hether the/ are of #rass. It is made of mud and &i"t in the same manner. there are carved Buddhas and Deva $in&s on "ar&e enta#"atures. . Re"ics are $ept in #ott"es and sho%n to visitors. cand"es. K%an2/inQ on his "eft. The addition of t%o is due to Chinese "ove of chan&e. %hich %ere not "it. t%e"ve or fourteen feet in hei&ht. On #oth these pa&odas. In China this %ou"d #e a pa&oda. In (pri" BEDE. informed me that the temp"es in Ce/"on are entire"/ different in appearance from %hat the/ are in iam. on a mountain attac$ed #/ ro##ers. The discip"es %ere . %hom he teaches to read. ( 1aruda attended 0ishnu. and a "on& course of asceticism. 4ust at this moment the &oddess and her attendant appear in the air. as happens in Christian countries %here the %orship of ima&es prevai"s. It on"/ means the reverence %ith %hich he receives the instructions of Buddhism. The . I visited at 1a""e. . Beside the sma""er temp"e %as a stupa or 8tom#8 of Buddha. *resh f"o%ers of the stron&est odours are constant"/ p"aced in a#undance on the a"tar #efore Buddha. %ith han&in& #ands of /e""o% c"oth suspended in front of them. and other dreaded evi"s. %hose prosperit/ depends upon the num#er of the %orshippers. Beside each temp"e "ives a priest in a /e""o% $asha. The other is a"most as %ide a#ove as #e"o%. hM2chM. an ear"/ death. or %hen touched #/ the priests or #/ visitors comin& for%ard to #urn incense. The former and o"der of these pa&odas &ro%s narro%er as it rises. or c"a/. If the o#server is reminded in the carved enta#"atures of stone pa&odas of o"d date. The chief viscera of the chest and a#domen are a"%a/s represented. and &riffins. iron. the "ar&er have the interior arran&ed accordin& to Chinese notions of anatom/.. ho%ever. HDG in the countries con:uered. must have #een then in the o"d cit/. the introduction to the other three. HDB . It %as a handsome circu"ar mauso"eum. !eaven %as a"so on the #ac$ of the screen.aper ru##in&s of the sixteen )ohans from !an&2cheu han& on the side %a""s. for examp"e. The "ast t%o of these do not. apparent"/ p. The common peop"e. This is accomp"ished #/ pourin& a f"uid from a #ott"e %hich #ecomes a c"oud in its descent. in Ce/"on. hariputra. The pa&oda of TJien2nin&2sM. ha$/amuniQ on his ri&ht. tone scu"pture ma/ have come in this %a/ into India. uch a faith in the o#3ects of their ido"atr/ is of course encoura&ed to the utmost #/ the priests. %isdom. ( friend %ith me from iam. on the south2%est. as said a"read/. he"" %as on the "eft. e"ephants. povert/. and there are anscrit characters on the fifth in order.para&raph continues< Bodhisatt%as are exhi#ited 8$no%"ed&e and merc/8 com#ined.e$in& and its nei&h#ourhood meta" ima&es are not uncommon. In the sheng-wen.r. upon the four faces of a s:uare screen that comp"ete"/ surrounded Buddha5s ima&e. "et him meditate on the idea that ("exander5s con:uest of . Ra2hu"a. em#roidered %ith inscriptions. HFT of stone. and datin& from the ui d/nast/.para&raph continues< . and e"evated the ruder art there prevai"in&. The/ are of si"$ or satin. The horse2shoe shaped aureo"e %hich encirc"es Buddha5s head is carved %ith %in&ed monsters and %arriors.e$in&. in %hich the &oddess of merc/ is adored is as the 8K%an2/in of the ei&ht misfortunes8 %hich attend unprotected trave""ers. the posture. and the/ %ere a"" ca""ed 1odam and ha$/amuni. In the centre. occup/ the nearest p"ace to Buddha. %ho dra% their #o%s at their intended victims. and Kashiapa. see in each ido" a po%erfu" divinit/. pra/ to #e freed from sic$ness. that there is a resem#"ance to 1ree$ and Roman scu"pture.e$in&. and &i"t paper. It #ecame the fashion then. The/ "oo$ed %retched"/ poor. (nanda.ersia and invasion of India %as a si&na" for a host of ne% thou&hts to ori&inate p.

The a##ot sits on the centra" chair. The/ are of c"a/ and seated on a stone terrace t%o feet in hei&ht. It has ei&ht sides. . The sna$e is not %orshipped as a divinit/. at the #ac$ of the three principa" ido"s.ortu&uese are $no%n in China. The centra" fi&ure is %hat is ca""ed a . In &ratitude for the en"i&htenment the/ received. This represents inte""i&ence. and are ca""ed Si-yang-"en. the p"aces %ere a"" fi""ed. *our sma"" courts in the centres of the four :uarters of the "ar&e s:uare &ive "i&ht #/ continuous ro%s of paper %indo%s to the &a""eries. from %hom he is separated #/ a ta#"e. "i$e the peritoneum. and its head %as sma"". and six mon$s on each side. as %e"" as men and other "ivin& #ein&s. and in front of the door an ima&e or picture. It is a"so convenient to have a door there. that is. vi#ratin& it in to$en of reverence and p. On the upper stor/ or terrace are arran&ed chairs for the a##ot and his assessors. and are more "ia#"e to thievish depredation. therefore. In addition to chantin& the/ struc$ the %ooden fish. the %a/ to &et to the inside is from the #ottom. if the fear of sacri"e&e is p. The . The reason %h/ the three principa" ima&es in front of the &reat centra" door are p"aced %ith a space #ehind them is.rat/e$a Buddha. as if to preserve it from in3ur/. c"ashed c/m#a"s to&ether. T‘an a"so #e"on&s to the schoo" of the 80ina/a8 or Lü-men.i2/In sM. The #ui"din& is a "ar&e s:uare. . and is sho%n to ever/ visitor. In the a#domen the intestines are made of "on& narro% pieces of si"$ %ith cotton %oo" stitched a"on& the concave #order. have no% none. and p"aced near the %estern %a"" of the "ar&e ha"". (t the end of the service the/ a"" %a"$ed in sin&"e fi"e round the ha"" t%ice #ehind the ima&es. conse:uent"/. %ith iron cuirasses and #road2#rimmed hats. round %hich is %ound a piece of /e""o% paper. To the %ood is attached.native medica" %or$s.rat/e$a Buddha is supported #/ four protectors of the "a% of Buddha.aitre/a. >e a"so sa% a structure ca""ed the Leng-yen-tan. In another court are representations of the future state. HDC su#mission. in ver/ man/ cases. "a$es. and. %hich %as p"aced there as a supp"ementar/ ima&e. c"ouds. and the da/ is spo$en of as k1ai-kwang-"ï-tsï.e$in&. (#ove them are cro%ns of f"o%ers. It %as a sna$e %ith #ro%n #od/ and #"ac$ spots.e$in&. as it does occasiona""/ to ta$e an airin&. It is supposed to #e the form assumed #/ the hair after severa" /ears of ascetic retirement in mountain so"itudes. it had #een there for t%o thousand /ears. (s the/ are ver/ heav/. Near this spot is a sma"" temp"e in honour of . it returns to it as to its home. The first fi&ure met #/ the visitor is . %ith pear"s. as of the other five &a""eries. I am inde#ted to Dr. o the priest assured us. the five hundred and first. If the sna$e &oes out of the #ox.ortu&uese sai"ors.ountain scener/. is a "ar&e piece of si"$ covered %ith pra/ers or charms. and is used as an a"tar to represent in its carved ornaments the scenes of the Leng-yen-king. #rid&es. a temp"e t%e"ve mi"es %est of . The "ar&er and o"der ido"s have. +ach of them $nee"s on one $nee. the/ have usua""/ escaped #ein& ro##ed. The %ater comin& do%n the mountain after a storm rushes p. %hose e"ement is fire. and #its of so"der of various shapes to represent si"ver. >hen the ido"s are set up there is a ceremon/ of consecration. In BEAA I arrived there one evenin& %ith some friends and s"ept in a &uest room. This is #et%een three and four thousand pounds. >hen a rap on the #ox is &iven #/ the attendant priest. he %as accommodated %ith a seat in the roof. These four persona&es %ere once in a ro##er #and of five hundred men. no one $no%s %hen. The stor/ is that this )o2han came too "ate. near the entrance. It is the siRe of a do""ar. sma"" in&ots of si"ver. 3ade. This ma/ represent fat or the mesenter/. in the interior of %hich &o"d and si"ver %ere once deposited. To the ri&ht and "eft are para""e" &a""eries. havin& on it a Thi#etan pra/er. This is the name #/ %hich the . On each side of it. and a fi"m of c"a/ or some other su#stance is c"eared a%a/ from the e/es of the ido"s. and contains six &a""eries. That is the theor/. The #ed of the stream is steep. a meta""ic mirror ca""ed ming-king. !e faces the door. is a sna$e t%o feet "on&. %hich is. is a sma"" fi&ure. that a procession #ehind ma/ #e practica#" d/nast/. The/ are sma"" iron fi&ures. $no% %here to &et he"p. It has a revenue of t%e"ve thousand taels of si"ver a /ear. In the meta""ic ima&es. On a #eam overhead. so that ido"s. The temp"e is ca""ed *n-lo-yen-sheu-tang. The terrace on %hich is p"aced the ima&e of . %hich are %hite. a Kiai-t‘an. If %e are to #e"ieve him. #ut rather represents the po%er of Buddha in charmin& and tamin& a sava&e nature. and divided into three "o#es. The richest temp"e at the >estern hi""s near . It is ca""ed the ceremon/ of openin& to the "i&ht. (t .rat/e$a Buddha %ears the s$u""2cap of the ordinar/ Buddha. Round it on the ei&ht sides are carved ei&ht representatives of ha$/amuni. and the/ "ived at that time for nothin& #ut crime. and %e %ere invited #/ a friend"/ priest to &o and see the foamin& and dashin& %ater near the &reat &ate of the monaster/. The priests prostrate themse"ves #efore them. It and the "un&s. There is #ehind the Leng-yen-t‘an an a"tar for receivin& ne% mon$s to the vo%s.oor priests in %ant of mone/. #/ si"$ threads of five co"ours. It ta$es nothin& #ut %ater. There had #een a storm of rain. +m#racin& a"". and &o"d of five candareens6 %ei&ht. there is a ha"" of five hundred )o2hans. ( round red piece of si"$ represents the heart. It is entered from the north. The/ %ere su#dued to virtue #/ the teachin& of Buddha. (t the evenin& service there %ere a#out fort/ priests performin&. the heart #ein& re&arded as the seat of mind. In a #ox &iven a centur/ a&o to this monaster/ #/ the emperor. Inside are a"so to #e found "itt"e #a&s containin& the five $inds of &rain.e$in& is that ca""ed Tan2cho2sM. made in the time of the . The "un&s cover the heart as an um#re""a or "id. and ho"ds up %ith #oth hands an offerin& to Buddha. Dud&eon for the precedin& statement of the contents of Buddhist ima&es in . in&u"ar"/ enou&h there are p"aced here six . in +uropean fashion. The ru"es are read #/ the a##ot %hi"e the neoph/te $nee"s. The po%er of Buddha $eeps the anima" in su#3ection. the/ offered to carr/ Buddha henceforth on their shou"ders. Be/ond and #ehind him is the centra" north and south &a""er/. are represented in c"a/. #een rif"ed of these "itt"e va"ua#"es. But the c"a/ and %ooden ima&es are pac$ed from a ho"e in the #ac$. The neoph/te $nee"s %ith his face to%ard the 8a##ot8 or +ang-chang. HDF mad"/ over #ou"ders and &rave" to the #rid&e. are attached to a piece of %ood. Beside it is a porce"ain tra/ of fresh %ater. the sna$e moves its ton&ue out a#out ha"f an inch. The . are seated fu""2siRed fi&ures of )o2hans. and had severa" other $inds of simp"e instruments.rat/e$a Buddha. HDH not stron& in their minds. and fi""ed %ith "ar&e stones. consistin& of t%o stories.

%ho %as demanded #/ the $in& of the !iun&2nu Tartars as an indispensa#"e condition of peace. B/ ma&ic he raised a scu"ptor to the Tushita paradise to see for himse"f the %onderfu" form of . The extracts are statements of doctrine.aitre/a. 5en-shu.e$in&. (t some distance #ehind her is the han2/I or emperor of the !iun&2nu. The road to it extends a mi"e and a ha"f to the south2east of the cit/. . (#ove these courts is the chief court of the temp"e %ith ha$/amuni5s ha"". %ith %hom e"eucus conc"uded a treat/. It %as three hundred and fift/ feet round. The second of these is the "ar&er of the t%o. -un&2ho2$un&. HTH Buddhism %as the preva"ent faith in the . In the province of Che2$ian& I have seen t%o "ar&e p. BTH. he "eaped into the B"ac$ River and %as dro%ned. to %hich it is tied #/ strin&s. and is fastened ti&ht"/ to a "on& carved %ooden hand"e. p. to indicate the resu"ts of Buddhist teachin& as imparted #/ the five divine instructors. The tang-tsï is a sma"" &on&. It is an ima&e of .esha%ur. The fo""o%in& instruments I have noticedS—the drum. It is a#out the hei&ht of Ne#uchadneRRar5s ima&e on the p"ains of Dura.un3a#. is sixteen feet. The "a% of a secret causation connects itse"f %ith the act of the reader of the "a%. On the s:uare f"at summit are seven sma"" pa&odas surmounted %ith #ronRe caps.D. +ver/ Buddhist structure in China is d%arfish #eside this. +ver/thin& is in carefu""/ mou"ded and co"oured c"a/.adh/anti$a. yin-ch‘ing. and the other at a to%n ca""ed in2chan&. tang-tsï.five principa" Bodhisatt%as preside. The ch‘ing is a f"at meta""ic p"ate cut in the shape of f"o%ers. and it is sevent/ feet hi&h. *rom its erection ti"" the /ear (. and sti"" remar$a#"e for its immense siRe. The %ooden ima&e of . to the north of Cashmere and the . This %ou"d sho% that in B. $nee"in&. The vie% of . p. and the &"or/ attachin& to him. The drum has a c"apper ca""ed ku-ch‘ui. %as seen #/ the trave""er ten li east of .un3a# ?Koeppen. HDA stone ima&es of Buddha cut out of mountain roc$.un3a#. The traditiona" hei&ht of ha$/amuni. and this a&ain rests on a "o% ta#"e. DDG. the tortures of the %ic$ed and the happiness of the &ood are mixed. )et it #e remem#ered that teeth of Buddha and a"so his footsteps in roc$s are of monstrous siRe. The "ar&e #e"" is struc$ #/ a %ooden ma""et. #ut the/ are ver/ sha""o%. The/ consist of extracts from utras.8 and tsie. Kwan-yin is associated %ith Ti-tsang in presidin& in the side ha""s. and is struc$ #/ a sma"" c"apper. %ho converted to Buddhism the $in& of Cashmere and a"" his peop"e. It is f"an$ed #/ "ar&e stone "ions. and %as executed #/ the )o2han . the/ preside %ith e:ua" honour in the centre ha"". sma"" #e""s. and is he"d #/ a ha"f cross. and Ta-shï-chï. for it is on"/ in the time of po%erfu" monarchs that monuments of this siRe can #e erectedQ and Kanish$a %as a most devoted Buddhist. Bein& so ma3estic in hei&ht. 8fi"ia" piet/. and especia""/ Ti-tsang. Thi#etan and Chinese. a period of ei&ht hundred and fort/2t%o /ears %ere said to have passed. or specia" #oo$s containin& charms. the 1ree$ historian . 8Diamond throne. Bad men are pushed #/ demons into a p"ace of torture #e"o%.e$in& from the summit is ver/ fine. 0arious crue" punishments are represented.aitre/a. The/ %or$ a sort of ma&ica" effect. +ach has a c"oth ho"der throu&h the centre tied inside.usic accompanies the %orship. and at %hose court at .aitre/a in . That at !an&2cheu is not. (#ove this ha"" is a ver/ handsome mar#"e &ate%a/. ( thin iron rod stri$es it to $eep time for the chanters. I #e"ieve. . the si&ht of this ima&e is ver/ impressive. It %as #ui"t—if this statement can #e accepted—in the rei&n of Chandra&upta p. %ooden fish.8 Certain ce"e#rated persons are here represented. HDK ?cdefgdhijjik@. 8"o/a"t/. or the offerer of incense. The 8c/m#a"8 is ca""ed kwo. This yin-ch‘ing is t%o inches "on& #/ one deep. It %as a hundred feet hi&h. One is at !an&2cheu. ch‘ing.8 chung.odern trave""ers have found it %est of the cit/. the comin& Buddha. more than fort/. . (fter &oin& up three times he executed this ima&e.8 It is ver/ massive and is #ui"t %ith #"oc$s of mar#"e. In the picture she "oo$s unhapp/ at the forced exi"e from her home and countr/. In the principa" &uest room there is a "ar&e picture hun& on the %a"" descriptive of an ancient Chinese princess. and the &uest rooms.@ The pra/ers are chanted #/ the priests either sittin&. ("on& %ith the three other divinities. 1ood Buddhists are seen crossin& a #rid&e %ith happ/ p. !e %as a contemporar/ of (u&ustus and (nton/. and %as sent to Tartar/ accordin&"/. 8officia" purit/ uncorrupted #/ #ri#es. BTB@.e&asthenes appeared as an am#assador. and the "ar&e #e"". re:uirin& the chise""in& of three &enerations. or standin&. (n enormous tope. and &randson. and has a ref"ectin& #enevo"ent aspect. The pra/ers are not pra/ers in our sense. T%o "ar&e enta#"atures have carved scenes representin& the triumph of the four virtues— hiau.8 lien. The pi""ars are surmounted a"so #/ "ions. of the merc/ and %isdom of Buddha. In !iuen2tsan&5s trave"s he mentions a statue of %ood at Dardu. son. HDD faces. There are various inscriptions cut in the stone. The "ar&er ones have thirteen stories. The in2chan& ima&e is more than a thousand /ears o"d. (#ove this is a pa&oda of the shape ca""ed Kin-hang& pau-tso. as is $no%n #/ coins. and ei&ht hundred feet hi&h. 8chastit/. But the Chinese trave""ers ascri#e it to Kanish$aQ and this can #e #e"ieved. It has a c"oth2covered c"apper. Chau2chiIn. at the "ar&e "amaser/. It is of #rass. c/m#a"s. the historica" Buddha. The c/m#a"s are of #rass.C. ? ee in Koeppen. f"o%ers. and fruits. !‘u-hien. and %as cut #/ the "a#our of a father.aitre/a appears to #e sixt/. On the co"oured roc$2%or$. is sti"" hi&her. in the . the residences of the priests. That of . It is supported #/ a %ooden c/"indrica" #ox. ( sma"" $ind of ch‘ing is ca""ed yin-ch‘ing. The cross2#eams are carved %ith phoenixes a#ove and dra&ons #e"o%.ata"iputra. or Buddhist to%er.

and Buddha is a teacher. NextS Chapter N0. )ama priests at . the/ recite to&ether the teachin&s of their ha$/amuni. depend not on #oo$s or on a re&u"ar course of stud/. and the other to that of TsJau2tun&. need some remar$s. Their interest is modern compared %ith that of some other ce"e#rated seats of the Buddhist re"i& p.Ju2To acred Texts Buddhism Index . and rest their faith on the "e&ends. 80anit/ of vanities. There is no 1od to %orship #ut Buddha. if "oo$ed at from the Christian point of vie%. The mon$5s "ife is a :uiet one. in the re"i&ious faith of the peop"e. in the sense in %hich Confucius %as an uncro%ned $in&. The indo"ent #ecome mon$s.Ju2to. %ith invocations and the #eatin& of the %ooden fish. The mon$s $nee" to adore ima&es. 1ood "uc$ is expected. It has of "ate /ears #een a favourite summer residence of forei&ners. and seem to #e so man/ sermons on the o"d text in +cc"esiastes. a"%a/s sho%n favour to the nationa" re"i&ion of their >estern tri#utaries.8 In the Buddhist "iterature.e$in& have a"%a/s #een accustomed to visit the is"and. There is nothin& #ut praise and invocation in an exceedin&"/ #rief form. The mon$s sti"" read the traditiona" passa&es out of the #oo$s of Buddha %hich teach the nothin&ness of the universe. is 5re"i&ious pro&ress5 ?tau@. are #e"ieved in as &ods #/ the more credu"ous. Nothin& is expected of him #ut order"/ conduct. K%an2/in is the patron deit/ of Thi#et and a"so of . #/ 4oseph +d$ Thi#etan inscriptions—*re:uent visits of . The pecu"iarities of the monasteries. and the . HDT CHAPTER V. the %orship is not a"tered on that account. pra/ers %ith specia" ends in vie%. and has #een fre:uent"/ descri#ed in recent #oo$s on China. If ho%ever this is so. ma/ #e found a $e/ to the so"ution of the :uestion. to %hich #oth these schoo"s #e"on&. and the su#stitution of this deit/ for ha$/amuni Buddha in the centre of the &reat ha"". One esta#"ishment #e"on&s to the )in2tsi schoo".ota"a of 4eho" in . #ut simp"/ on the "ivin& teacher. It does not need faith. ho% Buddhism as a re"i&ion has "asted so "on&. or Rea". so that its natura" features need not #e here repeated. in ans%er to a discip"e5s :uestions.e$in& "amas—Dedicated to K%an2/in—1ifts #/ KJan&2hi—Ima&es—Caves—. -et the re&u"ations of the monasteries are a"" Chinese. . The founder of the )in2tsi once said.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. This esta#"ishment more modern than TJien2tJai and >u2tJai—. virtua" divinities. I do not remem#er ever havin& seen more than once or t%ice. . from motives of po"ic/. to %hich mu"titudes of Rea"ous Buddhists ma$e pi"&rima&es. It is a pra/er"ess and &od"ess re"i&ion. or Kwan-yin&p‘u-sa. The pupi"s in the Tsun&2men division of Chinese Buddhism. -et the/ &o #e/ond this. ho%ever. 8>hat is rea""/ BuddhaL >hat is dharma ?the "a%@L >hat is re"i&ious pro&ressL8—8That the heart #e pure and ca"m. *or anti:uities the/ cannot vie %ith TJien2tJai. If O2mi2to *o. re"atin& the po%erfu" interference of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%asQ and thus these persona&es #ecome.on&o"ian d/nast/ in the fourteenth centur/. it is to favour contemp"ation and ref"ection. %ith %hich their #oo$s are cro%ded. at sacred2texts. HDE . a"" is vanit/. . direct"/ addressed to either of these persona& Chinese&)uddhism. and perform %orship p. or %ith >u2tJai shan in han2si. or hM2$ia *o. not throu&h the %i"" of an/ &od. The monastic esta#"ishments no% on the is"and date principa""/ from the .onasteries (t . The/ are remar$a#"e rather as formin& a connectin& "in$ %ith the "ama Buddhism of Thi#et and . That hindrances in a"" directions #e removed. or conviction. The fo""o%in& is the mode of teachin& in these schoo"s. #ut throu&h an impersona" fate. and the mind ca"m and #ri&ht. T!I is"and has "on& #een $no%n to forei&ners as a ce"e#rated spot. That the mind #e c"ear and #ri&ht. The ref"ex inf"uence of the ima&es on their minds is a""2important. and the schoo"s to %hich the mon$s #e"on& are those %hich have sprun& up in China itse"f.anchu emperors have. there are no printed pra/ers. and the chantin& of the instructions of Buddha. not to pra/. >hen seated in a "ar&e ha"". an uncro%ned &od. is Buddha.8 There appear to #e more monasteries no% #e"on&in& to this schoo" than to an/ other.on&o"ia—It is a"so the name of the pa"ace—Temp"e of the Da"ai )ama—In China an is"and %as preferred to #e the tau-ch‘ang of K%an2/in. Of rea" re"i&ious activit/ there is none. of %hich Thi#etan inscriptions sti"" on the is"and are monuments. is dharma. HAG there ti"" recent"/.In the ima&es and the %orship offered to them #/ the p.on&o"ia.a&odas—Inscriptions—Resident defenders of Buddhism—The .BETC<. "eadin& to a pecu"iar arran&ement of the ima&es in the monasteries. The instructor utters a fe% sentences to his pupi"s adapted to en"i&hten them on some point considered of importance. This connection is seen in severa" circumstances.para&raph continues< Buddhist mon$ish communit/. for trave""ers have hitherto said nothin& to exp"ain them. MONASTERIES AT P‘U-TO. !is %or$ is ver/ "i&ht.

is an interestin& representation of the ei&hteen (rhans crossin& the sea. In #oth monasteries the ei&hteen Lo-hans ?(rhans@. The +i&ht2faced K%an2/in. Beside him. on %hich nine dra&ons t%ine themse"ves.e$in&. Bodhidharma. and is seen ever/%here painted on %a""s and carved on stone.8 The five vesse"s are—an incense urn in the midd"e. (. 8The ha"" of the comp"ete and correct doctrine. The reverence paid to K%an2/in is not. The "ast of these. on a ta#"et.D. #ut on"/ in more recondite ones. There is much simi"arit/ in the arran&ements of the t%o monasteries. %ishes to %a$e his s"eepin& nei&h#our. The "ast of these is seated on a "ar&e sea :uadruped in the representation here referred to. 8The universa" saviour of a"" "ivin& #ein&s. the Buddha rei&nin& in the present kalpa. representin& (mita#ha. !ere it is on"/ &reen and /e""o%. >hen these #ui"din&s are in3ured #/ time. ho%ever. from the anscrit (va"X$it`sh%ara. ca""ed Kwo-hai K%an2/in.e$in& to the is"and. a /e""o% si"$ c"oa$ is thro%n over the ima&e. preferrin& to save man$ind #/ discoursin& to them on the doctrines of this re"i&ion. This name appears to #e &iven #/ the !indoos to a natura" and an artificia" su#stance ?as in the case a"so of 8spJati$a8 or po-li. The one. "ess on this account. the Indian archet/pe of !‘u-to itse"f. and is that of a fema"e sittin& cross2"e&&ed in the Buddhist manner. and are individua"ised #/ varieties in posture. (#ove. and investi&ate the condition of the monasteries. !ere. The same materia" %as emp"o/ed in the Nan$in& porce"ain to%er no% destro/ed.8 This is said in praise of K%an2/in. Over his head is a "ar&e circ"e. 3ust #e/ond the first monaster/.8 of the monasteries and of the is"and. %e have the Ta-yuen-t1ung-tien. are found in side chape"s. #/ order of the emperor KJan&2hi. p. It is ca""ed 5u-shï-hiang-pau. %hose name is constant"/ on the "ips of the Chinese p. 8&"ass8@. and is found in the monasteries of the "amas in . representin& the metamorphoses of K%an2/in. #"ac$. %hich are a"so forei&n. and %hite. In one of the monasteries. The/ are ca""ed Kwan-yin&san-shï-rïsiang: the/ are a"" ma"e. in a p"a/fu" humour. K%an2/in presides. he dropped the other. and 8The &iver of sons8 are found here. "i$e po-li 8&"ass. viR. is a sentence &iven #/ KJan&2hi. and the usua" cro%n of the Bodhisatt%as. On the ri&ht is another K%an2/in. The/ are seated on various sea anima"s.8 a""udin& to ha$/amuni. In a sma"" temp"e ca""ed !un&2fa2tJan&.aitre/a.The visitor to the Buddhist sacred is"and %i"" notice the &reen and /e""o% ti"in& of the t%o "ar&e monasteries. Both have t%o imperia" ta#"ets %ith ha""s specia""/ erected for their reception. HAF po"e on his shou"der %ith one shoe suspended on it. BKTA to BEBT. %hich is of %ood. )amas used to #e sent ever/ /ear from .uta"o$a. It is ca""ed lieu-li-wa. >hi"e he s"eeps. and inducin& them to enter on the path to the Nirv9na. a fe% "otus "eaves.8 !e carries a p. t%o cand"e supporters. These supposed #ein&s are a step inferior to the ran$ of Bodhisatt%aQ #oth are inferior to Buddha. a star %ith a stream of "i&ht issues from his head. . 8The precious ha"" of the &reat hero. Instead of the usua" name Ta-hiung-pau-tien.Ji2"u cro%n. This &"aRed potter/ is of the five co"ours at Nan$in&. Oc. HAH and Thi#etan priests. contained in some amon& the &reat co""ection of %or$s termed Tsang-king. The proper names of these persona&es are a"" !indoo. The o"der one dates from the time of Kia2$Jin&. Before the principa" ido" is a stand for an incense urn. a""udin& to a 8passa&e across the sea8 of this deit/ to the is"and . K%an2/in p"a/s a principa" part in the "e&end of the 8. in p"ace of the o"der one trans"ated #/ Kumara3iva from the shorter !indoo name (va"o$ite. representin& the ru"er of the monaster/. The names of %e""2$no%n deities are therefore fre:uent"/ su#stituted for them. Both the "ar&e monasteries are dedicated to K%an2/in pJu2sa. is fift/ /ards "on& and thirt/ %ide. . and is therefore ca""ed Chu&Fo. 8The five2vesse"2incense stand.8 referrin& to K%an2/in. This is a ne% name introduced #/ !iuen2tsan& the trave""er. are fi&ures of Bodhisatt%as.8 #/ the Buddhists. None. the other t%o #ein& Ta-shï-chï&p‘u-sa and (mita#ha. The stor/ is that. Behind the Thi#etan ima&e is a monstrous ma"e K%an2/in. and presented to each of the monasteries. !ence some of them have #ecome much di"apidated. is a fema"e fi&ure. On the "eft of this ima&e is a fi&ure of %ood. from the circumstance that the/ do not occur in current "e&ends. and head2coverin&s.8 and is one of the 8three sa&es8 ?san-sheng@ supposed to reside there. in the first monaster/. on crossin& the -an&2tsRe $ean&. The same five vesse"s are a"so p"aced on the pavement in front of the ha"".. and t%o urns for f"o%ers. In other monasteries the centra" position and the most monstrous ima&e are a"%a/s assi&ned to ha$/a. HAC in the emperor5s name. Thus the &reat ha"" of K%an2/in. and Ti2tsan&2%an&. )i$e other deities of the same ran$. Round the canop/. 8The >estern heaven. and the teacher to %hom ever/ mon$ unites himse"f %hen he ta$es the vo%s. dress. !‘u-tsi-k‘iün-ling. There is no dress on it except rin&s on the arms. ("on& the east and %est %a""s of the ha"" are ran&ed thirt/2t%o ima&es. sittin& on a dra&on. and is ca""ed at fu"" "en&th in anscrit <aiduria. the Thousand2handed K%an2/in. The other is no ear"ier than the rei&n of Tau2$%an&. 8the Ru"in& Buddha. In this ha"" is a "ar&e ima&e of earthen%are %ith pedesta" and canop/. red. Lieu-li is a %ord introduced to China. to %orship K%an2/in p. the founder of the contemp"ative schoo" in China. *rom them the ha"" is a"so sometimes ca""ed Kieu-lung-tien. and common"/ in Buddhist temp"es. are t%o /ouths ca""ed 84o/8 ? Ki-k‘ing@ and 8Rest8 ?)‘ing-an@. It is one of the +i&ht precious thin&s. and unfami"iar in their sound. have &one there durin& the "ast fort/ /ears. it is not permitted to repair them %ithout an order from the emperor. ho%ever. #ut he is chec$ed #/ his companion. a"" #rou&ht from Thi#et. their p"ace #ein& occupied #/ the thirt/2t%o fi&ures of K%an2/in. (rtificia" f"o%ers on"/ are used. %ith the . the fictitious Buddha of the >estern heaven. Sung-tsï2K%an2/in. and on the pedesta" severa" %hite e"ephants and "ions carved in %ood. usua""/ p"aced in the centra" ha"" of temp"es. #"ue. /e""o%. %hich %as pic$ed up #/ a countr/man. K%an2/in has refused for a time to #ecome Buddha. such as K%an2/in.eacefu" "and8 or Tsing-tu. The name K%an2tsM2tsai is used in some of the inscriptions for K%an2shM2/in. is introduced seated on %hat is termed a 8one2horned immorta" #u"". The t%o Thi#etan inscriptions on the road side "eadin& to the first monaster/ %ere made #/ these "amas. The fi&ure is &i"t. There are other representations of this deit/. HAB The #ui"din&s are on a "ar&e sca"e. ho%ever. instead of to ha$/amuni Buddha.

HAK . (t 4eho". (ssociations.an3usiri presides over air ?%ind@.revious Next . the hermit "ife of ha$/amuni Buddha is depicted on the %a""s of the same temp"e. In accordance %ith this.8 Teng-pei-an. the %ho"e Buddhist "i#rar/ of severa" thousand vo"umes is p"aced in a "ar&e octa&ona" revo"vin& #oo$case. a#out a hundred and t%ent/ mi"es north2east of . and he is %orshipped in the +ast at . and is %orshipped in han2si. Buddhist . 8-ou have #ut to turn #ac$ and /ou %i"" have reached the shore.a&oda of the cro%n prince. in the Chusan (rchipe"a&o. dedicated to the . p. p. !e thus "earns %hat peop"e at a distance are doin&. The metaphor #/ %hich Buddhist preachin& is ca""ed the revo"vin& of the %hee".ota"a in %hich the Da"ai )ama "ives at )hassa in Thi#et. !e is pourin& the e"ixir of "ife from a &ourd. is proof that the Buddhist ima&ination.an3usiri is seated on a sea demon.8 Hwei-"ï-tung-sheng. there is a nest of "ama monasteries. and this pa&oda %as named after him T‘ai-tsï-t‘a. . Footnotes HAKSB Tau-c‘hang. !is attri#ute is merc/.erhaps the is"and ma/ have #een at the mouth of the p. %hich is pushed round at the instance of the visitor. #ein& at the head of the !%a2tsan& universe. Ti2tsan&. in a va""e/ c"ose to the emperor5s huntin&2"od&e and summer pa"ace. and vice and virtue. K%an2/in presides over %ater.8 The Buddhists sa/ that sa"vation is in $no%"ed&e. from the sea of i&norance to the 8 hore of true %isdom8 ?. (mon& these monasteries are some of Thi#etan architecture. . in addition to the is"and in the Indian Ocean. preferred an is"and. !is attri#ute is happiness. the chief of %hich is .8 Fa-lun-ch‘ang-chwen. %here there are severa" caves. ho%ever. and dra&ons. in painted c"a/. TC. HAD (t another sma""er temp"e. !e did not attempt to continue the ar&ument.ota"a. !ere is seen a hut of rushes inha#ited #/ the future Buddha. *acin& the first monaster/ is a sma"" pa&oda. in se"ectin& a p"ace for the specia" %orship of K%an2/in in China. 8(scend the ship of &reat %ishes. There is no difficu"t/ fe"t #/ the arran&ers of temp"es in p"acin& the Bodhisatt%as amon& the (rhans. and %hite ra##its are his near nei&h#ours. %here she can #e at hand to rescue sai"ors from the dan&ers of the sea.Ju2to. and he is %orshipped in the >est at the >oo2%ei mountain in M2chJ%en. In the third monaster/. %hich are the first steps on the road to the emperor. I cou"d not. !o-"e&po-lo-mi-to@. the seat of ha$/amuni5s ancestors. !e %as reminded in rep"/ that the vast Hwa-tsang-shï-kiai. !ere K%an2/in %ou"d. This name is app"ied various"/ to a sea2port at the mouth of the Indus. o the (rhan is on"/ such after passin& throu&h three &rades of discip"eship. . (s it f"o%s out it #ecomes the &enius of a star. %as far hi&her in di&nit/ than !e %ho ru"ed this "esser universe. This a&reed #est %ith the "e&ends.8 On its four sides are p"aced stone ima&es of the four &reat Bodhisatt%as. HAA is "ed #/ the teachin& of Buddha.i"&rima&es. It is mode""ed after the . seem more in her p"ace than on a mountain of the main2"and. and %here cro%ds of pi"&rims %i"" in fair %eather not #e %antin& to receive the #enefit of her instructions. 8The &o"den thread that &uides into the path of inte""i&ence. 80esse" of merc/. Kin-sheng-kio-lu. to each of %hom one of the four e"ements is assi&ned. hi&h on the hi"" ca""ed *o2tin& shan. near Nan$in&. !ence K%an2/in is ca""ed Ts‘ï-hang. ( ti&er is %hisperin& at his ear.Ju2sa is to save man$ind and a"" "ivin& #ein&s."ace of doctrine. I found a /oun& priest ver/ read/ to defend his s/stem. !e is said to have #ecome incarnate in a former iamese prince. he rep"ied that ha$/amuni Buddha. The Da"ai )ama is a "ivin& incarnation of K%an2/in. 8The %hee" of the "a% constant"/ revo"ves.Ju2to. $no%n as >an2"i h%an&2ti. each %ith one or more sma"" stone Buddhas seated inside. 8. see in +ite". . *or particu"ars. This is an appropriate tauc‘hang B for her. %as nothin& #ut an invention of the author of the Hwa-yen-king.8 This refers to the unceasin& proc"amation #/ #oo$s and mon$s of the doctrines of ha$/amuni.8 Teng-ta-yuen-cheu. !e %as an artisan from Kieu2$ian& in Kian&2si. and the Chinese . of the !ima"a/as. and conve/ them to the shore of true $no%"ed&e.ra3na paramita. . Inscriptions on roc$s "inin& the paths are ver/ numerous at .rocessions. The/ rescue those %ho are stru&&"in& in the sea of "ife and death. The/ form the "adder from the actua" %or"d of human "ife to that c"oud2"and of a#stractions %hich the contemp"ative Buddhist hopes to reach at "ast. #/ the turnin& of %hich an accumu"ation of merit is o#tained. presides over earth.ost of them are Buddhistic. is a some%hat remar$a#"e representation of the !indoo &ods. ti&ers. the pa"ace at )hassa. sho%n to visitors as em#"ematic of the hermit "ife. 8The sun of %isdom rises in the east. and that in rea"it/ there %as no existence or %or"d not inc"uded %ithin the dominions of 1od. . The discip"e p. ome specimens of them %i"" #e no% &iven. 8. The settin& apart of the is"and . This prince #efore ascendin& the throne had conferred #enefits on the institutions of the is"and. and therefore his pa"ace2temp"e %as ca""ed . 81o up on that shore.8 NextS Chapter N0I. a con&eries of an immense num#er of "esser %or"ds.para&raph continues< Indus. !e is %orshipped specia""/ in the outh at Kieu2h%a. and "eft its name in the present Tatta. o#tain an inte""i&ent account of them from the i""iterate priest %ho %as residin& there. Hwei-t‘eu-shï-an. o in China.and %as found to possess %onderfu" po%ers. . on the &round that it su#stituted the creature for the Creator. and #ecome a mon$. #ecause the/ have a"" necessari"/ passed throu&h that state #efore arrivin& at their present position. (#ove the ei&hteen (rhans 3ust descri#ed. >hen the %orship of Buddha %as o#3ected to.8 The &reat %ish of a Buddha or a . The Buddha himse"f must &o throu&h a"" these sta&es from the first introduction to the sacred "ife up to the state of Bodhisatt%a. The/ are presided over #/ -I2h%an& of the Brahma heaven.ota"a. In the same representation K%an2/in sits on some other sea anima". and to a mountain ran&e near or part of the Ni"&herries %here (va"X$it`sh%ara %as fond of &oin&.e$in&. !is attri#ute is %isdom.Ju2to.on&o"ia. %ho had "eft his %ife and fami"/ in char&e of his e"dest son. the !attala of the 1ree$s. under %hose 3urisdiction he"" is supposed to #e. is a representation.on$e/s and sacred &eese #rin& him food.Ju2hien presides over fire.Ju2to. in expoundin& the dharma that is to save "ivin& #ein&s. is seen practica""/ exemp"ified in the pra/in&2%hee"s of . and Ceremonies for the Dead acred Texts Buddhism Index . It shou"d #e remem#ered that the attri#ute of this &reat Bodhisatt%a is %isdom.

!e a#horred a"" irre&u"arit/. The/ sin& as the/ &o. These ro##ers a"" at "ast su#mit to contro".8 The 8sti"ts8 are ca""ed kau-k‘iau.e$in& have theatrica" sho%s once a /ear. and p"a/ actors are invited to perform an ordinar/ p"a/. In the Cheu-li. priests are invited to read "itur&ies for three da/s in their houses. #ecause it is customar/ to represent in mas:uerade the ro##ers of the nove" ca""ed ShuE-hu.i"&rims %earin& iron chains— upposed efficac/ of the pra/ers of the priests—Pea" of the "ait/ in promotin& pi"&rima&es to ce"e#rated shrines. especia""/ of ancestors. %hich %as that of the un& d/nast/. Buddhist nunneries in . The ori&ina" hun&r/ &hosts %ere the !indoo . or to perform a ceremon/ intended to drive a%a/ pesti"entia" diseases. In China the hun&r/ &hosts are the spirits of the dead.BETC<.8 or ho-shang. the Ti-tsang-king. The %ord ko is 8son&. >hen the rich die in ."a/s—. %ho rei&ned in M2chJ%en. %ith a particu"ar intonation. and as para""e" %ith the theatrica" sho%s of the "amas in their monasteries in . the examination of simi"ar customs in China is of specia" interest. The p"a/ or spectac"e here a""uded to %as a procession of sin&ers. a Tantra of the TJan& d/nast/.ien2"ian& %as the capita".i"&rima&es to . It %as ca""ed 6o. and the %ooden fish. and the Ta&pei-ch‘an. HAT sent. Buddhists are appea"ed to on #eha"f of the dead %ho have no descendants to %orship them. a#out ten in num#er.iau2fen& shan—. the Fahwa-king ?)otus of the 1ood )a%@. the professed o#3ect of this association. Thus the sentiment of compassion for the ne&"ected dead and of ancestors is in&enious"/ made #/ Buddhism into an instrument for promotin& its o%n inf"uence amon& the peop"e. and accepted them so far as seemed fittin&.8 prevai"in& at certain times of the /ear. and feed them #/ sacrifices. ome trace it to the son of )ieu . . and an o"d %oman ca""ed tso-tsï. ome natives thin$ the/ #e"on& to the un&. The #e"ief in the metemps/chosis amon& the !indoos connected itse"f %ith the Chinese sacrifices to ancestors. These processions are seen in the p. The t%o thin&s com#ined formed an en&ine of &reat po%er for affectin& the pu#"ic mind. %hich is an o#3ection to this vie%. HKG countr/ at the end of *e#ruar/. The nuns %ait on the spectators of the p"a/. the Kin-kang-king. Confucius himse"f a"so came from his house in his court ro#es and stood on the east side on the stone steps. But then there %ere fe% priests. The da/ for feedin& hun&r/ &hosts. that %hen the a&ricu"tura" "a#ourers came out to drin$ %ine. and the mone/ co""ected he"ps to defra/ the expenses of the nunner/ for the current /ear.e$in& and .—a procession is or&anised in . and had no musica" instruments. One is a fisherman. +ver/ /ear. These customs cou"d on"/ #e introduced on their present #asis at a time %hen Buddhism %as rife and shorn priests %ere found in ever/ vi""a&e. It is re&arded #/ the "iterati as a mere theatrica" performance and an amusement of the rura" popu"ation. and is p"aced in the hands of a committee %ho erect "oft/ mat sheds on the "ine of route for the entertainment of the pi"&rims. 8(ssociation for &ivin& food to the dead8—>orship of ancestors—)itur&ica" services in the houses of the rich. The/ too$ %ith them cand"estic$s. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. ü-lan-hwei."a/s are considered re"i&ious. But the main o#3ect of these vi""a&e amusements #ein& re"i&ious. The performers. the ancient soverei&ns of China or their deputies are represented as performin& certain ceremonies for the remova" of pesti"entia" diseases four times in the /ear—once for each season. HAE CHAPTER VI. &o a#out the vi""a&es and ham"ets on hi&h sti"ts in fanc/ costumes. and some others. is the BDth of the seventh month. The custom at present representin& the ceremon/ of the No is ca""ed ang-ko. four. another is a %ood2&atherer ca""ed Chai-wang. . #ecause the/ are supposed to #e performed to amuse the &ods in %hose temp"es the/ are performed. The %orship .iau2fen& p.retas.8 and /an& is 8to raise.ei. +i&ht men are p. In the discourses of Confucius it is is su#scri#ed. The/ %ere the Leng-yen-king.e$in& to . HEG.—our (pri" p. This %as an indication of his desire to conform to the ha#its of the countr/. a picture of Buddha. rura" processions %ere in those countries a favourite amusement mixed %ith re"i&ious—. is caused #/ demons ca""ed li or dit. ( TRIKIN1 examp"e of the popu"ar inf"uence of Buddhism is found in the associations ca""ed ü-lan-hwei. (. it is perhaps #etter to re&ard them as Buddhist. %hen I made in:uir/. The/ read for a#out six hours each da/. and are made officers of the &overnment. . or five da/s. The vie% then he"d %as that the wen-yi or 8sic$ness. . ( priest to"d me that the/ read five #oo$s in particu"ar on one occasion recent"/. %hen .com Chinese&)uddhism.8 There is a 8#e&&in& priest.on&o"ia. and the o"d men appeared "eanin& on their croo$s. the scene of %hich is "aid at the mountain )ian&2shan in han2tun&.e$in&.rince of fue". >hen it is considered that in the o"d re"i&ion of 1reece and Rome. ( "ar&e mat shed is erected.Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. HKB and Octo#er. %hich is determined #/ a certain musica" notation and is "earned specia""/. BUDDHIST PROCESSIONS" ASSOCIATIONS" PILGRIMAGES" AND CEREMONIES FOR THE DEAD. a Buddhist p"ace of pi"&rima&eQ the 3ourne/ to %hich #/ the pi"&rims occupies three. Their o#3ect %as #/ pra/ers to "i#erate as ear"/ as possi#"e the sou" of the dead from miser/. at sacred2texts."/ the/ are ear"ier than the TJan& d/nast/. in the third and ninth months. to #e revived afresh in this modern form %ith a Buddhist priest as one of the performers.D. The o"d custom of Confucius6 a&e has died out. for the "i#eration of the sou"s of the dead from he""—0i""a&e processions—Based on the o"d rura" processions of c"assica" times—. Buddhism found vi""a&e processions of a re"i&ious character a"read/ existin& in the countr/.

The chantin& of the #oo$s cannot fai" to #rin& happiness.e$in& to #e under the care of Dr.iau2fen& shan.BETC<. The ori&in of the primitive Buddhist #oo$s %hich are Common to the Northern and outhern Buddhists is.iau2fen& shan to fu"fi" a vo%. Lü.aha/ana #oo$s—)ist of trans"ators (. The pra/ers of the ho-shang are supposed to have the po%er to #rea$ open the caverns of he"". >hen an immense missionar/ deve"opment fo""o%ed on the meetin& of this Counci".e$in&. (mita#ha. !e %as a .revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon.8 I conversed. (n iron chain #ound his feet and hands. at the )ondon . HKH %orshipped there. and #oth %ore a red dress in to$en of their #ein& ma"efactorsQ for the pi"&rims st/"e themse"ves on these occasions crimina"s. then. The/ sta/ed for some da/s. he headed the arran& Chinese&)uddhism. "eavin& this particu"ar temp"e shut up and unoccupied at the end of the season. ei&ht/ times as "ar&e as our Ne% Testament—The . three. at sacred2texts. >ith the mone/ thus o#tained the priests return to their monasteries. and the chain is a si&n of vo"untar/ #onda&e underta$en in the spirit of confession of demerit. Buddhist "i#raries presented to monasteries #/ emperors—ChJen&2tsu.8 +ver/ act of merit is a +u-yuen. The e"dest is honoured at some p"ace in han2tun& %ith specia" reverence.aha/ana of Northern Buddhism—Counci" of Cashmere—(uthors of the . Three sisters. proceedin& throu&h a se"ection of favourite "itur&ica" #oo$s.ei2tsan&—Division into King.C. The/ chant to&ether in the houses of the rich to %hich the/ are invited. KG to (. Both %ere attended #/ a companion.aha/ana —)un&2 shu %rote the Hwa-yen-king—Contrasts #et%een the primitive and . )a/ Buddhists appear to #e far more active in stirrin& up the peop"e to &o on pi"&rima&e to mountain temp"es than the priests themse"ves. the priests ta$e the "eadQ #ut in vo"untar/ associations for a re"i&ious 3aunt in sprin& or autumn %eather. ca""ed the three niang-niang. $nee"in&s. head2$noc$in&s. The pra/ers of the priest must have their effect. %ith a %oman %ho #rou&ht a sic$ mem#er of her fami"/ to . in the sprin& of BEKT. The %oman had #een an or&aniser of Buddhist pi"&rima&es to a monaster/ ca""ed i2/I sM in the mountains %est of . 8performin& meritorious acts. Dud&eon. the Rea" of the "ait/ is much more conspicuous. under (shX$a. he "ives at a sma"" to%n in the countr/ t%o da/s6 trave""in& from the monaster/. in the autumn or sprin& as the case ma/ #e. %as p. HKF .aha/ana #oo$s containin& the "e&ends of K%an2/in and of the >estern heaven %ith its Buddha. and "earned Christian doctrine from a Bi#"e2%oman. Lun—*irst Counci"—>or$ of (nanda—The . #ut stron&er in #od/ and "ive"ier in appearance than the one I conversed %ith the da/ #efore. T!+ first fixin& of the Buddhist canon %as at the Counci"s of Ra3a&riha and . of the . !e had #een i"".D. Buddhist )iterature acred Texts Buddhism Index . The chief divinit/ is . HKC CHAPTER VII. .e$in& to . or second printed edition.8 There never /et %as a &ood man %hose &oodness %as "eft %ithout re%ard.i2hia -uen2chiIn. NextS Chapter N0II. and %hi"e i"" had vo%ed to %a"$ in chains to the temp"e and #ac$. It %as #orro%ed from a temp"e %here such &ear is $ept for the occasiona" use of pi"&rims. )ar&e pits are fi""ed %ith copper mone/ to a depth of t%o. HFAQ and the addition to the canon of the .com p. anterior to B. a Tauist persona&e.ata"iputra. ti"" the time of pi"&rima&e comes round a&ain. uch is the operation of the karma.ission !ospita".D. The Northern and outhern Buddhists he"d to&ether ti"" the Counci" of . #/ 4oseph +d$ins. 8cause of happiness.anchu of t%ent/2seven /ears of a&e. six months "ater. or five feet.ei2tsan&. The/ at first "oo$ "i$e prisoners in char&e of po"ice. #ut their su#missive air and the red dress sho% that the/ are devotees. the separation %as a natura" resu"t. The procession usua""/ consisted of mu"e carts to the num#er of a#out fifteen. dates from the sixteenth centur/—The Kia2hin& edition of the . inc"usive of those #/ Chinese authors—On the counci"s for sett"in& the canon—Trans"ations #/ Burnouf and others—)otus—Boo$ of *ort/2t%o ections— Character of this and other ear"/ %or$s— tories i""ustrative of ancient "ife—Fan-wang-king—Chan-tsï-king trans"ated #/ Bea"—. The next da/ I met another such pi"&rim returnin&. #ut the temp"e is cared for #/ Buddhist priests. and offerin& of mone/ to the attendant priest. or 8mora" necessit/. are %orshipped at . +ver/ sprin& she has exerted her inf"uence for man/ /ears past to persuade her nei&h#ours to &o to&ether to this monaster/ to %orship.e$in&. he expressed her determination to &ive this up and #ecome a Christian.consists of #o%in&s. >hen mone/ is to #e co""ected for the repair of temp"es. The second of the three is chief"/ p. #urnin& incense.ratimo$sha. KGD— ixteen hundred %or$s are c"assified. On one occasion I passed a pi"&rim &oin& from . This is ca""ed tso-kung-te.ata"iputra. It is p"aced amon& the mountains to the north %est of .in& d/nast/. #ecause of the vast extent of countr/ over %hich Buddhism short"/ #ecame the preva"ent re"i&ion. BUDDHIST LITERATURE. %as the first to print the entire series of the Buddhist accepted #oo$s— !ra"na&paramita.

In this estimate "ost trans"ations. not man/ /ears after. The/ are not then "i$e the %or$s found in the first and second c"asses. !e #e&anS 8Thus have I heard—(t a certain time. )i$e a vesse" receivin& %ater. The/ came there #/ the exercise of miracu"ous po%er. for their do&mas and "e&ends a&ree %ith the re"i&ion as it is sti"" professed in Ce/"on and #/ a"" the outhern Buddhists. the %ho"e %or$ of the !indoo trans"ators in China. In addition to the erection of the porce"ain to%er at Nan$in&. retainin& no more and no "ess than %hat the teacher uttered. The %ord king is indeed often app"ied to %or$s that are p"aced in the 0ina/a division. he de"ivered such instructions. C a $in& of Northern India ?Ca#u"@. Kashiapa then addressed (nandaS 8It is for /ou no% to promu"&ate the 5e/e of the doctrine5 ?+a-yen@. and the direct instructions that he communicated to them.8 ( "itt"e more than three2fourths of this extensive "iterature consists of trans"ations from anscrit. or 8 utra. the Northern and outhern Buddhists are at one. The third part. Thou&h the/ se"dom ma$e use of this "i#rar/ themse"ves. the conversations that too$ p"ace #et%een Buddha and an/ of his audience. consists of discussions.e$in&. Lü. and after o#servin& the countenances of the audience. One of these %or$s. in the ung-lo period of the third emperor of the . In man/ instances the/ are preserved %ith &reat care and are hi&h"/ va"ued. and conversations are detai"ed much in the manner of the utras or %or$s of the first c"ass. #/ a priest ca""ed TsM2pe to2shM. (s in countries %here the pa"m &ro%s the mon$s have continued to %rite on the pa"m2"eaf. prepared #/ Upa"i. as the most remar$a#"e of a"" the Chinese Buddhists. >hen the first #oo$s %ere trans"ated into Chinese from anscrit.8 B ( simi"ar account is retained #/ the in&ha"ese of the ori&in of the utras. audience. saidS 8Bi$shus and a"" here present. he im#i#ed the doctrine of Buddha.aha/ana #oo$s %ere composed in Cashmere.8 There %as another made in the time of >an2"i in the c"osin& part of the sixteenth centur/. are not inc"uded. and had come to #e re&arded. #ein& a#out ei&ht/ times as "ar&e as the Ne% Testament. had not /et attained to the ran$ of (rhan %hen the meetin& #e&an. the priests a"%a/s express un%i""in&ness to part %ith an/ portions of them. 8The/ %ere 3ust these %ords.8 ( ne% set of #"oc$s %as cut at the expense of private persons from this "ast. and the hastras or (#hidharma #/ Kashiapa. HKK a#ove.8 The assem#"/ remained si"ent. HKD trave""er. previous to the remova" of his residence from that p"ace to . The distinction of #ahayana ?Ta-ch1eng@. H The 0ina/a division of the #oo$s %as. Kashiapa assem#"ed them at the mountain -i-"a-ku-ta ?1ridhra$uta@. transcri#ed copies of a"" needed #oo$s %ou"d #e made and preserved in monasteries.8 runs throu&h the %or$s of a"" the three c"asses a#ove descri#ed. he further si&na"ised his Rea" for Buddhism #/ causin& #"oc$s to #e cut for the first time for the entire series of Buddhist #oo$s. in the first centuries after his death. and %ere sti"" there #efore the TJai2pin& re#e""ion. and it %as then that these extensive additions to the Tripitaka& or 8Three co""ections8 %ere a&reed upon. (#hidharma. %e are to"d his discip"es met to a&ree on the #oo$s that shou"d #e re&arded as the true traditions of their master5s instructions. It contains a reprint of the imperia" preface to the first comp"ete edition datin& in the seventh centur/ ?TJan& Chun&2tsun&@. %ho %as /oun&. it %as #efore the time of the introduction of paper. Lun. The %or$s of the 8)esser Deve"opment8 ?or vehic"e@ there can #e "itt"e dou#t are the ori&ina" #oo$s of Buddha. BFBG. the #aha&!ra"na&paramita ?Ta-poh-"e-king@. on account of his successfu" 3ourne/ and "iterar/ "a#ours. or 8)esser Deve"opment. a former &overnor of Che2$ian& repaired the #"oc$s. (fter Buddha5s entrance into the Nirv9na. the/ consider that it %ou"d #e an offence a&ainst the emperor to a""o% an/ of the #oo$s it contains to #e removed. HKA an/ remar$a#"e circumstances that occurred. This document a""udes to the "a#ours of the successive trans"ators. !iuen2tsan&. In BKHC. The primar/ division of the Buddhist #oo$s is into three parts. Burnouf attri#utes the #oo$s of the )esser Deve"opment to the first Buddhist counci" a"read/ descri#ed. in man/ instances #/ $no%n authors. >ithout Buddha nothin& is no#"e or #eautifu".e$in&. seven hundred /ears "ater. a "itt"e #efore the #e&innin& of our era. and in the fourth centur/ the present s/stem of Chinese %ritin& %as fu""/ in use. copies of the sacred #oo$s %ou"d #e made from time to time in the monasteries. It is his opinion that the . this edition %as ca""ed the !ei-tsang or 8Northern co""ection. (ccordin& to a rou&h ca"cu"ation. and d%e""s especia""/ on the adventures of !iuen2tsan& %ho had recent"/ returned from his t%ent/ /ears6 trave"s in d/nast/. #ut 3ust at this time he %as raised to the necessar/ e"evation and too$ his seat %ith the rest. The 0ina/a re"ates the discip"ine appointed #/ Buddha for his fo""o%ers. ti"" printin& %as $no%n. ( counci"—the third or fourth—%as then ca""ed to decide %hat #oo$s shou"d #e canonica". *rom that time ti"" the invention of printin&. accordin& to their traditions. It detai"s those present as "isteners. consists of a hundred and t%ent/ vo"umes. amounts to a#out seven hundred times the siRe of the Ne% Testament in Chinese form.aper2ma$in& soon came into use. The/ reached the num#er of AKKB kiuen or 8sections. or 81reat Deve"opment. The/ %ere p"aced in the )en&2/en monaster/ at Kia2hin& near !an&2che%. %hich are numerous. The visitor %i"" see them in ei&ht or ten "ar&e #oo$cases. The edition of Buddhist #oo$s printed in the period -un&2"o is ca""ed 6an-tsang. +ven if %orm2eaten and in3ured #/ damp. )et him #e invited to compi"e the Sutra&!itaka ?Co""ection of the $in& or discourses of ha$/amuni@. and the/ a"" rep"ied.8 (nanda assented.a"so previous to the Counci" of Cashmere.D. in the rei&n of Kanish$a. on the Buddhist creed and on heresies. The scene. Kashiapa then saidS 8The 5Bi$shu (nanda5 ?. necessari"/ spo$en—accordin& to Buddhist faith—#/ ha$/amuniQ #ut inc"ude man/ that %ere %ritten. Bam#oo ta#"ets %ere sti"" emp"o/ed.8 In each instance Kashiapa as$ed the Bi$shus if such %ere rea""/ the %ords of Buddha. un$no%n there. But for the "iterature of the North a further division must no% #e noticed. and %rote a preface to a cata"o&ue of these #oo$s under the tit"e of !ei-tsang-mu-lu. .8 The first contains the immediate instructions of Buddha on do&ma. The same "earned %riter . the 8 outhern co""ection. King. and ascended the rostrum. so in China.8 and Hinayana ?Siau-ch1eng@. 0ina/a. The ce"e#rated Chinese trans"ator. and (#hidharma. to&ether %ith that of !iuen2tsan& the p.-nan&!i-6eu@ has &reat %isdom. as in the expanse p. (nanda. #/ the more distin&uished of his fo""o%ers. It is perhaps the most extensive sin&"e #oo$ ever trans"ated in an/ a&e or countr/. %hen Buddha %as a certain p"ace.aha/ana is. o far as this threefo"d arran&ement of the #oo$s. the stars cannot spare the moon. %as en&a&ed on it four /ears.8 !e then #o%ed to the assem#"/. The imperia" residence havin& #een a"read/ removed from Nan$in& to . and those of the 1reater Deve"opment to another he"d a "itt"e more than four hundred /ears after ha$/amuni5s death. and the circumstances that "ed to the esta#"ishment of particu"ar ru"es and o#servances. The . The preface to one of the "ast imperia" editions is dated (. The "i#rar/ of the "ar&er Buddhist monasteries consists of a comp"ete co""ection—presented #/ some former emperor—of the 8#oo$s of the re"i&ion8 ? tsang-king@. and the/ %ere painted on %ith a #rush. on the other hand. p.

In the "e&ends of the +astern and >estern paradise—that of (chJo#h/a and that of (mita#ha—and re&ardin& the formation of various other vast %or"ds and po%erfu" divinities.i/adasi. and the "atter three common to the native re"i&ions of India. This prince. i. H he %as #rou&ht to chan&e his vie%s. T%o principa" divisions of the Buddhist #oo$s.@ #a-ming. Shï-er-men-lun.aha/ana utras. and destro/ed them %henever he had opportunit/.8 the fourteenth patriarch. These and one or t%o more are mentioned amon& the authors of hastras.p. 8as he had former"/ used his ton&ue to revi"e the 1reat Deve"opment #oo$s.@ Hu-+a. is ca""ed a %hee"2$in&. and %hose opinions and :ua"ifications %ere such as to render them fitted for the authorship of the Ta-ch1eng or 8.@ .aha/ana8 #oo$s. !e %rote the hastra Ch‘eng-wei-shï-lun. %ere introduced #/ the fo""o%in& personsS— Trans"ator. %hich %ere p"aced in the third division of the sacred #oo$s. and %ho causes the %hee" of the ho"/ doctrine to #e $ept turnin&. or #oo$s of the 81reat vehic"e.8 or as the/ are ca""ed in Chinese King. the favourite do&ma of extreme idea"ism. the Hwa-yen-king. %ho %rote K‘i-sin-lun. Ta-chï-tu-lun. the non2existence of mind and matter in a"" their forms. or 8(sen&ha.C.C. These #oo$s must #e assi&ned to a#out the first centur/ B. KG KG BFK BED BTF HDF HCG HDG HDG CGG CEG CTG . from his extensive empire and his patrona&e of Buddhism. (mon& them %ere—?B. In conformit/ %ith this princip"e. he shou"d no% emp"o/ it to praise them.@ hen&2tJien. author of <i(hasha-lun. or 80asu#andu. !e %as #orn in the Dravida countr/ in outh India. This %ou"d #e an expiation for his fau"t. HKE interposes another counci" a hundred and ten /ears after the first. The second division em#races "ater deve"opments in metaph/sics and cosmo&on/. amon& other thin&s. HEG are exhi#ited. or 8Na&ar3una.D. the 1reat Deve"opment 8 utras. the ear"iest and most noted trans"ators ma/ #e divided #et%een these t%o schoo"s. The %ho"e is inter%oven %ith the fantastic notions of the !indoos on &eo&raph/. primitive Buddhism. #ut (sen&ha said to him. the monastic institutions. ("" these persons are di&nified %ith the name of Bodhisatt%a. the mora" code.8 !e cou"d not prefix his name to it as to %or$s of the third division.@ 5u-cho. or 8(sh%a&osha. >or$s of the Siau-ch‘eng or 8)esser Deve"opment. and severa" other %or$s. Date (.@ Lung-shu.8 i.8 #rother of the "ast. is reiterated to satiet/. the ascetic "ife. ?D.assa&et=8 or Ta2/ue2chi KJan&2$u ?Thi#et@ India Countr/. on the &round that he is said in a Chinese preface to have discovered it in the 8Dra&on pa"ace. throu&h a hundred and t%ent/ vo"umes. and supernatura" #ein&s. the ne% m/tho"o&ica" tendencies of this s/stem p. in the rei&n of (shX$a a"so ca""ed .8 (fter this he %rote more than a hundred %or$s.e. There need #e no hesitation in adoptin& Burnouf5s vie%. #ecause it is essentia" to a utra that it #e a discourse of Buddha. inc"udin& the most venerated of a"" the Buddhist #oo$s in China. astronom/. ?E. Chung-lun.aha/ana #oo$s. thou&h their rea" authors %ere. that %hen he first #ecame a mon$ he %as a #itter enem/ of the . the metemps/chosis. !is remorse %as such that he %ou"d have %renched out his ton&ue.@ T‘ien-ts‘in. contain.8 and first promu"&ated it as one of the . or 8Dharmapara8 ?. The former #e"on&in& to the fifth centur/ B.D. KCG ?K‘ai-yuen-shi-kiau-lu@. of %hich the first t%o are Buddhist.8 the t%e"fth patriarch. B/ the inf"uence of his e"der #rother (sen&ha. for %e $no% the names and man/ of the %ritin&s of inf"uentia" Buddhists %ho "ived at the time and p"ace indicated. The authorship of the Hwa-yen-king ma/ #e ascri#ed to )un&2shu.rotector of the "a%@. are #/ a fiction ascri#ed to ha$/amuni.@ Deva. Kashiapmadan&a Chu2fa2"an (n2shM2$au Chi2/au KJan&2men&2tsJian& Dharmati Chu2"iI2/en Chi2$ian K6an&2sen&2h%ei *a2$I Chu2dharma2"an 1audamsen&hadlva Cophen Centra" India Centra" India (nsi India KJan&2$u ?Thi#et@ (nsi India 8.aitre/a. In the !ra"na&paramita. ?C. as there is ever/ reason to suppose. are thus o#tained. and much presumptive evidence of the fact %i"" #e found to exist. !ra"na-teng-lun. in reference to the time of their composition.8 B ?H. B/ he"p of the cata"o&ue of Buddhist #oo$s pu#"ished (. a Buddhist $in& to %hom the %or"d is su#3ect. C p. HKT ?F... ?K. ?A. the acute2minded !indoos %hose names have 3ust #een &iven. the 8 hastra for a%a$enin& faith. and the Nirv9na.8 It is said of him.e.

BFK BFK HDF HDE HDG CBC HTT FGG FGB FBF FCC FCD DFG ADG KGD . Of the ma""er Deve"opment schoo" t%o hundred and t%ent/2ei&ht %or$s are contained in the co""ection.8 t%ent/2five %or$s #e"on& to the 1reat Deve"opment schoo". Their names fo""o% in the cata"o&ue.8 is that of 8.aramoda !iuen2tsan& Bodhiruchi p.assa&et= India India .an/ of these consist of "itur&ica" re&u"ations and #io&raphies of !indoo Buddhists. the >estern and +astern Buddhas. Under the denomination 80ina/a8 or Lü. >ith the precedin& the/ ma$e in a"" five hundred and thirt/2six utras of the 1reat Deve"opment c"ass. 8(#hidharma8 or Lun.ra3na8 ?!o-"e@. to mar$ %hich.8 Then succeed those ca""ed Hwa-yen. %ere the fo""o%in& individua"sS— Name. HEB To assist in num#erin& and distin&uishin& the #oo$s #e"on&in& to the &reat threefo"d co""ection. These are fo""o%ed #/ #oo$s containin& the "e&ends of (mita#ha and (chJo#h/a. the characters contained in the 8Boo$ of a Thousand Characters8 ?Tsien-tsï-wen@ are made use of these %or$s are ver/ sma"". (fter this comes that ca""ed Ta-tsi. 8Discip"ine.eh2/en Chi2$ian Chu2dharmara$sha . To these t%ent/2three %ere added in the un& and -uen d/nasties. and thirt/2seven of the )esser. These. Ta-ch1eng. It contains the %or$ #aha-pra"naparamita in six hundred chapters. (fter these five chief su#divisions are arran&ed the names of man/ others. 81reat Deve"opment. The first su#division of the 8 utras8 or King under the headin&. sixt/ characters from the 8Thousand Character C"assic8 are emp"o/ed. +i&hteen other %or$s are p"aced in the same su#division. HEH (fter this occur %or$s #/ various >estern authors. p. %hich do not admit of #ein& c"assed %ith those that precede. %hi"e fift/2nine are assi&ned to the Siau-ch1eng department. in num#er ninet/2seven. so named from the common #oo$ of that tit"e in ei&ht/ chapters. (mon& the %or$s #e"on&in& to the third c"ass.D. compose the !au-tsi su#division.assa&et= Udin Centra" India India China Centra" India Centra" India >estern India ?Ou3ein@ China outhern India Countr/. (n2shM2$au Chi2"u2$a2tsJan KJan&2sen&2$Jai . Date (. .a"achJa Da#adara Kumara3iva *a2hien Dharmara$sha 1una#adara . There %ere added in the un& and -uen d/nasties three hundred a"to&ether. (nsi . . %ith others. are ninet/2three of the 1reat Deve"opment schoo".assa&et= . ten or more #ein& often p"aced to&ether under one "etter. or 81reat Co""ection. The fifth comprises #oo$s on the Nirv9na. the chief of them #e"on&in& to the *gama su#division.(mon& the trans"ators of the #oo$s of the )ar&er Deve"opment. %hether trans"ated once or oftener.

#ein& the most advanced student of the Buddhist "a% outside the circ"e of those %ho had ta$en the vo%s. !e %ise"/ cut it do%n.(t the end of the co""ection are p"aced %or$s #/ Chinese authors. reminds the reader irresisti#"/ of the narrative of 4onah. under Kanish$a. to %hom the ponderous ver#osit/ and extensive repetitions of the ori&ina" %ere into"era#"e. Of these the most e"a#orate is that of the Fa-hwa-king. Of these fort/ %ere appended in the . and re"ations. #/ I *a. HED ( stor/ of the shado% of &o"d in %ater is to"d to i""ustrate ho% i&norant men see$ for &o"den doctrine in p"aces %here the/ %i"" never find it. that a man must #e sacrificed #efore the trave""ers cou"d pass on. and the ori&ina" %or$s of authors #e"on&in& to the various native schoo"s of Buddhism. In an estimate of the extent of Chinese Buddhist "iterature these shou"d #e inc"uded. under DharmashX$a. the &randson of Chandra&upta. pro#a#"/ amountin& to severa" hundreds in num#er.. The fo""o%in& stor/ of trave""ers $i""in& a &uide.C. "ivin& in societ/. #ut %ere far inferior to him. In this and other sma"" #ut interestin& %or$s ma/ #e seen the princip"es of primitive Buddhism as tau&ht #/ ha$/amuni. None of us can #e sacrificed. and never emer&e from the desert of "ife and death. HEF But thou&h vo%s of ce"i#ac/. T%e"ve $in&s intervened #et%een them. Descriptions of remar$a#"e monasteries and sacred p"aces. The fourth counci". ome of these are trans"ated #/ . >oodcuts are much used in these #oo$s. >ear/ and #ro$enhearted. a"" one #/ one died. and made a much shorter #oo$ of it. are common"/ read. %ith ver/ fu"" notes. trave"s in Buddhist countries. HEC . The/ consist of popu"ar . HFH or B.5 >hen the/ had put him to death and finished the offerin&. 8. i""ustrative of the Buddhist future state. or 8Three pita$a. and pu#"ished a centur/ and a ha"f a&o. as to form. If the/ s"ander and destro/ virtue the/ %i"" #e sure to "ose their %a/. of %hich fourteen hundred are trans"ations from anscrit. and "ivin& in societ/ %ith fe""o%2#e"ievers in the Buddhist doctrine. !e is contrasted %ith man/ %ho had ta$en the vo%s. as to action. p. and man/ %or$s on the various schoo"s of this re"i&ion in China. and of the !indoo cosmo&on/ and &eo&raph/. In the 8>ei2ma utra. evera" hundred others are "ost. On the %a/ the/ arrived at a temp"e to the Devas.para&raph continues< Ka"ashX$a and DharmashX$a.C. The stor/ sa/s that .I""er sa/sS 8The Northern Buddhists $no% #ut one (shX$a. Their sufferin&s must "ast for "on& a&es.rofessor . c/c"op=dias. I p"ace here some remar$s on the counci"s he"d #/ the ear"/ Buddhists. at %hich it %as the custom. p. "itur&ica" %or$s. I found considera#"e "acun= in the Chinese cop/.an/ of the Buddhist #oo$s are va"ua#"e. 8 o it is %ith men. in a"" a hundred and ninet/2six. #io&raphica" %or$s. of ha$/amuni instructin& his discip"es. and said one to anotherS 5>e are a"" friends.. >ith him the/ set out across an uninha#ited re&ion. the/ proceeded and "ost their %a/. On"/ the &uide can #e. These num#ers &ive a tota" of a#out sixteen hundred separate %or$s. 8)otus of the 1ood )a%. a "a/man native of 0aisha"i. Bea" in his Catena. and from this time the 81reat Deve"opment8 spread amon& a"" the Northern Buddhists. Burnouf %ou"d have #een %ise to do so too.8 <imakita ?5ei-mo-kie@. or in so"itude in %oods and caves. and the duties of those %ho entered upon it are c"ear"/ pointed out.8 d/nast/—as in a"" such cases—#/ imperia" order. nei&h#ours.8 The in&ha"ese Buddhists spea$ of t%o (shX$as. on account of the stories i""ustrative of ancient "ife %hich the/ contain. Na&ar3una5s %or$s and s/stem %ere reco&nised.8 of %hich trans"ations have #een made.r. ( counci" %as he"d under each (shX$a. It is rendered from the anscrit.8 #/ +u&ene Burnouf. #/ native authors. is represented as havin& made &reat pro&ress in the $no%"ed&e of the princip"es of Buddhism. The monastic "ife is here portra/ed. HFA at . presided over #/ 0asumitra. %as pro#a#"/ a "itt"e #efore the Christian era. and i""ustrated #/ a vast #od/ of notes. he did not ma$e them a#so"ute"/ essentia". %ere recommended #/ ha$/amuni as the most suita#"e mode of carr/in& out his s/stem. The 8Boo$ of *ort/2t%o ections8 %as trans"ated from anscrit #/ the first !indoo productions of "ess importance. is a si&na" examp"e of the industr/ and fu"ness of i""ustration and comment of a Chinese scho"ar %hen editin& an ancient #oo$. UThe/ consu"ted as to %hat shou"d #e done. . and #ut one counci" he"d in his rei&n. apo"o&etic treatises. shou"d #e added to the "ist. %ith anecdotes of the po%er of the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. . the Counci" of . The sma"" #oo$s %ith a prominent mora" e"ement are extreme"/ interestin&. The/ must ta$e virtue for their &uide. On comparin& it %ith the Chinese version of Kumara3iva. viR. These consist of commentaries.an3usiri8 ?5en-shu&p‘u-sa@ and 0ima$ita are he"d up as e:ua""/ &ood mode"s of Buddhist exce""enceS the one. . and the #enefits of chantin& the sacred #oo$s. #ein& %ithout a riva" in the monastic societ/Q the other. and this the/ p"ace a hundred and ten /ears after Buddha5s death. (n edition in five vo"umes. to sacrifice to the Devas of a certain p"ace. Kumara3iva came under the inf"uence of the Chinese "iterati. it must have ta$en p"ace either B.ata"iputra. U( compan/ of merchants underta$in& a 3ourne/ se"ected a &uide. The/ %ish to enter the sea of doctrine in order to &et the pear"s hidden in its depths. If %e admit the "ast. viR.ata"iputra. The attention of the student of Buddhism ma/ #e directed especia""/ to those %or$s in the San-tsang.

HEK the Dharma in entences. This /oun& chi"d is to die in seven da/s. The/ resem#"e the Brahman %ho $i""ed his son. Bea" finds in the Chan-tsï-king the 8 9ma 49ta$a. BCF. carr/in& his son in his arms. the/ a"" admired the %isdom of the Brahman.8 %hich contains part of the stor/ of Dasaratha and Rama. he omitted the preface.8 !e-yü-king. is the Brahma3a"a. There are some other %or$s specia""/ devoted to fa#"es and para#"es. The &ods seein& this sad spectac"e—the parents "amentin& over their son.ish9cha demons. HEA astro"o&ers and 3u&&"ers. 9ma %as ha$/amuni Buddha in a former "ife. %ithout encroachment on either side.5 Brahma sa% %hat his discip"e had made. the Brahman $i""ed his son to confirm the truth of his o%n %ords.8former"/ a foo"ish man %ent to a "a$e and sa% at the #ottom of the %ater a shado% of %hat seemed true &o"d. %hen d/in&. and perhaps he %i"" not die.8 T!+ TOR. and noticed that the head %as too "ar&e and the cro%n too sma"".5 The peop"e of the countr/ remar$ed. fa"se"/ assume a #enevo"ent character. to a festiva" in Ce/"on. 5It is hard to $no% %hen men %i"" die.en. 8Boo$ of . The/ are neither too constant on the one hand. !e %as foo"ish.rientalists. 1o&er"/. . the stars ma/ fa"". %as extreme"/ %ise. ( #ird must have ta$en it in his #ea$ and p"aced it there. #ut %hat I have said cannot fai" of fu"fi"ment.r. easi"/ #ro$en. %hen he sa% it a&ain. 0arious pretenders. in exhi#itin& the form of the "a%. !e ca""ed out. ee Bea" in Second&Congress&o+&. it %as "i$e the .r. and $i""ed 9ma %ith it. trans"ated #/ 1una#idi. and the $in& %as most penitent. The Buddhas in &ivin& instruction $eep a midd"e path. These extracts are ta$en from the 8Boo$ of a !undred . In fact. fetched %ater for them. such as Tsa-yü-king. 5Do not thin$ of it. >hen men heard that the Brahman5s son %as dead precise"/ seven da/s after the time of the prediction. In India ever/ student read this #oo$ at the #e&innin& of his course. -ou cannot create. It states the ru"es %hich &uide the Bodhisatt%a. >ishin& to sho% his po%ers he %ent to another countr/. 8Boo$ of p. The/ are not "ia#"e to the errors of such men.8 On this is &rounded an appea" to men to "earn Buddha5s "a%. as their &uide for ho"/ conduct. 8Once there %as a Brahman. %ho. There is a #oo$ of mora" instructions. fai" to present to vie% the true "a%. nor are the/ too interrupted and inconstant on the other. 8that %hat ever/ one #rin&s into existence is not the creation of Brahma. 5This &o"d is on the tree a#ove. . 5>h/ do /ou %eepL5 he rep"ied. he said. /ou have the desire to create thin&s. after seein& the shado%. >hen as$ed. !e fed them %ith fruits. B/ their foo"ish doctrine the/ destro/ the son of the &ood. 8. 9ma died. and refers to an a""usion in the trave"s of *a2hien. . ho%ever. for the sa$e of fame and profit. The Chinese Fo-pen-hing-tsi-king is in anscrit 8(#hinish$ramana Vtra. and once more he tried fruit"ess"/ to &et it. p. in the hands of his fo""o%ers. accordin& to his o%n statement.8 There are five hundred of these sentences. and as$ed him %h/ he %as so %ear/. The %or$ !ratimoksha is mentioned in the "ast instructions of Buddha. conversation. !e %ho dies does not return. "ivin& in a forest %ith his father and mother. and fa"" into the errors of #oastin&.tha. !e said one da/ to Brahma. a stor/ is to"d a&ainst the Brahmans. (mravati./ "ife %i"" not "ast "on&.8 To i""ustrate the difficu"t/ of creatin&. arran&ed in the form of the -. >ait ti"" the seven da/s are past. and sa/ that he is the father of the %or"d. chapter ii.5 The son c"im#ed the tree and found it. %ho thin$s the narratives it contains %i"" exp"ain the 8 anchi topes. such as teachin&. "/in&.8 the inscriptions on %hich are hard to identif/ in an/ #oo$s. merc/. >h/ %eep no%L5 The Brahman ans%ered. The/ ca"" him .5 Brahma rep"ied. or the hand too "ar&e and the arm too sma"". If he did not read this amon& the man/ #oo$s of his re"i&ion. pu#"ished a #rief trans"ation of the %or$.8 . I mourn over his short "ife. %ith those %ho for &ain sa/ the/ have attained eminent en"i&htenment. It is so amon& the four c"asses of Buddha5s discip"es. !e "eft this. and extrava&ance.8 The #oo$ proceeds to spea$ of the Buddhas and their teachin&. ( trans"ation of the first chapter of the Leng-yen-king and of a short hastra here fo""o%. and must in conse:uence endure much sufferin&.ara#"es. shot an arro% into a "ar&e herd of ?"eer #/ the %ater side. 5!ere is &o"d. %ith man/ episodes.8 continues the narrator. and %as p.8 B 8>e thus "earn. and $ne% a"" the arts of p. 5I desire to create a"" thin&s. HEE #e"oved #/ the deer and other %i"d anima"s of the %oods. It is "i$e the vesse" of the potter. %hi"e the parents %ept over their son. or the foot too "ar&e and the "e& too sma"". and the s/mpathisin& Ra3a—came and restored him to "ife. Oc. 5The sun and moon ma/ #e dar$ened. It contains the ru"es of discip"ine for the discip"es of Buddha. in the Ceylon&Friend. This #oo$ on the 8Discip"ine8 or <inaya. %ith headin&s. (t "ast the father came to "oo$ for his son. %ho ascri#e creation to Brahma. It is eas/ to err in such ca"cu"ations. (t "ast the $in& came on a huntin& expedition. and came to "isten to his instructions. %hich ma/ a"so i""ustrate the inscriptions at Bharhut. It is a "ife of Buddha. There is in their actions and teachin& no disproportion.aha Brahma Deva.isce""aneous . #ut thou&ht himse"f %ise. !e sat do%n and %aited ti"" the %ater %as c"ear.8 (mon& %or$s specia""/ deservin& attention is Fan-wang-king. The stor/ states that 8this so2ca""ed creator had a discip"e %ho said he cou"d create a"" thin&s.5 On the seventh da/.. It is ca""ed Fa-kü-king.(N >!O KI))+D !I ON. and %eepin&. tr/ to imitate them. %ho happened to #e in the midd"e of the herd. On "earnin&. %hich ma/ have "i&ht thro%n on it #/ this #oo$. %ho %ere #"ind.ara#"es. >ithout #ein& a#"e to use the "an&ua&e of the Devas. It %as trans"ated from the %or$ of Tau-lio #/ Kumara3iva. 8Net of Brahma. and can create a"" thin&s. The sentences are of the fo""o%in& natureS—>hen risin& in the mornin& /ou shou"d thin$. %hose %ords proved true.8 It has #een trans"ated #/ Bea".5 !e then %ent into the %ater and sou&ht it in vain ti"" he %as tired and the %ater &re% mudd/. Oc.O* T!+ BR(!.

IT is ca""ed a"so Chung-yin-tu-na-lan-to-ta-tau-ch1ang-king. formin& to&ether one &reat ascetic esta#"ishment. the trans"ation #/ .com p. .D. the son of . HKESB Tsing-tu-sheng-hien-luh contains notices of ?B@ to ?F@. a !indoo Buddhist mon$ at Canton. These chi"dren of Buddha %ere at rest in their minds.aud&a"/a/ana. (ssumin& %ithout "imitation %hatever #odi"/ form %as needed. 4u"ien of !iuen2tsan&5s trave"s. !e %as there %ith t%e"ve hundred and fift/ Bi$shus. The Chinese trave""er !iuen2tsan& visited it. the most sp"endid in India.aha Kuhi"a. %ho had a"" attained the ran$ of (rhan.i&asha$/a.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. .8 HKKSH !ard/5s 9astern&#onachism. #/ .aha .—*irst Chapter acred Texts Buddhism Index . . The utra of firm esta#"ishment in a"" doctrine. descri#in& c"ear"/ the secret merit and attainments in the re"i&ious "ife of Tath9&ata.itarani. It "a/ a#out thirt/ mi"es south2east of the modern .8 *or "e&ends connected %ith this f"ourishin& seat of Buddhism. !e %as assisted #/ -un&2pi. Footnotes HKKSB Chï-yue-luh. HEDSB ( sort of vampires. and exce""in& in & Chinese&)uddhism. Buddha %as at the cit/ hravasti. Thus have I heardS—On a time. FD. see K‘ai-yuen-shi-kiau-lu.urusha in 1andhara ?north end of the .un3a#@. !e %as a second (shX$a in his patrona&e of Buddhism.para&raph continues< . The/ attended to the 8monastic ru"es8 ?<inaya@ %ith exemp"ar/ carefu"ness. and "asted throu&h more than seven centuries. at sacred2texts. . The )en&2-en2Kin&. !e found there ten thousand mon$s "ivin& in six #ui"din&s erected #/ as man/ monarchs. in the $in&dom of .aramiti.C. durin& the patriarchate of 0asumitra and others. . BD to (. The/ mi&ht in an/ countr/ #e patterns of virtue and di&nit/. in Centra" India./ authorit/ for ma$in& them #rothers is the introduction to Ch‘eng-wei-shï-lun. HET CHAPTER VIII. u#hVti.BETC<.8 The monaster/ of Na"anda. %as of &reat siRe. his discip"es. 8Bio&raph/ of 5Kashiapa5 ?Kia-she@. HKKSC Kanish$a con:uered the &reater part of India. HKESH +ite" separates 0asu#andu from (sen&ha #/ an interva" of some centuries. a cata"o&ue of Buddhist #oo$s pu#"ished in the TJan& d/nast/. from %hich I have derived these facts. NextS Chapter N0III. a countr/ "/in& north%est of Cashmere. in the chape" in the &rove of 4eta.a&adha. 8The utra of Na"anda. The Chinese trans"ation of the Leng-yen-king %as made in the /ear KGD (. the/ cou"d save men from miser/.#FIRST CHAPTER. the &reat seat of %orship.atna. Their names %ere hariputra. . TR(N )(TION.The Leng-yen-king is praised #/ Chu !i and other Confucianists as the #est %orth readin& of the Buddhist sacred #oo$s. and p.. THE LENG-YEN-KING. a Chinese. !e rei&ned B. the present Bahar. ma/ #e consu"ted. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. Retinue of the Deva $in& Dhritarashtra. &raspin& firm"/ the doctrine of their master. a native of Ud/ana.. and %as devoted to the stud/ of that #ranch of Buddhist doctrine ca""ed the 81reater Deve"opment. HTG . HKESC *or the names of severa" of his %or$s and those of (sen&ha.uruna. and others. %ho appears as Buddha in his &reat and unsurpassed statureQ a"so the man/ acts of the Bodhisatt%as. Upanishata. It %as ce"e#rated as a p"ace of stud/ #oth for the Brahmanica" #oo$s and those of Buddhism. The/ %ere natives of .

rat/e$as appear. It %as that of one %ho reverent"/ o#served the dietetic re&u"ations. !e a"so invited the Bodhisatt%as. ta$e his p"ace as teacher ti"" he arrives. and . and #e"on&ed to various hum#"e trades. ( mon$ in the position of (nanda shou"d have had %ith him a superior in ran$ and a"so an (23e2"i. u#hVti as$ed a"ms on"/ from the rich. It %as here that the Bi$shus assem#"ed to "isten to Buddha. and man/ persons of reputation in the cit/. Remarks. . The messen&er %ent. Out of this mi"d radiance %as seen to sprin& a "otus f"o%er %ith a profusion of peta"s. !e %as comin& #ac$ a"one and empt/2handed.ccidentales. The %ord (23e2"i means an instructor in the ascetic discip"ine. 8those %ho have attained inte""i&ence #/ the stud/ of causes. Remarks. #ecause the/ %ere a#"e to &ive. and s"o%"/ approached the &ate. %hether the host %as of the Kshatr/a caste. Buddha #"amed them #oth for trans&ressin& the ru"e of 3ustice. #ecause the/ had not o#tained the evenhanded 3ustice of the (rhans.rat/e$as are ca""ed in Chinese either !‘it-ti. It %as capa#"e of #ein& communicated to others. !e invited Buddha to the interior apartments of his pa"ace. in memor/ of his father5s death. and . Durin& three months in summer the Bi$shus "ived in sec"usion. ? ee 4u"ien5s Histoire&de&la&<ie&de&Hiouen-thsang@. !e passed on his %a/ the house of a prostitute. the $in& of hravasti. in &oin& to a distance. (s he passed a"on& the streets he he"d in his hand a rice #o%". The/ o#tained this charm #/ specia" %orship of the &od Brahma.—The #ird ca""ed Ka"avin&$a had a ver/ soft. utterin& a mi&ht/ charm. sa/s that a superficia" reader mi&ht %onder %h/ this utra. %as ver/ favoura#"e to the Buddhist re"i&ion. #ut %as anxious that a"" %ith %hom he met shou"d o#tain unmeasured happiness ?#/ a"ms&ivin&@. Tath9&ata sat in a tran:ui" attitude.rasena3it had. *rom ever/ re&ion Bodhisatt%as came to as$ :uestions and have their dou#ts removed. !e %as too "ate to ta$e his p"ace %ith the others. The Chendaras %ere #utchers. and as$ed a"ms from door to door. came to the p"ace %here Buddha %as. and came himse"f to conduct him in.rasena3it. dre% him to her couch. innumera#"e . The $in&s p. or #e"on&ed to the Chendaras. and addressed to his audience profound doctrines %hich the/ had not #efore heard.aten&a to the presence of Tath9&ata. !e crossed the moat. "i$e the sin&in& of the Ka"avin&$a. HTB the sands of the 1an&es. for#idden to trave" or to see Buddha. The a#i$aras %ere a heretica" sect. #/ means p. prepared a ve&eta#"e repast for Buddha. at "east three shou"d #e in compan/. !is voice. *ee"in& the same $ind disposition to%ards rich and of the utras attri#uted to Buddha are said to have #een de"ivered here. Buddha directed . Tath9&ata $ne% that he had #een enthra""ed #/ the charm. %hich unvei"s the hidden nature of man. The/ are in anscrit denominated 8. (t this time $in& . In the cit/ there %as a man of ran$ %ho had a"so #idden the mon$s to a feast.an3usiri to save (nanda. !e o#served the remains of the monaster/ former"/ standin& on the site of the &arden of 4eta. Kashiapa preferred to #e& of the poor.— hravasti %as situated in %hat is no% the province of Oude.rat/e$as.an3usiri %as chief amon& them. arrivin& at the perception of doctrine in his a#sence. to&ether %ith man/ %ho had 3ust #e&un to desire improvement in $no%"ed&e. and upon it Buddha sat cross"e&&ed %ith metamorphosed #od/. penetrated to the #oundaries of the %or"d.aten&a made use of it. It happened to #e the time %hen the Bi$shus at the c"ose of summer %ere re"eased from restraint. %ho fasted on rice. and the inf"uence of the %ic$ed charm #ein& #ro$en. and &ave "i#ert/ to each other to point out an/ fau"ts in their conduct. he did not choose honour in preference to povert/. and %as %aitin& the arriva" of Buddha. (t the end of this time the/ met #efore Buddha. came to hear Buddha discourse.Besides these. and there %as no o"der mon$ %ith him nor an (23e2"i to admonish him. seemin& to com#ine the severa" ra/s of a"" precious stones. and had not returned. and he %as a#out to #rea$ his vo% of chastit/. !e sent this charm #/ the hand of . !e %as desirin& that he mi&ht #e entertained #/ some one %ho had not a"read/ invited the mon$s. and sou&ht to $no% the secret thou&hts of their teacher. a Chinese Buddhist mon$ of the . ? ee 4u"ien5s #emoires&sur&les&Contr2es&. It %as his minister udatta %ho #ou&ht the &arden of 4eta from the prince of that name. numerous as p. On returnin& from the repast to %hich he had #een invited. the . cro%ded to the assem#"/. (nanda a"one had #een invited e"se%here at some distance. repentin& of their former evi" acts. the $in&. and erected in it a residence for Buddha. and in Chinese uen-kioh. )i&ht shone from the head of Tath9&ata. in order that the/ mi&ht under&o a penance appointed #/ Buddha. or !‘it-ti-ka-la.rat/e$a8 Buddha. (t the time of !iuen2tsan&5s visit the cit/ %as most"/ in ruins. Bodhisatt%as. The commentator. >hen Buddhism %as f"ourishin& in India. desirin& to increase their happiness. . points out a secure p"ace of rest.an3usiri to send some of the Bodhisatt%as and (rhans to attend the feast in p"ace of himse"f. %ith #ro%n hair. at the c"ose of summer. his courtiers.8 >hen a period occurs in the %or"d5s histor/ %ithout a Buddha. he #rou&ht (nanda %ith . shou"d ma$e such an ordinar/ incident as the temptation of (nanda its . t%o mi"es #e"o% the cit/. and unfo"ds a doctrine in a"" respects comp"ete. and he had reverent"/ "istened to his %ise advice for re"ievin& scrup"es and preventin& suspicions and s"anders. the Kshatr/as and Chendaras %ere at the t%o extremes of the socia" sca"e. HTH of a charm o#tained from Brahma #/ one of the a#i$aras. HTC and no#"es #e"on&ed to the Kshatr/a caste. !is demeanour %as &rave. and. . The/ "istened respectfu""/. (nanda $ne% that Buddha had #"amed u#hVti and Kashiapa. It %as re:uired that. rich voice.aten& d/nast/. !e %ou"d not as$ if the viands %ere p"easant to the taste or not.@ . and fe"" under the inf"uence of enchantment. Te2tsJin&.

But man5s true nature cannot #e deve"oped %here %ron& thou&hts prevai". in to$en of m/ a#andonment of a %or"d"/ "ife. . and touchin& the head of (nanda. Samadhi is a sort of %a$in& dream or reverie. Therefore it %as that I desired to #ecome freed from "ife and death. The senses are the six enemies that distur# the ori&ina" tran:ui""it/ of man5s nature.8 Buddha continuedS 8In "oo$in& p. then the audience. %hat %as it that sa%. resideL8 Remarks. !e &rieved that he had not /et made a successfu" #e&innin&. and the #odi"/ form to %hich the/ #e"on& is transparent as cr/sta". #ut first in:uires of him %h/. is certain"/ %ithin m/ #od/. and farther off the trees and the &arden. ("" men are soQ and therefore it is that the/ do not emer&e from the re&ion of "ife and death.8 Buddha ans%eredS—8 ince this "ove came from the heart and the e/e. and in %hich an impression or vision teachin& certain re"i&ious do&mas seems present to the mind5s e/e. )ove had #een a%a$ened in his mind #/ the si&ht of #eautifu" forms. saidS 8There is a samadhi ca""ed that of the Sheu-leng-yen Ra3ah. and %hat %as it that "ovedL8 (nanda rep"iedS 8This "ove came from the use of m/ heart and m/ e/e. #o%ed his head to the &round and #itter"/ %ept. and himse"f &ave the &rove. in exp"anation. in the first instance. ho% do /ou perceive themL8 (nanda rep"iedS 8B/ the door and other openin&s. that it is the passions %hich prevent men from attainin& the Nirv9na. and their nature #e $ept c"ear and true to itse"f. I as$ /ou %here it isL8 8It is. %ithout exception re&ard the perceivin& facu"t/ and the heart or mind as #ein& %ithin the #od/. Continuance in the sphere of the metemps/chosis arises from men5s mista$en opinion that the #od/. Buddha does not proceed at once to descri#e the three modes of contemp"ation. "est he shou"d fee" pained. are ru"ed #/ the heart and the e/e. )istenW8 (nanda made a prostration. then the perceivin& or&an.8 udatta %as so named on account of his charities. (nanda had #een "ed a%a/ #/ passion. I ref"ected that such a form cannot #e produced #/ earth"/ "ove. 8outside of this ha"". #ut not $no%in& %here to #e&in. !is heart had #een attracted #/ a #eautifu" visionQ #ut he had not seen Buddha in his hi&her character. and descri#es ho% a"" the Buddhas %ere rescued from the %or"d of sense and entered the &"orious path that "eads to confirmed rest. The ans%er of (nanda revea"ed the cause of his %ant of success. -ou former"/ fe"t a desire to fo""o% m/ teachin&. It em#races a"" &ood actions. . Because the #odi"/ desires are p. HTD #e reinstructed in the mode of escape. The first step is to o#serve.8 Buddha a&ain in:uiredS 8In this house %hat do /ou first seeL8 (nanda rep"iedS 8I first see Tath9&ata. (mon& the passions sensua" "ust is the most po%erfu". To set them at rest is the means of attainin& to the state of Buddha. !e desired to commence se"f2 reformation afresh. he shou"d sti"" #e deficient in mora" stren&th. occurrin& to Buddha or his discip"es %hen en&a&ed in deep contemp"ation. the mind./ e/e sa% the transcendent #eaut/ of Buddha.point of departure. The excitin& causes of this %ron& state of thin&s must #e examined into. #ein& a#out to su#vert the cherished opinions of (nanda. The/ a"so see that Buddha5s e/e forms a part of Buddha5s countenance.aten&aL Not on"/ is (nanda the victim of %ron& thou&hts. then. ans%er honest"/ m/ in:uiries.8 ans%ered (nanda. This e/e of mine and three other or&ans of sense are a part of m/ face. (t the time %hen the Chinese trave""er visited it. and therefore it needs a remed/ of correspondin& stren&th to remove it. The auditors. as the/ are ca""ed. on seein& Buddha. %aitin& for Buddha to address them.—The passions are the cause of men #ein& su#3ect to "ife and death. and %aited to hear. Thus the/ have no %ron& thou&hts or pernicious chan&es. *nFthapindika means 8!e %ho &ives to orphans. and m/ heart fe"t "ove. >hat #eautifu" appearance %as it %hich "ed /ou to forsa$e the %or"d5s deep "oveL8 (nanda rep"iedS 8I sa% the thirt/2t%o #eauties of Tath9&ata. In this &rove %as the &arden of (n_thapindi$a or (n_thapindada. (nanda. and perforce the/ enter the %hee" of cease"ess revo"ution. Ideas arise in their minds %hich are not true. %ho is Buddha2"i$e in siRe and stature. ("" men continue to "ive and die. (nanda. /ou must $no% %here these or&ans resideQ other%ise /ou cannot overcome the evi"s caused #/ the 5o#3ects of sense5 ?ch‘en@. HTF coarse and i""2sme""in& "usts. I as$. %hen /our heart %as attracted to%ards the thirt/2t%o #eauties of Tath9&ata. 4eta so"d the "and to udatta. The p"ace %here the/ reside must #e discovered. and the/ cannot &ive ori&in to a pure #ri&ht form radiatin& a purp"e &o"den "i&ht "i$e that of Tath9&ataQ therefore I thirsted to fo""o% Buddha and #e shorn of m/ hair. he had commenced the ascetic "ife. If /ou %ou"d attain the hi&hest $no%"ed&e and deve"op /our true nature in its c"earness. and that some ver/ po%erfu" a&enc/ %as needed to destro/ it. !e sa/s. >ith earnestness he as$ed to $no% ho% the Buddhas of a"" %or"ds had o#tained entrance to the re&ion of rest and contemp"ation. Buddha. mi&ht he not a"so "ove . This house is in the &arden of (n_thapindi$a.8 Buddha rep"iedS—8-ou spea$ %e"". #ecause the/ do not $no% that the mind shou"d rest in a state of constant purit/. -ou see the &rove of 4eta. and 8their actions8 ?wu-yün@ constitute m/se"f. he as$s for information. (nd assured"/ the &rove is outside of the house. contemp"ate. If he %as ri&ht in "ovin& Buddha. %here the heart and e/e. It is the %or$ of the senses. The/ have $ept their hearts ri&ht. Remarks. HTA to%ards the trees and the &arden. and he as$s to p. >hen a countr/ is rava&ed. The/ thin$ that the mind is enc"osed in the visi#"e #od/. of a"" the ten different $inds. . Their hearts and %ords %ere ri&ht. sat si"ent. the enemies %ho have done /ou harm. and that. The Buddhas have trodden one path to escape from "ife and death. $ind"/ p"aced his hand upon his head to inspire him %ith confidence.—!iuen2tsan& re"ates that the &rove of 4eta is 8six li8 ?t%o mi"es@ south of the cit/ hravasti. >e are thus caused #/ heaven to "ove each other. B The/ are inexpressi#"/ "ove"/. the troops sent to chastise the marauders must $no% %here the/ are to #e found. !e had on"/ exchan&ed one "ove for another. These six thieves. This %as #ecause his mode of thin$in& %as %ron&./ 5heart5 ?mind@. !e then said to (nandaS—8-ou and I are a$in #/ #irth. the convent %hich %as former"/ there %as in ruins.8 Buddha rep"ied to himS—8-ou are sittin& in this house. The commentator Te2tsJin& remar$s that men &enera""/ fa"" into the error of (nanda. and "ive and die a&ain. !e fe"t the evi" to #e &reat. and "oosen the heart from its attachments. numerous as the sands of the 1an&es. The ans%er of (nanda %as that 8"ivin& #ein&s. This fa"se vie% must #e first com#ated. and the/ have therefore #e&un %e"" and ended %e"". I no% as$ /ou.8 Buddha then stretched out his &o"den arm. after a"" the instruction he had received. (nanda.

p. and the movements of musc"es and pu"ses. %hi"e %e can perceive the &ro%th of nai"s and hair. But if the mind does not see the e/e. -our e/e sees it. shou"d /ou see one of them eatin&. I am made to perceive the truth. *or if an unsu#stantia" thin& cou"d #e said to #e at a p"ace. and e:ua""/ unrea"@. men ou&ht first to see %hat is %ithin the #od/ and after%ards p. and assem#"e at the &rove of 4eta. and that %herever m/ thou&ht is. I no% sho% /ou m/ hand.8 BuddhaS—8 upposin& that it is so. and it is therefore %ron& to sa/ that it is interna". it is somethin& #efore the e/e. nor can the/ #e a part of it. The e/e is to the mind "i$e a piece of &"ass %hich does not interfere %ith vision.8 BuddhaS—8>here. and that the mind d%e""s outside of the #od/. is the mind p"acedL8 (nandaS—8I thin$ it must #e hidden in the or&ans of sense. If the dar$ness #e interna". and there is no interdependence #et%een the t%o.8 (nandaS—8I have heard Buddha sa/ that actions sprin& from the mind. In this case I see %hat is externa". >hi"e I "oo$ at Buddha m/ e/e is open and sees "i&ht. the perceivin& mind cannot reside %ithin them. then I %ho no% see /our face shou"d #e part of /our #od/. and other viscera. If.8 BuddhaS—8This to /our mind is perfect"/ c"ear. it cannot #e said to #e seen.e. In this case I see %hat is interna". ho% cou"d one man5s ta$in& food remove hun&er from the restL8 BuddhaS—8The mind and #od/ #ein& entire"/ separate from each other. %h/ do /ou not see /our face %hen %ith open e/es /ou "oo$ p. -ou %ou"d thus #ecome t%o persons. mind and action are necessar/ to each other. %hi"e the various apertures are outside. and is /et seen o#3ective"/ #/ the e/e. and the mind from action ?i. the ei&hteen "imitin& points %hich excite sensations %ou"d #ecome nineteen. *urther. #ut must #e in one p"ace. not seein& %hat is %ithin the #od/. that m/ mind resides outside of m/ #od/. B/ means of /our e/e %hich is in vacanc/. *or it is "i$e a "amp "i&hted in a house. >hen I touch m/se"f %ith m/ hand.BuddhaS—8(ccordin& to %hat /ou sa/ /ou are in this ha"". cannot #e %here the thou&ht isQ for it is %ithout 5su#stance5 ?t‘i@. and throu&h the open doors /ou see the &arden and the &rove. -ou must therefore ho"d that there are t%o acts of perceivin& and t%o perceivin& a&ents.8 (nandaS—8I have no% thou&ht upon another thin&. and cannot #e at an/ p"ace. It cannot therefore #e said. This statement is incontroverti#"/ ri&ht. /ou $no% that /our #od/ does not perceive o#3ects. Is this a correct distinctionL8 BuddhaS—8>hen /ou c"ose /our e/es and "oo$ on dar$ness. ho%ever. No%. ince %e do not see the heart. he has said that %hen the mind and #od/ #oth $no% %hat is $no%n to the other. It appears to me that m/ thou&hts are m/ mind. the $no%in& mind ?the resu"tin& act of $no%"ed&e@ must come from %ithin out%ards. on the other hand. ince men see on"/ %hat is outside the #od/. then.8 BuddhaS—8The mind. Thus the seat of the mind need not #e %ithin or %ithout. The reason %h/ the mind does not see the interior of the #od/ is #ecause it resides in the sensoria" or&ans. %i"" he see the &"ass a"soL8 (nandaS—8!e %i"" see the &"ass. the dar$ness #e not 5o#3ective5 ?tui@ to the e/e. there is m/ mind. There is dar$ness in the one and "i&ht in the other. then it is %ron& to sa/ that the/ are separate from each other. The viscera are in the interior of the #od/. HTT on #ri&htnessL If /ou see /our face. then it cannot #e said that the mind resides in the or&ans of sense. and then throu&h the door upon the portico. that in c"osin& the e/e and "oo$in& on dar$ness /ou see %hat is %ithin. I as$ %hat a man %i"" see %hen a &"ass is p"aced #efore his e/esL >hen he sees the hi""s and mountains #e/ond. The/ cannot then #e %ithin the #od/. *or if the/ %ere a part of /our #od/. so that the mind shou"d at once perceive %hat is an o#3ect of vision to the e/e. #ut does /our mind distin&uish itL8 (nandaS—8-es. the/ cannot #e outside of each other. HTE the mind at once distin&uishes. %ou"d /ou #e a#"e to see %hat is outside of the ha""L8 (nandaS—8That cou"d not #e. (nanda. the perceivin& mind %ith the or&an of vision must #e in vacanc/.8 (nandaS—8Buddha has said that the mind. cannot reside there. It first shines on %hat is %ithin the house. is the dar$ness %hich /ou see 5o#3ective to the e/e5 ? wei-ü-yen-tui@. and the six o#3ects of sense %ou"d #ecome seven. HTK %hat is outside. or notL If the dar$ness #e o#3ective. If /ou cou"d not see Tath9&ata. or from . >henever the e/e sees. But that the mind is unsu#stantia" can easi"/ #e sho%n.. or in an intermediate position. %h/ shou"d not the e/e #e seen at the time %hen hi""s and rivers are visi#"e throu&h itL But if the e/e #e seen it is a part of the scener/ o#served #/ the mind.8 BuddhaS—8If so. then the dar$ness /ou see in a room %here no "i&ht can enter is nothin& #ut the interior of /our #od/.8 BuddhaS—>hen these Bi$shus come to see$ me in this cit/ of hravasti. If. !onoured Chief of the %or"dW8 BuddhaS—8If #oth perceive it. >hen I c"ose m/ e/es I see dar$ness. the heart cannot reside %ithin the #od/. the dar$ness #e interna". %ou"d a"" of them #e there#/ re"ieved from hun&erL8 (nandaS—8NoW for a"thou&h the/ %ere (rhans and share in a different $ind of existence.8 (nanda ?#o%in&@S—8(s I hear the instructions of Tath9&ata. if that mind %hich perceives it #e %ithin the #od/. neither of them can $no% %hat is $no%n to the other. and its position there ena#"es it to notice o#3ects outside of the #od/. "iver.

#od/. he a"so composed severa" of the utras. CGG su#stance. and six $inds of sensationa" $no%"ed& Chinese&)uddhism. as #ein& the causes of de"usion to a"" man$ind %ho #e"ieve in matter. %as the patriarch 8Na&ar3una8 ?or Lung-shu@. If the former. and thin$in&.8 an appe""ation of Buddha. (nanda. The mind. 4u-lai. . in Chinese. The 8+$ash"o$a hastra.BETC<. THE EKASHLOKA SHASTRA. sound. mind. co"our. ears. and vo"uminous author. if it has p. ( $een reasoner. of %hom much has #een said in the precedin& part of this #oo$. hearin&. o ends the first chapter of this #oo$.8 trans"ated from the Chinese. >hat is in the #od/ must #e perceived. tastin&.—The ei&hteen "imitin& 8#oundaries8 ?kiai@ of the sensations are—e/es. co"our. six $inds of dust. deserves to #e #etter $no%n. must #e one su#stance or man/. If the su#stance of /our mind pervade /our entire #od/. To sa/ that the mind sees is incorrect. If it %ere fe"t ever/%here.5 NextS Chapter NIN. But neither can /ou #e man/ su#stances. a sensation of pressure %ou"d #e fe"t in ever/ part. p. ar&ues that (nanda is %ron&. sme""in&. therefore. seein&. such as Na&ar3una. sme"".an3usiri and others on the true nature of thin&s %hich appear. The e/e of the dead sees nothin&. 8contact8 ?chu@. The +$ash"o$a hastra acred Texts Buddhism Index . -our mind must pervade /our entire #od/ or not. if %e are to $no% %hat is outside of the #od/Q e"se the mind cannot #e %ithin the #od/ at a"". and that the p"ace of the mind is not #et%een the inside and the outside. (s it is. taste. thou&h these %or$s are &enera""/ attri#uted to ha$/amuni p.8 (nandaS—8*ormer"/ I heard Buddha discoursin& %ith . at sacred2texts. of %hich a trans"ation is here &iven from the Chinese version. %hen /ou touch one "im# a"" the "im#s shou"d fee" the pressure. fa""s to the &round. and it is hoped that the fo""o%in& trans"ation of one of his "esser %or$s %i"" prove not a"to&ether use"ess in the e"ucidation of Buddhism. the sensation %ou"d not #e referred to an/ particu"ar spot. B T!+ author of the ori&ina" %or$. CGH CHAPTER I . -ou then said the mind is neither %ithin nor %ithout the #od/. Footnotes HTCSB 8Tath9&ata.. #ut #et%een the t%o. sme"". ince this is not the case. ton&ue.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. ince I see neither. I shou"d first see m/ face. The first six are a"so ca""ed the six su#3ects that 8"ove8 ?ai@. and the six thin&s that 8fee"8 ?ts‘ing@. %e on"/ perceive %hat is outside. 8Ca"m"/ approachin&. for then /ou %ou"d #e man/ men.%ithout in%ards. %hi"e the remainin& parts %ere not so. Remarks. the door of the house in %hich /ou are mi&ht a"so #e a#"e to see. in his rep"/. m/ mind must #e unsu#stantia". If /our mind #e a sin&"e su#stance. %ith an ana"/sis and notes. fee"in&. . Oc. /ou %ho are the su#3ect of it cannot form a sin&"e su#stance. the sensoria" or&ans. CGB These ei&hteen items are other%ise arran&ed as six roots. The second &roup of six are a"so ca""ed the six thieves. Beside #ein& the %riter of man/ of the more important hastras. an/ more than it is %ithin the #od/ or %ithout in the materia" thin&s %hich are the o#3ects of sensations. and not %hat is %ithin. must #e neither %ithin nor %ithout. /our supposition. taste. the mind. *urther.8 BuddhaS—8If the e/e cou"d see. a portion of it %ou"d #e suscepti#"e to touch. acute thin$er. If the sensation #e"on&s to one part. If it pervaded the #od/ partia""/. the interior of the #od/ %ou"d #e visi#"eQ if the "atter. "a%. that the mind is %herever thou&ht is. It seems to me that %ithout interior perception there can #e no externa" $no%"ed&e. nose.8 Buddha. is.8 (nandaS—8It is the e/e that seesQ thou&h it is not the e/e that $no%s.

is a"so commonQ so too the Eth. . Bein& unreasona#"e. Therefore %hat /ou sa/. If %e spea$ of the future as not #ein& produced from causes. #ut &ro%in& fati&ued have #e&un to dou#t p. I therefore sa/ that it is empt/ and not permanent. The non2rea"it/ of m/ #od/ is not separate from the non2 permanence of a"" action. and is that %hich chief"/ prevai"s in the &reat epic poems of the +ast. then actua"it/ apart from constanc/ ou&ht to #e ca""ed constant. his vie% is not the correct one. It is %ritten on account of those. of the non2permanence of thin&s and the nothin&ness of m/ o%n #od/. then the present is a"so not produced from causes.5 +a@ are indestructi#"e. If this #e true. then the Kth ou&ht to #e short a"so. and the "a% of the present comes from causes. is not correct doctrine. If the non2permanent is parted from actua"it/ and is sti"" ca""ed non2permanent. m/ #od/ is not a #od/. as endin& the "ine.8 UIt is as$ed. shou"d not the "a% of the future come from causes a"soL -ou &round this vie% either on the utras. appears at the commencement. the/ do not differ from the empt/ Nirv9na. it is usua" to emp"o/ the same vo%e" after each consonant in transcri#in& them in Chinese characters. The time of the trans"ation is the fourth centur/ of our era.ra3na"uti. If the unrea" and the actua" com#ine. and of permanence in actions. #ut as formed from and in itse"f. If the "a% that re&ards the future is not produced from causes. this is to #e re&arded as a fa"se vie%. If the so2ca""ed non2permanence is separated from 5existence. But the statement is incorrect and unreasona#"e./aka@. the 8 hastra of One sh"o$a. not #/ an/ means to #e :uestioned or suspected. Thus. This is the commonest of a"" the infinite variet/ of anscrit metres. and BHth s/""a#"es ma/ #e either "on& or short. The Ath ma/ #e either "on& or shortQ #ut if "on&. such as /our croo$ed mind cannot fathom. I ta$e the fo""o%in& account of it from >i""iams6 anscrit 1rammarS—8The Institutes of . therefore. in order to #e ca""ed non2permanent.8 The !indoo author has in the present instance ta$en a sin&"e coup"et as his theme. But this is not correct reasonin&. If 5actions5 ? hing@ are not produced from causes. m/ nature and m/ #od/ #ein& nothin&. U>hat sa/s m/ doctrineL That a"" $inds of Uactin&m ?+a@ are non2permanent. %ho in readin& hastras of &reat "en&th &ro% %ear/Q and a"so for those inte""i&ent persons. actua"it/ and non2rea"it/ are not essentia""/ different. UI %i"" no% spea$ of %hat men are to #e opposed. even and e:ua". identica"./ #od/ ?or su#stance@ in its nature is not permanentQ Thus. or *nushtu(h p. the Nirv9na #ein& not an actua" thin&@. BGth. #ut the ru"es %hich re&u"ate one "ine app"/ e:ua""/ to the other. then.m Shr. in this case. #ein& not produced from causes. #ut . or upon /our o%n 3ud&ment. not produced from an/ cause. The -. In %hich of the utras are there such %ords as theseL U>hat ideas are to #e discoursed uponL >hat meanin& is there in that %hich /ou no% sa/L There is much in it that is unreasona#"e. maintain that the ?action or@ 5"a%5 of the past. from the ori&ina" of )un&2shu pJu2sa. This coup"et. have o#tained their "i#eration from i&norance #/ means of this princip"e of nothin&nessQ not #/ the opposite princip"e. But if the thin&s done. >hen a dou#"e consonant #e&ins a s/""a#"e. 8. CGC metre. %h/. If so. on the south #an$ of the -e""o% River.It is ca""ed ih-shu-lu-kia-lun. the )isteners. If actua"it/ and non2rea"it/ com#ine. The Buddhas. the methods of actua"it/ and of non2 rea"it/ are neither of them &ood. In this case. present. h"o$a is a anscrit term for 8verse. and m/ o%n #od/ is nothin&. at the cit/ of )o2/an&. are sti"" non2permanent. and the (rhans have &ained their #enefits and successes #/ #e"ievin& in this princip"e. #ut is formed from its o%n nature.tha@L >hat is its meanin&L >hat man5s opinions is it intended to overthro%L I rep"/. a #ott"e #ein& an actual thin&@. CGF a#out the doctrine. >e are a"so informed #/ an introductor/ note that the treatise %as trans"ated into Chinese.8 8The Bst. then the Kth ou&ht to #e "on& a"soQ and if short.8 8The Dth s/""a#"e ou&ht a"%a/s to #e short. it is not to #e #e"ieved.8 U>ith this meanin& I spea$ of a"" actions as #ein& in themse"ves %ithout rea" em#odiment.anu are %ritten in the Sloka. consistin& in its Chinese form of four short sentences. the 5+n"i&htened5 ? uen-kioh@. %ho have &ained some $no%"ed&e. the Nirv9na is destructi#"e ?%hich is a#surd. *or the future and the present are. If /ou sa/ that after%ards the/ are to #e destro/ed. "i$e the Nirv9na. or ?actua"it/@. CGD #ein& 3oined to the actua". and future is in each case comp"eted from and in itse"f. and hence the name of his short treatise. then. TR(N )(TION O* 8-I!2 !U2)U2KI(2)UN8 ?T!+ !( TR( O* ON+ !)OK(@. the method or state of 5actua"it/5 ?yeu-wei@ need not #e ca""ed constant. >h/ %rite this UstanRam ?-. The BAth. %ho have studied man/ hastras. BBth. %hich is permanent. This cit/ is that no% ca""ed !o2nan fu. there is non2permanence. Therefore there is no such thin& as permanence. the actua" #ein& 3oined to the unrea". %ithout an/ difference. and their discip"es of the t%o c"asses uen-kioh and Sheng-wen ?U)isteners.8 and particu"ar"/ for a coup"et of a certain $ind. Tth. Fth. then the empt/ Nirv9na is not ca""ed permanent. in !o2nan province./ #od/ in its nature not #ein& a #od/. then permanence #ecomes nothin&. and is. Cd. the unrea" p.tha sa/sS— 8)ose si&ht of this princip"e of nothin&ness. a"" $inds of 5teachin&5 ?or 5action. #/ the Brahman 1audama . U("" the Buddhas.5 yeu-wei. %ithout reference to 5action5 ? hing@. If the actua" and the unrea" are. in the rei&n of the -uen2>ei d/nast/. %hich maintains the existence of #rea$in& off. To destro/ such dou#ts I have composed this hastra. a #ott"e cannot #e #ro$en ?%hich is a#surd. and exercised their thou&hts ?deep"/@ in the sea of Buddha5s "a%. Hd.8 8The "ast four s/""a#"es form t%o iam#ics. >h/ soL Because it is a vie% %hich omits the notion of cause. It consists of t%o "ines of sixteen s/""a#"es each. in their o%n nature. If a man %ho has &ained some $no%"ed&e sa/s that. -ou thus come to see thin&s as havin& cessation. and prefer to reside in #od/Q -ou then o#tain a vie% of thin&s as permanent.8 The three characters shu-lu-kia are in o"d Chinese pronunciation sho-lo-ka. as thus ar&ued. If men.

that does not perish. spea$in& in this utra of emptiness and of non2permanence.5 !e %ho has made advancement in ri&ht perception. Bein& not permanent. not a rea" su#stance at a"". Therefore apart from the various modes of action. therefore. such as #od/. hou"d /ou not understand %h/ the phrase non2permanent is used. If it #e said that it has a rea" existence. %ater. 5%ithout #od/. not on"/ m/ o%n %ords that I #rin& as evidence.5 UBuddha. su(ha/a. therefore. Conse:uent"/ a"" acts are. on"/ ri&ht to sa/ of it that it is empt/ and not permanent. that #od/ is not #od/. retainin& their o%n form.tha. or as 5the nature %hich has no nature of its o%n5 ?wu-tsï-sing-sing@. >hat I have thus far said. 5. and is. 5to #e. as 5the su#stance %hich &ives su#stance to itse"f5 ?tsï-t‘i-t‘i@. (nd %h/L It is its nature so to do. UThe "ast sentence sa/s. and %hich is. there is no non2permanent #od/Q #ecause man is. i. If it %i"" not #ear this test. is not made for such as Kapi"a and U"u$a. in its nature. to the utra.tha of one shloka5 ? i-sho-lo-ka-lun@. in the ori&ina" "an&ua&e. UIf it #e maintained that. in a rh/thmica" form. the 5teachin& of the c"assics5@Q such ar&uments cannot succeed. and in his death.5 it is asserted that there is no su#stance #ut that %hich is 5not su#stance5 ? wu-t‘i@. or as 5%ithout action and %ith action5 ?wu-+a-yeu-+a@. (s earth.5 8This %ord yeu is. #ut the same in meanin&. t%o. in instructin& the Bi$shus respectin& various acts. in its nature. nose. in their nature and of themse"ves. apart from actin&. to #e #e"ieved. If /ou assert that the 5a#sence of #od/5 ?wu-t‘i@ is %hat constitutes su#stance./ su#stance or #od/. %ithout #odi"/ form. B It p. its #ein& ca""ed #od/ has arisen from the circumstance that men %ho have advanced some%hat in true $no%"ed&e have made this distinction. This hastra. I %i"" no% exp"ain it. then the present and past are a"so non2existent. Thus %e $no% that a"" acts are empt/ and non2permanent. men and thin&s are non2permanent. #ein& in the midst of this actin&. on this account expressed the opinion here stated. is a passin&. that does not chan&e. nature. conse:uent"/. this is to sa/ that it is permanent. t%o. ca""ed 5m/ #od/.p. #ut for /ou %ho ho"d the same vie%s %ith me. as one. #ecause the/ are not the doctrine of the &reat p. ton&ue.5 5m/ #od/5 refers to that %hich is #orn and acts. 5m/ #od/. But if the future is non2existent. in opposition to the opinions of certain persons. %hich commences m/ #oo$. that 5?m/@ nature ?sing@ is in itse"f %ithout #od/. UIf. In its o%n nature it is not #od/. moist. for examp"e. It is. U>hen it is said. materia" and inte""ectua". is the same in form. the princip"es he is a#out to esta#"ish. /ou are %ron&Q this mode of ar&uin& is not that of the utras. the >or"d5s !onoured one. %ho has reached some depth in perception. it cannot #e produced from an/ cause.e. There is no e/e that does not move. %hat is itL It is %ithout #od/./ #od/. .5 UIf he %ho has made some advancement in $no%"ed&e sa/s that man in his #irth. Therefore it is that the opinion. 5The e/e of man is empt/ and not permanent. therefore. each accordin& to its natureQ so ever/ p. ho%ever. CGE ho"/ utrasQ the/ ou&ht not. not permanent. the/ are %ithout 5#od/5 ?t‘i@. the >or"d5s !onoured one. !ence the expression. the on"/ difference #et%een them is in the %ord yeu. it must #e an empt/ thin&. *or this reason it is said that su#stance in itse"f is not such. it %i"" #e %e"" esta#"ished. 5Bod/ is not #od/. he does not differ from the heretica" teachers. 5Narrative of Buddha pacif/in& and su#duin& amidhi.. CGK man ?and thin&@ has his o%n form and su#stance. in his continued "ife. The non2permanent. or severa"Q each is considered as havin& a #od/ independent of the rest.—The author #e&ins %ith statin&. %hen %e spea$ of #odies. not tru"/ future in itse"f. In %hat utra has Buddha. UIf the discip"e of Buddha thin$s so. hot. It is in this %a/ that the meanin& of the %ords wu-t‘i. or severa"Q or of men. This is on account of %hat has #een a"read/ said.5 is esta#"ished.5 has #een no% emp"o/ed to #rin& to its comp"etion the hastra of one h"o$a. and the/ are common"/ spo$en of as such. 5. in this manner. %hat is in the utras must #e comp"ete"/ satisfactor/. tau&ht such a doctrineL It is not to #e found in an/ utra. in its nature. and. is not permanent./ su#stance. In m/ vie%.8 *nalysis&and&Remarks. and mind have a"" the same chan&ea#"e and destructi#"e nature.5 Refer. UTherefore Buddha. this a"so is incorrectQ #ecause the utras do not sa/ so. that /ou ma/ re3ect incorrect vie%s. UIt is on this account that I have compi"ed this hastra and the 5-. then time in its threefo"d aspect is rea""/ nothin& in itse"f. and therefore it is forma""/ stated to #e %ithout #od/. and is produced %ithout a cause. therefore. such an opinion is %ron&. Tiau-+uh-san-mih-t‘i-king. The #od/ of man is. If /ou ho"d that there is some su#stance existin& #eside wu-t‘i. CGA comes from its o%n nature. then. #od/. as one. that Buddha addressed amidhi %ith the %ords.5 The notions of #od/ and not #od/ /ou easi"/ distin&uish. existence5 ?/eu@. fire. matter. is not su#stance. It is. represents them a"" as not constant. and %ind are respective"/ hard. are different in name.5 %hich sa/s. Thus. chan&in& thin&. It is #ecause of %hat is said in the openin& stanRa. I sha"" no% exp"ain the meanin& of this -. This actin& commences in the re&ion of the ph/sica" and menta" operations. 5act5 ?doctrine@. thin&. 5Therefore it is stated to #e empt/ and not permanent. . The ear. is for the sa$e of /ou %ho have made some advancement. B In it are invo"ved a"so the Sheng-wen and uen-kioh. therefore. in his form. Therefore it is. >hichever of these %e spea$ of. Kapi"a and others. %ho %ander circuitous"/ ?in this "o%er re&ion@. Bein& cut off from an/ connection %ith causes. U>hen it is said. he spea$s erroneous"/. CGT is trans"ated in severa" %a/s. thin$s out for himse"f that this is the #od/ ?or ta$es it to #e the #od/@. it must fa"" to the &round. m/ %ho"e nature. The present and the past #ein& non2existent. It is. and mova#"e. an opinion #e tested #/ the utras.5 U("" $inds of action ?or existence@. for it is not 5correct teachin&5 ?king-shwo. not permanent.

Bodhisatt%a. o if non2actua" thin&s %ere identified %ith %hat is actua". .onsters.8 T‘ien. and on"/ a""o% that ima&es of thin&s are formed %hich immediate"/ pass a%a/. and p. %hi"e the Nirv9na #e"on&s to the 8non2actua"8 or wu-wei c"ass. Both are considered as erroneous #/ the champion of Buddhism.8 These four &rades of discip"eship. and of the other countries %here Buddhism prevai"s. ma/ perhaps #e trans"ated 8actua"it/8 and 8non2rea"it/. demons. in the vie% of the Buddhist. occup/ the third and fourth ran$ in the Buddhist sca"e of #ein&. not indeed %ith rh/mes or an/ fixed succession of "on& and short s/""a#"es. thus sho%n to constitute the scriptures of this re"i&ion. or so as to confound action and inaction. 8)isteners. In the Nepau" ori&ina"s. the Nirv9na %ou"d cease to #e indestructi#"e. %ho o#serves that the/ are ca""ed #/ their adversaries the orthodox !indoos. and that these t%o thin&s are connected. then attac$ the upho"ders of opposite vie%s. Co"e#roo$e sa/s that the fo""o%ers of Kan_de maintained that thin&s are part"/ perisha#"e and transitor/. Inte""i&ence. and first of those %ho ho"d the doctrine of non2permanence in an incorrect manner.8 are ca""ed.This princip"e a&rees %ith the description &iven of the Buddhists #/ Co"e#roo$e. %hich ho"ds that thin&s are permanent. These instances are #rou&ht for%ard to sho% that thin&s of the t%o c"asses of o#3ects must not #e confounded. se"f2su&&ested or presented #/ others. %hich is no% presented to the reader. or to #e inspired. These form the "ast in a series of four &rades of discip"eship.8 8(na&amin.8 KiGQ in the o"d Chinese pronunciation. *or if actua"it/ #e identified %ith non2rea"it/. These terms in Chinese. and it %ou"d #e %ron& to sa/ that it %as destructi#"e. for the Buddhist has neither 1od nor inspiration in his creed. the anscrit and .8 Shra/akas.para&raph continues< The rh/thmica" parts are ca""ed 8-. *-na-gam. !e"".erception &ained #/ the stud/ of causes. !is fo""o%ers are ca""ed 0aisnshi$as. (nima"s. the opinions of t%o c"asses of reasoners. The distinction. The/ contain the ver/ %ords of Buddha. a #ott"e. .racrit #ein& interchan&ed. and *-la-han. 81ods.8 8 a&arda&am. The discip"es of Buddha here a""uded to. or #rea$ off.8 and 8(rhan. The Buddhas and their discip"es. that he %i"" first unfo"d his meanin&. -uen2$io.en. for the use of advanced studentsQ "est the/ shou"d #e inf"uenced #/ those ar&uments. There is no such transition of dia"ects in the Chinese trans"ations. !e %rote it for the sa$e of such persons as cannot read throu&h the ver/ "on& and tedious %or$s found in the Buddhist "i#rar/. Kno%"ed&e and merc/. #et%een the actua" and the non2actua" must #e preserved. (suras. there is a"so a difference in dia"ect #et%een the prosaic and rh/thmica" parts. or 8fruits. yeu-wei. then. These treatises are not said to #e divine. unrea" nature of a"" existin& thin&s. p. hen&2%en. T%o vie%s are &iven—that %hich re&ards the universe as permanent. have #een trans"ated p. *our "ines in the form of -. representin& the doctrines of opponents. !un&r/ &hosts. !e a"so %ished to p"ace in a short compass the ar&ument for the transitor/. ix states of 8i&norance8 ?+an@.retas. CBG . . and the -. The opposite doctrine. he sa/s. the se"f2e"evated human inte""ect. Si-da-gam.tha or rh/thmica" statement %ith %hich it commences. The attainment of a certain amount of en"i&htenment in the Buddhist doctrine is represented as 8fruit. The author then &ives his reasons for composin& the treatise. The composition of Buddhist %or$s is varied #/ the fre:uent introduction of passa&es in a rh/thmica" form. . !e ho"ds that a"" $inds of action are transitor/ and not "astin&. Nara$a. #ut in part a"so unchan&ea#"e. uen-kioh and Sheng-wen. CBB that %hich descri#es it as "ia#"e to cessation. -at. It ou&ht not to #e he"d so as to den/ the rea"it/ of action. %hich &o to prove that the %or"d is rea" and that the information &iven #/ the senses is trust%orth/.tha. as the most exa"ted #ein&Q and he "oo$s on his teachin& to #e the purest truth and the hi&hest %isdom. The author "a/s do%n as his order of procedure. Their position %i"" #e understood #/ the fo""o%in& scheme copied from a Buddhist %or$S— *our de&rees in 8ho"iness8 ?sheng@. !e on"/ $no%s Buddha. wu-wei.tha are here introduced. and after%ards support his o%n opinions.8 The/ den/ the permanent existence of atoms. %hich are he"d to #e necessari"/ true. had in the #e"ief of the princip"e of nothin&ness o#tained 8"i#eration8 ?mHksha@ from the #onds %hich restrain the sou". .8 The/ are a"so ca""ed the four paths to the Nirv9na. he mentions the (rhans. In anscrit these names are read 8 rXt9panna. These %or$s are thus seen to #e. CBH into the "an&ua&e of China. (n earthen%are #ott"e is adduced as an examp"e of an 8actua" thin&8 ? yeuwei@. In a&ain appea"in& to the testimon/ of the Buddhas and their discip"es. Su-da-wan. the standard of truth. or 8Those %ho ar&ue tota" perisha#"eness. has never had such an exemp"ification of its truth. Sar/a/ainFsicas. !ence the doctrine of non2permanence. Buddha. that the actor or o#server is himse"f nothin& rea". it is said. evera" hundreds of these #oo$s. The utras are a&ain appea"ed to in proof of this doctrine. Throu&hout the hastra. Devas. afet/ is on"/ to #e found in the doctrine of nihi"it/. )un&2shu proceeds to controvert #/ ar&ument. )un&2shu supports his opinions #/ the authorit/ of the utras %hich Buddha has "eft for the use of his discip"es as the repositor/ of his doctrine. %ou"d #ecome a non2actua" thin&. #ut %ith "ines constant"/ of the same "en&th.8 Their meanin& %i"" #e seen #/ the i""ustrations used.

%e come to the consciousness of mysel+. ho%ever. earth. and therefore the future must a"so ori&inate in the same manner. >ith this distinct a""usion to him in our "itt"e %or$. perhaps the most noted of the Indian phi"osophers. and denies that Kapi"a asserts the non2existence of cause. criticises this statement of the *rench phi"osopher. (ccordin& to Kapi"a. it is interestin& to notice in the treatise of )un&2shu.. In this re&ion the inferior c"asses of Buddha5s discip"es continue to %ander partia""/ en"i&htened. the present. apart from the unsu#stantia" and the vanishin&. To this second test he here #rin&s the doctrines he opposes and condemns them. The author then underta$es to prove the second sentence of his theme. )un&2shu comp"ains that some persons maintain #irth. !e admits. he ar&ues that the/ can #e nothin& rea". %ithout verita#"e and independent cause. The spirit cannot itse"f "a/ ho"d of itse"fQ and in directin& its attention to itse"f. and therefore the future does a"so. and does not survive it.8 .!e &oes on to overthro% the notion that the past. )un&2shu first discusses the ori&in of the phrase 8m/ #od/. that it does not exist.8 The doctrine of non2permanence has #een introduced to aid in provin& this. Co"e#roo$e :uestions %hether Kapi"a #e not a"to&ether a m/tho"o&ica" persona&e. !e does not first ma$e p"ain that the present proceeds from cause. )un&2shu appea"s repeated"/ to the authorit/ of the utras. It appears to me that )un&2shu is not exp"icit enou&h in his ar&ument for the production of events from causes. their reasona#"eness or unreasona#"eness. there is no proper notion of cause. p. ho%ever.e. Kapi"a. duration. The ar&umentation of Kapi"a is. and %e a"so o#tain an approximation to the period in %hich he "ived. name"/. Cousin. then.8 sa/s Cousin.8 !e o#serves that it consists of the #od/ and its actionsQ i. CBF (s a"read/ remar$ed. that Kapi"a is incidenta""/ condemned for den/in& the existence of cause. %here he asserts that the present proceeds from causes.8 Cousin sa/s of Kapi"a that he advocated sensua"ism. CBC that the %ho"e is a necessar/ concatenation of effects. %hen it sa/s. The phi"osopher. The non2permanent is necessari"/ unsu#stantia". %here he is ca""ed in :uestion #/ his +n&"ish critic. B 8is at once a s/stem of ph/sics. as separate #ein&s existin& independent"/ of each other. in the histor/ of phi"osoph/. the antecedent of that of onesidemus and that of !ume. %e ma/ perhaps infer his historica" rea"it/. !e founded the an$h/a schoo".8 asserts that.8 There #ein& such a difference of opinion on the vie%s of this !indoo phi"osopher. Our Chinese evidence &oes to upho"d the statement of the *rench phi"osopher. !e then proceeds to state that the #od/ in its nature is not permanent. in his History&o+&#odern&!hilosophy. in his "earned comment on the Sankhya&Karika. CBD Bi$shu is one of the names &iven to the fo""o%ers of Buddha &enera""/. Thou&ht or spirit—for the facu"t/ is not distin&uished from the su#3ect—appears on"/ %ith sensation. and %ind. In the re&ion of menta" and ph/sica" actions. In exp"ainin& the introductor/ stanRa. extracted #/ Burnouf from Buddhist #oo$s. The thin&s %e see are "ia#"e to perish. and continua""/ thus. spea$s of the ps/cho"o&/ of Buddhism as #ein& contained in t%o propositions. datin& indu#ita#"/ from near the #e&innin& of the Christian era. %ater. and p"ura" num#ers. 8. and contro""ed #/ the same "a%sQ #ut the present resu"ts from causes. dia"ectics. and effect. and destruction to #e the same thin&. >e must spea$ of thin&s as the/ rea""/ are. m/ #od/ is not a #od/./ #od/ in its nature is not #od/. name"/. and metaph/sics. man is in his entire form non2 permanent. #rief aphorisms. Bst. he adds.rofessor >i"son. in the instructions he &ave to the Bi$shus his discip"es. U"u$a. as #ein& hard. in reco&nisin& no difference #et%een material&cause&and&material&e++ects:8 and adds that 8his doctrine is that of Bro%n in his "ectures on po%er. The ho"der of such vie%s %ou"d thus fa"" into the error of Kapi"a and other heretica" teachers. a"%a/s he"d the doctrine that actions are nonpermanent. and that %hich %e ca"" a cause is on"/ an effect in its re"ation to the cause %hich precedes it. a comp"ete phi"osoph/. %hich is a"so an effect for the same reason. cause. If the past. and the future are se"f2produced. (dvancin& from this incomp"ete vie%. and that the correct doctrine of the #od/ #ein& non2 permanent is insepara#"/ connected %ith the various ph/sica" and menta" operations %hich sprin& from the #od/Q #ecause. ps/cho"o&/. differ in their nature. that its #ein& ca""ed (ody has arisen from the distinctions %hich men in their i&norance have made. This must ever #e $ept in mind in ma$in& the statement that the #od/ is non2permanent. in the sin&u"ar. B #ut for the sa$e of correctin& and confirmin& the vie%s of the discip"es of Buddhism. !e o#serves that the present and the future are as to their nature simi"ar. and not. present. "i$e those of Buddha. hot. !ence the common #ut erroneous expression my&(odyB&my&sel+. !ence the %ords 8m/ #od/ is not #od/. Buddha. %hich are. and do not come from the action of causes. Kapi"a made an effort to destro/ it. in his "ectures a"read/ referred to. It is a universa" s/stem. Hd. at a"". and that 8one of the ideas %hich are most opposed to sensua"ism #ein& that of cause.8 are correct and appropriate. The/ are a"so ca""ed Shamen and Ho-shang. "on& treatises. fire. no #od/ existsQ and that therefore it is ri&ht to sa/ of m/ o%n #od/. Therefore the/ are not rea" thin&s. #ein& in a"" respects simi"ar to the present in its nature. and movin&. I have not found mentioned #/ Co"e#roo$e or other %riters on the metaph/sica" s/stems of India. so p. %e spea$ ordinari"/ of men and thin&s. it dra%s from it on"/ the conviction of its po%er"essness to see itse"f other%ise than . H p. 8This s/stem. here referred to. -et )un&2shu has #esides this another test of the va"idit/ of doctrines. o the advocates of the an$h/a phi"osoph/ appea" to the utras of Kapi"a. 8Thus. The four e"ements. and future do not come from causes. moist. The third sentence. thus increasin& the first error. that 8he ma/ so far a&ree %ith the phi"osophers referred to. dua". it means mysel+. and so each man and thin& is "oo$ed at as havin& its characteristic differences from others. %as a remar$a#"e persona&e. )un&2shu proceeds to sa/ that he did not %rite for the purpose of confutin& such phi"osophers as Kapi"a and U"u$a.

one of the t%e"ve causes 8#ein&. inc"udin& #od/. and #od/. B is t%ofo"d. The various %or"ds of the Buddhist universe are desi&nated #/ the term (hawo. There is no e/e that does not move. The/ do not distin&uish #et%een the a&ent and the act. not #e"ievin& in the rea"it/ of materia" thin&s. kamma-(hawo. #ut he is %ron& %hen he ar&ues that therefore the/ are unrea". and so on. >. to defend the doctrine of the non2rea"it/ of materia" thin&s. %e $no% that a"" acts are empt/. The 8Brahma %or"ds8 are rIpa-(hawo.8 !rFga(hF/a is 8present ne&ation of %hat %i"" #e.8 %u2/in—name"/. %hich is so important a princip"e %ith our author. are #ut differences in the term yeu. 8a"" acts8 ?yih-ts‘iG-+a@ are %ithout #od/. acts.8 8sentiments. and constitutes a %atch%ord of Buddhism.8 *nu(hF/a is 8notion. %hose first artic"e of faith is the perpetuit/ of the thin$in& su#3ect. as the or&an of consciousness. I ma/ o#serve here. Of these. #/ appea"in& to their "ia#i"it/ to destruction. Burnouf adds. #ecause it is not found in the utras. !ence a"so he proceeds to sa/. The "ast sentence. shG. ( priest %i"" contend that a %ooden ta#"e. nature. ("" these varieties in phraseo"o&/. )un&2shu does so in this passa&e. Footnotes CGHSB Read #efore the han&hai )iterar/ and cientific ociet/.8 is i""ustrated #/ appea"in& to the teachin& of Buddha in one of the utras. vo". It is therefore empt/ and non2permanent. he adds. The 8incorporea" %or"ds8 are arIpa-(hawo. CGASB The 8human operations are five. that human nature is %ithout #od/. these theses are radica""/ opposed to Brahmanism. The truth is. add the mind. It shou"d #e remem#ered that the Buddhists re&ard the acts of the thin$in& #ein& as one %ith his su#stance. The mind. Uperception. thin&. %hich c"ose the treatise. or 8mora" causative acts. he adds. Buddha havin& thus expressed his opinion in the utras. ton&ue.8 are merit. 8receptionQ8 siang. Christianit/. 8doin&Q8 shï. that is not destro/ed. a"so pervades the #oo$s of Nepau" %hich Burnouf studied. 8visionQ8 sheu. 8I therefore sa/ that it is empt/ and not permanent.8 )hawo.8 to i""ustrate it. BKth Novem#er BEDK. and a"" sound phi"osoph/ a&ree in ascri#in& rea"it/ and chan&ea#"eness to the o#3ects of sense. 8thin$in&Q8 hing. #ut den/ the rea"it/ and permanence of #oth in their unit/. Ka-pi-la. and addin& that it is the o#3ect of this entire treatise. )un&2shu proceeds to o#serve that some persons ho"d fa"se vie%s on this su#3ect. #ut this is contrar/ to the utras. eu-leu-kia ?'-lu-ka@.rofessor >i"son it is various"/ trans"ated. 8#ein&. instead of predicatin& this of the actor. that rea"it/ and chan&ea#"eness are #oth ri&ht"/ affirmed of a ta#"e.8 The numerous modifications of meanin& #e"on&in& to this %ord he"p to account for the three trans"ations of the re"ated %ord su(ha/a. )un&2shu erred in not seein& that these t%o thin&s can #e reconci"ed. or an/ other materia" thin&. restin& his doctrine on the authorit/ of the utras. >e "imit the term sensoria" or&ans to those %hich are materia". CBA sa/ that m/ #od/ is unsu#stantia"@.8 CBHSB Trans"ated #/ O. non2permanent. %here it is p. and the/ must not #e #e"ieved. !e ta$es the e/e as an examp"e. 8>or"ds of sensua" p"easure and pain8 are kama-(hawo. consistin& of mora" causative acts and the state of #ein&. sa/s 1o&er"/ in his 9ssay&on&)uddhism. 8dispositions. The Buddhist asserts %ith perfect correctness. after mentionin& the e/e. . and therefore %ithout #od/. that it is common %ith the modern Chinese Buddhists. demerit. %hich is various"/ exp"ained 8the su#stance %hich &ives su#stance to itse"f. >e see that the non2permanence of thin&s. Thus the/ %i"" sa/. CBCSB Kiai-pi-lo: in the o"d pronunciation.8 The ori&ina" %ord. it is added. #ut this is %ron& ?a"thou&h it is correct to p. The same confusion of the a&ent %ith his acts presents itse"f in the c"osin& sentences of the treatise. is vie%ed as a sense. CBK asserted that a"" $inds of action. nor are the/ met %ith in the &reat ho"/ utras. that does not chan&e. adds the trans"ator into Chinese.8 8conditions of #ein&. are #ut different names for the same thin&. o it is %ith the other sensoria" or&ans. 8&ood.m CGESB This %ord is a compound of su.8 B/ Co"e#roo$e and . that the o#3ects of sense are non2permanent. #ut the Buddhist. #ein&.8 *(hF/a is 8privation8 or 8ne&ation. !ere the term (ha/a means 8states of #ein&.as successive and transitor/. as in this case. >i&ht. One opinion is that independent"/ of the unsu#stantia" there is su#stance. there is necessari"/ nothin& rea" in it. modern science. and a"" those actions %hich "ead to existence. Others sa/ the unsu#stantia" is m/ #od/.8 and (hF/a. on the app"ication of fire. The Buddhists in enumeratin& the or&ans of sense. uch are not the %ords of Buddha. ear. is su(ha/a. Thus %e arrive at the doctrine that #od/ does not exist. The nature of them a"" is to chan&e and deca/. B. 8The hastra of one h"o$a.8 8%ithout action and %ith action. ca""s ever/ or&an #/ %hich impressions are communicated a sense. passin& into smo$e and ashes. nose.8 and 8the nature %hich has no nature of its o%n.

and the introduction of Buddhist metaph/sics date from this time. It %as that of the Sung&"u. the/ differed %ide"/ from Confucius. CBKSB puoted in !ard/5s 9astern&#onachism. thou&ht the/. and founded a native schoo" of Indian phi"osoph/. and in their exp"anation of the soverei&n po%er in the %or"d as an a#straction. EFFECT OF BUDDHISM ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE SUNG DYNASTY. a&ainst various specu"ators in mora"s and po"itics %ho %ished to advance some one princip"e to the detriment of others. %hi"e retainin& its position. The re"i&ion. it had #ecome impossi#"e to retain the s/stem of the ancient sa&es in its pure and simp"e form. and ma&icians %ere honoured %ith popu"ar veneration. su&&ested to me. the customs. uch an a&e of menta" inaction and enervatin& prosperit/ must #e succeeded #/ a period of menta" ener&/. +ach of them em#raced the course of three or four centuries. and superstitions of the peop"e had a"" chan&ed. In reverence for anti:uit/ and the incu"cation of the five constant virtues. the pu#"ic mind %as invo"ved. The riches of the countr/ %ere "avished on Buddhist structures. the phi"osophers %ho no% undertoo$ the restoration of the p. at sacred2texts. and the revie% of their efforts and achievements is a most curious section in the histor/ of humanit/.CBCSH ( friend has. that he ma/ re&ard this as o#vious. In their cosmo&on/. The third a&e %as Buddhist. Tauist ma& Chinese&)uddhism. Confucius . #e done. The second is the !an period. and the com#ined %or$ of the most venerated sa&es. and Tauist phi"osophers mar$ed this a& Ti. the ver/ essence of ancient thou&ht. %hich accordin&"/ %e find. no phi"osophers of name exceptin& !an >en2$un&. astronomers. #ein& %hat consciousness is ever teachin& us. in teachin& the princip"es of perpetua" and universa" mora"it/. The air %as rife %ith "e&endar/ "ore. The fau"t of the a&e %as its superstition. The #oo$s made in the department of criticism %ere tonic dictionaries #ased on the ne% Indian spe""in&Q no sa&es p. NextS Chapter NN. %hich. the po"itics. +ffect of Buddhism on the . It %as that of the six d/nasties. !indoo astronom/ and m/tho"o&/. their phi"osoph/ of nature. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. But Tauist doctrine %as &ro%in& /ear"/ in stren&th.hi"osoph/ of the un& D/nast/ acred Texts Buddhism Index . and frau&ht %ith sa"utar/ %arnin&. the hermit "ife. the medicine of immorta"it/ %ere fervent"/ #e"ieved in. The un& phi"osophers differ from Confucius—*ive periods of Chinese inte""ectua" deve"opment—The un& %riters chan&ed the o"d cosmo&on/—The !an %riters had a"read/ done so—Dia&ram of the 1reat +xtreme—Other pictoria" i""ustrations—(voidance of the doctrine of a persona" 1od—. *our &reat sta&es of "iterar/ and nationa" deve"opment ma/ #e pointed to as intervenin& #et%een the &reat sa&e and the a&e ca""ed that of the Sung&"u. fine historians. CBT that time. Thou&h the authorit/ of Confucius %as uphe"d. The Buddhists #ecame a po%er in "iterature.BETC<. to extend and reconstruct the ancient s/stem of cosmo&on/. CHG %ea$ened Confucianism. T!+ un& phi"osophers %ere separated a#out fifteen hundred /ears from Confucius. had "ost its inf"uence over men5s minds.ateria"istic phi"osoph/ of nature —Ne% vie% of divination. CBE CHAPTER . In a"" parts of the empire the peop"e adopted this Indian re"i&ion.encius. The fourth a&e %as that of the TJan& d/nast/. %e fai" to reco&nise a distinct cosmo&on/. and the c"assics maintained in profound veneration. heretic phi"osophers. a"chemists. The/ proceeded under the com#ined inf"uence of Buddhism and Tauism. Its redeemin& feature %as its ardent and successfu" efforts for promotin& the restoration of the ancient #oo$s and their use in the education of /outh. (s %e read the i-king. the/ a&reed %ith Confucius. !an >en2$un& and the poets divided the admiration of the "iterati of the time #et%een them. The first is that of . It %as a time of "uxur/ and poetr/. Durin& this "on& period differences mi&ht %e"" sprin& up. and in dra%in& the attention of their countr/men to the ancient mode"s of %isdom and virtue. . uch a period ensued. It %as a time of stru&&"e for Confucian and orthodox doctrine. But much mi&ht. and a hi&h"/ popu"ar poet indicated the med"e/ of unfixed thou&ht in %hich. their attitude in re&ard to the ancient practice of divination. at p. .revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. ( c"oud of critica" expounders of orthodox/. the $no%"ed&e of the a"pha#et and of tones. and KIh -uen. iIn Kin&. astro"o&ers. Orthodox phi"osophers. ho%ever. >hen the/ appeared on the scene. editors of the c"assics. the tone of specu"ation %as predominant"/ Tauist.

and other %or$s. sa/ the Chinese. The/ commenced a cosmo&on/. Oc. The round "ine to represent the T‘ai-ki. There are no imita#"e ima&es &reater than heaven and earth. The minds of Confucius and . >e thin$. a product of the Indo2+uropean mind. under the impressions made on them. . and a shinin& river f"o%in& #et%een t%o #an$s.un3a#. In Chwang-tsï %e meet %ith the %ords. p. 8To "ead out his c"ass to a position hi&her than the 1reat +xtreme. entire"/ impersona". after so &reat an interva". The pecu"iar form of their cosmo&on/ %as due to Buddhist inf"uence.8 !ere is the #uddin& of that cosmo&on/ %hich fructified in the un& phi"osophers. In determinin& &ood and i"" "uc$. But the perversit/ of !indoo phi"osoph/ %as #etter p"eased %ith irresisti#"e *ate as a su#stitute for the Divine Ru"er. and man in miniature. The/ %ere too much devoted to anti:uit/.. (fter%ards Chu fu2tsM made a chan&e. CHF out 1od from the %or"d. %hich %as popu"ar in the !an d/nast/ as exp"ainin& the four siang or 8ima&es. to fi"" up their out"ine. there is none &reater than the sa&e. The ei&ht s/m#o"s are ei&ht arran&ements of stro$es. %e ma/ find there an/thin& %e "i$e. (f&hanistan. the 8+mperor5s extreme8 of perfection. >e find there. The un& phi"osophers. Ta$e the former.8 +vident"/ the chief thou&ht of Confucius is upon divination. t%o #ecome four. and the stro$es of the ei&ht and sixt/2four $%a in the i-king. CHH This dia&ram %as put to a ferti"e use #/ the un& phi"osophers. and t%o ho""o% circ"es to represent heaven and earth #e"o%. #"ind"/ impartia". and it %as not the primar/ sense. to spea$ of the difference #et%een Confucius and the un& phi"osophers in re&ard to their phi"osoph/ of nature. o.o"itica" and socia" :uestions %ere to them deep"/ interestin&. >e cannot %onder that the/ &ave up the four seasons. earth. representin& 8fire.8 Bent into three concentric circ"es are seen the li-kwa. But the aim of the %riter %as rather to descri#e the %or"d as the o#3ect of the %ise man5s in:uiries. or yin and yang. and incessant"/ efficient. to represent the ori&in of the %or"d. inasmuch as the teachers of Tauism had preferred the doctrine of spontaneous &ro%th. #/ men not ta$in& the ran$ of sa&es. or 8ima&es. t%ice t%o is four. then. It produced the t%o fi&ures. representin& 8%ater. In the Shu-king there is a passa&e %hich spea$s of the Hwang-ki. phrases ne% to the Confucian doctrine. If divination #/ stra%s had #een introduced.8 into yin and yang.e2/an& of the !an. !e continues to sa/S 8The ei&ht s/m#o"s determine &ood and i"" fortune. %ater.encius %ere %armed #/ mora" considerations. then %e ma/ p. heaven.8 and the k‘an-kwa. as heaven. sa/s. #efore and after this passa&e. Be"o% this are five sma"" circ"es. the true doctrine of creation %ou"d have #een tau&ht in the Indian hastras. and to point out that he must imitate the "a%s of phenomena" chan&e %hich he o#serves in heaven and earth. There are no chan&es &reater than the four seasons. If %e understand the ei&ht divinin& s/m#o"s to #e ei&ht departments of nature.encius %ou"d have a#so"ute"/ refused a"" countenance to it. and these "ead to &reat deeds. and the Chinese %riters of the un& d/nast/ %ou"d pro#a#"/ have adopted the idea. there is nothin& &reater than the divinin& stra%s and the tortoise. CHB construct a cosmo&on/ out of the formu"a a#ove cited. such as the tortoise. In ancient China. %ood and fire #ein& on the "eft.8 The commentator sa/s that the phrase 81reat +xtreme8 here means 8heaven. of primar/ arithmetic. it is indirect"/. or 8s/m#o"ic sets of "ines. The/ added to it a ho""o% circ"e. This %as due to the inf"uence of Buddhism.8 This statement "oo$s am#i&uous and uncertain in its meanin&. The Buddhists #rou&ht the notion of pictoria" i""ustrations %ith them from India. The/ rude"/ picture a fire &ivin& out f"ames. Ca#u". t%ice four is ei&htL Confucius. as the effect of certain transformations. and too "ac$in& in independence. These produced the four ima&es. imitate the &reater p. is ta"$in& of divination. a Tauist of the !an.8 Hwainan-tsï. %hich incu"cates faith in a creatin& and destro/in& *ate. s$etches of star &roups to the Sing-king. If Buddhism had #een tru"/ a re"i&ion adapted to dra% man #ac$ to 1od. . CHC effort of the ima&ination %hich the/ there encountered. There %ere. no &"eam of a true science of nature shou"d have entered into the inte""ects of the un& phi"osophers. Ts‘an-t‘ung-ki. 8the t%o fi&ures. the un& phi"osophers %ere the more %i""in&. But %h/ fo""o% out these ideasL The/ %ere un$no%n to Confucius. >hi"e the sa&e "oo$s at his stra%s. than the/ ever ac$no%"ed&edQ and the/ %ou"d. fire. and it %ants the 81reat +xtreme. One of the kwa. nor as prefator/ matter are the/ ear"ier than the un&.8 %as &iven up for the &reat yin and the "itt"e yin and the &reat yang and the "itt"e yang. to represent the 81reat +xtreme8 a#ove. he never thou&ht of expressin& it #/ a dia&ram. The "ater Chinese %riters %ere unconscious"/ inf"uenced much more #/ Buddhism. and four #ecome ei&ht.e. a %or$ %ritten #/ the noted >ei . ho%ever. In ta$in& examp"e from the Buddhists in this particu"ar. The Tauists did %hat the ear"/ Confucianists fai"ed to do. 1eometrica" dia&rams %ere not $no%n. Thus the/ tried to comp"ete the thou&ht of the o"d sa&es of China. the dra&on. inc"uded #ut not /et separated. and these a&ain the ei&ht divinin& s/m#o"s.8 is made up of three or six. and the fact that the ancient #oo$s had not the doctrine. This remar$ #rin&s me. and to form into distinctness the shado%/ shapes of more ancient ideas. >e find it sti"" more deve"oped in the Ts‘an-t‘ung-ki. !e chan&ed heaven and earth. that the s:uares of three and four are to&ether e:ua" to the s:uare of five. and that he ma/ o#tain the most va"ua#"e resu"ts #/ divination.8 %ere the anima"s that pass throu&h metamorphoses. for ho% cou"d the ei&ht kwa come out of the seasonsL Others said that the four siang. Before their time the Chinese made ver/ "imited use of i""ustrated dia&rams. to sha$e off the /o$e of a materia"istic nomenc"ature. The arithmetica" com#inations ca""ed Ho-t‘u and Lo-shu %ere a"so pro#a#"/ represented #/ dots or stars. su#se:uent"/ to the epoch of those sa&es. !e thou&ht he %ou"d improve the dia&ram #/ thro%in& out the e"ements and introducin& in their p"ace the &reat and "itt"e yin. The/ extended the cosmo&on/ %ithout introducin& the idea of a persona" Creator. su#se:uent"/ to the a&e of (""/ the Buddhists too$ the notion from the 1ree$s. and the &reat and "itt"e yang. There are no suspended ima&es #ri&hter than the sun and moon. 8To #e ear"ier than the 1reat +xtreme. sa/ I. It is remar$a#"e that. In preparin& thin&s for use. The/ accepted the divination of the 8Boo$ of Chan&es8 #ecause >en >an& and Cheu Kun& %ere the saviours of the state and the advocates of #enevo"ence and inte&rit/. the notion of five e"ements %as a"read/ in existence. the circ"e ha"f %hite and ha"f #"ac$ %ith the curved diameter %hich mar$s "i&ht and dar$ness.8 added a"so a"" the maps printed in the ordinar/ editions of the i-king. Is there much in it #esides t%ice one is t%o. The tendenc/ of their specu"ations %as to shut p. the midd"e is #"ac$ and the sides are %hite. are ne%Q and the o"d notion of the four seasons. %hi"e the/ extended the cosmo&on/ #/ addin& the map of the 81reat +xtreme. representin& the five e"ements. so far as !is #ein& in an/ sense an active Creator. !ere appears the first map of the Chinese cosmo&on/. The sense in %hich ki %as here used %as of course mora". and man. one #ecomes t%o. In the k‘an-kwa the midd"e is %hite and the sides are #"ac$. and the dra&on2horse that #ore on his #ac$ the arithmetica" scheme or ma&ic s:uare offered to -I the 1reat. #ut it %as not ti"" the Tauists of the !an deve"oped the doctrine that it assumed its modern form. earth. . >hen the cosmo&onica" idea enters then.8 In the "i2$%a. %hich %as the imitation of natura" phenomena succeedin& each other in a certain order. #/ a natura" transition. 8 tar c"assic8 ?#/ Kan and hM@ of the !an d/nast/. and the . Thou&h Chen Kun& %as a%are of the propert/ of the ri&ht2an&"ed trian&"e arithmetica""/. %hen 1ree$s %ere in 3uxtaposition %ith !indoos and other Buddhist peop"es in Bo$haria. It needed the 1ree$ &enius to initiate the conceptions of &eometr/. his overei&n and 4ud&e. meta" and %ater on the ri&ht. i.spea$s of the 1reat +xtreme as the commencement 8of chan&es. These maps are not found in an/ text.. earth. and /et not to #e hi&h. the mora" instinct #oth of Confucius and .

Their o#3ect is p"ain.odern Feng-shui is #ased on the Han-lung-king—Buddhist e"ement in Feng-shui—The four e"ements of the 1ree$s—The !indoo 8(ir and %ater8 is Feng-shui— +arth.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon.8 uch %as the unhapp/ resu"t of the spread of the Tauist ph/sica" s/stem and the Buddhist atheism in China. ( thousand /ears more and Buddhism had had its tria". and for unrave""in& the eni&mas of nature. !o%ever this ma/ #e. existin& in successive kalpas. >hat. %ere not the representatives of a s/stem %hich made mora"it/ its centre. #ut of a"chem/ and a doctrine of se"f2cu"tivation %hich incu"cated ph/sica" aids instead of the simp"e teachin& of &enuine mora"it/. It %as in this %a/. or the ph/sica" firmament. HHG. the ancient ma&ic %as sti"" in existence.e2/an&. he praised it to the s$ies in the i-king. The most me"ancho"/ examp"e of deca/ in mora" and re"i&ious instinct is in the denia" of a soverei&n mora" ru"er in the universe. shou"d have #een the course to #e steadfast"/ pursued #/ the Confucianists of the un& periodL Undou#ted"/. *en&2 huiQ or.eanin& of Feng. the/ shou"d have opposed tooth and nai" the Tauists and Buddhists. >hen )uther. or 8. Both these re"i&ions are defective in the mora" e"ement. The a"chem/ and astro"o&/ of the !an made the Chinese nation "ess disposed to re"i&ious reverence. and $eeps them %rapped in the mumm/ . and that is the ver/ sou" of the Confucian s/stem. it %as not #/ order of TsJin hMh2%an&. The "ast thin& I sha"" mention is the different attitude of Confucius and the un& phi"osophers in re&ard to divination. and. for it is one of the &reat o#stac"es to the pro&ress of civi"isation. If so.encius did fifteen centuries #efore. Instead of this. It interrupts the free thou&ht of the peop"e. >hen Confucius "ived. It interferes %ith commercia" enterprise. if %e ta$e for &ranted the statements of the Kia-yü. to no sma"" extent. %ater. then. and that he himse"f is %ithout faith in it. that the Chinese nation %as prepared to receive Buddhism. NextS Chapter NNI. (n o#stac"e to civi"isation—. The ancient Chinese understood #/ T‘ien either the persona" Ru"er of the %or"d. It chec$s the efforts of missionar/ Rea".C. The/ %ou"d not "i$e to ac$no%"ed&e the superstition of these much2admired men. he did %hat mi&ht to some sma"" extent have #een done #/ the un& phi"osophers. The un& phi"osophers certain"/ did not #e"ieve in the #enefits attendin& the use of the stra%s and tortoise in divinin&.com p. >ei . Chu fu2tsM said T‘ien is nothin& #ut li. The/ %ou"d have then done for the superstitious and heresies of their time %hat Confucius and . made a stand for pure doctrine and a&ainst asceticism. and he is on this account sharp"/ condemned #/ %riters of the present d/nast/. The/ %ish to vei" the %ea$nesses of the ancient sa&es. The occupation of the mind %ith materia"istic ideas and aims o#scures the spiritua" vision and appetite. and others from %hom the/ dre% ideas. part"/ from re"i&ious indifference. if the/ desired to fo""o% the examp"e of the sa&e. and formin& successive %or"ds—Resem#"ance to the theories of the Ionian phi"osophers— 1eomanc/ in the TJan& d/nast/—Rahu and Ketu—The Feng-shui s/stem &re% out of Buddhism—Native e"ement in Feng-shui—Nine fancied stars—Causes of the contour of hi""s and p"ains— tars of the six houses—Feng-shui inconsistent %ith &enuine Confucianism. CHA %as to #e compared %ith the stra%s and the tortoise for so"vin& difficu"ties in po"itics.eanin& of Lung. the >ind and >ater uperstition of the Chinese acred Texts Buddhism Index . and raised no voice a&ainst it. the modern Confucianist admits the use"essness of divination. CHK CHAPTER I. not #/ that emperor himse" Chinese&)uddhism. 8>ater8—Use of c/c"ic characters—. fire. FENG-SHUI$ OR" THE !IND AND !ATER SUPERSTITION OF THE CHINESE. But if driven c"ose"/ in ar&ument. the Tauist of the !an d/nast/. +0+R-T!IN1 can #e made p"ainer #/ investi&ation. 8Dra&on8—Names of the &eomancers— !indoo nomenc"ature—Sha-ch‘i 8Destructive vapour8—Dar$ arro%—Chen-wu. 8reasonQ8 and e"se%here he identifies li %ith k‘i. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. the/ #o%ed their heads to superstition. The Feng-shui of the Chinese deserves to #e examined. a""o%ed ido"atr/ to increase in the "and of Confucius. for he hi&h"/ venerated it. #ut from %ant of faith on the part of the peop"e. The extension of a ph/sica" phi"osoph/ %ea$ens mora" and re"i&ious sentiment. >ant of faith is the more "i$e"/ reason. or the/ %ou"d have recommended to the rei&nin& emperor that the o"d divination shou"d #e restored. I have chosen a fe% of their nove"ties and heresies for the consideration of the student of Buddhism and the other re"i&ions of China.rotectin& shie"d8—Feng-shui professed"/ #ased on the 8Boo$ of Chan&es8— . !e #e"ieved in divination #ecause of its anti:uit/ and the &reat names connected %ith it. 8vapour. in +urope. . Nothin& p. and air are creative forces. and the identification of 1od %ith reason and %ith primeva" vapour. CHD fervenc/ in ritua" and the ac:uisition of ne% spiritua" o#3ects on %hich to fix the sou"5s &aRe. The %ho"e of it %as s%ept a%a/ a#out the time of TsJin hMh2%an&. B. the fau"ts of the un& 3u are num#er"ess. and #een found %antin&. at sacred2texts. +ver/thin& can #e understood #etter #/ the #rin&in& to&ether of facts. This is practica""/ done #/ Chu fu2tsi. 8>ind8—Of Shui.BETC<. If %e are to #e"ieve the modern "iterati.)i$e credit cannot #e c"aimed for the un& phi"osophers. he practised it himse"f. It is necessar/ to do this in order to maintain the reverence accorded to the sa&es. It is said that the reason %as that the #oo$s %ere "ost %hich tau&ht the ru"es. The un& %riters do not in so man/ %ords den/ the efficac/ of divination. and in part a"so from a desire for p.

of rai"%a/s. In ten /ears the/ %i"" #e ha"f turned over. and de&radation in the socia" sca"e. if due care is ta$en #/ the &eomancer and #/ the posterit/ of the dead. or mora". a perpetua" stream of %or"d"/ honour and %ea"th ma/ #e expected to f"o% into the possession of the fami"/. If the &eomancer notices that the #end is in the east point of the horiRon. and his destin/ is affected #/ the surroundin& circumstances. %est2south2%est. 8co"d air %hich issues from the earth. yin. !ence riches and ran$ are supposed to depend on the undistur#ed f"o% of the stream %hich passes under the #rid&e in front of the tom#. The ho""o% river #ed and the variet/ of hi"" and va""e/ are caused #/ the dra&on. #e&ins at the north point. In that case the posterit/ of the dead %i"" suffer #/ a $ind of materia" necessit/. The cuttin& of a ne% road %ou"d a"ter the course of %ater. and sho%in& %hat so"id reasons there are for dis#e"ievin& the %ho"e s/stem of the &eomancers.8 (n outer %ind must not #e a""o%ed to invade the cham#er of the dead.e$in& on the south2east. (t the third division. of a road from Tientsin to the Chai2tan& coa"mines. south2east. The second term to #e exp"ained is Shui. Trace the %ater of a va""e/ to its sourceQ that is the point from %hich commences the inf"uence that contro"s human destin/.8 is the first %hich occurs. I #e&in %ith the exp"anation of terms. or north #/ %est points. If the &overnment shou"d consent to such improvements. The order of the %ords is from east to %est.. CCB . po"itica". CHT shape as it meanders throu&h a p"ain &ives evidence of this. or an/ distur#ance in the course of streams. as it does. for fear the fami"/ fortunes shou"d #e distur#ed.8 !e must #e %e"" s$i""ed in a"" the indications %hich the traditions and #oo$s of his profession sin&"e out as of importance. If there is a #end in the course of the %ater. for instance. their action ou&ht to #e accompanied #/ edicts and pu#"ications authoritative"/ condemnin& the superstition. It ma/ #e i""ustrated in this %a/. and in various %a/s affect the ca"cu"ation of the &eomancerQ and. In t%ent/ /ears or so the/ ma/ #e entire"/ turned over. 8>ind. and #e "eft as %ido%s.8 The &rave must #e carefu""/ chosen. and ma/ #e nothin& #e/ond a coarse se"fishnessQ on the other hand. Feng. On the &eomancer5s compass the t%e"ve c/c"ic characters. the/ %i"" #e &reat"/ su#3ect to diseases. and at the other the conse:uence %i"" #e that a sna$e %i"" &ro% of itse"f in the tom#. as fixed #/ the manua" of &eomanc/. The %ind %i"" #"o% into the &rave from that ho""o% and &radua""/ distur# the #ones and the coffin. The chief use of the &eomancer5s compass is to determine. #e e:ua""/ de"eteriousL The faith in +eng-shui must #e first eradicated #efore the Chinese can #e induced to "oo$ %ith favour on rai"%a/s or an/ description of ne% roads. The +eng-shui is & tom#s the %ater f"o%s from the north2%est. uch a s/stem is %e"" adapted to increase the authorit/ of the +eng-shui&sien-sheng. !i""s in horse2shoe form em#race the va""e/. sudden death. >ater at the east #/ north. and men %ithout chi"dren. %hich faces the south. %est #/ south. invo"vin& sic$ness. and is the s/m#o" of a"" exa"tation. provin&. povert/. tsu&ch‘ inha#its the tom#. These deceivers of their fe""o%2men %ho ma$e their "ivin& #/ practisin& on the superstitious tendencies of t their"ds of ancient pre3udices. )et the o#server ima&ine himse"f standin& at the #ac$ of one of those common tom#s. ma/ not a rai"%a/ cuttin&. uch a %ind is ca""ed a wa-+eng. are sometimes %antin& in care for their . It ma/ #e instructive to d%e"" for a moment on this superstition. the posterit/ of the occupant of the &rave %i"" #e thieves if poor. e"evates the $in& and the sa&e. The dra&on ma/ #e traced to its source. and so on to the south point. !ere I stopQ #ut the &eomancer does not rest ti"" he has #oxed the compass %ith a variet/ of evi"s supposed to #efa"" the possessor of an i""2chosen site for his &rave. The same chi"dren %i"" suffer misfortune if %ater f"o% past the north #/ east and %est points. and other p. and of I do not $no% ho% man/ more manifest and desira#"e improvements. for the dra&on prefers croo$ed paths. If the %ater f"o%s past a certain point of the &eomancer5s compass. wu. or south2%est points of the compass.8 is hidden. from wa. CCG ca"amities. It is o#serva#"e in the f"o% of the mountain stream. >here there are no ho""o%s it is safe to di& the &rave. tsu. socia". the e"der sons and #rothers of the deceased %i"" #ecome scattered and poor. . Riches and ran$ are attached to f"o%in& %ater. The &rave must #e chosen so that the presa&ed fate. (t the next t%o stations the specia" evi"s indicated are diso#edience and re#e""ion at the one. it is a"" important to consider the position of %ater %hen se"ectin& the site of the &rave. and ro##ed if rich. If it #e at the east2north2east. p. or 8&eomancer. the %ant of it is visited #/ a natura" retri#ution. he %i"" #e #ound to forete"" that the posterit/ of the dead %i"" #e va&a#onds. The first. the primar/ source. next on the "eft is ch‘eu. and is at the #ac$ of the tom#. The confi&uration of the earth is caused #/ the dra&on. But to proceedS the %ater #efore a tom# must #e runnin& %ater. This the/ ca"" ts‘ang-+eng. ince then the dra&on &ives prosperit/. If the mista$e in the se"ection of a &rave site "eads to povert/. Its %indin& p. or north2north2%est. and the points from %hich it starts afresh at a ne% an&"e. it is possi#"e that there ma/ #e prosperit/. accordin& to the diurna" motion of the sun and stars. CHE the esta#"ishment of the e"ectric te"e&raph at han&hai. 8ho""o%. The aim of the &eomancer is to find a spot %here the +eng. %hose shape is seen in the mountain #oundar/ cast upon the evenin& s$/. If on the northeast the/ %i"" die /oun&. in re&ard to the %ater. >ater is the e"ement in %hich the dra&on de"i&hts.para&raph continues< Behind him on the horiRon is tsu. This is a ver/ #ad si&n. Thus the fi"ia" piet/ %hich ta$es care of the tom#s of parents has a materia" re%ard. south2south2east. >ithin the "ast thirt/ /ears this pecu"iar s/stem of native 1eomanc/ B has #een made the &round for refusin& p. there is no spot %here the minds of the peop"e %i"" not #e distur#ed #/ pro3ects invo"vin& the construction of roads. or a 3unction of t%o streams on the north at tsu. that :uite as dense a c"oud of i&norance rests on China as upon +urope #efore it %as i""umined #/ the sun of Christianit/ and of modern $no%"ed&e. it causes prosperit/Q at another. north2%est. and presa&es rest"essness for the #ones of the dead and the fortunes of the "ivin&. "oss of descendants. ( &rave shou"d not have a ho""o% near it. the points of 3unction. In the va""e/ of the . Riches and ran$ f"o% "i$e %ater capricious"/ from one point to another. This %ou"d aid &reat"/ in soothin& the minds of the hosti"e and ca"min& the fears of the i&norant. The south indicates that the descendants of the dead %i"" "ead "icentious "ives. for here there is no out"et #/ %hich this pernicious %ind ma/ distur# the dead. the #ranchin& point of %ater #e at the north2east. the direction of f"o%. %hich are protected on the north side B #/ a "on& curved #an$ over&ro%n %ith &rass. are inscri#ed at e:ua" distances interspersed %ith other c/c"es. south #/ east. If. or in the contour of the earth. passes under a #rid&e in front of the &rave of the emperor -un&2"o. %i"" ensure happiness to his chi"dren. the/ not #ein& the e"dest or /oun&est. 8>ater. ma/ #e of the most favoura#"e $ind. as the &raves of the past &eneration are found ever/%here. and then pursues its %a/ do%n to%ards the p"ain of . to #e more particu"ar in detai". a"" %hich %ou"d #e of the &reatest advanta&e to the peop"e of the district. Oc. It #rin&s the evi" %ind of unhapp/ destin/ %ith specia" force upon the occupier of the tom#. it #rin&s misfortune. and.

the mora" sense a"so "ost its $eenness. This is a"so the protectin& dra&on of that tom# and of the fami"/ it represents. %hich is a f"/in& saurian.on&o"s.e$in&. man dies. The mountain chains %hich #ound the province of Chi2"i are connected %ith the . the shed of the !e#re% and (ra#ic "an&ua& . the inf"uence of the persona" idea of 1od as the actua" mora" &overnor of the %or"d. The other ma$es use of the same c/c"es in &eomanc/ to o#tain mone/ #/ forefendin& evi" and coaxin& a &ood destin/ upon him %ho pa/s the con3uror. or is connected in some ancient and un$no%n %a/ %ith the >est. It is #/ their com#inations and activities that human fate is determined. The sha does not receive a proper name. The course of the dra&on must #e in each instance examined. The dra&on ru"es the hi&h "and. is not "i$e the 1ree$ dra&on. or superintend the erection of a mound of &rass c"ods. (s the seat of empire is in . and is #/ imp"ication denied. and richesQ and his inf"uence varies accordin& as he has more of %ater. and preserve "ife.8 the sha-ch‘i. is too much hidden from vie% #/ a superstitious #e"ief in an uninte""i&ent ph/sica" retri#ution. In a >estern countr/ these superstitions %ou"d have #een c"othed in the "an&ua&e of a &racefu" m/tho"o&/. Thus the stream of prosperit/ %i"" a"%a/s f"o% continuous"/ on%ards in the histor/ of their fami"ies. #e"on&in& p. or %here it is intended to #e made. and o#scurit/. 8%ind. Divine . and %ater the "o% "and. miser/. and p. that s/stem of ma&ic and fortune2te""in& a&ainst %hich Christianit/ had to fi&ht in the da/s of !ippo"/tus and Ori&en. !e "ived nearer to the ear"/ times of the O"d Testament monotheism. )ar&e sums are spent #/ the rich in the hope of o#tainin& the #est possi#"e +eng-shui for their ancestra" tom#s. and the remainder of the end"ess "ist of native superstitions sti"" #e"ieved in in this countr/. 8to ascendQ8 cheng. or creep on the &round. 8to &o upQ8 sheng. +ven in his a&e. The/ often carr/ the thin& too emperors are #uried. CCC as are #e"ieved #/ the superstitious to contro" the acts of the fetish. The/ are he"d up to ridicu"e not uncommon"/ #/ the peop"e. %hich %as sti"" supposed to %atch over the "ast restin&2p"ace of the once mi&ht/ d/nast/ of the . In the da/s of Confucius the mora" sense %as pro#a#"/ #ri&hter than it is no%. the choice of da/s for marria&es and funera"s. and it is there the rei&nin& fami"/ resides. and %hen he rises in the air. hi&h or "o%. It is p"ain that the &eomancer5s capricious retri#ution. and it is decided #/ the direction of the %ater. if %e compare the $no%"ed&e of 1od then possessed #/ the Chinese %ith that found in the o"der c"assics. The Chinese dra&on. and the ch‘itgur of the . and especia""/ #ecause the %ord +eng. But the contour of the &round. uch investi&ations %ere made. and its office is to $eep off the north %ind. and %ater—dominate. %hether risin& or fa""in&. >hen 1od as &overnor is #anished from the %or"d.uch of the tea$ tim#er and mar#"e %as #rou&ht a%a/ to use in the ne% edifices of -uen2min&2/uen and the other p"easure &rounds of the imperia" fami"/. !e fe"t "ess than the emperors TJan& and >en >an&. The Chinese.8 The %ord means that %hich rises and is "oft/ in " tom#s are the dra&on. The e"ements—fire.8 hi&hQ8 and lung. 8the up%ard motion of steamQ8 teng. are shang. 8"unatic. In descri#in& the effect of the dra&on. %hich is #e"ieved to ensure its prosperit/.e$in&. B such as is tau&ht #/ the tom#s on the north mi&ht have a disastrous effect upon them %hi"e en3o/in& their summer retirement.8 (mon& the %ords %ith %hich it ma/ #e identified #/ et/mo"o&/.reputation. The inf"uence from the .anchurian mountains %hich crad"ed the imperia" fami"/ in the da/s of its comparative o#scurit/. The one app"ied the c/c"es of astronom/ to divination %ith the o#3ect of ma$in& &ain #/ te""in& fortunes. the #e"ief in the efficac/ of red co"our and favourite mora" sentences in $eepin& off demons. The mora" sense is deadened in this countr/ #/ the prevai"in& desire for riches and ran$Q and the mora" retri#ution %hich attends the acts of individua"s and nations. It is often the case that the care #esto%ed #/ the Chinese on the &raves of their ancestors ma/ #e "ess from respect for the deceased than from fear of i"" conse:uences to themse"ves and their descendants. In this sense it ma/ #e said that the Chinese have retro&raded in proportion as the +eng-shui and simi"ar superstitions have extended amon& them. The fa#u"ous dra&on of China is a monster %ith sca"es "i$e a crocodi"e. CCH mount. It is curious to notice that here %e have to do %ith impersona" /et "ivin& princip"es. must have most in3urious conse:uences in its manifest interference %ith the doctrine of mora" retri#ution. The hi""s %hich surround in a simi"ar %a/ the . %e are compe""ed to admit that there %as deterioration. as an assistance to them in considerin& at a distance the desira#"e or unfavoura#"e features of the site in :uestion. and remains permanent"/ %here t%o streams meet.8 The countr/ peop"e ridicu"e them as the/ stand on the &rave site to ma$e o#servations. B The &eomancer5s #oo$s sa/ that the dra&on fo""o%s the course of the %ater. The . 3ust as he chooses.8 is a"so identica" in sound %ith +eng. or of earth. >hen this princip"e invades the #od/. The/ mean here the inf"uence %hich produces happiness and miser/ #/ a capricious retri#ution mixed %ith a coarse natura" phi"osoph/. it is of the hi&hest importance not to distur# its protectin& dra&on. %hich for three centuries protected that d/nast/. #ut are perhaps much oftener inf"uenced #/ "o% motives. %ou"d chec$ the pernicious inf"uences %hich mi&ht other%ise stri$e them from the invisi#"e retri#utive po%er. and there %as "ess of superstition. %hose decrees sometimes are in harmon/ %ith the mora" sense in man. Then the/ #e&an to fear the conse:uences on themse"ves and their descendants. The third %ord I sha"" exp"ain is Lung. !e ori&inates his inf"uence %here the %ater ta$es its #e&innin&. and the ph/sica" heaven came to #e re&arded as an o#3ect of %orship. >hen hi&h "and is %antin&. The dra&on has the po%er of chec$in& it. These %a""s. securin& them freedom from povert/. for examp"e. air. 0er/ "i$e is a"" this to the astro"o&/ of the Cha"deans. trees ma$e an exce""ent shie"d a&ainst #ad inf"uence. It is of a piece %ith the "uc$ of the Chinese ca"endar. %hich #e"on&ed to the serpent fami"/. CCD %here the . sic$ness. It is more se"fish than &enerous. 8Dra&on. it %as supposed. and rise or fa"". !e can ma$e himse"f "ar&e or "itt"e. that this enem/ %ho $i""s and in3ures men is not invinci#"e. the &eomancers sa/ he can remove the 8spirit of death. ho%ever. if #e"ieved in #/ a nation. The &eomancer5s dra&on causes men5s e"evation. "on&evit/. and the most pro#a#"e cause I can name of the attri#utes of the dra&on is simi"arit/ of sound %ith %ords meanin& 8hi&h8 and 8ascend. #ut seems to #e an ori&ina" Chinese creation. earth. It is ca""ed the hi"".e$in& are the protectin& dra&on. The/ #e"ieve. !e has no %in&s. The/ therefore erected those &eomantic %a""s %hich are seen on the hi"" sides facin& north2north2east on the %a/ to !ei2"un&2tJan from . and havin& five2c"a%ed feet.anchu emperors after%ards despoi"ed the tom#s of that d/nast/. a"so 8to &o upQ8 lung. more ca"cu"atin& than spontaneous. such p. or sit on their thi&hs.8 The &eomancer ca""s a"" hi&h "and lung. It is used of mountains and of nationa" or individua" prosperit/. The sha is a ma"icious princip"e. CCF a"" "o% "and shui. or of an/ other e"ement. 8hi"".rovidence is here $ept out of vie%. or come out at evenin& %ith a "anthorn to set on the p. throu&h the mutations of "etters. The fi"ia" piet/ of China is "ess sincere than is #/ man/ supposed. and hence the se"ection of that #eautifu" va""e/ p. in re&ard to the site of the &rave of the emperor -un&2"o. *or our present purpose it is sufficient to re&ard it as pure"/ native. (s the faith in a persona" 1od &re% dim. The chains of hi""s %hich a"most encirc"e . CCA . !e %i"" #ecome the most popu"ar and #est esteemed &eomancer %ho ma$es the most cunnin& o#servations on the contour of the countr/ and the arran&ement of the streams of %ater at the spot %here the &rave is. must a"so #e considered. it is #/ a po%er he is supposed to possess of transformin& himse"f at p"easure. atheistic phi"osophers su#stitute an impersona" *ate. On p"ains the Chinese ma$e a "on& mound #ehind a tom#.

or the "ane itse"f is so ca""ed. The name of this treatise means the 8Boo$ for sha$in& the Dra&on. a temp"e.8 K‘an is the coverin& "et do%n over an ido". The ver/ name +eng-shui has in it a tin&e of !indoo notions.8 an-tsien. ho%ever. sand. The dan&erous vapour $no%n as sha-ch‘i. of a "ivin& earth. and the B"ac$ %arrior in the north.e$in& &eomancers. In the same %a/ operate inscriptions and ti&ers cut in paper.8 is erected #efore a house door. the 8"i&ht house and dar$ house. The astro"o&ica" section in the &eomancer5s #oo$s is #u"$/. But there ma/ #e some p. is a name &iven to evi" inf"uences comin& #/ a sma"" "ane in front of a door. mountains. and it is thou&ht to #e so usefu" that near"/ ever/ "ane in . 8( shrine for Buddha. that the professor of ti-li proceeds in searchin& for %hat he ca""s the 8true dra&on8 in each case. (s in heaven. ü is the 8chariot8 in %hich man is #orne. yinchai. or "oam. Oc. 8This stone from TJai2shan dares to resist8@ is supposed to constitute a sufficient #arrier. .8 Kiang-t‘ai-kung-tsai-tsï-pe-wu-king-kü. ome adopt the !indoo nomenc"ature. It is not so %e"" $no%n as it shou"d #e. that &reat centre of ancient civi"isation %hich deserved sti"" more than +&/pt to #e ca""ed 8. The expression k1an-yü is a"so used. for the/ suppose them mova#"e@ &ive the mountains their form. To oppose the #ad inf"uences trave""in& a"on& a "ane to%ards an open door. and has in it Buddhist. (mon& inscriptions over a door of &reat efficac/ is one in honour of Kian& TJai2$un&. On account of its c"assica" authorit/ and repute. and the entrance to a "ane. uch are pa&odas and temp"es. and man/ methods are emp"o/ed to save the house from the un%e"come intrusion. pro#a#"/ propa&ated from the >est throu&h Centra" (sia. to #e found rather in the Han-lung-king and such %or$s %hich are of modern date. t%o streets crossin&. p. 8ho"e8 or 8ho""o%.8 It is of the "ast centur/. CCK %indin&s of the surface in its nei&h#ourhood. (mon& other thin&s that shou"d not #e opposite to a house door are a %e"".8 8&eo&raph/. the o"d Chinese name of the mountains dividin& Thi#et from Tartar/. or 8shie"d %a"". that certain stars correspond to certain terrestria" spaces. CCE confusion hereQ for the idea of a %indin& entrance to a house arises from the desire to $eep men at a distance. extendin& a"" round unti" the vie% is #ounded #/ hi""s or the horiRon. erected on the roof. It is a s/stem %hich has #een in course of formation since the !an d/nast/. The rivers form the veins and arteries. %hether stone. a name that ma/ #e trans"ated into +n&"ish #/.e$in& has its devices for preventin& strai&ht access. and on the north %orse. the corner of a %a"".8 . is p"aced opposite the entrance. as it shou"d rather #e stated. I sha"" no% sa/ a fe% %ords on the professiona" names assumed #/ the &eomancers. The rea" +eng-shui of the present &eneration is. 8air. It is possi#"e that the phrase k‘an-yü ma/ hint at this idea. Others.8 and it here represents the s$/ as a canop/ stretched over the %or"d. K%un2"un ru"es the hi""s. 8the doctrine or description of the earth. >hat astro"o&/ is %hen compared %ith astronom/.8 (s these a&ree %ith the 1ree$ doctrine of ph/sics. %e ma/ perhaps ascri#e its ori&in to 1reece or rather to Ba#/"on. the t%ent/2ei&ht Rodiaca" &roups represent the B"ue dra&on in the east. 8%aterQ8 hwo. or cit/. To #e on the east side is a"so "uc$/. a &rindstone. ang-chai. such is &eomanc/ %hen compared %ith &eo&raph/. house. name"/S—ti. Their e"ements %ere four. >hen the &eomancer ta$es his position to inspect a site for a &rave. as ti-li &eo&raphica""/ and &eomantica""/ is of earth. so it is supposed to #e in the "imited horiRon of %hich the centre is the re:uired site. the Chinese pro#a#"/ resided for a time #efore proceedin& to ta$e possession of their present home.other of the sciences.o"e star ru"es the stars. and to ma$e a "imit #et%een %hat is pu#"ic and %hat is private. as the . The %ho"e is ima&ined to #e so "i$e the heavens. as %e"" as demons. It is this %hich is feared %hen a ying-pei.8 yü as 8earth. (nother term re:uirin& exp"anation is sha-ch‘i.8 to &eo&raph/ and the earth. that the earth moves. The/ ca"" themse"ves professors of ti-li. are content %ith simp"/ ca""in& them &ood and evi" princip"es. a hero of the Chen d/nast/—8Kian& TJai2$un& is hereQ there is then no fear. %hat are indeed possi#"/. The Buddhist !indoos in China tau&ht the Indian natura" phi"osoph/. &od of %ar. ( stone arro% is a"so emp"o/ed for a simi"ar purpose. if this #e true. and mountains are a protectin& shie"d to #ui"din&s and &raves. CCT In re&ard to the ori&in and histor/ of +eng-shui. and ma$e the umeru mountain the centre of the mountain and river s/stem of the %or"d. its et/mo"o&ica" e:uiva"ents.8 This name is in contrast %ith tien-wen. Tauist. and the mountains the #ones. On this are founded methods for see$in& &ood fortune and avoidin& i"". The/ accepted the no#"e idea. But to #e on the %est is #ad. 8astronom/. +ver/ house entrance in . The carvin& of the a#ove sentence ?meanin&. mi&ht enter #/ an unprotected door. and the/ form to&ether a $ind of terrestria" s$e"eton. It is usua" to carve stone pi""ars emp"o/ed as chenwu %ith the %ords Tai-shah-shï-kan-tang. the Red #ird in the south. It is the #ac$#one from %hich the other mountain chains proceed. ome Buddhist structures are #ui"t to act as chen-wu.e$in& is thus defended. that in China in the !an d/nast/ a &"eam of true "i&ht shone on the minds of some of the "iterati in re&ard to the s/stem of the %or"d. constitute the conste""ations %hich encirc"e it as the stars do the po"e. #ecause TJai2shan is the most honoura#"e of mountains. ha"f astro"o&ica" and ha"f &eomantic. carved %ith characters indicatin& the capa#i"it/ of resistance. %here a rude s/stem of nature is traced #/ means of a c/c"e of ei&ht e"ements. %hi"e the heavens are at rest. %ho o#3ect to offer su &reat a concession to the forei&n doctrine of Buddhist #oo$s./tha&oras. or. a stone "ion on a pi""ar. 8chariot. The #est exp"anation of this phrase seems to #e that %hich represents k‘an as 8heaven. It is #e"ieved to #e a defence a&ainst the 8dar$ arro%8 of the ma"i&nant demon. The 8secret arro%.8 %hich means the description of heaven astronomica""/ and astro"o&ica""/.8 each has its +eng-shui.a"to&ether to a more primitive and prosaic t/pe than the 1ree$ race. Buddhist and native. earth. On the north side of these mountains. 8fireQ8 +eng. "a$es.8 The p. )et us #e&in %ith the Buddhist. The/ te"" us that the stars shinin& do%n ?or comin& do%n. thunder. and the same chain has a"%a/s ta$en a prominent p"ace in their notions of &eo&raph/. 8earthQ8 shui. This and simi"ar 8protectin& shie"ds8 are termed chen-wu. The path must %ind. !ence the app"ication of the yü. To have a temp"e #ehind a house is a most favoura#"e si&n. prefer to assi&n this honour to K%un2"un. It is in accordance %ith this s/stem. and exercise ru"e over them. the >hite ti&er in the %est. It professes to #e #ased on the i-king. causin& various ca"amities. ever/ fortune2te""er natura""/ c"aims that his ru"es find their ori&in here. as in the phrase Fo-k‘an. he fixes upon a spot %hich is ca""ed hiue. had discip"es even so far a%a/ as China. a fe% notes here appended ma/ #e found usefu" in the a#sence of minute information on an o#scure su#3ect. and Confucian e"ements. inc"udin& heaven. (mon& thin&s that protect a house and its inmates is a "itt"e ima&e of K%an2ti. This is a favourite name on the si&n#oards of .

fire. The emite and the #e"iever in the Bi#"e vie% the events of creation and of universa" nature as caused #/ 1od."ato. B/ their interaction the %or"d is formed. then ta$es the form of %ater. and mix (nd nourish a"" thin&s. Tha"es of . and as harmonisin& %ith the teachin&s of re"i&ion. %ho "ived B. ocrates. and fina""/ thro%s off #oth its thic$ portions to #ecome earth. destro/ed. !ere the %ind is seen as a &reat creatin& a&enc/. and /e e"ements the e"dest #irth Of nature5s %om#. #ut #/ a #"ind /et retri#utive necessit/. AGG. %hen the/ spea$ of c"imate. The sea is said to have #een formed #/ the mi&ht/ %inds of heaven #"o%in& upon the earth ti"" the/ du& in it a vast ho""o%. accepts the resu"ts of science as safe and &enuine additions to our $no%"ed&e. It a"so is the human sou". comin& after ocrates and . %ho. !erac"itus of +phesus #e"ieved the one princip"e %hich under"ies a"" phenomena to #e fire. Out of %ater ever/thin& is derived. in ascri#in& the !indoo phi"osoph/ of the e"ements to the Ionian schoo" for its &erm. "et /our cease"ess chan&e 0ar/ to /our &reat . The e"ementa" phi"osoph/ of the ancient !indoos cou"d not #e scientific. to ima&ine %here he cou"d not discover. after%ards fire. that in :uaternion run. %hen convinced of their truth. the Indian kalpas. he"d that %ater is the ori&in of thin&s. B )et it #e o#served that a"" these phi"osophers re&arded matter as the cause of a"" thin&s. CFG discoursed on the e"ements. astronom/. No more do the/ resem#"e . #/ evo"ution from fireQ not made #/ 1od or #/ man. cience comes into the fie"d of nature.un3a# %as ru"ed for a "on& period #/ 1ree$ $in&s. The kalpas are terminated #/ one or other of these po%erfu" e"ementa" forces.8 The heaven of Brahma is said to have #een formed #/ %ind #"o%in& on %ater.a$er sti"" ne% praise. This air he thou&ht to #e eterna". and out of it formed the pa"ace of Brahma.8 %as used #/ them for air. %hich exhi#ited in a#undance the most #eautifu" com#inations of the precious meta"s and stones of ever/ $ind $no%n to man. Peno. %as re&arded as the source of the %or"d. and from the earth %ere formed the heaven"/ #odies. %ho extended their in:uiries into the %or"d of mind. This fire is a rationa" inte""i&ence contro""in& the universe. and of the %ind area %ith the fire area. (naximander of . and (ristot"e. Thus fire %or$s destruction no hi&her than to the paradise ca""ed Kwang-yin& t‘ien. There does not seem much dan&er. !ence %e "earn %h/ p. in %hich &re% up of itse"f a vast mass of moist matter.i"ton said ?for in his time the 1ree$ doctrine of the e"ements %as sti"" undistur#ed in +urope@— 8(ir. then. and ph/sics. The/ "ived t%o centuries #efore (naxa&oras. of the %ind area %ith the earth area. CFB of %ater. ome of the most pro"ific . *n&impersonal&actor is the aspect in %hich each of the four e"ements is re&arded #/ the !indoo phi"osoph/ of nature. and its rarer parts to #ecome air. not #/ a conscious %i"". the +eng-shui of the Chinese ma/ #e traced to the ear"/ 1ree$ phi"osoph/ as one of its causes. !e therefore %i""in&"/ adopted that vie% of nature—pro#a#"/ in its ori&in 1ree$. The air acts #/ motion impressed on it from eternit/. !e a"so he"d %ith !erac"itus and %ith the !indoos. In this %as p"aced an immense co""ection p. The secret sou" of the %or"d %hich causes its various phenomena is a princip"e of harmon/. >ith the +astern (siatics it is different. "ivin& ear"/ enou&h to #e the contemporar/ of some of them.i"etus %as a friend of Tha"es. (ir made dense &ave #irth to the earth. comes into #ein& %hen the primar/ su#stance passes from the state of fire into that of air. nor cou"d it #ase its s/stem of nature on a series of patient o#servations. I sha"" here mention B that the/ spea$ of %hite c"ouds as havin& in them more of the e"ement of earth. and %ater have "oca" "imits in the Buddhist universe. and tau&ht a s/stem in %hich either mind in the a#stract. one of the four e"ements. !e %as content. and it %as here that man/ of the Buddhist #oo$s %ere %ritten. It %as under the inf"uence of such a phi"osoph/ that . The Christian #e"iever. chan&ed. a"%a/s ca"" it 8air and %ater. and rene%ed. CFC the doctrine of the four e"ements %as so extensive"/ tau&ht #/ the Buddhists in Chinese "iterature of that re"i&ion.C. architecture. 8%ind. founder of the toics. It is interestin& to note the resem#"ances #et%een the !indoo ph/sica" s/stem of the %or"d and that of the Ionian phi"osophers. and tau&ht that the/ formed a"" thin&s #/ concurrence %ith homo&eneous partic"es a"read/ existin&. The effect of ("exander5s con:uest %as fe"t in India in ne% vie%s communicated on mathematics. The universe. . !e he"d the e"ements of the %or"d to #e simp"e and unchan&ea#"e. It %as not in the capacit/ of the !indoo to underta$e such in:uiries. (naximenes said that the ph/sica" princip"e %hich ori&inates nature is air. To i""ustrate the %a/ in %hich the o"d !indoo phi"osophers p.>riters on India te"" us that the natives of that countr/. CFH this. Thunder the/ #e"ieve to #e caused #/ the meetin& in the c"ouds of the %ind area %ith the %ater area. of #"ac$ c"ouds as havin& more of %ater. and finds out %hat are the second causes operatin& to produce o#served phenomena.8 B ince then the Chinese %ord +eng. This accords %e"" %ith the superficia" vie% of natura" phenomena ta$en #/ the +astern (siatic mind. of red as havin& more of fire. %hich sett"ed itse"f in its #ed and #ecame the ocean.i"etus. he said. and a"" the e"ements ma/ #e reso"ved into p. and to it ever/thin& u"timate"/ returns. each has its sphere and its period of efficienc/. that the %or"d passes throu&h successive periods of deca/ and reformation. formed a s/stem of his o%n #ased on num#ers. On this a&ain the %ind #"e%. and of /e""o% as havin& more of air. or 1od. %ent hac$ to that princip"e of the Ionian phi"osoph/ %hich finds the ori&in of the universe in ph/sica" e"ements. causin& in it a"ternate rarefaction and compression. The %or"d is formed. that is to sa/. he tau&ht. it is hi&h"/ pro#a#"e that the !indoo ph/sics have somethin& to do %ith the ori&in of the name #/ %hich the Chinese &eomantic doctrine is $no%n. 8The heaven of #ri&htness and sound. (ccordin& to this vie%. Durin& the three centuries #efore the #irth of Christ the re&ion of the ./tha&oras."ato.8 H o a"so %ith the other e"ements.erpetua" circ"e mu"tiform. and u"timate"/ Ba#/"onian—%hich made of the four e"ements as man/ active po%ers contro""ed in their %or$in&. . Ca"amities caused #/ %ind. then.

8 It has t%e"ve characteristics. Dia&rams in accordance %ith these indications are &iven of nei&h#ourin& hi""s %hich are supposed to exert a correspondin& inf"uence on a &rave accordin& to their shape. (s a further proof of !indoo inf"uence on the Chinese mind in the formation of the circ"e of ideas $no%n as the +eng-shui. ho""o%in& into caves. the %riter of the %or$ ca""ed Han-lung-king &oes on to descri#e minute"/ the inf"uence of the nine stars. This ma/ #e made. "i$e the other stars. it is evident that the/ have #orro%ed from India. The earth and %ater re&ions have each a dra&on to ta$e care of them. it #ecomes a cast net. The strai&ht indicates a#sence of one2sidedness. ancient"/ $no%n as the an2$un&. The other characteristics are the appearance of #ein& read/ to fa"" over. strai&ht. #ecause the/ are a""ied to the e"ement of fire. to denote the &enius of the ascendin& and descendin& nodes of the moon5s or#it. %ithout pureness and honour. Instead of "ime2p"aster. The mixin& of Indian %ith Chinese ideas produced #oth the un& phi"osoph/ H p. %hich has #een chief"/ deve"oped in the present d/nast/. croo$ed. can detect the presence of this inf"uence in the contour of hi""s. The round is comp"ete on a"" sides. In accordance %ith this vie% +eng-shui as no% #e"ieved is a ver/ modern thin&. in castin& the horoscope is common to China and India. CFA a"" the advanta&es deriva#"e from the covetous %o"f. Then a"so from the mention in #oo$s of &eomanc/ of the umeru mountain as the centre of the %or"d. >ith p. t‘ien-wen.8 Nine shapes in hi""s mar$ its presence. The first is Tan-lang.8 The form "oved #/ this spirit is f"at at the top and s:uare on the sides. %hich move throu&h the atmosphere and cause prosperit/ and adversit/ to men. The %riter adds in the rou&h poetr/ of #oo$s such as this. The &rave shou"d #e deep and narro%Q deep for dar$ness.8 #e"on&s to the e"ement of %ater."ace it in the tom# to i""uminate the path of the spirits. #ecause its shape parta$es of a spotted and mixed nature. #ro$en. . . The fourth star. %ou"d attain to the three hi&hest. I Kien. These appearances a"" prove the presence of the 8covetous %o"f. not $no%in& that pure and chaste desires are sti"" more important. Be"o% the surface t%e"ve feet is the "imit of earth. must here #e referred to.8 1reat door. (fter a #rief a""usion to the north star and the chief northern conste""ations. and ti-li. and so on. (fter this a fe% %ords must #e added respectin& the mora" or Confucian e"ement in the +eng-shui. The Chinese are fond of materia"ism. Of these five are "uc$/ and seven un"uc$/. It has. and &eomanc/ %ere deve"oped. >en2chI. !is friend to"d him of a Buddhist priest of the cit/ of !%an&2cheu. or inf"uences. a c/"indrica" #od/ "i$e a drum.8 Lung-kia. and su#se:uent to the spread in the countr/ of !indoo thou&ht. as the &eomancers ca"" themse"ves.e"t iron into the shape of co%s and pi&sQ the/ %i"" $eep the t%o dra&ons in su#3ection. >ood is the prevai"in& e"ement. Bactria. )oo$in& at the dia&ram on"/. #ecause the/ are hot #/ nature. Do not p"ace orpiment or arsenic in the tom#.8 The second movin& star is Chü-men. so far as it is ph/sica". If a trench #e of ordinar/ "imits. The five2toed appearance is represented in the map as sometimes three or four toed. it is the sna$e properQ if thic$er. It %as for such portions of Buddhist teachin& that the Chinese mind had a specia" affinit/. to inc"ude astro"o&/ and the doctrine of starr/ inf"uences and the e"ements as tau&ht in the native Chinese "iterature. ("" this ma/ #e descri#ed as the Tauist part of the +eng-shui. >hen a hi"" presents the appearance of a s:uare or trapeRium %ith the upper "ine horiRonta". Do not p"ace &o"d in the tom#. >hat %onder if the/ proceeded to supp"ement their s/stem #/ the materia"istic phi"osoph/ of the IoniansL The/ %ere p"eased %ith a cosmo&on/ %hich had no recourse to the doctrine of a Creator. CFF .en sa/ the covetous %o"f is &ood. ma/ #e mentioned the names Rahu B and Ketu. in certain circumstances. %hen a#out to #ur/ his %ife. it %as an ascetic mora"it/. the phenomenon is caused #/ the presence of this inf"uence. The "uc$/ are pointed.para&raph continues< . round. The &rave shou"d therefore #e t%ent/2four feet deep. There are a"so other modifications. turned over. and at the #ottom it spreads into five #ranches "i$e the toes of the human feet. mooth and c"ean 3ade2stone has the po%er to harmonise the hundred spirits of nature. and narro% for securit/. no person. It "oves the shape of the sna$e %hen seen movin& %ith three or four #ends of the #od/.8 The prevai"in& e"ement is %ood. 8Ran$ preserved. a mushroom shaped out"ine. connectin& three points of the horiRon a hundred and t%ent/ de&rees apart. it is a caterpi""arQ if sti"" %ider.roper"/ it shou"d #e a ma"i&nant star. astro"o&/. p. )et the &rass and trees on the tom# #e %ithered and not fresh. in the other case in t%e"ve. The dra&on revea"s himse"f in the one case in six /ears. %ho $ne% ho% to connect the affairs of men %ith those of demons and spirits. &ives the contro" of troops or of "iterar/ examinations. The &eomancers profess to attend . such as the chief ma&istrac/ of cities of the second and third ran$s. and sma"". The f"at is perfect"/ "eve" "i$e a "/in& si"$%orm. +arth is the ru"in& e"ement. an officia" of hi&h ran$. The pointed is shaped "i$e a #am#oo sprout. even if he ac:uired ran$. The !indoo Buddhists %ho tau&ht in China #rou&ht %ith them the %ho"e educationa" s/stem of their time. The fo""o%in& account of %hat too$ p"ace in the ei&hth centur/ %i"" i""ustrate the inf"uence of Buddhism on the &eomanc/ of that time. 8Covetous %o"f. Then fo""o%ed the materia"istic phase. f"at. the presentation of a precipitous c"iff. 8. (s ha$/amuni tau&ht Buddhism. and are either "uc$/ or ma"i&nant accordin& to circumstances. The nine fancied stars %hich move a#out in the air. Do not p"ace earthen%are pitchers in the tom#. But it is a#"e to adapt itse"f to conditions %hich secure &ood "uc$. ("so the use of the trian&"e. !is fo""o%ers soon &ave it a decided"/ metaph/sica" cast. use starch. the reader sees a conica" hi"" or e"evation. . of the #rea$in& off of a %atercourse.ersia. The/ form an extensive portion of the &eomancer5s s/stem of fo""ies. >hen thin. The third star is Lu-tsun. one2sided.un3a# and its nei&h#ourhood durin& the 1ree$ domination over . I no% proceed to the native e"ement in the +eng-shui. a norma" and severa" occasiona" shapes. The 8. 8)iterar/ %indin&s. and a series of four or five conica" hi""s presented in ha"f profi"e. "est it shou"d #ecome an e"f. CFD and the modern +eng-shui. Its favourite shape has a f"at top. the spirit5s path is not tran:ui". in:uired of a friend ho% he shou"d construct the &rave %ith re&ard to its mound and "imits. The un"uc$/ are not in the midd"e. precipitous.en of the Dra&on. It causes men to attain the "o%er ran$s of promotion. and a part of North2%estern India. and empt/.arthia. and. and the effect of the examp"e of distin&uished Confucianists in encoura&in& popu"ar superstition on this su#3ect. and e"even feet "o%er is the commencement of %ater. %hen ma&ic. In it %as inc"uded much #e"on&in& to the three #ranches of superstition 3ust mentioned.%riters of this re"i&ion resided in the .

8. %hen see$in& for a "uc$/ ho""o%. The demon ma/ affect an/ one of the nine starsQ and. H. Upon hi&h hi""s the ce"estia" essence of these stars co""ects. the traces of horses5 hoofs. In 3ud&in& of the hi"" shapes that #e"on& to this star. in front hi&h. Round O#"on&. the 8 ix pa"aces. I can ma$e nothin& of itQ I need some e"evation to &uide me in the dia&nosis of the nei&h#ourhood. ca""ed Lu-+u. round Round head. in formin& %hich severa" cones of e:ua" hei&ht are seen in para""e" ro%s. Its po%er is formed #/ the descendin& inf"uence of the 8Three terraces.8 The ei&hth star. and the correspondin& &enius in front of it is ca""ed kwan. ru&&ed hei&hts. there of a s%a""o%5s nest. it "oves to #e. /ou find. The ninth star. eu-pi. Tso-+u. It is round at the top and #road at the #ottom. movin& :uare Conica" +"ement. Does not the %etness come from an unusua" f"o% of %aterL >hen the %ater disappears. . he perceives not that to decide so hasti"/ is most un%ise. B. it is eas/ to mista$e the demon for the dra&on. The dra&on ma$es the ho""o%. "on& #od/ ("ive. 8+mperor5s throne. and hence the differences in opinion #et%een &eomancers respectin& the characteristics of the same spot or re&ion. Ras&*lgethi. This is considered to #e an indication of the #est $ind of dra&on inf"uence. for here passes some %ater channe".8 is referred to meta". The norma" shape is that of three round2headed cones.oon distur#er.8 !e for&ets that %ater f"o%s not on"/ do%n a hi"" #ut even on a p"ain. The aid of this star is said to #e particu"ar"/ va"ua#"e in cases of dou#tfu" +eng-shui. It ru"es even surfaces. It is therefore ca""ed in-yau. 8)esser "i&ht. The fau"t is fata". The ima&inations of the &eomancers "ead them a"so to fanc/ the appearance in roc$/ out"ine of the tortoise and the serpent &uardin& some "itt"e mountain &or&e. and %hich is scarce"/ visi#"e to the e/e. T‘ai-yang. It ma/ #e said &enera""/ in re&ard to the nine ste""ar inf"uences that. and ca""ed it Red f"a& and 8Bri""iant vapour. The Ri&ht assistant "oves this state of dou#t. and there a han&in& "anthornQ these effects of starr/ inf"uence point out the true nature of the desired 8ho""o%8 ?hiue@. CFK to the points of #endin& in the sna$e. 8!idden &"or/.8 Lo.i"itar/ %indin&s. It %ou"d #e of "itt"e use to fo""o% the Chinese &eomancers further into the "uc$/ and un"uc$/ effects of these stars. for examp"e.8 !au-tien.urp"e vapour.8 San-t‘ai. croo$ed. #ut in certain circumstances it ma/ #ecome hi&h"/ servicea#"e for ac:uirin& riches and ran$. 8. and the strin&s of the "/re are presided over #/ this star.8 Or the t/ro in the m/steries of the +eng-shui fo""/ ma/ sa/. It "i$es a "oft/ position. and in see$in& it the correct indications of the dra&on5s action must #e fo""o%ed.8 Ki. The fifth star is Lien-cheng. F. A. #ecause these indicate the "ine of %ater2f"o% and of the dra&on5s inf"uence. Consider %hat stars it corresponds to in the s$/. here a p"ou&hshare. the spoon #ein& "i$e the tai" of the 1reat Bear. One form it assumes is that of the 8Dra&on to%er. here the appearance of a #reast. Be"o% it has u&"/2"oo$in& points "i$e spear points. Fu ?the ei&hth@ and !i are t%o stars seen near d in !ercu"es. round. One inch is enou&h for the true 8discerner of the dra&on. 8Ri&ht assistant. On account of their proximit/ to the throne. croo$ed.8 ue-pu.p.8 It is a"so fond of narro% threads and dim vesti&es of thin&s. and #ecomes formed into six terrestria" or atmospheric stars. as there is the fourfo"d form. %hich is a conica" e"evation. or rather the 8 even stars. in their entireness. this p"ace %i"" #e soon as dr/ as those %hich are hi&her.a"ace of precious thin&s. 8. D.eta" >ood >ater +arth *ire Name.eta" . 8. 8officer. (nother is that of the 8. three pairs of stars in our 1reat Bear. *"atness is its favourite p. and an inverted 8pa"m.8 chang ?pa"m of the hand@. The sixth star is 5u-chü. overtoppin& a"" #eside it. the spider5s thread. CFT characteristic.8 au-k‘i. The uns$i""ed &eomancer %i"" sa/.8 *oo" that he is. 81reat "i&ht8 T‘ai-yin. The sna$e creepin& throu&h &rass. the fish "eapin& on sand.ersons seein& these conc"ude too hasti"/ that this star is ma"i&nant and un"uc$/. %ho &ives shape to the conste""ations of astronom/. >here hi""s #rea$ off and &ive p"ace to the p"ain. CDG . an inverted 8spoon8 ?sho@. there a com#. ca""ed #/ the Chinese Ti-tso. #ehind "o%. here the turned2up hand. s:uare. 8This is a "eve" p"ain. there ma/ #e thirt/2six shapes to #e considered. 8. !o-kiun. 8This &round is %et. This is specia""/ the case %hen the shape o#served is that of an inverted spoon. and strai&ht. The ancients hi&h"/ va"ued it. p. The demon and the dra&on are #oth in the ha#it of assumin& the shape of an inverted 8dust2pan8 ?ki@.urit/ and upri&htness.8 has no fixed shape.8 Its e"ement is meta". It "i$es that %hich is ha"f rea" and ha"f unrea". If the/ turn their #ac$s to it. 1enera""/ spea$in& the "oca"it/ of the demon is #ehind the 8&rave site8 ?hiue@. hape. um#re""a fo"ds.8 Lung-leu. it is assumed that these stars confer honour on men #/ their inf"uence if happi"/ directed. Its norma" shape is that of a head %ith a nap$in %rapped round it. It has one norma" and four pecu"iar shapes. -ou must not #ur/ /our dead here. 8Brea$er of the pha"anx. The s$i"" of the &eomancer is disp"a/ed in distin&uishin& the appearances. 8Net.8 usua""/ ca""ed !e-teu.8 and #/ +uropean astronomers. seen one risin& a#ove another "i$e the fo"ds of a f"a& %hen carried #/ a person %a"$in&.8 Tsï-k‘i. C. and the shape of a f"attened #a"". T(R O* T!+ IN !OU + .8 The/ are a"" min&"ed %ith the inf"uences of the five e"ements.8 Its e"ement is fire. 8)eft assistant. it is a "uc$/ si&n.8 is under the inf"uence of the e"ement of meta". the dra&on of prosperit/ %i"" not ta$e up his p"ace there. It is so. their division of hi""s into 8ma"e8 ? hiung@ and p. sa/s the manua". there the spear or "ance. . and that there is a difference of "eve" there."an. CFE The seventh star. "i$e a #e"" or an inverted coo$in&2pan.8 If the demon and the &enius of office "oo$ at the tom# site. Its e"ement is %ater. This star is a servant to the &reat dra&on.

into 8patriarch8 ?tsu@ and 8sma"" hi""s8 ?siau-+eng@. #ecause fi"ia" piet/ re:uires it. not $no%in& %here his father5s &rave p. #/ the examp"e of the sa&es. and a main cause of his ascendanc/ over the "iterar/ c"ass. uch d/in& instructions as these have #een carefu""/ preserved #/ the Chinese "iterati. Choose m/ #ur/in& p"ace %here the earth /ie"ds no food for man. in streets. It %ou"d #e a use"ess expense to conve/ the #od/ to a distance. and into 8#ranches8 ?chï@ and 8stems8 ?kan@. The freedom of Confucius from superstition is one of the #est proofs of the &reatness of his mind. This %or$ is a Buddhist c/c"op=dia of the TJan& d/nast/. and prevented the extension of its soporific inf"uence over the %ho"e nation. chap. #ut these are not man/. that Confucius himse"f #e"ieved at a"" in an/ of the nonsense connected %ith &eomanc/ is ver/ difficu"t. It is said in the #io&raph/ of the sa&e #/ M2ma Chien that. The/ are ashamed of it. The remainin& e"ement in +eng-shui %hich no% comes to #e considered is mora". #ut a"" those star &enii and demons of the imperia" ca"endar %hich are popu"ar"/ #e"ieved to #e in perpetua" movement in peop"e5s houses. i. These "itt"e incidents seem to sho% that he had no notion of &eomanc/.8 Others have said. . 8If a man dies on the hi""s. But perhaps the %ho"e structure is so f"ims/ that it %i"" fa"" of itse"f. tau&ht 3ust such a phi"osoph/ of nature as mi&ht &ive ori&in to the more modern vie%s of the &eomancers.8 This %as said %ith a vie% to econom/. *or the same reason another noted person of the !an period ordered his son to #ur/ him %ithout a coffin in a &rave du& in the &round. ho%ever. if invisi#"e. and the common peop"e found their "ast restin&2p"ace in the p"ain.para&raph continues< 8fema"e8 ?ts‘ï@. (stro"o&/ and a"chem/ %ere then in their &"or/. %hich is essentia" to the Buddhist metemps/chosis. and others. 8I have #een of no #enefit to man$ind %hi"e "ivin&. There %as no thou&ht then of the course of %ater f"o%in& past the tom#.artin5s =n+luence&o+&Tropical&Climates&on&9uropeans. CCGSB In outhern China this #an$ is carried around the north. It %as then that the ha#it #e&an in China of re&ardin& the stars as mova#"e #ein&s re&u"atin& the affairs of $in&doms. %ithout specia" effort to #rin& a#out its extinction. The former of these inf"uenced &eomanc/ and encoura&ed popu"ar #e"ief in movin& starr/ inf"uences. ma/ #e assi&ned to the same ori&in. CCFSB ee +ssa/ #/ Rev. . %e ou&ht to find on this &round a fast friend in the true fo""o%er of Confucius. It %ou"d not #e offensive to the true Confucianist. !ence. The/ on"/ comp"/ %ith it from an un%i""in&ness to act contrar/ to custom. the/ are identified #/ the &eomancers %ith the seven stars of the 1reat Bear and t%o nei&h#ourin& stars. and in the air. he in:uired of the mother of a friend. #ecause the ancients did not.. The choice of a &rave is to #e made in accordance %ith the ru"es of &eomanc/. and individua"s. CDH of the Chinese. there cou"d #e no harm done #/ a studied attac$ on the %ho"e s/stem of &eomanc/ in a #oo$ prepared for the . it is said. CDB %as. In ar&uin& a&ainst +eng-shui and the other superstitions p. To prove. chap. The "iterati have thus #een $ept in an independent and se"f2 sustained position. In the Li-ki it is said of Confucius that he %as at first un%i""in& to ma$e a mound over the &rave. These men. %ho fe"t that the/ %ere more in accordance %ith true %isdom than the fo""ies %hich after%ards &re% into vo&ue. iv. The Chinese +eng-shui ma/ #e ca""ed 8&eomanc/. Considerin& that the en"i&htened Chinese are thus disposed. and have not #ecome :uite over%he"med #/ this intrusive forei&n e"ement. )earnin& from her the "oca"it/. If he dies in the "o%"ands. Thou&h the names of the nine stars are ne%. and vi&our to those parts of nature to %hich the/ attach themse"ves. and over his &rave the vi""a&ers %ere to #e a""o%ed to p"ou&h and so% as of o"d. +nou&h has #een said. and it %ou"d afford opportunit/ to teach much &ood phi"osoph/ and truer vie%s of nature than those to %hich the/ have #een accustomed. %ithout monument or stone of an/ $ind. "et him #e #uried in the "o%"ands. -ates. This %ho"e doctrine of starr/ inf"uences ma/ #e readi"/ traced #ac$ to the s/stem of the Tauists in the !an period. ma/ #e appea"ed to in aid of our opposition to the +eng-shui. )et me not in3ure them %hen I am dead. Dr. %ithout "a/in& sie&e to it or directin& the ordnance of ar&ument a&ainst it. !is utterances on the dan&er of excessive reverence to the kwei-shen have #een a #arrier a&ainst Buddhism. #ut the person "eft in char&e of this dut/ soon came to the sa&e to announce in an a&itated manner that rain had fa""en and reduced the mound to a "eve". Footnotes CHKSB 1eomanc/ is proper"/ divination #/ means of "ines or points dra%n on the earth. The &reat minds amon& them avoid even the appearance of comp"iance. character. Confucius re&retted that he had a""o%ed himse"f to depart from primitive simp"icit/. In ear"/ times it %as enou&h for emperors to #e #uried on hi&h mountains under a "ar&e mound. to &ive form. The/ move up and do%n in the ether of space. Not on"/ the ima&inar/ stars of the &eomancers must #e traced to the !an period. CFGSH Fa-yuen-chu-lin. >ith him ever/thin& must &ive %a/ to mora" considerations. the scions of scho"ar"/ fami"ies and students %ho have read extensive"/ are trained in a schoo" of ideas anta&onistic to superstition. %hi"e feudator/ princes %ere content %ith hi""oc$s.e2/an&. #ut fu"" data on this point are %antin&. therefore. and cause it to disappear as a thin& of dar$ness. "et him #e #uried on the hi""s. The/ diso%n it if #rou&ht in ar&ument to c"ose :uarters. east. he #uried his mother there. CFGSB Fa-yuen-chu-lin. >ei . !%ai (n2tsM. (n ancient said. and are either visi#"e as individua" stars. In the TJan& d/nast/ a hi&h officer &ave directions that he shou"d #e #uried in a p"ain manner.o2tsM. The shinin& of true science ma/ pa"e its ineffectua" fire. cities. CCTSB ee ir 4ames . and it is sanctioned.8 #ecause it divines #/ means of "ines noticed in the shape of streams and hi""s. *rom %hence came that astro"o&/L The ans%er shou"d #e from >estern (sia and India. or. and that he "oved simp"icit/. traverse the %or"d each %ith an e"ementa" force of its o%n. and %est sides. CCHSB This is the karma. The/ sho% the proper standpoint of the &enuine Confucianist. (t "ast he consented to carr/ out the su&&estion.

8 an-+u. a&reein& as the/ did in a #e"ief in a %or"d of happiness and of miser/ for man$ind after the present p. It %as the era %hen !iuen2tsan& %ent to India. Both Buddhism and Christianit/ came from the >estQ and it %ou"d #e for the Nestorians difficu"t to maintain the mutua" independence of the t%o re"i&ions. CFFSB In Chinese.rotestants have in "ater times thou&ht of adoptin&. %as an exception. the famous 3ud&e of the un& d/nast/—The un& phi"osophers encoura&ed the popu"ar #e"ief in future retri#ution—This prepares for Christianit/— T‘ient‘ang. The poets and critics of the TJan& d/nast/ %ere conscious of &reat o#"i&ations to Buddhism. CDC CHAPTER II. and %as the chief a&ent in teachin& the future state and the superiorit/ of the monastic "ife as a means of su#duin& the passions. has some "i&ht thro%n on it #/ an incident in the "ife of . The inf"uence of Buddhism is distinct"/ seen in the dictionaries of the time. and the sett"ement of the "a%s of poetr/ conse:uent on that discover/. 8heaven8—Defects of this term—#ing-kung. in the discover/ of the four tones.para&raph continues< Christian 8mon$s8 %ere ca""ed seng. sho%s that no scrup"e %as fe"t #/ the first Christian missionaries in China in adoptin& man/ Buddhist terms. into +uropean accounts of the re"i&ion of this part of the . >+ teach the Chinese the Christian re"i&ion #/ means of their o%n "an&ua&e. 8devi".8 is naraka—Ten 3ud&es of he""—(mon& them . Buddhist . !e adopted a Buddhist priest5s dress and shaved his head. Buddhism throve in the TJan& d/nast/.erhaps the Nestorian priests adopted and retained the Buddhist costume in ordinar/ "ife. from the a "imit sanga. in the s/""a#ic spe""in&. 8assem#"/Q8 a 8monaster/8 is ca""ed sï. But after ma$in& tria" for a time of this costume he chan&ed it for that of the Confucianists. (. and made scarce"/ an/ decisive and persistent effort to chec$ the spread of popu"ar faith in that re"i&ion. as it %as %orn in the . CDF . Trans"ations from anscrit %ere made %ith extreme care. as names for 8heaven8—Buddhist paradises possi#"/ #orro%ed from >estern (sia or some other countr/ farther %est—Redemption—Ti2tsan& and K%an2/in—. at sacred2texts. (. That re"i&ion %as much favoured at court. KEB—#o. BUDDHIST PHRASEOLOGY IN RELATION TO CHRISTIAN TEACHING.CFHSB mith5s $ictionary&o+&-reek&and&Roman&(iography&and&#ythology. 8he"". Lo-heu for—Instruction—+ffect of sin—Decreed for&iveness to penitents— ecret merit—!appiness and merit confounded— in and miser/ confounded—I""ustration from the narrative of a Christian convert.8 This is the common %ord used in mo-kwei. %hich is the anscrit %ord for 8&o%n. NextS Chapter NNII.D. >hi"e some %riters attac$ the Chinese for #e"iefs %hich the/ do not ho"d. The /rian inscription. and adopted terms from the professors of that re"i&ion %hich indicate a more extensive princip"e of imitation than either the Roman Catho"ics or the . The t%ent/2ei&ht conste""ations of the Chinese Rodiac %ere identified %ith the !indoo 6akshatras in the !an d/nast/. >e have &iven up the %ord (on7es. as the Roman Catho"ics do no% %ith the Confucianist.8 p. It is not uncommon for doctrines to #e attri#uted to the Chinese as a nation %hich on"/ #e"on& to a particu"ar modern sect of the "iterati. o in co""o:uia" +n&"ish.atthe% Ricci.D. % Use of Buddhist terms in the Nestorian inscription. Both name and #ein& are of !indoo ori&inQ the 8de"usions of the devi"8 are ca""ed mo-wang. The /rian Christians extended their missions in China at a time %hen Buddhism %as in the ascendant. The reason is found in the popu"arit/ of Buddhism in the capita" of China in the time of the Nestorian missionaries. 8demonQ8 in anscrit.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon.hraseo"o&/ in Re"ation to Christian Teachin& acred Texts Buddhism Index . and received from the "iterati a hi&h "iterar/ finish. !is 3ourne/ %as an instance of the depth of re"i&ious faith %hich characterised the Chinese fo""o%ers of 1autama in his a&e. %e ca"" the Buddhist mon$s Buddhist priests. The 8ship of merc/8 conve/s the faithfu" discip"es across the sea to heaven..BETC<. . !e"" is ca""ed 8pa"ace of dar$ness. the 4apanese term introduced #/ . as the Buddhists do. mara—Ti-yü. CDD "ife. . The %ord seng. Buddhism %as ver/ po%erfu" in the court. The fact that the Nestorian mon$s ca""ed themse"ves seng. as #/ the Chinese BuddhistsQ a 8mon$5s ro#e8 is ca""ed kia-sha. for 8priest. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. and it a"so secured an immense increase of popu"arit/ to the ideas of his sect. KEB.8 the/ pro#a#"/ too$ to #e an exact e:uiva"ent of their Chinese&)uddhism. in his Chen&. Oc. and reserved their o%n ceremonia" ro#es for specia" occasions. The ship is ts‘ï-hang: 8heaven8 is ming-kung: p. and the &enera" adoption of !indoo phrases and terms in the "an&ua&e. such an examination of the modern native phi"osoph/ mi&ht prove usefu". and in their voca#u"ar/ of re"i&ious terms man/ %ords and phrases of Buddhist ori&in have come into common d/nast/. and profound"/ inf"uenced the "iterature. !an -I. >e find there mo. CFFSH It %ou"d #e interestin& to trace the effect of 1ree$ and Indian materia"istic phi"osoph/ on the formation of the modern Chinese cosmo&on/.ortu&uese and other Romish missionaries.

and that %e have #orro%ed from the Buddhists. KEB is an-+u. and that %e must share in the same condemnation %hich the adherents of that re"i&ion have had to endure. The Roman Catho"ics have done #etter to ca"" their 8mon$s8 sieu-shï. of the un& d/nast/. of theft. %as hospita#"/ entertained #/ the ma&istrate of the hien cit/ of !iau2fen&. No modern Christian #oo$s p"ace he"" under&round. It is one of the primitive identities. .8 %hen his thou&hts and "an&ua&e f"o% free"/ and #eautifu""/. But if not instructed. spea$ 3o$in&"/. %hen visitin& TJien2mu shan. %ho died (. and oxen. The ce"e#rated 3ud&e . CDK (nother common Buddhist expression is. 8demoniaca" fi"m or hindrance. and each form of sin. yin-sï. It is p"ura" as much as sin&u"ar. The main idea is often that of causin& trou#"e #/ possession. 8a demon enterin&. that the/ encoura&e the peop"e to have in temp"es the horri#"/ &rotes:ue and a"armin& mode"s in c"a/ of future punishment %hich %e see there. The/ %a&e %ar a&ainst Buddhism.8 p"aces of punishment underneath the %or"d of men. The Buddhists are not no% %afted to a proud position #/ the &a"es of popu"ar app"auseQ and sti"" "ess in the present d/nast/. in the vicinit/ of !an&2cheu. 8death. p. Sieu is 8cu"tivate mora" virtuesQ8 shï. *urther. These vie%s are #rou&ht into connection %ith 8possession. In the consent of the &overnin& c"ass to those popu"ar representations of he"" %hich %e see painted %ith charcoa" on the %hite %a""s of temp"es.8 8personQ8 nü is 8%oman. the popu"ar notion of he"" in China has #een formed chief"/ #/ the preva"ent representations of the ten tri#una"s seen in temp"es and in the üli ?pro#a#"/ (. yin-kien.8 is a phrase %hich is :uite common"/ used to express the idea. >ei -uen in Hai-kwo-t‘u-chï. sheep. The demon of an&er prompts to sin in ever/ case of sinfu" an&er. or formed %ith mou"ded and painted fi&ures of c"a/.8 8to #e deadened to. and pro#a#"/ actua" 3ud&es of a#out the same period. the/ %i"". Those %ho &uard %ritten characters from desecration en3o/ honours and %ea"th. The %ord is formed from the root mar.%or"d.8 and is an (r/an personification of death. the ?p"ace of hidden 3ud&ment@. ( %riter is free from the mo-chang.8 Times have chan&ed. CDA %ith them. and ni-ku or ni-seng. in adoptin& the Buddhist &ar#. The incendiar/ is #ound #/ a chain to a hot c/"inder. 6an-mo or nan-kwei are common examp"es of the %a/ in %hich 8demons causin& trou#"e8 is expressed. in ancient or modern times. are ver/ modern. >hi"e the "iterar/ c"ass do not #e"ieve in heaven or in he"". The authors %ho have reasoned a&ainst Christianit/ on the &round of the identit/ of the doctrine of he"" #ein& much the same in the t%o re"i&ions. Those %ho %aste &rains of rice and mi""et are seen chan&ed into horses. or a scho"ar %ho cannot cease from stud/. ho%ever. The rest are a"" Chinese. rather than to st/"e them seng or ho-shang. an opium smo$er %ho is under the dominion of his ha#it. The/ are su#se:uent to the teachin& of the metemps/chosis in China. is the fifth of the ten 3ud&es. and meanin& the same as yin-+u. yin-+u. future retri#ution is a po%erfu" en&ine for &ood. ince the un& d/nast/. that the visi#"e universe #ein& to the Chinese consciousness in t%o parts. %hich he c"asps %ith his arms and "e&sQ f"ames are #ein& poured forth from the top and sides of the c/"inder. %hi"e our %ord for the p"ace of punishment is a"%a/s sin&u"ar. the 8devi". I %i"" #e&in %ith mo. the appointment of "oca" ma&istrates for the invisi#"e %or"d. that it a&rees %ith our %ord 8he""8 in #ein& a p"ace of punishmentQ and. The %ords used for 8he""8 in our trans"ations of the Bi#"e are yin-+u ?the hidden pa"ace@. of drun$enness. %ou"d the 4esuit &ain an/ advanta&e #/ fo""o%in& the examp"e of Ricci %hi"e he %as in outh China. The o#3ections to its use are &reat. some%hat ne&"i&ent +n&"ish. B/ the Buddhists the maras are re&arded as a $in& %ith a host of fo""o%ers. un& d/nast/ emperors %ere the first to practise.D. ta$en a%a/ from the hi"" fort at the mouth of the Corean river. and it finds its p"ace in our catechisms. The "ate Dr. It misp"aces the "oca"it/. In the course of conversation he as$ed his host %hat he expected %ou"d #e his "ot in the future state. o of "ust. CDE from the Buddhism of the time. uch persons are possessed #/ a demon %ho is ca""ed kwei. as %e $no% #/ their surnames. 8scho"ar. To ca"" them priests at a"" is. CDT circumstance sho%s ho% the un& d/nast/ practice of canonisin& &ood ma&istrates has ta$en ho"d upon the countr/. BGAE@ and other %or$s. to distin&uish accurate"/ the pecu"iar meanin& of the %ord in the heathen re"i&ions. and character of atan. Ti-yü is never used in our trans"ations. and the $in& of Corea in his edict a&ainst Christianit/. %e no%here find the demon %or"d dissociated from the phenomenon of possession in popu"ar "an&ua&e. In Buddhist #oo$s a"" temptations are demons. The retri#ution corresponds %ith the sin and the merit in a"" cases. in Buddhist phraseo"o&/. 4u-mo. or ta$in& the form of prints in popu"ar Tauist "iterature. ti-yü. and made the peop"e thin$ a ma&istrac/ in the invisi#"e %or"d :uite as attaina#"e as a "i$e post of honour in the present state of existence. a c"ass of demons. it &ives the Confucianist occasion to sa/ that %e have #orro%ed from the Buddhists. The maras are. it must a"%a/s #e convenient to the Christian teacher to spea$ of 8he""8 as #e"on&in& to earth.. This is reco&nised #/ the &overnin& c"ass so far. BGAH. #/ the United tates nava" force %hich captured the fort e"even /ears a&o.8 are a"so thus descri#ed. The advanta&e of the emp"o/ment of this term is that it is read/ for use. yin-kien ?the dar$ %or"d@. viR. and their 8nuns8 sieunü. To Christian converts it &radua""/ assumes a Christian sense in proportion as the/ are instructed in the Bi#"ica" representations of the po%er. are so desi&nated. The natives a"so use yin-sï. In discussin& Buddhist phrases capa#"e of #ein& app"ied in Christian teachin&. The/ are not $no%n to the Brahmans. 8the a#odes of demons.edhurst. heaven and earth. at "east the recent onesQ #ut a"" missionaries use it co""o:uia""/. ho%ever. The term used for he"" in the /rian inscription (. In the hands of the mora" Chen&. 8earth5s prison. further. the/ see the advanta&e that ma/ #e derived from them in the incu"cation of virtue. and %hen ha$/amuni %as "ivin& he had successfu" contests d/nast/. 8pa"ace of dar$ness. The Christian mo-kwei& is more intense"/ %ic$ed than the Buddhist mo-kwei. a&enc/. But #oth in +urope and in (sia. !e rep"ied that he supposed he %ou"d #ecome a C‘heng-hwang-ye.8 This is in anscrit mara. dia(olus in the "iterar/ and co""o:uia" versions.D. %e see an important concession. an importunate #e&&ar %ho cannot #e &ot rid of.8 The anscrit naraka. the vie%s of the convert are Buddhistic.unishments are here depicted in the most fri&htfu" forms. This "itt"e p. in usin& phrases of this $ind. Often. so far as I $no%.8 a phrase #orro%ed p. are I Ki2/I in ing-hwan-chï-lio. To 8#ecome de"uded. . %ith 3urisdiction over particu"ar cities. . These phrases.D. #ut in the poetr/ of the Tan& and the un& d/nasties he mi&ht #e ca""ed mo.8 as seen in an intoxicated man. The use of mo has #ecome so extended that in our trans"ations of the Bi#"e it is free"/ used for the 1ree$ fqdrisik. than in the . +vident"/ it is necessar/ in usin& mo for the Christian sense. permanent"/ retained in the phraseo"o&/ of a"" re"i&ions. ( demon is hidden in ever/thin& that can cause evi" to man.

this m/tho"o&ica" creation. %ho is said to have deified Chan& -i %ith the tit"e -I2h%an& to2ti. and %ho %as carried %ith his son into Tartar/ a prisoner under the NI2chih d/nast/. In the various trans"ations of the Bi#"e. !e ma/ not have cared to contradict %hat %as to some&e8tent perhaps true. the Chinese have made a phrase of their o%n. >hat the "iterati #e"ieve in their hearts to #e a monstrous fiction. and the/ are actua""/ tau&ht a"on& %ith them. %ith arran&ements for periodica" processions throu&h the re&ion over %hich he had 3urisdiction.8 it is "imited to co""o:uia" use in Christian "iterature. That sect professes to #e"ieve in a#sorption into the a#so"ute. and %ith -I2h%an& to2ti enthroned as a 3ud&e of human actions. to fit the Buddhist notion of a paradise or pa"ace of the &ods. But the pictures of the ten he""s have come to #e more and more used. in the ear"/ part of the e"eventh centur/. 8pa"ace of heaven. !e ma/ a""ude to the modern ori&in of the Ten 3ud&es. and condemn the un& phi"osophers for their insincerit/ in a""o%in&. and the m/tho"o&/ connected %ith them received a &reat deve"opment. for the sa$e of $no%in& the &ood and #ad conduct of individua"s. The reason is not far to see$. ashamed to reco&nise them in their %ritin&s. The Buddhist trans"ators.8 (t the same time de/aloka. This %as the period p. %ith ten 3udicia" courts. 8heaven. In other %ords. It is important to note that Chu fu2tsM "ived in an a&e %hen the Tauist ima&es. This expu"sion too$ p"ace in the . in ordinar/ co""o:uia" use. 8heaven"/ ha"". %hen. Then came the time of !%ei2tsun&. t‘ien-t‘ang is never used. and its arra/ of c"a/ servitors.8 is not inappropriate for the throne2scene in the fourth chapter of the Boo$ of the Reve"ationQ #ut it is not used in the Chinese versions of the criptures. a Tauist named Tan Chi. It is possi#"e that Chu !i ma/ have fe"t that the doctrine of future retri#ution is "i$e"/ to #e true. and as the accepted expression of Chinese thou&ht. and especia""/ Chu !i. ancient and modern. CAC T‘ien-kung.8 is of course modern and su#se:uent to the spread of Buddhism. and inevita#"e. -ama is nothin&Q and for ur&in& the Chinese to accept a doctrine of he"" punishments %hich the/ teach. as restin& on the instruction of a divine aviour.8 seems to #e founded on the use of t‘ang as a 8ha""8 for ho"din& a court. #ut as a means to an end. its ma&istrate for tr/in& cases in !ades. Then %as the time a"so that TsM2h%an& shan&2ti and *en&2tu to2ti %ere made divine 3ud&es. so far from #e&innin& %ith him. the )atin deus. %hich had in the un& d/nast/ found their %a/ into the temp"es of Confucius in cities. ChJen& . 8pa"ace . The narro% "imitation of the %ord to the sense 8ha""8 is an o#3ection. CAH and a scho"ar. not as %hat the/ p. the ChJen&2h%an& miau. that the doctrine of -an& and . The anscrit de/a. %ithout an and Chen& -i2ch%en. and the Ben&a"i de(ta. The t%o #rothers. as I thin$. The e"der died the /ear #efore the -I2"i %as madeQ the /oun&er "ived for near"/ t%ent/ /ears after.None of the un& phi"osophers "ifted up a voice a&ainst it. and in the present d/nast/ the reaction a&ainst Buddhism has #een stron&er amon& the "iterati. even in co""o:uia" intercourse and in preachin&. This phrase t‘ien-t‘ang. an/ of the popu"ation %ho are fami"iar %ith the Buddhist teachin&. %hen renderin& the %ord 8&od8 used t‘ien invaria#"/.in& d/nast/. These and other 3udicia" divinities %ere e"evated to their posts %ith the assistance of the "iterar/ c"ass. CAB of the foundin& of this ne% Tauist schoo" of a future state. #ut Christians a"" fee" that the chief and prevai"in& sense is in the %ord t‘ien. )i$e ti-yü for 8he"".an/ Buddhists profess to ta$e the >estern heaven as the &oa" of their hopes.8 cho"ars not in favour of the continued existence of the sou" after death usua""/ exp"ain this a%a/. In Buddhist #oo$s. The Christian retri#ution %i"" come #efore the Chinese mind on :uite a different footin&. #ut the idea is !indoo. and the TJu2ti miau. a&ainst %hich he made no protest. thus causin& some confusion. sti"" teach as exoteric doctrine the metemps/chosis as $no%n in India. encoura&e the peop"e to #e"ieve in the rea"it/ of their 3urisdiction. !e sa% these thin&s and made no stru&&"e a&ainst the extension of superstition. ma/ #e sho%n #/ the chrono"o&/. %ith its 3udicia" apparatus. The Christian usa&e omits t‘ang as often as it admits it. #e&an rather. That I am not %ron& in imputin& to the "iterati %ho #e"on&ed to the "ater un& d/nast/. and avoid protestin& a&ainst them in their %ritin&s. The phrase is not !indoo. for 8heaven. "ived more than a centur/ #efore Chu ChM.8 #ut t‘ien-kung. %ho are. and it continued "on&. But "et us #e candid in ac$no%"ed&in& the aid %e receive from Buddhists in previous"/ spreadin& far and %ide amon& the peop"e the idea of a mora" retri#utionQ for this he"ps us to #rin& over more :uic$"/ to the understandin& of the Christian faith on this point. %ho %as the first to &ive currenc/ to the "e&end of the Ten ro/a" 3ud&es. there is scarce"/ an/ one %ho has #een #/ "ater %riters more heavi"/ condemned. This is the case even %ith sects "i$e the Sin-siu in 4apan. >hat sha"" the Christian missionar/ in these circumstances do %ith the native doctrine of retri#utionL !e %i"" assure the peop"e that there is revea"ed in the Christian criptures a retri#ution 3ust. Chu fu2tsM %itnessed a"" this and did not protest a&ainst it. is in the present d/nast/ cha""en&ed and criticised severe"/ #/ a"" independent %riters.ih %as #etter. The/ a""o%ed the up2&ro%th of the re"i&ious usa&es and arran&ements connected %ith the Tun&2/o miau. ho%ever. In this the/ set an examp"e of fa"se teachin& %hich the Confucianists %ere on"/ too read/ to accept and imitate. The author of the ü-li.8 is a"so trans"ated #/ t‘ien. the 8heaven of a deva. 8The sou" of >en >an& moves up and do%n in the presence of the +terna". if not inventin&. !is inf"uence has #een &reat. !e ma/ proceed to condemn the Buddhist a"so for teachin& that -ama is 3ud&e in the invisi#"e %or"d. p. CAG rea""/ #e"ieve. !e %as certain"/ rather fond of readin& Buddhist #oo$s. a principa" part in the encoura&ement of the popu"ar #e"ief in future retri#ution. is to #e a""o%ed on account of its mora" and po"itica" #enefits. tien2tan& is not used for 8heaven. !e sa% a"so risin& round him the nove"t/ of the ChJen&2h%an& miau. comprehensive. for heaven as a paradise. Chu !i ou&ht not to #e put for%ard as the authoritative representative of Chinese thou&htQ and some forei&n scho"ars appear to me to have erred in re&ardin& his vie%s as fina". The term t‘ien-t‘ang. In fact. have no other e:uiva"ent in Chinese than t‘ien. . )et it #e #orne in mind that in the 8Boo$ of Odes8 he approves of the renderin& in a certain %e""2$no%n passa&e. The reaction a&ainst Buddhism. and those %ho have the most a#struse notion possi#"e of the Nirv9na. +ven the most metaph/sica" Buddhists. "ived a "itt"e #efore Tan ChM. %ith the expu"sion of the ima&es of Confucius. accordin& to their o%n metaph/sics. The %orst he said of Buddhism %as. But these #e"iefs or aspirations are capa#"e of #ein& reconci"ed %ith #e"iefs in the heavens and he""s of the metemps/chosis. The/ $nee" #efore them as officers on dut/. each %ith his specia" court for the determination of the happiness or miser/ in the future state of each individua" man. ("" of these temp"es are erected to divinities %ho are supposed to dea" %ith man$ind in the future state in the %a/ of 3ust retri#ution for their crimes. and some of his %or$s are sti"" authorised schoo"2#oo$sQ #ut his authorit/ as a thin$er p. This mixture of t%o senses has "ed to the addition of t‘ang. !eaven is present to the native mind as a vast ha"" %here the Deit/ sits in ce"estia" state %ith su#ordinate divinities as his assessors.

8accumu"ation of secret merit. uch is the %a/ in %hich redemption is represented in modern Tauist %or$s. In it %e see a sort of preparation for Christianit/. 8earth5s prison.Ju2sa saves men #/ instruction. and form a stoc$ %hich ma/ #e heaped up "i$e &rain in a #arn. the utterance of the %ish is attri#uted to Ti-tsang or Kwan-yin. 8first %a$e up %ith a shoc$ from ?the de"usive dream of@ causes and effects.8 yang-kien. ma/ have come from >estern countries. CAF of uncertain date. The spirits unseen %i"" #e sure to ta$e note of it.8 The effect of Buddhist doctrine on heaven and he"" ma/ #e 3ud&ed of partia""/ #/ a statement in No. promptin& them to teach true doctrine to those %ho have &one astra/. 8#ear sufferin&8 is the idea. But it is #etter %herever %e find a mora" "ove "i$e that of Buddhism.Ju2sa for man$ind. !e is ca""ed eu-ming-kiau-chu. the #orro%in& is on the %ho"e more "i$e"/ to have #een the other %a/. not on"/ in inventin&. and is the resu"t of a determination entered on mi""ions of /ears p. and then in the Buddhist #oo$s. The Buddhist redemption is mora"Q for it inc"udes repentance. further. This #ein& so. Secret&merit. #ing-kung and t‘ien-t‘ang are #oth of them phrases formed on the !indoo notion of heaven. are a"so introduced %ithout scrup"e in these Tauist representations. (n account is there &iven #/ a convert of the Base" mission. and constitute a man5s treasure of #enefits to come. It %as either ori&inated in India after the 0edic a&e. throu&h that menta" tendenc/ %hich sometimes mixes the cause of an act %ith the event.C. and su#se:uent"/ have #een e"a#orated into the !indoo shape.8 ( curious confusion ta$es p"ace here. I notice here Ti-tsang-wang&p‘u-sa. >as not the notion of ti-yü. 8!eaven8 and 8he""8 are #oth em#raced in yin-kien. This is the effect of Buddhist teachin&."uto and the a#odes of the dead %ere re&arded #/ !omer and his contemporaries as under&round.8 ta$en to India from countries farther %estL +&/pt ma/ have #een the parent of the idea of a su#terraneous prison of the dead.8 *u"" of #enevo"ence and &race to%ards man$ind. in the district of in2an. CAA ho"din& a"oft their #anner in the path of their pi"&rima&e. %hether it %as from +&/pt."uto ?.8 In the ordinar/ use of sheu-tsui in Chinese. %e are ri&ht in pointin& out that the O"/mpus of the 1ree$ &ods. #ein& at once the enem/ of vice and the friend of virtue. and the discip"es of the Tauist sect "eadin& the sou" to that a#ode of happiness. >e find the notion in +&/pt. CAK . mi&ht #e ver/ effective"/ used as an i""ustration to descri#e the Rea" %hich Christians ou&ht to sho% in p. near p. some%here #et%een B. 8"eap out of and escape the &ate of miser/ and happinessQ8 sien-t‘sung-tsui-+u-yin-kwo-i-"an-sing-wu. and in !indoo phi"osoph/. In Chinese Buddhism. and induce them to 3oin in the march to the heaven"/ cit/.anu.8 8idea"ism. It ma/ #e dou#ted %hether this se"f2ori&inatin& "ove can "o&ica""/ #e c"aimed #/ the BuddhistsQ for the/ a"so #e"ieve in an impersona" fate %hich compe"s the succession of events 3ust as the/ happen. The pure"/ Buddhist notion of the >estern heaven. he opens a path for se"f2reformation and pardon of sins.8 %hich is found in the /rian inscription for 8heaven.@ The &od of the Tauists is represented as promu"&atin& a &racious decree.erit produces happiness. ?C. in the %a/ of fami"iarisin& the minds of the peop"e %ith phraseo"o&/ %hich ma/ #e used in descri#in& the Christian redemption in severa" particu"ars.a/a. and continued to prevai" ti"" the present time in %or$s "i$e the ü-li. 8#ri&ht pa"ace. and the !ades of . part"/ mora" and part"/ menta" ?#aya-saus. 8Teacher of the unseen %or"d.8 -ou ma/ trans"ate them either %a/Q tsui is 8miser/. The phrases here used are such as %e emp"o/ in descri#in& the Christian redemption.8 and in "ate Christian "iterature occasiona""/. EGG and B. in !indoo astronom/. The fo""o%in& passa&es occurS—T‘iau-t‘o-tsui&+u-chï-kwan.—+ach Buddha and Bodhisatt%a is a redeemer. pictured %ith #anners in their hands inscri#ed %ith the sentence tsie-yin-si-+ang. >e are #e&innin& to find out ho% fruitfu" %as the 1ree$ mind. 8a 3u&&"er. or from some other source.C.8 #ut it is a"so 8merit. The conception of 8sin8 is "ost. of miser/ and happiness. %here a Buddhist e"ement is free"/ intermin&"ed. #ut the issue of the decree of sa"vation is ascri#ed to ü-hwang&ta-ti or Tsï-hwang&shang-ti. penci" in hand. and in the readiness %hich the/ shou"d exhi#it to "oo$ out on the %a/ for the victims of sin and error. In . to remit the punishment of he"" for those %ho repent.—(n/ virtuous actions are meritorious.of the &ods. Other%ise. That &race is pit/ in the heart of Buddha. it is the Chinese +u. The traces of 1ree$ inf"uence are found in !indoo architecture. ?F. In the Buddhist #oo$s the Bodhisatt%a expresses a %ish and proceeds to accomp"ish it. on account of the simi"arit/ of the vie% he"d of the future state as &iven in Buddhist #oo$s. ( mixed m/tho"o&/ and scheme for a fictitious sa"vation had &ro%n up in the un& d/nast/. %hen the universe #ased on the metemps/chosis %as in course of construction #/ the !indoo mindQ at an/ rate %hen Chinese critics char&e Christianit/ %ith #orro%in& 8heaven and he""8 from the Buddhists. The !indoo he""s %hich are first found in the 8)a%s of . or some Bodhisatt%a such as K%an2/in. in !omer.8 a Tauist priest in front. that the resem#"ances %ith Christianit/ are most stri$in&. there is an a#so"ute certaint/ that /ou %i"" receive #enefits #/ %a/ of recompense. The invisi#"e %or"d inc"udes states of happiness as %e"" as miser/.8 8de"usion8@. %ith those found in the re"i&ious #oo$s of >estern races. and rescue from the net of the de"usions of . read/ to %rite on the head of ne% discip"es met upon the %a/ the si&n of initiation to the re"i&ious "ife. . FEG B of the 5an-kwo-kung&pau. In the ordinar/ "an&ua&e of socia" "ife. This reminds us of !omer. %h/ do the o"dest !indoo #oo$s sa/ nothin& of the 8earth prisons8 and the 8pa"aces of the &ods8L Redemption. in 1reece. 8happinessQ8 doctrina""/.oseidon@.8 +t/mo"o&ica""/. No &ood action. it seems proper to sa/. or it %as then introduced from e"se%here. to reco&nise its existence and assi&n due credit to it.@ The cause of future punishment is sin committed in the 8present "ife. CAD #efore in an ear"ier "ife.8 #ut it is a"so 8sinQ8 +u is 8happiness. DGG.8 or 8sin8 and 8virtue. I have often thou&ht that the re"i&ious pi"&rims. Therefore the name happiness is &iven to merit.8 %hich is so used. from Ba#/"on. it is either happiness or re"i&ious merit. It #rin&s the idea of &race #efore the peop"e. The anscrit %ritin& is no% admitted to #e of emitic ori&in. inc"udin& his o%n mother. and in IndiaQ #ut it is not in the 0edas. sa/s the Buddhist. in Ba#/"on. it is an/ &ood action. in !indoo arithmetic. The pa"ace of . is a &ood dea" "i$e it. %here. from the punishments in %hich the/ %i"" certain"/ #e invo"ved in the hundred and thirt/2ei&ht he""s.@ . in the e"eventh Boo$ of the . he descri#es the intervie%s of U"/sses %ith man/ of the shades of the dead. If /ou do &ood.dyssey. In the Tauist #oo$s. ho%ever. is "ost. and resem#"es ming-kung. The "ove of Buddha is se"f2prompted. #ut in communicatin& the $no%"ed&e of inventions. ?B. are more ancient conceptions than the Buddhist he""s and paradisesQ and that.@ There is the se"f2prompted pit/ of .on&o"ian Buddhism (oyin is #oth 8happiness8 and 8merit. tsui-+u means either 8miser/8 and 8happiness. ?H. I prefer some%hat the h/pothesis of >estern ori&in. 8%e %i"" "ead /ou to the >estern heaven. and %hich are intimate"/ connected %ith the metemps/chosis.8 p. !ence the phrase tsi-yin-kung.

;para&raph continues< Canton, of his persona" experience, first as a heathen and after%ards as a Christian. (fter "eadin& a disso"ute "ife for some /ears, he #e&an at the a&e of t%ent/2seven to read such #oo$s as !au-ying-lu, in-chï-wen, and Kan-ying-p‘ien. These teach future retri#ution in the most appa""in& "an&ua&e %hen descri#in& the torments of the %ic$ed, and the/ ma$e use of the most invitin& pictures of the happiness of the virtuous. !e then read a"so ü-li-ch‘au-chwen. !e sa/s re&ardin& it, that it spea$s of 8heaven,8 t‘ien-t‘ang, as a p"ace of incompara#"e &"or/, and of 8he""8 or 8earth5s prison,8 ti-yü, as the a#ode of miser/ indescri#a#"e. !e continuesS U(t this time I %as so affected #/ %hat these #oo$s said, that I fe"t m/ ver/ hair and #ones &ro% stiff %ith fear at the thou&ht of the character of m/ past "ife. Comin& to m/se"f I "oo$ed up to heaven and said, 5!o% sha"" I escape the punishment of earth5s prisonL5 ./ conscience condemned me. >a$in& and s"eepin& I cou"d &et no rest. I continued to read #oo$s exhortin& to virtue, and meditated deep"/ on them. I $ept on sa/in& to m/se"f, 5Do nothin& %ron&, #ut practice ever/ &ood deedQ5 or e"se I thou&ht in m/ innermost mind a#out the %ords, 5)ust is the most dead"/ of a"" sins, and fi"ia" piet/ the chief of a"" virtues.5 Of these %ords I made a %arnin& and a ru"e. ometimes I presented a %ritten petition to >en2ch6an& ti2$iIn, dec"arin& m/ determination to "ive virtuous"/. (t other times I made it a dai"/ ha#it to &o mornin& and evenin& to the ima&e of K%an2/in and #urn incense #efore it, at the same time readin& the 5Boo$ ?King@ of K%an2/Mn,5 and pra/in& to that divinit/ to rescue me from m/ miseries. I a"so pra/ed to !i&h !eaven, ma$in& use of four sentencesS—5I stri$e m/ head and %orship the #"ue heavenQ5 5./ ruined "ife has #een mar$ed #/ thousands and tens of thousands of sinsQ5 5I pra/ thee to have pit/ on meQ5 5I #e& for&iveness for a"" past sins.5 I %as so fu"" of a"arm, that I %as anxious to perform some meritorious act to free me from a"" m/ sins. p. CAE UOccasiona""/ a"so on returnin& home, I presented incense, and read a pra/er to the $itchen &od, and %as accustomed to ta$e the manua" for the %orship of the &od, and recite passa&es to various mem#ers of the fami"/, exhortin& them to comp"iance %ith the direction to #e ver/ reverentia" to the $itchen &od. I a"so ur&ed m/ parents to avoid eatin& #eef and do&5s f"esh, for the preservation of their &ood fortune. 8./ desire to #e virtuous &re% &reater as I o#served the cheats and craft of the %or"d, and the se"fishness and &reed of man/ persons. I %as at that time #ent on #ecomin& a &ood man, and superior to others, and so ac:uirin& a variet/ of hi&h re%ards.8 !e then proceeds to sho% that a"" this time he %as himse"f de"uded in a mu"titude of %a/s, and firm"/ #ound in the snares of i&norance, ti"", #/ the he"p of his &randmother, an o"d "ad/ of ei&ht/2seven /ears, %ho had #een for /ears an exce""ent Christian, he %as #rou&ht to the exercise of faith in Christ and !is 1ospe". Undou#ted"/ this is an examp"e extreme"/ interestin& and instructive, as sho%in& ho% the Buddhist doctrine of heaven and he"" prepares for the Christian. I proceed to detai" the steps of this man5s conversion. The o"d "ad/ had five sons, a"" of %hom, except our convert5s father and the e"dest, fo""o%ed their mother in adoptin& Christianit/. The opposition of these t%o sons to Christianit/ continued for /ears, and the %riter of the account %as #rou&ht up an un#e"iever. The &randmother, comin& one da/ to chape", s"ipped her foot, and sustained a severe in3ur/. ( Christian he"ped our convert in ta$in& care of her, and in app"/in& his medica" s$i"" to cure her. >hi"e he %as doin& this, he p"ied our convert %ith exhortations to accept the ne% doctrine. (s he spo$e of the comin& 3ud&ment, and of heaven and he"", our convert fe"t himse"f deep"/ moved. It 3ust suited his mode of fear and of "on&in&. It he"ped him to ma$e up his mind and &ive his %i"" a fixed direction, so that he /ie"ded himse"f to the p. CAT inf"uence of the ne% re"i&ion and #ecame a secret #e"iever. >hen his &randmother reiterated her earnest appea"s to him to adopt the true faith, he consented. !e sti"" fe"t, ho%ever, afraid of ca"umn/ and reproach, and confined his pra/in& to the schoo"room %here he tau&ht. (t "ast, he sa/s, he fe"t stron&er faith, %ent to 3oin in %orship at the chape", met the missionar/, and %as after%ards sound"/ chastised #/ his parents. !e %as su#se:uent"/ #aptiRed, and entered the trainin& institution of the Base" .ission. )et attention #e &iven here to the circumstance, that this man, a &enuine convert to Christianit/, had made an unsuccessfu" attempt at a mora" se"f2reformation in connection %ith the Buddhist doctrine of heaven and he"", and the mora" teachin& incu"cated in the universa""/2$no%n Tauist pu#"ications, the names of %hich he mentions in his account. The retri#ution proc"aimed #/ Buddhism "ed him to an out%ard reformation, consistin& in the a#andonment of a vicious "ife. (t this time he had a &"immerin& of certain truths, found im#edded in heathen #e"iefs. !e had the mora" intention "eadin& him to forsa$e some sins, #ut he did not achieve a satisfactor/ escape from dou#t and temptation. This cou"d on"/ #e the &ift of Christianit/Q /et, in Buddhism, he had the &uidance of a certain "i&ht %hich "ed him to #ecome a see$er for truth. Christianit/ found him not a"to&ether co"d and du"", #ut in an in:uirin& and unsatisfied attitude. !e %as "oo$in& for more "i&ht than that of Buddhism—for stron&er "ove than that of Buddhism—for a #ri&hter hope than that of Buddhism. These he found in the 1ospe". Not on"/ had the mora" teachin& of Tauist #oo$s and the Buddhist doctrine of heaven and he"" a distinct"/ percepti#"e effect in inc"inin& him stron&"/ to se"f2 reformation, #ut the ha#it of Buddhist devotion, in the form of recitin& passa&es from "itur&ica" #oo$s, and pra/ers for aid to escape from miser/, he"ped him in commencin& a :uasi2re"i&ious "ife. The petition to >en2chJan& ti2$iun, a star p. CKG &od, is a %ritten pra/er #urnt in the incense f"ame. The pra/er to K%an2/in is an appea" to the po%erfu" divinit/, %ho promises to exercise her de"iverin& po%er as a ,Ju2sa to ever/ supp"icant. The ha#it of pra/er %as a"read/ formed, %hen he %as induced #/ faithfu" Christian friends and re"atives to pra/ to the 1od revea"ed in the Bi#"e. >hen he did so, he #e&&ed the recover/ of his &randmother, in order, he adds, that she mi&ht "ead him and his fami"/ %ith her to the ha"" of %orship. !is &randmother recovered, and he fe"t that his pra/er %as ans%ered. This "ed him to &reat earnestness in pra/er and stren&th of faithQ for she %as confident that the cure too$ p"ace #/ the immediate exercise of 1od5s po%er, and in ans%er to pra/er. !is ha#it of heathen devotion %as transmuted into Christian devotion. Christianit/ ta$es man as it finds him, and ma$es him, #/ teachin& and trainin&, a servant of 1od. I do not in an/ %a/ dou#t that Buddhist doctrines have #een, for the Christian teacher, most important preparation for Christianit/Q and that, throu&h the spread of these doctrines, the Chinese peop"e "oo$ upon Christianit/ %ith much "ess stran&eness, and accept its doctrines %ith much "ess difficu"t/, than other%ise the/ %ou"d have #een a#"e to do. On the other hand, it ma/ #e said that Buddhist priests do not easi"/ #ecome convertsQ that ,o"/nesians, Ne&roes, un2.ohammedanised .a"a/s, and the mountain tri#es in Birmah and India, #ecome converts more readi"/ than the Chinese. This, perhaps, has #een so hitherto, #ut I dou#t if it %i"" #e so in the future. There have #een causes %hich have operated to chec$ the pro&ress of Christianit/ in China. The/ have #een chief"/ ori&inated #/ the Confucianists. >hen opposition from the "iterati is removed, it is surprisin& %ith %hat ease Christianit/ can #e propa&ated. One reason of this is, that the minds of the peop"e are impre&nated %ith Buddhist ideas and the "an&ua&e %ith Buddhist expressions.

Footnotes CDCSB This paper %as read in the sprin& of BEKE, #efore an association of missionaries resident in ,e$in&. CAASB ,u#"ished at han&hai, .arch BAth, BEKE.

NextS Chapter NNIII. Notice of the >u2>ei2Kiau, a Reformed Buddhist ect acred Texts Buddhism Index ,revious Next

Bu/ this Boo$ at (

Chinese&)uddhism, #/ 4oseph +d$ins, ;BETC<, at

p. CKB



NOTICE OF THE !U-!EI-KIAU" A REFORMED BUDDHIST SECT. Ori&inated t%o hundred and sevent/ /ears a&o #/ a native of han2tan&—No sho%/ ceremonia"—No ima&es— acred #oo$s six in num#er—Intervie% of the founder %ith the emperor of the period Chena te—Discussion %ith opponents—0ictor/—One of their "eaders %as crucified. INT+R ,+R +D throu&h the vi""a&e popu"ation of the eastern provinces of China are to #e found the adherents of a re"i&ion ca""ed the 5u-wei-kiau. The/ are "itt"e $no%n, usua""/ #e"on& to the "o%er ran$s of "ife, and have fe% #oo$s. Their princip"es, ho%ever, render them remar$a#"e. The/ are a $ind of reformed Buddhists. Their s/stem is more "i$e Buddhism than an/ other re"i&ion, #ut the/ are opposed to ido"atr/. The/ appear to #e stron&"/ and sincere"/ convinced of the &oodness of their opinions, and the/ ho"d %ith tenacit/ the use"essness of ima&e %orship. This circumstance has often attracted the attention of missionaries at han&hai and Nin&po, and I have thou&ht that a notice of the sect %ou"d not #e %ithout interest. This sect has existed in China for a#out t%o hundred and sevent/ /ears. Its ori&inator %as )o !%ei2nen&, a native of han2tun&. In imitation of the Buddhist tit"e tsu, he is ca""ed Lo-tsu, 8the patriarch )o.8 !is opinions have spread %ith considera#"e rapidit/ throu&h the ad3oin2provinces—Kian&2nan, Che2$ian&, and (n2h%ei, and ma/ advance farther. p. CKH The name of the sect is 5u-wei-kiau, %hich, trans"ated "itera""/, means the 8Do2nothin& sect.8 The idea intended #/ it is, that re"i&ion consists, not in ceremonies and out%ard sho%, #ut in sti""ness, in a :uiet, meditative "ife, and in an in%ard reverence for the a""2pervadin& Buddha. Buddha is #e"ieved in, #ut he is not %orshipped. There are temp"es, if the/ ma/ #e so ca""ed, #ut the/ are p"ain structures, destitute of ima&es, and havin& in them on"/ the common Chinese ta#"et to heaven, earth, $in&, parents, and teacher, as an o#3ect of reverence. The phrase %u2%ei, to 8do nothin&,8 occurs in the %ritin&s of the ear"/ Tauists, "on& #efore Buddhism appeared in China. In the 8Boo$ of Reason and 0irtue8 ? Tau-teking@, it is said #/ )au2$iInS 8The hi&hest virtue is not ?intentiona""/@ virtuous, and on this account it is ?deservin& of the name@ virtue. The "o%er sort of virtue is ?anxious@ not ?to #e@ %antin& in virtue, and therefore it is not ?true@ virtue. The hi&hest virtue does&nothing, and conse:uent"/ does not trust to ?or rest on@ an/ action. 0irtue of an inferior $ind ?anxious"/@ acts and trusts to action.8 This is the controvers/ that has #een so often raised #et%een the contemp"ative and the active man. In China Confucius and his schoo" are the advocates of activit/, and )au2tsi and his fo""o%ers of contemp"ation. These phi"osophers #oth discussed the art of &overnment, the one %ith the aid of idea"ism, the other under the &uidance of ?somethin& "i$e@ materia"ism. The phrase wu-wei is one of the %atch%ords of idea"istic and m/stica" schoo"s in ChinaQ %hi"e yeu-wei, 8action,8 a phrase of opposite si&nification, is the cr/ of s/stems %hich favour materia"ism. I &ive another :uotation. It is from the second of the &reat Tauist authors, Chwang-tsï. 8The %a/ of heaven,8 he sa/s, 8is 5not to act5 ?wu-wei@, and therein and there#/ to #e the most honoured of a"" thin&s. The %a/ of men is to act5 ?yeu-wei@, and to #e invo"ved in trou#"e.8 p. CKC >hen Buddhism entered China, a s/stem much more pure"/ idea"istic than Tauism, this phrase wu-wei %as soon reco&nised as the e:uiva"ent to the phrase hü-wu-tsimie, 8vacanc/, sti""ness, and destruction8 of that forei&n re"i&ion. The resem#"ance in princip"e #et%een Buddhism and Tauism %as in this respect too evident not to #e remar$ed. The simi"arit/ #ecame sti"" c"oser %hen the esoteric #ranch of Buddhism, esta#"ished #/ Bodhidharma, and deve"oped #/ the Chinese Buddhists %ho succeeded him, extended itse"f so much as :uite to overshado% the o"der exoteric #ranch. +xterna" Buddhism see$s after the Nirv9na, encoura&es the %orship of ima&es, appoints pra/ers for the dead, and ma$es use of much out%ard sho% to %in the mu"titude. This is yeu-wei, or 8re"iance on action.8 The m/stic Buddhists resist such a method of attainin& the ends of re"i&ion. The/ recommend 8inaction,8 or wu-wei. It is from them that the >u2%ei sect has sprun&. The name is a favourite Tauist expression, #ut the source of the re"i&ion is Buddhism. )o2tsu, the founder of this re"i&ion, %as a native of )ai2cheu fu, in han2tun&. !e %as introduced, sa/ the #oo$s of the sect, to the emperor of the .in& d/nast/ of the period Chen&2te. The fo""o%in& account is &iven of the intervie%, in the %or$ Lo-tsu-ch‘u-shï-t‘ui-+an-ping-pau-kiuen. ( hundred thousand forei&n so"diers had

invaded China, and an arm/ of ten times that num#er had #een sent out to repe" them. The arm/ fai"ed in its enterprise, and )o2tsu offered to the commander to drive #ac$ the invaders. !e shot an arro% into the air, %hen a "otus2f"o%er descended %ith a "oud noise, and the enem/ seein& it #ecame terrified and immediate"/ f"ed. The emperor %as informed of this, and )o2tsu %as ca""ed to his presence. The emperor than$ed him for his success, and as$ed him ho% he came to possess this miracu"ous po%er. )o2tsu denied havin& an/ supernatura" po%er, and attri#uted the de"iverance of the state to the protection of the dra&ons and the &ods. p. CKF ;para&raph continues< The emperor then directed him to shoot arro%s into the air, %hen a sho%er of "otus2f"o%ers appeared. The emperor %as enra&ed, and ordered him to #e imprisoned and starved to death as a sorcerer. >hi"e he "a/ in captivit/, mournin& over his fate and recitin& pra/ers to Buddha, a reve"ation seemed to dart into his mind. !e said to his 3ai"er, 8I have five #oo$s to ma$e $no%n to men.8 The 3ai"er ca""ed in Chan& Kun&2$un& to confer %ith him, %ho encoura&ed him to commit his #oo$s to %ritin&. !e therefore sent for t%o of his discip"es, *uh2hi and *uh2pau, to come from the >u2tJai mountain, %here the/ resided, to act as his amanuenses. T%o other persons, noted in the histor/ of his re"i&ion, name"/, >ei K%o2$un& and TJan& han&2shu, %ere %itnesses of the correctness of the transcript. The five %or$s %hose ori&in is thus descri#ed constitute the sacred #oo$s of the re"i&ion. The/ comprehend the fo""o%in& six su#3ectsS— B. Hing-kio-kiuen ?%hich descri#es painfu" efforts after emancipation, resu"tin& in perception of the exce""ence of this re"i&ion@, 8Chapter of the movement of the feet.8 H. T‘an-shï-kiuen, 8)ament over the %or"d.8 C. !‘o-sie-kiuen, 8Overthro% of fa"se doctrine.8 F. Cheng-sin-kiuen, 8Inc"ination of the mind to the ri&ht doctrine.8 D. T‘ai-shan-kiuen, 8Becomin& "i$e the mountain TJai2shan8 ?confirmation chapter@. A. Ts‘ing-tsing-kiuen, 8The mind and nature purified and :uieted.8 These %or$s %ere presented, continues the stor/, to the emperor, %ho reca""ed the author to his presence and received him more favoura#"/ than #efore. The three friends a#ovementioned, #ein& officers hi&h in ran$, interceded for him, and #ecame sureties for his &ood conduct. (t this 3uncture seven forei&n Buddhists arrived at court, #rin&in& a #rass Buddha as a present. )o2tsu %as appointed to ho"d a discussion %ith them. !e %as introduced p. CKD as the 5u-wei-tau-"en, 8Re"i&ious man %ho maintains the princip"e of non2action.8 The forei&n priests as$ed him %h/ he assumed this name. 8B/ means of it,8 he rep"ied, 8I sha"" #e a#"e to overturn /our #rass Buddha of three thousand pounds %ei&ht to2da/. .en do not $no% this princip"e, and therefore the/ see$ for fa"se doctrine. ./ method is c"ear and perfectQ it is suited for the %ho"e %or"d.8 To this it %as rep"ied #/ the forei&n priest, 8Do not use #oastfu" %ordsQ I can ma$e a &ourd sin$ to the #ottom of the sea and iron ton&s s%im on the surface. Can /ou do soL8 The forei&n priest expects that our hero %i"" not #e a#"e to exp"ain his ridd"e, #ut he is mista$en. ( read/ rep"/ is &iven, 8.an5s nature is "i$e the fu"" moon, %hich, %hen it emer&es from the horiRon, shines to the #ottom of the sea, across the surface, and ever/%here. To sin$ and to s%im, then, #ecome the same. >hen m/ 5nature5 ?sing@, "i$e the moon, shines #ri&ht and c"ear, m/ "ife returns to the #ottom of the sea. In the vie% of m/ spiritua" nature, #orn direct"/ from heaven, iron ma/ s%im and the &ourd ma/ sin$.8 The forei&n priest then as$ed him %h/ he did not chant #oo$s of pra/ers. !e ans%ered 8That the &reat doctrine is spontaneous, man5s nature is the same %ith heaven. The true un%ritten #oo$ is a"%a/s rotatin&. B ("" heaven and earth are repeatin& %ords of truth. The true #oo$ is not outside of man5s se"f. But the deceived are i&norant of this, and the/ therefore chant #oo$s of pra/ers. The "a% that is invisi#"e manifests itse"f spontaneous"/, and needs no #oo$. The f"o%in& of %ater, the rushin& of the %inds, constitute a &reat chant. >h/, then, recite pra/ers from #oo$sL8 The founder of the >u2%ei re"i&ion %as a&ain as$ed %h/ he did not %orship ima&es of Buddha. !e ans%ered, p. CKA ;para&raph continues< 8( #raRen Buddha me"ts, and a %ooden Buddha #urns, %hen exposed to the fire. (n earthen Buddha cannot save itse"f from %ater. It cannot save itse"fQ then ho% can it save meL In ever/ partic"e of dust there is a $in&dom ru"ed #/ Buddha. In ever/ temp"e the $in& of the "a% resides. The mountains, the rivers, and the &reat earth form Buddha5s ima&e. >h/, then, carve or mou"d an ima&eL8 I remar$ here, in passin&, that at this point %e must consider Buddha as 1od in the vie% of these re"i&ionists. !e is to them that Bein& %hose &"or/ and %hose acts are seen in ever/ o#3ect of nature. But, then, this Buddha is not a persona" #ein&, the ru"er and father of the %or"d. !e cannot #e pra/ed to. !e cannot "ove me, or #e the o#3ect of m/ "ove. >hen re"i&ionists of this c"ass sa/ the/ see Buddha ever/%here, it is on"/ the ref"ection of the thou&hts and emotions of their o%n minds that the/ refer to. (&ain he is as$ed %h/ he does not #urn incenseL !e rep"ies, 8That i&norant men do not $no% that ever/ one has incense in himse"f. >hat is true incenseL It is se"f2 &overnment, %isdom, patience, merc/, freedom from dou#ts, and $no%"ed&e. The pure doctrine of the >u2%ei is true incense, pervadin& a"" heaven and earth. Incense is ever/%here ascendin&. That incense %hich is made #/ man, the smo$e of fra&rant %oods, does not reach heaven. The %inds, c"ouds, and de% are true incense, a"%a/s sheddin& itse"f forth throu&h the successive seasons of the /ear.8 !e %as as$ed once more, 8>h/ do /ou not "i&ht cand"esL8 !e ans%ered 8That the %or"d is a cand"estic$. >ater is the oi". The s$/ is an encirc"in& shade. The sun and moon are the f"ame "i&htin& up the universe. If there is "i&ht %ithin me, it i""umines a"" heaven and earth. If m/ o%n nature #e a"%a/s #ri&ht, heaven %i"" never #ecome dar$. It %i"" then #e perceived that the $in& of the "a% is "imit"ess.8 It shou"d #e noticed that the $in& of the "a% is a personification p. CKK

of the doctrine #e"ieved. The mind ref"ects on the doctrine ti"" ima&ination pictures it to the inte""ectua" e/e as a &"orious ima&e. This is the $in& of the "a%. >hen the discussion %as over, the seven priests a"" confessed themse"ves %orsted, and #e&&ed )o2tsu to #ecome their instructor. The #oo$ adds that the emperor %as hi&h"/ p"eased, and ordered the #oo$s of )o2tsu to #e en&raved. The/ %ere pu#"ished, continues the record, in the thirteenth /ear of Chen&2te from the imperia" press, (.D. BDBE. I met recent"/ %ith a former adherent of this re"i&ion %ho is no% a Christian. !e %as #aptiRed recent"/ #/ the "ate Bishop Russe"" of Nin&po, of the Church .issionar/ ociet/. !e &ave me much information respectin& the sect to %hich he had previous"/ #e"on&ed. !e sti"" thin$s its princip"es are &ood. It en3oins virtue, and its tendencies are, he considers, of an exce""ent $ind, #ut it does not sho% how &oodness is to #e attained. !e therefore "eft it and #ecame a Christian. On as$in& him the meanin& of the discussion #efore the emperor, and if it %as not fictitious, he said that the arm/ of forei&n invaders means the sensoria" or&ans, the six thieves, as the/ are ca""ed #/ the Buddhists. The arro% shot in the air is the heart. The forei&n priests %ho oppose the true doctrine are mo-kwei, 8demons.8 This use of fiction to recommend re"i&ious do&mas is in $eepin& %ith the usua" character of the Buddhist #oo$s. Un"imited "icense is ta$en #/ the authors in inventin& a suita#"e ta#"eau of characters and scener/, in %hich the doctrines to #e tau&ht ma/ #e prominent"/ represented. T%o other persons— ing-tsu and au-tsu—have, at different periods, ta$en the "ead in this sect. -in&2tsu is said to have discoursed on +a ?dharma@ 8the "a%,8 as )o2 tsu did on king the 8#oo$s.8 There is another persona&e #eside Buddha spo$en of #/ these re"i&ionists, the Kin-mu, 81o"den mother.8 he d%e""s in a heaven ca""ed au ?to sha$e@ chu ?to d%e""@ p. CKE ;para&raph continues< $un& ?pa"ace@. ./ informant considered that she represents 1od, in the idea of this re"i&ion, more near"/ than Buddha does, #ecause she is an o#3ect of %orship. On m/ in:uirin& %h/ this divinit/ shou"d #e fema"e, he said that Kin-mu %as the mother of the sou", as the fema"e parent %as of the #od/. an&chu& kung ma/ #e 4asper pear" pa"ace. he is said to protect from various ca"amities, and is pra/ed to for de"iverance from sic$ness, and to save the deceased from miseries in the unseen %or"d. The ori&in of her name is found in the Chinese theor/ of the e"ements, amon& %hich kin, 8&o"d,8 8meta" &enera""/,8 stands first in order. This and man/ other Tauist notions are #"ended %ith Buddhist princip"es in the s/stem maintained #/ the fo""o%ers of the 5u-wei-kiau. The/ have four principa" festiva"s, of %hich t%o are to ce"e#rate the da/ of the #irth and death of )o2tsu. The others are the ne% /ear and the midd"e of the ei&hth month. On these occasions, three cups of tea and nine sma"" "oaves of #read are p"aced on the ta#"e #/ appointment of )o2tsu. The num#er nine refers to the stro$es of the pa-kwa, or 8ei&ht dia&rams,8 in %hich nine is the most fortunate num#er. The #read is ca""ed k‘ien-k‘wan, 8heaven and earth,8 a"so in imitation of the names of the ei&ht dia&rams of the 8Boo$ of Chan&es.8 The sect is sometimes ca""ed Ch‘a-kiau, 8Tea sect,8 and #an-t‘eu-kiau, 8Bread sect,8 in conse:uence of the usa&e here mentioned. These appe""ations are, ho%ever, nothin& #ut popu"ar nic$names. The/ have in their chape"s, ta#"ets to the emperor and to the five names of honour—heaven, earth, prince, parents, and teacher. The/ are strict ve&etarians, and ar&ue tenacious"/ for the metemps/chosis. The/ have no ascetic institute "i$e the Buddhists, #ut a""o% the fami"/ institution to #e undistur#ed. The/ %ere persecuted in the .in& d/nast/. One of their "eaders %as crucified #/ nai"in& on the &ate of a cit/ in hantun&. On one occasion, some persons of this sect p. CKT addressed me in a missionar/ chape" in han&hai, %ith the remar$ that their re"i&ion resem#"ed the Christian in this respect, that one of their "eaders %as crucified. The/ have not since #een su#3ected to persecution, #ut their re"i&ion is sti"" prohi#ited, and its name is found amon& those char&ed %ith teachin& depraved doctrines, in some editions of the 8 acred +dict.8 ./ informant to"d me, further, that the doctrine of the non2existence of matter is not he"d #/ this sect—thou&h it mi&ht have #een expected from their c"ose adherence to Buddhism that the/ %ou"d have maintained it—#ut that the/ simp"/ re&ard a"" materia" thin&s as perisha#"e. >hen the %or"d comes to its end, the 1o"den mother %i"" ta$e a"" her chi"dren—i,e,, a"" #e"ievers in this re"i&ion—home to the yau-chu heaven. The 5u-wei-kiau is usua""/ spo$en of #/ the Confucianists as a corrupt sect, %ith secret po"itica" desi&nsQ #ut its adherents appear at present to #e entire"/ innocent of an/ i""e&a" aims. The/ are, so far as can #e seen, intent on re"i&ious o#3ects, and sincere"/ attached to their s/stem. >e ma/ /et see man/ of them exchan&in& a#stract phi"osophica" do&mas for Christian truth. Their opposition to ido"atr/ is a preparation for Christianit/, and the/ deserve &reat attention from those %ho are en&a&ed in teachin& the Chinese the re"i&ion of the Bi#"e. The/ are ver/ determined ve&etarians. >hen the/ #ecome Christians, the/ prefer to free themse"ves from the #onda&e of the prohi#ition #/ eatin& some sma"" :uantit/ of anima" food, as a proof to others of their chan&e of re"i&ion. This is entire"/ vo"untar/ on their part. In the vicinit/ of han&hai, a fe% /ears since, this happened in the case of a f"orist and his %ife. The %ife %as a %oman of inf"uence and decision. he si&na"ised her chan&e of re"i&ion #/ invitin& friends to a feast and parta$in& in their presence of a certain portion of anima" food.

Footnotes CKDSB There is an a""usion here to the chantin& a "itur&/, as the revo"vin& common Buddhist description of preachin& Buddhist do&ma, and of the %hee" of the "a%.

#/ 4oseph +d$ins. the/ occup/ themse"ves %ith %ritin& charms for drivin& demons out of houses. ho%ever. proceedin& from the "ips of a man %ho. #ut the popu"ar taste is in favour of a &oddess rather than a &od. The/ %ere popu"ar former"/ in a sense different from that in %hich the/ are popu"ar at present. K%an2/in %as %orshipped pro#a#"/ in the !an d/nast/. The sharp e/es of the Confucianists are upon them. to cure the sic$ #/ ma&ic. In the 4u-kiau there is no one to #e compared %ith Confucius and . monasteries. that the/ #e"ieve in the ma&ica" efficac/ of Buddhist pra/ers.erc/. . #ut as #ein& "i$e the moth. The/ descri#e them as not "i$e the usefu" si"$%orm. CEB the merit #e"ieved to attach to &ifts presented for the support of mon$s. It rests rather on the supposed ma&ica" po%ers of the priests. ma/ #e ta$en as an indication that.8 In this extract. throu&h a "on& "ife.o%ers and c"aims of K%an2/in—. In "ater times it has #ecome the custom to represent K%an2/in fre:uent"/ as a %oman. K%an2/in %as represented as a man. he %i""—"i$e the Buddhist mon$—hire out his services to read passa&es from the "itur&ies of his re"i&ion. to #e a#"e to do ver/ &reat thin&s.BETC<. and %ith a firm consciousness that there is nothin& so &ood for a man as to "isten to the teachin& of his o%n #etter nature. !ence the appe""ation in +n&"ish. *or these ear"/ #oo$s are p. since the t%e"fth centur/. &reat pit/Q sa"vation from miser/. The man /ou see c"aims. (ssured"/ this is not %hat ma$es Buddhism popu"ar no%. the "a% of causation %i"" &ive me #ac$ happiness— in-kwo&pu-mei. The ear"/ #oo$s of Buddhism a#ound in #eautifu" mora" precepts. CEC of the TJan& and un& d/nasties. K%an2/in is a"%a/s a man. :uic$"/ transfer the sou" of the dead to the "and of happiness on hi&h. The Tauists of the present da/ do not occup/ their attention %ith m/sterious specu"ations on the pure and the true. ( Chinese %riter sa/s in a characteristic %a/S 8The three re"i&ions differ in their doctrines.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. sa"vation from %oe. >hat has come no% of the phi"osoph/ of )au2$iIn and Ch%an& CheuL It is much too a#struse for the modern Tauist mind. or a"most never. Instead of this.opu"ar Tauism #e"ieves in haunted houses. !e %i"" protect #/ his charms the :uiet citiRen and the adventurous trave""er from a"" sorts of dan&ersQ and. %as animated #/ a pure and "oft/ asceticism. In Tauism there is no one e:ua" to )I Chun2/an&. B K%an2/in is represented as more prominent in savin& men than Buddha himse"f. BUDDHISM AND TAUISM IN THEIR POPULAR ASPECTS. -et as to the aim. /ou do not meet %ith either an a"chemist or a phi"osopher. to save man$ind. and on the %ide2spread #e"ief that such merit %i"" #e fo""o%ed #/ a"" $inds of happiness. Thus. Nor /et do the/ &ive attention to the a"chem/ p. in charms. Ta-ts‘ï&ta-pei&kieu-k‘u&kieu-nan.encius. in other %ords. the/ are at one. In a #oo$ of dra%in&s of the time of iuen2ho. ( modern chan&e has ta$en p"ace in the ima&e of K%an2/in. Buddhism and Tauism in their . !e %i"" underta$e to drive out a demon from the #od/ of a madman. It is on these accounts that mone/ f"o%s into the Buddhist treasur/ for the erection and repair of temp"es and pa&odas. usua""/ a fema"e—. %h/ is Buddhism sti"" #e"ieved #/ the peop"eL The ans%er is. The principa" dut/ of a shaven mon$ %as to exp"ain the doctrine of ha$/amuni as a de"iverance from the miser/ of " Chinese&)uddhism. read in the "itur&ica" servicesQ and as to strivin& to #e &ood.opu"ar Buddhism "oves to have pra/ers said for the dead—!opes for paradise hereafter—. %hich &ives to man the materia" of the texti"e fa#ric. K%an2/in %as introduced into Indian Buddhism not "on& #efore the Christian era. a ph/sician—Tai"2cuttin& de"usion—Tauist pra/ers for the dead—The Buddhist en-lo&wang. The histor/ of Tauism has #een simi"ar. the Buddhist mind in China de"i&hts to assi&n feminine attri#utes to . in deif/in& ideas. B. The Confucianists represent them as drones in the communit/. #/ their ma&ic po%er. the Buddhists do not act so as to indicate that this aim is vita" and vi&orous amon& them. Do%n to the ear"/ part of the t%e"fth centur/.a&ica" c"aims of the Tauists—K%an2/in. (t present the popu"arit/ of Buddhism certain"/ does not rest on an/ activit/ in expoundin& the doctrines of their faith that %e have the opportunit/ of %itnessin&. the "a% of mora" retri#ution %hich Buddhism teaches. 81reat merc/. and to #rin& rain in time of drou&ht #/ his pra/ers. %hich destro/s that fa#ric. %hi"e he shuts his ears c"ose"/ to the siren voices of a"" sins and a"" temptations. I mean their aspects at the present time. at sacred2texts. >hen /ou meet a Tauist of this &eneration.ope—The Tauist divinit/ -u2h%an& shan&2ti has incarnations assi&ned to him—Chan& ien the #o%man. K%an2/in is in mascu"ine costume in temp"es %here &reat attention is paid to precedent. 81oddess of . and %ith readin& pra/ers for the remova" of ca"amities. The popu"arit/ of Buddhism rests on its doctrine of retri#ution. The/ have ceased to experiment on the e"ixir of "ife. In Buddhism no persona&e ho"ds so "ar&e a p"ace in savin& man$ind as K%an2shM2/in. This has #een the custom for a#out six hundred /ears. in as far as the/ exercise an inf"uence on the popu"ar mind. and it is the popu"ar Buddhism of the da/.8 founded on the phrases common"/ app"ied to her. and not on its ethics—. In China. #ut %as not so popu"ar as after%ards. If I &ive mone/ to &i"d sacred ima&es. or the transmutation of a"" meta"s into &o"d. H and in the %or$s remainin& of famous painters p. on p. The/ are tin&ed %ith a proud scorn of %or"d"/ &"or/. %hich sha"". Then. and in mora" causationQ or. %hen there is mournin& in the house. and for the support of innumera#"e priests. CEG CHAPTER IV.opu"ar (spects acred Texts Buddhism Index . 81od of death8—The ei&ht &enii—The ei&hteen )o2hans—The Tauist de"usions dan&erous po"itica""/—TJien2tsin massacre—Need of the "i&ht of education—The effect of the assau"t of Christianit/ on these re"i&ions. CEH of the !an d/nast/.8 That one of the man/ metamorphoses of K%an2/in shou"d have #ecome a ver/ common—in fact the most common—ima&e of this divinit/. uch is the modern deve"opment of Buddhism. and "itur&ica" services. and the 3ud&ment the/ pass on them is unfavoura#"e. and from a haunted house.NextS Chapter NNI0.the popu"ar aspects of these t%o re"i&ions. and in the efficac/ of the %iRard in contro""in& demons—The present head of the Tauists and chief ma&ician—>ent from >estern China to Kian&2si. %here he has ever since resided as hereditar/ . preachin& %as common amon& Buddhists in the ear"/ a&es of their re"i&ion.

&ent"eness. This is founded on the metemps/chosis. the #enevo"ence of a redeemer. the &iver of sons. the &reat Tauist ma&ician. thou&h the ordinar/ cemeteries do not. much "ess thou&ht of than K%an2/in. To secure the services of the &reat Kian&2si %iRard is ver/ expensive. K%an2/in is #ut a form of Buddha. sha"" a"so secure them. 8)itur&/ for 5turnin&5 ?or &uidin&@ the coffin8 on its path to the &rave. and the triumph of a hero. and victor/—the %isdom of a phi"osopher. is a mar$ed characteristic of popu"ar Tauism. $noc$in& the %ooden fish and chantin& pra/ers. The "ion s/m#o"ises #o"dness. proper"/ spea$in&. It is interestin& in itse"f. to #ecome perfect. and the infiniteness of the $no%"ed&e and merc/ of Buddha. On"/ the %ea"th/ %ho can expend a thousand tae"s of si"ver %ithout #ein& pinched can afford the "uxur/ of fee"in& :uite sure that. and to have the po%er of aidin& themse"ves or others. ho%ever. In accordance %ith a vo% she assumes some one of her thirt/2t%o shapes. he o#tains the &reat se"f2re"iant po%er #/ %hich she can ensure that those %ho pra/ for sons and those %ho pra/ for the state of samadhi sha"" attain it. to #e a fact important in modern Buddhist histor/. The choir of priests %ie"d this po%er. he is a#"e to &ive Nirv9na to her petitioners #/ the same po%er. -et in China the funera" procession for the dead #ears man/ mar$s of Buddhist inf"uence. or for o"d a&e. &overnors. #/ the a&enc/ of this %iRard. On the ri&ht hand is another #anner ca""ed ming-tsing. . %hich imp"/ faith in the departure of the sou" to the >estern heaven. But none are so prominent.Ju2hien an e"ephant.Ju2hien and >en2shu are in the same %a/ said to #e ancient Buddhas appearin& amon& men as the t%o he"pers of ha$/amuni.riests are invited to perform a "itur&ica" service for the dead. This s/m#o"ism is. The ma&ica" po%er of Buddha ma/ exa"t a man from a #irth into he"" to a #irth into the %or"d once more. !ere Buddhism has a#andoned the "e&itimate Nirv9na of ha$/amuni. can catch demons and shut them up in 3ars.8 carried #efore a coffin in such a procession has on the top a "otus2f"o%er. the demons %ho . Be"o% the portrait is a ta#"et to #e %orshipped.8 !e &uides from earth to the >estern paradise. 4apan has #een more thorou&h"/ penetrated %ith Buddhism than China. This is expressed #/ the phrase. #/ %isdom. and that the chan&e of sex in the ima&es shou"d have #een accomp"ished %ithin the "ast fe% centuries. The %iRard himse"f is #e"ieved to #e a po%er.8 It is different in China. 8redeem from &ui"t. and to the re&ions %here &ods. the seat of %hose %orship is >o2mei shan. to protect. It is this that is meant #/ the sa"vation of men throu&h the a&enc/ of the &oddess of merc/. and those %ho pra/ for de"iverance from dan&ers.8 and the other siau2nan. and fairies reside. I have heard that at the home of this chief of %iRards on the Dra&on and Ti&er mountain in the province of Kian&2si.Ju2hien of action. caution. in the province of M2chJ%en. %hose seat of %orship is >u2tJai shan in han2si. This is Buddhist s/m#o"ism. shu-tsui. these "itur&ies are ca""ed Chwen-ts‘ai-king. demons. It spea$s of the "on&in& for a happ/ hereafter. then. #/ enterin& into a state. No such inscriptions occur in Chinese cemeteries. .8 *or a service of one da/ in the house of the dead person. is. can redeem the deceased person from the p.Ju2hien. Buddha5s po%er ma/ cause a poor man to #e #orn in the next "ife as a rich man. Chan& Tien2shM. This #e"on&s to a"" those fancied persona&es ca""ed *o and . comin& into the %or"d of sufferin& man$ind in a "o%er position than Buddha. The s%ord he %ie"ds is a po%er. The 8portrait of the dead. !aunted houses are avoided in a"" parts of China. The schoo" %hich teaches it is ca""ed that of 8The peacefu" "and. The ima&e of a *o or a . It is rather a #e"ief in the ma&ica" po%er of the Buddhist divinities and priests. No% it %i"" #e noticed here that p. and . CEF peop"e are renovated #/ the po%er of merc/. and confidence in the doctrine of retri#ution for the #esto%ment of "i#era" &ifts. and a %ei&ht/ di&nit/. there are man/ ro%s of such 3ars. even in North China. It %ou"d seem. in order more effectua""/ to instruct and save the i&norant. The peop"e #e"ieve that the priests #/ #eatin& c/m#a"s and drums. It is eas/ to understand ho% the Sung-tsï&Kwan-yin. the name tso-kung-te is used. pai-ch‘an is often used. These are intended to #e represented in the ima&es. and #e"o% three strips of c"oth. and proceeds to the various $in&doms of the %or"d to convert men. and of various ma"evo"ent spirits and demons. This is said to #e her &reat merc/ and pit/. It is so especia""/ in 4apan. The #e"ief in the existence of hermit heroes.Ju2sa is intended to com#ine in its appearance %isdom.that of merc/. K%an2/in is represented as #ein& a#"e. CED %ho st/"es one of them chan&2tsM. (mon& these representations are seen the ei&ht/2four thousand arms and hands %ith %hich she &uides the i&norant and the "ost. ("" demons fear this s%ord. ("" perfections are co""ected in the ho"/ ima&e—perfect po%er. CEK the %ooden frame "i$e a #a"dachino ho"din& the picture is Buddhist. instruct. and a fresh. ( "ar&e num#er of the inscriptions in ordinar/ cemeteries indicate that the person there #uried died in hope of #ein& ta$en to 8The peacefu" "and.8 Its o#3ect is to &ive the deceased a #etter position in the next "ife than he %ou"d other%ise en3o/. in this respect. Kin&s. Thus the hwun&+an. The/ profess to have the po%er to ch‘au-tu-ling-hwun. and save a"". To ac:uire $no%"ed&e of the emptiness of existin& thin&s is to #ecome saved. #enevo"ence. If %e %ish to &o further #ac$ and to #e sti"" more carefu" in our ana"/sis. %here Confucianism has prevented Buddhism from ta$in& a firm ho"d on the hearts of the peop"e. The "e&end of O2mi2to is connected %ith that of K%an2/in. !e %ho %ie"ds it. #raver/. The "itur&ies read are such as the Sin-king. *ive Buddhist priests and five Tauists read pra/ers at the &rave of persons %ho are rich and hi&h in office. Thus . is #e"ieved to #e"on& chief"/ to the hereditar/ chief of the Tauists.8 In China and 4apan this schoo" has a"%a/s #een a popu"ar one. to #e extricated from the thra"" of de"usion. and preferred to a""o% the peop"e5s cravin& for immorta"it/ to dominate the phi"osopher5s do&ma of a return to the a#so"ute.aradise of the >estern heaven. not exact"/ %hat excites faith and devotion in the rich supporters of the Buddhist re"i&ion. It has #een rep"aced #/ the . #ecause it exp"ains the ima&es. I %as much struc$ %hi"e in that countr/ %ith inscriptions on tom#s. from his ancestors of the !an d/nast/. &iants.-mi-to&Fo te""s of an expected paradise. 8The &uidin& Buddha. The/ are said to "ose their fear. infinite compassion. perfect virtue. and part"/ the a%a$enin& of devout fee"in&s in the minds of %orshippers. a price"ess heir"oom. and advancin& spirit. 8e"dest son. . 8save the sou".ro#a#"/ . or 8K%an2/in. The Nirv9na is too a#struse for the popu"ar faith. infinite #o"dness. In reference to use in funera" processions. he saves #/ merc/. the mission of K%an2/in is the sa"vation of men. %here his %orship most prevai"s.8 shou"d #ecome extreme"/ popu"ar. The sa"vation of man$ind #/ teachin& is a conception ver/ characteristic of Chinese Buddhism.Ju2sa. ea&er. is p"aced #eside it in %hat is ca""ed the tso-ting.8 and the Kwan-yin-king. In these shapes she enters various $in&doms as a saviour. It contains the stoo" on %hich a Buddhist mon$ sits cross"e&&ed %hen "ivin&. To expe" demons he %ie"ds the s%ord that is said to have come do%n. as K%an2/in. The efficac/ of a charm is increased #/ the supposed ma&ica" &ifts of the Tauist %iRard from %hom it is o#tained.8 This means to transfer the sou" from an undesira#"e a#ode in the next "ife to a ver/ happ/ one. These 3ars are sea"ed %ith a 8charm8 ?+u@. The po%er of expe""in& demons from haunted houses and "oca"ities. and on %hich he is p"aced sittin& in the same attitude %hen dead. ("" evi"s are summed up in i&norance. ou"s ma/ #e re2#orn in a #etter or %orse state of existence. *or a service of three da/s. It is s/m#o"ised #/ her thirt/2t%o metamorphoses. is even "ess esteemed than . to assume num#er"ess shapes for the sa$e of savin&. ("" the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as have po%ers ana"o&ous to these. *or examp"e. 8!eart c"assic. #/ utterin& charms. and infinite $no%"ed&e. The o#3ect of the ima&es is part"/ instruction. a"" of them supposed to ho"d demons in captivit/.8 >en2shu is the &od of %isdom. The doctrines tau&ht #/ K%an2/in are the non2existence of matter. ( favourite tit"e of Omi2to *o is Tsie-yin&Fo. and a& +ortiori than K%an2/in. and . that the most popu"ar of the divinities of this re"i&ion shou"d #e presented first %ith ma"e and after%ards %ith fema"e attri#utes. to #e re&arded as mascu"ine even at the present time. The e"ephant indicates care. the midd"e one of %hich contains the characters pan-yi. The charm is a po%er. >en2shu rides a "ion. perhaps. 8"itt"e #o/. on %hich are recorded the tit"es of the deceased. or 8sou"5s #anner. -et it shou"d not #e for&otten that K%an2/in is. The favourite name ?much ma/ #e "earned from favourite names@ . p. CEA punishment due to his sins.an3usiri. and su#ordinate"/ to an/ Tauist priest. It is ca""ed kung-te.an3usiri ?5en-shu@. 8merit. The feminine form is a specia""/ popu"ar metamorphosis. and p.8 shen-siang.

!e sa% T‘ien-ti. The ma&ician Chan& and the ma&ician )iu mounted dra&ons and rode up throu&h the s$/ to%ards heaven. accordin& to the one account. a 8s%ord8 ?kien@. Cheu !in& is reported to have died and risen a&ain. 8true.trou#"e them are comp"ete"/ su#3u&ated. that a ma&ician of the Chan& fami"/ %as the son of a $in& in a former kalpa. is sometimes stated as fo""o%sS—In the "atter part of the second centur/. suicide. B In the !en-hing-king of the Tauist co""ection it is said.8 In the same %a/. !e confers #uttons "i$e the emperor. Tsï-wei&ta-ti. in manipu"atin& the 8e"ixir of the dra&on and ti&er. and to command the %ind and thunder to come and &o. This persona&e assumes a state %hich mimics the imperia" re&ime.8 #ut not so hi&h as sheng. The/ %ere &reat"/ honoured #/ prince and peop"e. It %as ca""ed +u. in his capacit/ as a sort of spiritua" emperor. occasionin& a"arms %hich sometimes spread "i$e an epidemic from cit/ to cit/. and ordered him to su#due the demons of the 8 hu countr/8 ?Sï-ch‘wen@. In nine /ears he &ained the po%er to ascend to heaven and prostrate himse"f #efore the first in ran$ of the Three . ( temp"e in ChJen&2tu is said to have #een the p"ace %here )au2$iIn discoursed to Chan& Tau2"in&.8 8idea". CTH are—Hwun&+ei&ch‘ung-siau.ure Ones.8 It is hi&her than sien. dro%nin&. attained to the ran$ of the 81o"den immorta"s8 ?Kin-sien@. %hich Tauism encoura&es. The/ have simi"ar po%ers to his. CGG. #ut no detai"s remain of %hat the/ did. !e met a spirit %ho said. this fo""/ %as rife in the popu"ar #e"ief. This ma&ician or &od Chan& is to #e distin&uished from Chan& Tau2"in& as a"read/ descri#ed. !is dut/ is defined as the drivin& a%a/ and expu"sion of demons #/ charms. the charms seen pasted on the doors of houses testif/ to the dominant idea of popu"ar Tauism. The "e&end of Chan& Tau2"in&. instead of succeedin& his father. as his hereditar/ representatives. o#structed the vie% a#ove him. madness. Tsing-tsing-tsï-"an-chio-"u-lai. purp"e in co"our. for examp"e "i$e him. 8+mperor of a"" the immorta"s. The repairs of the #ui"din&s are no% near"/ comp"eted. 8immorta". ca"m. and spontaneous"/ perceivin& 4u2"ai. It ma/ #e as$ed.ope of p. is an ancient ma&ician.8 The %ord ch0n. the %ind and thunder %ere reduced to su#3ection. %hich prevent them from enterin&. head of the Tauist hierarch/ at the present time. !e %ho possesses this is ca""ed a 8True man. CTG the Tauists.ountain %here the crane sien-ho ca""s@. %as en&a&ed in the province no% ca""ed M2chJ%en in the Ho-ming&shan ?. and an/ sort of unaccounta#"e discomfort. to the ima&inar/ a&enc/ of invisi#"e and ma"evo"ent #ein&s.ure Ones.8 and 8most e"evated. and much patient endurance of in3uries. and after ei&ht hundred kalpas. that #efore the introduction of Buddhism. .8 8perfect. To su#due them is the office of the Tauist ma&ician.e2sun& mountain is a stone house %here ma/ #e found %ritin&s of the three emperors and a "itur&ica" #oo$. #ut especia""/ in the !an d/nast/. or ü-hwang&ta-ti. The residence of this %iRard is ca""ed Ch`n23`n p. !is position %i"" #e understood from this circumstance. The Chan& Tien2shM. from %hence came the %iRards and their charms. the meanin& is that he is re&arded as havin& attained perfect po%er and virtue. ancestor of the Chan& TJien2shM.D. ancestor of the . It is the heaven to %hich the sou" f"ies %hen Tauist pra/ers are supposed to he"p the dead to reach the Tauist heaven. The Tauist discip"ine &ives a man the ru"e over himse"f and over nature. !e invests them %ith certain tit"es. accidenta" death of trave""ers. The/ are to #e seen pasted on door "inte"s. 8ho"/. and to the universa" fear of demons. ("" the demons f"ed #efore him. CET charms on doors. in accordance %ith the meanin& of the ver# +u. 8The pure. to divide mountains and seas. %ho tau&ht him to %a"$ a#out amon& the stars. and has continued so ti"" no%. su#due demons #/ pastin& p. Certain"/ it is not Confucianism that maintains in ri&our this a#surd dread of evi" spirits %anderin& throu&h the air. and various divinities came %ith ea&er haste to ac$no%"ed&e their fau"ts. as #ein& a#"e to f"/. Tauism. B/ means of them he %as a#"e to f"/.en under the domination of the passions are not ca""ed Ch0n-"0n. Buddhism introduced the disuse of marria&e. In the Tsin d/nast/.8 !e du& and found them.8 lung-hu-tan.8 These passa&es are the ear"iest I have /et found &ivin& the fami"/ name Chan& to -I2ti. 81od of the stars round the north po"e. On account of the prodi&ious s"au&hter of demons #/ this hero.8 (fter a mi""ion more kalpas he #ecame -I2ti. and can. -I2h%an& shan&2ti. and Chan& &ained in the race. #ein& anterior to that much more ascetic and se"f2den/in& s/stem. B/ &ettin& these /ou ma/ ascend to heaven.8 is the emperor %ho ru"es over the presidin& &ods of a"" the stars. !is %ife #e"on&s to a Kian&2si fami"/. The ma&icians %ere in the !an d/nast/ ca""ed—not %ithout a touch of sarcasm—the 8*eathered scho"ars8 ? ü-shï@. he proceeded to fi&ht %ith the $in& of the demons. !e is said to have re"ated %hat he sa% %hen dead. if /ou pass throu&h the course of discip"ine %hich the/ en3oin. and at the same time a Buddha %ith a specia" tit"e. the occupants of the house #e"ievin& that the si&ht of the ma&ica" characters %ritten on the charm %i"" prevent evi" spirits from enterin&. and %hich are made to fit in shape one %ith another as a securit/ a&ainst imposture. and "eadin& the uninstructed popu"ace to trace fevers. "eavin& not a trace #ehind of their retreatin& footsteps. !is face %as a s:uare foot in siRe. and &ives sea"s of office to those Tauists %ho are invested. and a 8sea"8 ?yin@. %ho. Tauists come to him from various cities and temp"es to receive promotion. CEE fu. Cheu !in& %as to"d #/ those on his ri&ht and "eft. !e has a#out thirt/ persons constitutin& his courtiers and hi&h officers. )au2$iIn then came do%n to him on the ni&ht of the feast of "anterns. C"ouds. !e is chief officia" on earth of -I2h%an&2ti in heaven. and in causin& sic$ness and deathL It ma/ #e ans%ered. a&ue. addresses memoria"s to -I2ti in heaven. !e is the idea" man. 8The sou" f"ies to the hi&h firmamentQ8 Ling-t‘eng&t‘ien-kung. and their supposed po%er to su#due the #ad inf"uences of demons in distur#in& nei&h#ourhoods #/ apparitions and uncann/ noises. and as such is in the ha#it of addressin& to him 8memoria"s8 ca""ed piau. %here his descendants have ever since resided in possession of &reat honour and emo"ument. and to "eave his #od/. The popu"ar divinit/. The present occupant of the patriarchate had to f"/ at the time of the TJai2pJin& re#e""ion. Tauism in the persons of its %iRards retains marria&e. the 8!eaven"/ emperor. 8The sou" ascends to the heaven"/ pa"ace. $ne% nothin& of ce"i#ac/. %hich is represented in temp"es #/ a #ui"din& #eneath the a#ode of the Three . )au2$iIn &ave him a po%erfu" and secret 8charm8 ?lu@. 8In the . #ecause %ritten on #am#oo ta""ies such as %ere ancient"/ used #/ officers of &overnment. The person honoured %ith the credit of havin& invented the charm is Chan& Tau2"in&. and sett"ed his residence on the mountain Lunghu&shan. a 8"itur&/8 ?king@.8 The present chief %iRard is "i$e his predecessors. if he ma/ #e so ca""ed. In a"" parts of China. and their destruction #/ the ma&ic s%ord. this .8 cannot #e fu""/ trans"ated into +n&"ish in such cases as this %ithout em#racin& the ideas 8rea". CTB destro/ed. and have continued to #e so in the person of the Chan& TJien2 shM ti"" the present da/. in order to confer #"essin&s on humanit/. the %iRards stand out in their comp"eteness. dense and dar$. !e after%ards %ent east%ard. In &ivin& him the tit"e Ch0n-"0n. The expressions p. distur#in& the pu#"ic tran:ui""it/. and the temp"e %here he resides %as partia""/ p. and receivin& instructions from a certain &oddess ca""ed -I2nI.8 !is pa"ace is the -I2tsJin& $un&.8 enter the chief ha"" of his pa"ace. #ecame a hermit. In the !an d/nast/. (fter &oin& throu&h a thousand da/s of discip"ine. There %ere %iRards in the han& d/nast/. to hear distant sounds. exa"ted to this di&nit/ pro#a#"/ #/ the Tauist %riters of the TJan& d/nast/. (. 8This is the heaven"/ emperor Chan&. a 8composition in verse or measured prose8 ?kiue@.

is not used in descri#in& the services of the Tauists for the dead. %hich in &reat part consists of a monastic institute for readin& "itur&ica" #oo$s after the Buddhist fashion. (s to pra/ers for rain. >e see the effect of Buddhist and Tauist teachin& in the present race of Chinese. )i$e this Buddhist &od. is d/nast/. Then there is the tai"2cuttin&. The/ &ave attention to no severe studies. CTA of superstition and ena#"e the risin& /outh of the countr/ to avoid fa""in& into the thra"" of those de"usive ima&inations %hich have &ro%n up under the fosterin& care of the Tauists durin& the "ast t%o hundred /ears. The missionar/ and the schoo"master. mou"ded and painted in the Chinese method. he ru"es on"/ as a saviour and p. -et it is #ut one part of the popu"ar Tauism. It %as an a&e of sentimenta" fee"in&. In . The a#surd char&es #rou&ht a&ainst the mart/red isters of . +ver/ #eautifu" spot amon& "a$es. Their "ive"ihood depends on the peop"e continuin& to #e"ieve in demons. that of Nature and that of Reve"ation. consists of four m/sterious characters.opu"ar Tauism then is %orth/ of decided condemnation.present Chan& TJien2shM. are in fact correct"/ p"aced to the account of Tauism. The o#3ect of recitin& these #oo$s is to save the sou"s of the dead #/ affordin& them a speed/ ascent to the pa"ace of -I2h%an&. sentences them to punishment and has it administered after death. The epidemic of the fair/ po%der %as fata" to the peace of communities. It is a &reat misfortune for a nation to have an extensive sacerdota" caste. if he thin$s that is a safer #asis. or 8. )i TJai2pe and Tu *u &ained their fame at the same time that the sixteen. the ma&aRine and the ne%spaper. +ver/ man. ("" the ei&ht &enii %ere Tauists of the TJan& d/nast/. Dr. ho%ever. fairies. man/ centuries o"d. ( %ritten charm cur"ed up in the p"aited :ueue at the #ac$ of the head is a protective shie"d a&ainst a"" the assau"ts of %itchcraft. . The/ #e"ieve in the existence of 3ust such fairies as are said to cut off men5s :ueues. &eneration after &eneration. !e corresponds in attri#utes some%hat to Titsang-wang&p‘u-sa. %hich are a"" found in Kan&2hi5s dictionar/. and fai"ed to attain the purit/ desired. and the/ form a part of the mass of "e&end and m/th %hich the/ have unscrupu"ous"/ #orro%ed from the Buddhists. #e on"/ doin& %hat the/ %ere accustomed to do in their o%n countr/. >e must. a distin&uished ph/sician of the un& d/nast/. or #/ c"a/ ima&es. The Tauist re"i&ion especia""/ is responsi#"e for those superstitions %hich have a dan&erous character. #ut on"/ a heaven. In fact the/ have #oth. It %as 3ust the era for the "e&ends of the ei&ht &enii to sprin& into existence. #ut in the chief features it is evident"/ imitated. for the rou&h %a"" dra%in&s and c"a/ mou"din&s found in the east and %est #ui"din&s of the temp"es of Tung-yo prove it. Buddhism indeed #orro%ed from Tauism the %orship of K%an2ti. It #ears a consistent testimon/ to the vanit/ of the %or"d. %ith the ten courts of 3ud&ment %hich ru"e over the &ui"t/. in the temp"es of Tung-yo&to-ti. The phrase pai-ch‘an is used.ra/er of -I2h%an&. and carved #am#oo ornaments are never %ear/ of representin& these ei&ht persona&es. and the spread of a practica" s/stem of improved education in ChinaW Dense inte""ectua" dar$ness c"ouds the peop"e5s minds. and from the medica" divinit/ Chan& ien. %ho %as. The he"" of the Buddhists is repeated #/ the Tauists in their descriptions of the future state. In the tai"2cuttin& de"usion. used a&ainst a simi"ar de"usion in the . The/ %ere. The fair/ that cuts off hair is chec$ed and prevented #/ a charm.oetr/ %as the favourite occupation of the "iterati. %hich died out in BEKT. The manufacturers of porce"ain. )o2hans #ecame popu"ar. >hat a fie"d is here presented for the teachin& of science. *or popu"ar and for state reasons it is necessar/ to have them.8 This %ord ch‘an is Buddhist. are a"" needed to chec$ these #ad inf"uences. as it has #orro%ed from Confucianism the use of ancestra" ta#"ets for the %orship of the priests of a monaster/. It teaches the need of a persona" . and detai"in& cases of the "oss of :ueues in the ni&ht. on account of their tendenc/ to produce dan&erous tumu"ts and "amenta#"e #reaches of the peace. and the essentia" and immense superiorit/ of sou" purit/ to earth"/ &randeur. ama. Then as to the effects of Buddhism.odern Chinese art is ver/ much pervaded %ith Tauist ideas. in fact. +ver/ one %ished to #u/ one. that Buddhism #orro%ed from Tauism. But there is no room for dou#t. %aterfa""s. #u/ a charm. (mon& statements %hich I made /ears a&o and have no% to correct as imperfect or erroneous is this. is this ph/sician %ho "ived a#out seven hundred /ears a&o. %hi"e the t%o added names %ere p. CTF shares his authorit/ %ith a "ar&e &roup of inferior divinities. and as the native &ro%th of the Chinese mind. ou&ht on mora" &rounds. %ith #o% and arro% shootin& at the moon. and on the &reatest happiness princip"e itse"f. These hired men #rou&ht to the %riters of charms a &reat increase of custom. that the &enera" pro&ramme of the arran&ements of a Tauist monaster/. It is dan&erous to the state that re"i&ious teachin&s shou"d #e encoura&ed %hich tend to foster and ori&inate popu"ar de"usions entai"in& such fri&htfu" resu"ts.para&raph continues< *un&2shui. it has fo""o%ed a %ron& p"an. . are i""ustrated on the %a""s #/ rou&h paintin&s. in his "ecture on (ncestra" >orship and p. #ut %hich ma/ ver/ proper"/ #e condemned in the proc"amations of ma&istrates. But. for ever/ one ta"$ed of it. 8The &od of T‘ai-shan. The persona&e ca""ed Chan& ien. The "ove of externa" nature %as ver/ much deve"oped in the TJan& d/nast/. There are #e"iefs in the Tauist re"i&ion %hich not on"/ need to #e attac$ed #/ #oo$s %ritten from the Christian standpoint of thou&ht. %hose offices as ministers of punishment to those %ho deserve chastisement. But in foundin& on this a monastic institute. to desire the extinction of a re"i&ious s/stem %hich encoura&es dan&erous and "/in& de"usions. This forms the #asis of the Tauist he"". and mountains %as se"ected for a hermita&e or a monaster/. These )o2hans are the Buddhist e:uiva"ents of the fairies and hermits of Tauism. and rep"ace dan&erous and in3urious popu"ar notions. 8.ra/er of "oo$in& to%ard heavenQ8 another is ü-hwang-ch‘an. the/ said to themse"ves. and the popu"ar %orship. The ei&ht &enii meet us ever/%here. from ever/ Christian and ever/ en"i&htened "over of man$ind. the/ %ou"d in offerin& pra/ers for the same o#3ect. Buddhism and Tauism received a %onderfu" expansion. . The/ #e"on& to the c"ass of hermits. The sixteen %ere !indoos. -ates sa/s. it ma/ #e said to have #een &ood in some respects. %ith the occupations of the inmates. These are not. %hose interest it is to continue. in fact. the/ are essentia" in China in ever/ re"i&ion. and charms. The Tauists accept and endorse the %ho"e s/stem of popu"ar de"usion %hich ori&inated the tai"2cuttin&. a"thou&h usua""/ represented as popu"ar. that the Tauists have no he"". The Tauism of to2da/ meets us %ith this specia" characteristic. for examp"e. There must #e somethin& in it. the en-lo-wang of China. the imperia". it is rather the other %a/ in the main. the reason #ein& the same in a"" Buddhist countries. the Buddhist de"iverer from he"". in common Chinese paintin&s.e$in& "ate"/ I m/se"f heard that a %riter of charms hired men to &o a"on& the streets shoutin& to peop"e that for safet/ the/ shou"d p"ace charms in their hair. The popu"ar character of the pra/ers of the Tauists for the dead is different in some respects from the Buddhist. The/ can scarce"/ #e said to #e #orro%ed #/ an/ re"i&ion. CTD those of Chinese Buddhists. #ronRe. %hether a Christian or not. or %hi"e men %ere s"eepin& in the da/2time. The charm used in . %e are there to"d. the #e"ief in deceptive fancies %hich chec$ the free &ro%th of true ideas and a"" hea"th/ ha#its of thou&ht. The &reat nationa" poets f"ourished in the same d/nast/ as the ei&ht Tauist hermits. The %ho"e scheme of pra/ers for the dead is so. #/ hea"th/ and usefu" $no%"ed&e. to he &athered from 1od5s t%o #oo$s. and found pra/ers for rain a"read/ existin& in the Confucian. CTC . >hen therefore the !indoos and other Buddhists came to China. There is pressin& need for the extension of a s/stem of education %hich shou"d stri$e at the root p. %hatever #e his #e"ief. Tauism attempts to soothe the fears of the peop"e #/ this artifice. The/ ma$e mone/ #/ se""in& the charms %hich are represented to #e a protection a&ainst such demons. One is ca""ed Ch‘au-t‘ien-ch‘an.8 a mountain &od %ho is supposed to ru"e the under %or"d. after spreadin& over the countr/ "i$e an epidemic.erc/ in Tientsin %ere #ased on ideas %hich.e$in& a&ainst the dan&er of %a$in& %ithout a :ueue. The o"d c"assica" %ord ts‘iau. 81od of Death8 in India. %e see an examp"e of Tauist ideas. The variet/ of torments and punishments to #e inf"icted on crimina"s in the next %or"d ma/ #e seen %ith a"" the harro%in& detai"s in the temp"es of Tung-yo&to-ti. and after%ards ei&hteen.

sh. and manned #/ mu"titudes %ho are animated #/ a #e"ief in their superiorit/ and their invinci#"e stren&th.D. Our &reat contest as Christian missionaries is %ith Confucianism. and. p have #een droppedQ a"so the vo%e"s have a"" chan&ed their va"ues.8 NextS Chapter NN0.essiah5s peacefu" rei&n. "et another earnest effort #e made to destro/ the "ast and stron&est of the to%ers of the enem/. p1. the a&e of Buddhist inf"uence. Then. such as g. ho% "on& it %as since Chan& TJien2ti first received his tit"e. (mon& the prominent and most pernicious evi"s for %hich the popu"ar Buddhism of the present da/ is responsi#"e is ido"atr/. u to yeu. AG to (. and the Roman re"i&ion and po%er. ("" sonant initia"s. the mi""ions on mi""ions. These constitute three mi&ht/ fortresses. In %ords pronounced %ith the tone ca""ed hia-ping. This #e"on&s evident"/ to the TJan& d/nast/. But %e have a"so a pre"iminar/ stru&&"e %ith Buddhism and Tauism. %hen it is comp"ied %ith. and he"d fast #/ chains of spiritua" dar$ness.. a man or #ein& possessin& none of the po%ers attri#uted to him. de#ases and mis"eads the nationa" mind. It is an enormous evi" that Buddhism has p"aced the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as in the position in the reverence of the peop"e. the heart of the nation. have chan&ed in the interva" to surds.a"i #oo$s in China—The trans"ators spo$e . #ecomes a mora" dut/ on the part of the emperor or the ma&istrate. )et the Christian host of so"diers press on. ya to e. s. The/ are no% Kieu2 ?or Chieu@ mo-lo-shï. that ou&ht to #e he"d on"/ #/ the Creator and *ather of the %or"d. the trans"ator Kumara3iva %rote his name %ith four Chinese characters then ca""ed Ku-ma-la-7hip. But Buddhism and Tauism each represents a fortress %hich must a"so #e captured and destro/ed. CTE CHAPTER V. The ta$in& of this fortress is the conc"usion of the %ar. #/ puttin& for%ard the ima&e. p. ON THE USE OF SANSCRIT BY THE CHINESE BUDDHISTS. ch. But Buddhism. first to overthro% these stron&ho"ds of re#e""ion a&ainst 1odQ and %hen the/ are destro/ed. CEHSH *rom (. There is found the inte""ect. not p.D. as %e ever/ da/ see in China. (. the aspirates k1. CTK #ecause the Buddhist re"i&ion itse"f can have an/ 3ust c"aim to it. %hi"e the %ritin& tau&ht in a"" schoo"s has #een unchan&ed. renders the mind indifferent to truth. t. CDG.racrit—The term po-li. the "iterature. k.BETC<. 8&"ass8—Use of anscrit %ords in ma&ic—$harani—Inscription in six "an&ua&es at KI2/un& $%an. *ina"s k. Footnotes CEHSB *rom !ing-shu-pi-t‘ p. 8*rom the #e&innin& of the universe. 7. I as$ed the Tauist patriarch %hen in han&hai. and a former "ife. CTBSB The tit"e -I2ti occurs in Tauist #oo$s ear"ier than the TJan& d/nast/.redeemer to rescue from the mora" evi"s attendant on our present existence. too. these fortresses are %ea$"/ manned.D. Chinese&)uddhism. and China #ecomes a su#3ect $in&dom under the . erected #/ human s$i"" and effort. . to impede the pro&ress of Christianit/. T!+ Chinese characters have #een %ritten in the same form and %ith the same sort of penci"s since the time of >an& !i2chi. t. Confucianism is the citade" of the enem/ raisin& its #att"ements hi&h into the c"ouds. t1. it %i"" #e the &reatest triumph ever achieved for Christianit/ since the time %hen the emperor Constantine #ecame a Christian. ".D. On the Use of anscrit #/ the Chinese Buddhists acred Texts Buddhism Index . Thus. a to o. (. *ina" m has chan&ed to fina" n. %hen a"" these three fortresses are overthro%n.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. on"/ #ecause it is li ?ceremonia" dut/@. hia-ch‘ü. viR. Durin& these fifteen centuries. the thou&ht. Oc. ch. and hia-"u. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. #/ dra%in& it a%a/ from the proper o#3ect of human %orship. %hich occur in %ords pronounced %ith the tones hia-ping. But this redeemer is a Buddha or a Bodhisatt%a. This. . Confucianism ma$es ever/thin& of mora"it/Q and the %orship of Buddhist ima&es. p. Ido"atr/ puts fiction in the stead of truth. 7h. BBBT to BBHA. #orro%ed from India. !e on"/ rep"ied. o far as ar&ument and inte""ect are concerned. But thin$ of the num#ers. and detai" its #atta"ions. the sounds attached to the characters have #een in a state of s"o% and constant f"ux. d. and to the #e"ief in metamorphoses. is a vast evi". KA for readin& the *our Boo$s—The !indoo trans"ators did not spea$ pure anscrit— anscrit %as the "an&ua&e of the #oo$s— No . and the 1ree$ phi"osoph/ %ere dra&&ed as captives #ehind the car of the victorious Redeemer. Chan&es in Chinese sounds since the time of the Buddhist trans"iteration of Indian %ords—+xamp"es of anscrit %ords in o"d and ne% Chinese—The importance of trans"ations made in (. at sacred2texts. %ho are deceived #/ these superstitions. ch1 come in p"ace of k. #ut not the fu"" tit"e %ith four characters.

*or the method and proofs.Ju2tJi2"ieu2chM . at the time %hen the/ tau&ht Buddhism at )o2/an&. It &ives the anscrit %ords. DE to (.encius. throu&h the spread of Buddhism man/ centuries a&o.D. The/ are to #e read %ith the po%ers of the "etters of the anscrit a"pha#et. It is hi&h"/ important for fixin& the pronunciation of the Chinese. *rom their use . that the trans"ations from anscrit %ere made. Natives not $no%in& the anscrit "etters cannot escape from the confusion in %hich the/ are invo"ved #/ the difference #et%een the o"d and ne% pronunciations. and the initia"s of the dia"ects spo$en in Centra" China at the present time..articu"ar"/ is the 8 utra of *ort/2t%o ections8 %orth/ of attention. %ith characters chosen to represent p. These t%o factors are ta#u"ated a"pha#etica""/.ah`sh%ara hanaishchara .ahapadma Ud/9na an&adeva (ch9r/a ha$radeva Indra Dh9rani O"d Chinese.o2"e2mi2ti . and that the reco&nised . *o O2mo2$Jia po2che2"o -eu2po2so2$ia . and not prosecute his researches mechanica""/. that the !indoo Buddhists in China %ere men %ho spo$e the dia"ects of Centra" India. Buddha (mo&ha 0a3ra Up9sa$a 0iharapa"a Bodhiruchi .o2ho2po2tJe2mo U2chan&2na en&2$Jia2tJi2pJo O2che2"i2/e hM2$ia2"o2tJi2pJo -in2t6o2"o To2"o2ni The admission of the princip"e that the Chinese pronunciation has chan&ed.o2"o2sM2na2shM2to .aramiti . he must a""o% for the inf"uence of dia"ects and the incessant chan&e of "an&ua&e on #oth sides of the !ima"a/as.o2hi2sheu2"o he2na2/i2shM2che2"o . p. The fo""o%in& examp"es %i"" he"p to fami"iarise the "earner %ith the methodS— anscrit. FGG .in&2ti. as our si&n2posts. Oc. It is necessar/ to ta$e the fina"s of the outhern Chinese dia"ects. The forei&n student %i"" find that the princip"e here "aid do%n is a $e/ to un"oc$ the difficu"ties of the su#3ect. The student can %ith this he"p proceed rapid"/. Northern India.i2ho2"o2po2"o . %e can come :uite near to the c"assica" a&e of Chinese "iterature. KA. . and approximate to the actua" pronunciation of the &reat Chinese sa&es.The compi"ers of Kan&2hi5s dictionar/ have provided ta#"es of the o"d sounds. The conse:uence is that a"" his immense industr/ has fai"ed to ma$e a %indo% that %ou"d have i""uminated this dar$ room. %i"" #e found to thro% a "i&ht much needed on the use of anscrit #/ the Chinese Buddhists.andarin ortho&raph/ is nothin& more than that of a modern dia"ect. CTT the pronunciation as it former"/ %as.D. in the rei&n of . on account of its #ein& the trans"ation of Kashiapmadan&a and his friend Chu2fa2"an.rasena3it . It &ives the modern Chinese pronunciation. tanis"as 4u"ien5s #2thode&pour&$2chi+rer&et&Transcrire&les&noms&Sanscrits ma$es no a""usion to these su#3ects. I ma/ here refer the reader to m/ =ntroduction&to&the&Study&o+&the& Chinese&Characters. It is a"so necessar/ to reco&nise the princip"e. It %as a#out three hundred and fort/ /ears after the death of . -et that does not hinder his %or$ from #ein& indispensa#"e to the student on this su#3ect. B/ "earnin& the po%ers of the Chinese s/""a#ar/ %ith the he"p of the trans"iterations then made. But if he %ish to understand %h/ such and such Chinese characters %ere chosen. pointin& out to us %hat %as the pronunciation of the TJan& d/nast/ and of the previous a&eQ and this must #e done %ith the addition of aid from the 4apanese and Corean trans"iteration of Chinese sounds. )ut *-mo-ga&(ad-"a-ra '-pa-sa-ka )i-ha-la-pa-la )o-di-lu-chi !at-la-mit-ti B #a-hi-shu-la Sha-nai-shat-chat-la !at-la-si-na-"i-ta #a-ha-pa-de-ma H '-dyung-na Seng-ga-de-(a *-cha-li-ya Shak-ka-la-de-(a&=n-da-la& $a-la-ni Ne% Chinese. (. and five hundred and fift/ after the death of Confucius.

It is the/ that are responsi#"e a"so for the charms. #ut %as modified #/ .a"i #oo$s %ere a separate set of ori&ina"s. Ch‘iau-ch‘en-"u. !e a"tered the characters accordin& to his opinion of %hat the se"ected s/m#o"s ou&ht to #e. The/ preferred to use the %ords and %ritin& %hich %ere most sacred. and Ce/"on have never spread their re"i&ion in China or 4apan. The . he %i"" perhaps admit that not the .8 The . 8contemp"ation.8 %as 6it-(an or 6ir-(an: Kia-she. The Nepau" Buddhists preserve the sacred #oo$s in anscrit. Koeppen. In the same %a/ it ma/ #e said that . anscrit %as the "an&ua&e. This is sho%n #/ the constant se"ection of Chinese characters sounded %ith ( or p. the %ord )odhi. that 8Chinese texts consider .a"i sound is <esali. !i-k‘ieu or !i-ch‘ieu. in his Hand-(ook&o+&Chinese&)uddhism. as the chief medium of recordin& his instructions. p. +. the . Dr.a"i %as the ori&ina" "an&ua&e of Buddhism. as he pro#a#"/ did. FGB characters it is c"ear. The . for 8 rotapanna.8 %as Shamen. and hence the fondness sho%n for it #/ the Buddhists. The manuscripts. It is the "an&ua&e of 8Brahma8 ?Fan: o"d sound.8 If he %i"" direct his attention to these facts. FGF Burnouf he"d that there %as a dou#"e text.D.a"i is paJJya. at the time of the 1ree$ invasion.racrit texts occasiona""/. #/ 4u"ien5s version of the %or$s of !iuen2tsan&. The !indoo trans"ators in China %ou"d have anscrit texts chief"/ #efore them. havin& a#out the same sound as no%. anscrit is the "an&ua&e emp"o/ed. he too$ them to #e .atna. Those institutions fostered education. The anscrit ori&ina"s a"one are $no%n to the Chinese. It %as his discip"es in the centuries that fo""o%ed him that introduced anscrit %ritin&. The "an&ua&e of . >hi"e the peop"e spo$e . The "an&ua&e occasiona""/ used %as .a"iQ #ut that from %hich the/ %ere trans"ated into Chinese %as anscrit.a"i. The "ast of these is the more "i$e"/.a"i %as then so p. and %ho has descri#ed the anscrit "an&ua&e in his auto#io&raph/. %as or %ere at the #asis of the Chinese o"d texts. for the character is the same as that used in %ritin& 8Nirv9na. for 81odinia. !is trans"ations.-lo-han %as *-la-han: ch‘an. %hich %as then ver/ much in Buddhist hands. p.racrit. This dou#"e form of the sacred #oo$s had much to do %ith the separation that spran& up #et%een the Northern and outhern schoo"s of Buddhism. AFD. Kin& Kanish$a in Cashmere ca""ed a counci". The Buddhists of Birmah. the fourthQ and in the %ritin&s edited #/ this assem#"/. have not #ecome popu"ar.a"i is Sotapan: so that the trans"ator did not spea$ . !e %as a &reat mora" teacher and metaph/sica" "o&ician. 8%isdom.a"i texts.a"i #ein& !atiekan. a#out (. >ith this ha$/amuni %ou"d natura""/ have nothin& to do.a"i in the sound of pra"na. are in anscritQ and in po"/&"ot #oo$s printed at . and for the faith in ma&ic %hich stimu"ated their use.8 near the modern . a&reein& %ith the anscrit 8(na&ama.a"i is the sacred "an&ua&e. +ite". in the re&ion %atered #/ the 1an&es. *or examp"e.e$in&. FGH . !is se"ection of characters is a &au&e of the pronunciation of his time. for examp"e.a"i. a certain &rade in discip"eship. #ut it is an error. 8$no%"ed&e.para&raph continues< This missionar/ had "ived in iam. iam.racrit text for the "ait/ and a anscrit for the "iterati. in sa/in& that the Chinese a"so have a num#er of . This vie% he #rou&ht %ith him to China. anscrit %ords and anscrit %ritin& are pecu"iar"/ sacred in the vie% of the Brahmans. accordin& to the o"d pronunciation. Sha-men. The . and %hen he sa% anscrit inscriptions in the is"and of . o it %as pro#a#"/ not . that anscrit #ecame at once a favourite medium for the em#odiment of his teachin& #/ %ritin&. or introduced their sacred #oo$s into those countries. This idea has #een #orro%ed #/ the Buddhists. and . the 8Bi$shu. and %as there accustomed to the idea that .of p. and after%ards. pa&e HK. The "an&ua&e $no%n #/ the Chinese as the Fan "an&ua&e %as sho%n to #e undou#ted"/ anscrit. the trave""er %ho visited India. Their pronunciation %as not pure anscrit. This %as pro#a#"/ much used #/ the !indoo Buddhists %ho came to China. FGC extensive"/ spo$en. #ut a certain .racrit.a"i or . . %here . %as Ka-shap or Ka-shiap: !‘u-t‘i.racrit pecu"iarities. But Burnouf a"so found certain portions of the Nepau"ese #oo$s %ritten in . the inscriptions. anscrit %as the "an&ua&e of education.racrit. %as *-na-gam. Sü-t‘o-hwan.a&adha in the time of the emperor (shX$a %as a . )am@.a"i that Kashiapmadan&a spo$e. is spe"t )ai-sha-li.racrit of the ear"/ Chinese trans"ators %as.8 The characters adopted are directed to #e pronounced pat-nia. #ecome a"so a medium for the preservation of the sacred #oo$s.8 %as -o-din-nia. Brahmanica" ideas form a stron& e"ement in Buddhism.rat/e$a. The pecu"iarities of the Chinese transcription deserve to #e considered.-na-han.racrit.8 %as )i-k‘u.8 %as )o-di.a"i. preva"ent at the time in Centra" and Northern India. in the re&ion %atered #/ the )o%er 1an&es.8 %as dian or dan: 6ie-p‘an. even thou&h ha$/amuni himse"f spo$e . ho%ever. the charms cut on copper mirrors. (n ar&ument a&ainst . the name of 8Kashiapa8 Buddha.racrit form or forms of the !indoo "an&ua&e. the art of %ritin& "ate"/ introduced %as put to extensive use in the Buddhist monasteries. thou&h he %as a native of Centra" India. the "uc$/ sentences under eaves and over doors in monasteries.8 %as !‘ak-tie. There %as a"so in the .a"i. *rom him the opinion spread.racrit. o man/ Brahmans announced themse"ves #e"ievers in ha$/amuni5s doctrines. the cit/ 80aisha"i.8 another &rade of discip"eship. In the f"ourishin& period of Buddhism.a"i as the ancient and ans$rit as the modern form even as re&ards the s/stem of sounds. The "an&ua&e in %hich the Buddhist sacred %ritin&s %ere first compi"ed ma/ have #een . The . that at that time the modern Fo %as )ut: . to represent the anscrit sh: #ut sh is not a "etter $no%n to the . for the anscrit 8.Ju2to. The &round%or$ %as anscrit. 8Nirv9na. that it %as inevita#"e that it shou"d. has said.8 !i-chï.a"i /. pa&e BEA. the 8 hramana. The o"der usa&e of %ords has $ept its p"ace. and not in . %as So-da-(an or Su-da-wan. nearer to anscrit than to . 4. The &reatest initiator of chan&e in the choice of characters %as !iuen2tsan&.racrit of the ear"/ Chinese trans"ators a ver/ c"ear pronunciation of ( for the anscrit and .a"i is to #e found in the carefu" se"ection of Chinese %ords commencin& %ith sh. !is instructions %ere ora". a . has #een mis"ed #/ 1utR"aff.a"i and .

anscrit inscriptions are supposed. and snee7e than nose. Thi#etan. fin&er2postures. the s/""a#"es of the charms are the same. The ma&ica" resu"t is effected #/ the never2errin& retri#utive fate %hich p. and the fina" ka.8 8&"assQ8 (olor&da(oso.on&o" "amas in . The sounds are anscrit. to have a "uc$/ effect on the nei&h#ourhood %here the/ are found. anscrit. viR. %hich date from a#out seven hundred /ears a&o. near the par$ of the ("tar of !eaven and the cit/ &ate $no%n as Kian&2cha men. FGK . In these temp"es it meets the e/e ever/%here. and %hich is exercised #/ charms. 8roc$ sa"tQ8 (olo&ch‘ilagon. The/ have passed over %ithout remar$ the possi#i"it/ that the Chinese %ord ma/ come from the Tur$ish.e$in& read Thi#etan pra/ers. #ut the po%er of the priest. The Thi#etan character is #ased on the anscrit. The use of the Devana&ari %ritin& for the purposes of ma&ic is an instructive instance of the po%er of superstition to de"ude the human mind. Oui&hour. virtues. >hether the (Kli or (ali is of Turanian ori&in and has ori&inated the anscrit spatika. 8%hetstone.8 It is %ritten in anscrit characters under the eaves of a"" the "ama temp"es in .8 . of course. near .8 and sti in Shra/asti. It is the chief "an&ua&e for "itur&ica" use amon& the Thi#etans and . the Chinese po-li is derived from the anscrit %ord spatika. and %ou"d #rin& its o%n name %ith it from that countr/. and . These a#surd compositions of unmeanin& sounds are of various "en&ths.on&o".8 8"impid. in Chinese.aha$a"a miau. and such2"i$e means. cheu. It %as intended as a protection to the emperor in &oin& to and comin& from the summer pa"ace. The/ are en&raved on stone monuments on the %a/ side. and at p"aces of resort for Buddhist pi"&rims. or c"aimed #/ the ordinar/ priests.. The ori&ina" text of the ear"/ Chinese trans"ations #efore the da/s of !iuen2tsan& must have had sh fu""/ deve"oped.m-mani-padme-hum is one of the most common. 3ust as it %as %antin& in the ancient 1ree$ and )atin. #oth for charms and for inte""i&i#"e inscriptions. Buddhist ma$ers of &"ossaries %ou"d prefer to derive the %ord from anscrit. The %ords used #/ the ma&ician for the most part have no meanin&.e$in& at the present time. The/ are sense"ess c"atter. There are a"so some monuments inscri#ed %ith anscrit charms in . The roc$ cr/sta" of China comes from Tur$estan. It is a"so found cut on monuments.anchu is read. m/stic formu"=. the same fondness for sp"endid scenes and stri$in& supernatura" effects. and the reader is %earied %ith the unendin& recita" of marve""ous events. Chinese. The/ occur fre:uent"/ in the #oo$s of the 1reat Deve"opment.8 a ro""in& stone used in smoothin& the c"ods of a p"ou&hed fie"d. In a"" these forms. The/ are %ritten in anscrit. at the same time. the . %hi"e the Chinese priests of the o"d Chinese Buddhism read. FGA is the cause of ever/thin& that occurs. and to an a"most unexamp"ed extent. In the . it %ou"d #e interestin& to $no%. as in the Tur$ish (elur.e$in&. The Chinese "amas in . incantations. The "ove of the %onderfu" "ed the !indoo authors to forsa$e. The %ord po-li for 8&"ass. In Buddhist &"ossaries. This %ou"d #e poetr/ %ere it not ver/ much overdone.on&o" emperors. !ere it is eas/ to perceive a simi"arit/ to the (ra#ians.8 a favourite %ord.on&o"ia.e$in&. and superior $no%"ed&e. p. 8a po"ishin& stone. on imperia" roads. (t the pass ca""ed KI2/un& $%an.issionar/ ociet/ in .e$in&. or in the other "an&ua&es mentioned. "i$e pa&odas and monasteries. 8cr/sta". as the mother of a"" $no%"ed& of the !indoo Buddhists %ho came to China—perhaps a""—spo$e dia"ects of anscrit. I #e"ieve that the initia" s in spatika mi&ht #e an accretion and not ori&ina". It is not the po%er of 1od actin& throu&h nature that is here intended. and in the narrative of the"/ here is the rootQ #ut %ho sha"" decideL In Buddhist ma&ic there has #een extensive use of the anscrit characters. 8cr/sta". ( muttered charm is ca""ed 8dharani.8 )et it #e noticed that &"ass2dust is used #/ po"ishers and &rinders. The same circumstances of &aud/ ma&nificence are a&ain and a&ain repeated. and the/ are p"aced in the courts of temp"es. B/ ma&ic is here meant the supernatura" po%er attri#uted to the Buddhas and Bodhisatt%as. The/ a"so form a chief part of the "itur&ies in use in the monasteries and at funera"s. There is. has #een in common use in China since the TJan& d/nast/. the . There is one $ept on the premises of the )ondon . The s %as dropped. It came in %ith Buddhism and the internationa" trade %ith Tur$estan. !adme is 8"otusQ8 mani is a 8precious stoneQ8 om is a sacred 8!indoo s/m#o".on&o" sacred #oo$s are read.8 or. *a2hai sM. It arose from the same tendenc/ in the !indoo mind. )allur is (ra#ic for 8cr/sta"Q8 spashta is anscrit for 8c"earQ8 (errak is Tur$ish for 8c"ear.para&raph continues< It contains the same charm %ritten %ith the characters emp"o/ed for a"" these "an&ua&es.on&o" voca#u"ar/ (olor. In a temp"e. and on those %ho erect them #/ their #enefactions and &ood%i"". invented after one mode". and a"so to a"" trave""ers on this much fre:uented road #et%een China and . and "/in& near Kapi"avastu.a"i. there is a stone monument containin& a charm in six "an&ua&es.8 former"/ pronounced pa-li. #ut the %ords usua""/ not so. at that time #e/ond Tu2shM $Jeu. the fair #ounds of histor/ and the so#er rea"it/ of nature. in Chinese. 8a re"ic. #ut not the anscrit itse"f. The t in ti #ecame l. I p"ace here some remar$s on po-li. These octa&ona" pi""ars are ca""ed shï-chwang. throu&h his charms. that distin&uish the native "iterature of that countr/. except in t%o instances. name of the capita" of an ancient $in&dom ca""ed Kosa"a. and stannum than tin. FGD Curious"/ %e find in the . . The/ are stone octa&ona" pi""ars. %hich produced those vast fictions in the description of the universe. Compare Tur$ish (ileghi. 3ust as most pro#a#"/ smelt is "ater than melt. One is at the monaster/ ca""ed !%a2/en sM. . in their fictions. It pro#a#"/ dropped ra in sharira.8 .e$in&. and %hich is responsive in the most comp"ete manner to Buddhist %isdom and &oodness. and %hose one o#3ect is to excite an undistin&uishin& admiration of the po%er disp"a/ed. p. near the huntin& par$. The doctrine of ma&ic has #een deve"oped #/ the Buddhists ver/ s/stematica""/. It %as cut in the time of the . NI2chih. 8&"ass.

The same interestin& #oo$ of Chinese trave"s has #een rendered into +n&"ish #/ the p. These %or$s are characterised #/ the thorou&h and exact p. H and a"so #/ . !. That the k %as then "ost is sho%n #/ its use in this case. . NextS Chapter NN0I.8 The merchants %ere in dou#t %hat to do. K"aproth. put me ashore a"so. 8If /ou put this amanean on shore. #/ Remusat—>or$s of 4u"ien—Interestin& passa&e from *a2hien—Trans"ations #/ Bea"— chott.BETC<. Thus the famous %ord karma.8 %as trans"iterated kat-ma. BOOKS AND PAPERS THAT MAY BE CONSULTED FOR THE STUDY OF CHINESE BUDDHISM.rofessor tanis"as 4u"ien on Chinese Buddhism are—?B@ Histoire&de&la&<ie&de&Hiouen-thsang&et&de&ses&<oyages&dans&l1=ndeB&depuis&l1an AHT "us3u1en AFDQ ?H@ #2moires&sur&les&Contr2es&. and a"" the #e"ievers in China. The coo$s too$ sea %ater to use in coo$in& food. *a2hien pra/ed to K%an2/in. to imp"ore of the &ods to &ive them aid and :ue"" the storm. the Brahmans on #oard said that this amanean.. Chinese&)uddhism. >hen it #ecame ca"m. 1i"es. and the em#arrassment of the mariners increased. that he sai"ed from 4ava in a ship on #oard of %hich %ere a#out t%o hundred men. The $in& of the "and of !an is ver/ much attached to the doctrine of Buddha and honours the mon$s. . HGB of m/ =ntroduction&to&the&Study& o+&the&Chinese&Characters. The "oss of k fina" %as #e&innin&.apers That . FGE CHAPTER VI. or 8Re"ation of the Buddhist Kin&doms. 4u"ien is %ron& in ma$in& the first of these four characters end in n. Both *a2hien and !iuen2tsan& %i"" #e admitted #/ ever/ candid reader to deserve the reputation for patience in o#servation. the t #ein& heard as r. ee p. (s the %ater came near its .rovisions and %ater #e&an to fai". #ecause it %as he that had #rou&ht on them this hurricane. T%o pints %ere assi&ned to each. #/ 4oseph +d$ins.r. near the end of his narrative. *a2hien sa/s. at sacred2texts.ccidentalesB&Traduits&du&Sanscrit&en&ChinoisB&en&l1an AFE. . a tempest and vio"ent rain a"most over%he"med them. meanin& *a2 hien. Boo$s and . durin& %hich Buddhism had sti"" the vi&our of its /outh. (. Fo% kou%&ki. (fter a month. C These t%o trans"ations have not the advanta&e of a#undant annotations. ro/a" EvoQ ?C@ Les&*/adanasB&ContesB&et&*pologues&=ndiens.a""adius—+ite"5s Hand-(ook&+or&the&Student&o+&Chinese&)uddhism—>atters6 account of Chinese Buddhism—+ite"5s Three&Lectures. 8>h/ shou"d %e a"" #e exposed to dan&er for the sa$e of one manL8 ( friend of *a2hien said. par&Hiouen-thsangB&et&du&Chinois&en&FranMais&par&S. This %or$ is ver/ fu""/ annotated #/ Remusat. the &ood %ater the/ $ept for drin$in&. ou&ht to #e put ashore on an is"and.a/ #e Consu"ted for the tud/ of Chinese Buddhism acred Texts Buddhism Index . If /ou put this amanean ashore. and did not venture on severe measures.&4ulienB H vo"s. (. and artic"e on Nirv9na. FGT scho"arship of the author. Bea". and )andresse. perseverance in trave". The/ had provisions for fift/ da/s. The passen&ers %ere a"" in a"arm. The s$/ continued thic$"/ overcast. It is pat in o"d ChineseQ #ut pat %as often par.Footnotes CTTSB .8 #/ (#e" Remusat B. on arrivin& at the "and of !an I %i"" denounce /ou to the $in&. The/ form a most va"ua#"e addition to our $no%"ed&e of India and other (siatic countries in the seventh centur/. CTTSH The character de shou"d #e trans"iterated dek.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. L(er&den&)uddhaismus&in&Hoch&*sien&und&in&China— >ritin&s of .ON1 these %or$s ma/ #e mentioned the trans"ation of Fo% kou%&ki. The %or$s of . and in the un& period #efore that time. Oc. The/ %ere sevent/ da/s on the vo/a&e. and earnestness in re"i&ious faith %hich the/ have &ained #/ the 3ourna"s and trans"ations the/ "eft #ehind them. and %ere #ound for Canton. or e"se $i"" me.8 8fate.

This mode of usin& the Sanscrit-Chinese&$ictionary is a "itt"e cum#rous. here p"aced %ithin reach of his readers. chott has added a trans"ation of a %or$ of the schoo" of the Tsing-tu or 8. constitute his &reat earth"/ aim. and *a2hien %as emp"o/ed to interpret. and man/ "on& compound terms are imported in fu"" into the Chinese text. a"thou&h the/ met no men nor an/ traces of men. the/ %ere convinced that the/ %ere indeed in China. 8a"". In t%e"ve da/s and ni&hts the/ reached )au2shan.. and #ecome a ca#inet minister or censor. %hi"e Tauism has #orro%ed much from Buddhism. These 8Researches8 have #een trans"ated into 1erman. (fter so dan&erous a vo/a&e.e$in& as a mem#er of the Russian +cc"esiastica" . +. 9astern&#onachism ?BEFG@. The author has devoted &reat attention to this su#3ect.p. 4. %as a profound student of Chinese Buddhism. #ut cannot come from the Nirv9naQ #ecause nothin& can come from it. and *a2hien to the capita". The/ are adapted to #enefit him in the present "ife #/ transformin& him into %hat the #oo$ represents as a &ood Buddhist. This %as in the /ear (.8 and as an ad3ective.ission. arithmetica" and astronomica" expressions. FBF. No one $ne% %hat part of the coast the/ had reached. and the anscrit names are passed over #/ the reader of the Chinese texts as an a#racada#ra %hich he is &"ad to miss. This p"ant %as a proof of it. #/ the same. and ma$e for the coast. and said that the vo/a&e to Canton ou&ht not to have #een more than fift/ da/s.ission in .8 8the sa&e. p. *-no-ta-la&sam-mo&sam-(o-di. B is a dictionar/ of proper names. The %or$ of chott.8 and hence 8that %hich is distin&uished. adapted to aid the in:uirer. The reader of the Tsing-tu-wen ?that is the name of the #oo$ trans"ated@ is informed #/ the native author. In this instance he must "oo$ under the %ords *nuttara and )Kdhi.a"i forms themse"ves. and it is incapa#"e of havin& in it an/ individua"it/. FBH The Hand-(ook&+or&the&Student&o+&Chinese&)uddhism.8 p. are extreme"/ interestin& su#3ects. do&mas. !e sa/s of Nirv9na that it is the emptiness %hich ever/ inte""ectua" o#3ect %i"" inc"ude in itse"f %hen "i#erated.andarin pronunciation.orrison. p.8 8sameQ8 samyak is &iven in the anscrit dictionar/. Others thou&ht Canton %as "on& passed. and ou&ht no% to chan&e their course to the north2%est. Their trans"ations a#ound in anscrit %ords. the merchants consu"ted to&ether. The !indoo missionaries tried hard to #rin& the Chinese to accept the m/tho"o&/ and re"i&ious doctrines of their countr/ at the time %hen it %as Buddhist.8 8fit"/. +ite". and Koeppen. The/ %ere "on& past this time.8 8$no%"ed&e of 1od. uttara is 8superiorQ8 sam means 8perfect. arran&ed a"pha#etica""/. in vie% of the comin& stru&&"e %hich he anticipates. ome thou&ht the/ %ere a"" near Canton. to serve the emperor. The "ate "earned archimandrite . *rom them the/ found that the/ %ere in Ts6in&2cheu in the province no% $no%n as han2tun&. But the histor/ of its introduction.eacefu" "and. Our author points out. %hich it %as hoped the Chinese %ou"d "earn. +ite"5s o#3ect has #een to provide a hand#oo$ in %hich a mass of information has #een co""ected.e$in&. he must first consu"t the Chinese index at the end of the vo"ume. the re"ation of Tauism to Buddhism. The student has a"so at his command—*&Catena&o+&)uddhist&Scriptures&+ront&the&Chinese. FBC . The student of Buddhism o#tains in this %or$ an important he"p to his studies. c"asses of m/tho"o&ica" #ein&s. *n is the ne&ative. must $no% %hat these and other such %ords meanQ and Dr. The resu"t of his ver/ extensive readin& %as em#odied in t%o papers printed in the 8Researches of the . a#stract names.e2chi2"i. and found there &ood %ater and #eans. #/ amue" Bea"Q and The&Romantic&Legend&o+&S. +ite" 3ust"/ remar$sS 8To the "an&ua&e then spo$en in China no modern Chinese dia"ect comes nearer in sound than the ver/ ans$rit or .8 One is a 8)ife of BuddhaQ8 the other descri#es the su#se:uent phi"osophica" deve"opment of Buddhism. and the nature and extent of the inf"uence it has produced on the Chinese mind and "iterature. anscrit #oo$s havin& #een trans"ated fourteen centuries a&o. (fter his description of Chinese Buddhism.D. the po%ers of the Chinese characters %hich represented !indoo %ords have chan&ed in the meantime. pronounced in the era of the !indoo trans"ations. ChJan&2an. for examp"e.8 . >ade.8 *rom this has come the tit"e Buddha the 8perceiver. in addition to his o%n investi&ations.em#ers of the Russian . 8%iseQ8 et/mo"o&ica""/ it is 8that %hich distin&uishesQ8 that is.kya&)uddha. %ith such fati&ues and so man/ fears.8 8the ho"/ fi&2tree.para&raph continues< 8the inte""ect. #/ Dr. #efore each creative actQ #ut it differs from the ori&ina" essence in this. is the alpha and omega of his efforts. Buddhism is not so po%erfu" in China as to cause a"arm to the Christian missionar/. L(er&den&)uddhaismus&in&Hoch&*sien&und&in&China. contains much va"ua#"e information on the contents of Chinese Buddhist #oo$s. spo$en of as *nuttara&samyak&sam(Kdhi. as &iven in . Burnouf. 1oin& ashore in a #oat the/ met t%o hunters. of 4u"ien. B on the south shore of the han2tun& promontor/. To exp"ain them &"ossaries %ere prepared. that a"" forms of "ife and matter come out of the ori&ina" essence. ad3ectives. viR. it %as anterior to the c"ear dra%in& of the #oundar/ #et%een Northern and outhern Buddhism #/ Burnouf. Buddha5s heart is.8 )Kdhi is 8inte""i&ence. and has. >ritten in BEFA. to put himse"f under the m/stic and heaven2sent &uide to the Nirv9na. and #anual&o+&)uddhism ?BEFC@.a""adius.8 8the o#3ect of the hi&hest stud/.eacefu" "and. #ut this the/ fai"ed to do. man/ contri#utions from the immense "earnin& in this department. menta" or materia". On seein& a p"ant ca""ed Li-ho-ts‘ai. and a"so preceded #/ severa" /ears the pu#"ication of pence !ard/5s %or$s on in&ha"ese Buddhism. It is a %e""2se"ected examp"e of current Buddhist teachin& in China.8 >hoever %i"" stud/ Buddhism. %ith &reat correctness.8 8doctrine. the/ arrived at "ast at this un$no%n shore. Names of thin&s as %e"" as names of persons.8 8%ho""/. FBG end.8 8&ood. 4ust so to the &enuine fo""o%er of Confucius. to ho"d office. and other authors. Buddhism has #orro%ed nothin& from Tauism. To the &enuine discip"e of the Buddhist teachin&. and on the north side of the promontor/ in the 1u"f of .8 This %or$ is a"so i""ustrated fu""/ %ith notes #/ the trans"ator. that he is not to expect advanta&e on"/ in the future "ife from his stud/ of the #oo$s of the schoo" of the . and Buddhist terms &enera""/. and the conse:uence is that the &"ossaries are not "oo$ed at. If he is readin& a Chinese Buddhist production. #ut perhaps it is prefera#"e to the perpetuation in a %or$ of this $ind of the . FBB In so far the Nirv9na is "i$e the ori&ina" #ein&. (s Dr. 8the inte""ect. resident for man/ /ears in . But the/ expected more Rea" and perseverance in their Chinese neoph/tes than the/ have sho%n. %ords expressive of doctrines. *rom this point the merchants found their %a/ to -an&2cheu.

8 8. the modern Bahar. (. a"" ac$no%"ed&in& miser/ and as$in& sa"vation. after a "on& career occupied part"/ %ith the instruction of a numerous #and of discip"es. he "oo$s %ith a thousand e/es that she ma/ see them a"". or sma"" reddish residuum. handsome.a&adha dia"ect %as first used. and over it a pa&oda must #e erected. #ut the/ did not succeed in chan&in& the course of the "e&end or the name of the divinit/. if in . %as that of Kumara3iva of Cashmere. or 81reater Deve"opment. such as %as spo$en in Cashmere. Ba"$h. The t%o meanin&s. !ut: Nan$in&. from the time of Na&ar3una. )it-ch‘u. and part"/ %ith extatic contemp"ation. foundin& the monastic institute. and in introducin& ne% terms re:uired in the trans"ation of the #ahayana "iterature ?Ta-ch‘eng@. the . K%an2tsM2tsai and K%an2shi2/in. then divinit/. instead of a anscrit2Chinese.8 The spe""in& here &iven is that of an author %ho. instead of )i-k‘u.8 8(mit9#ha.aha/ana "iterature ?Hwa-yen-king. ( /oun& prince. It %ou"d then #e feasi#"e to compi"e a Chinese2 anscrit.riest. Dr. 8the most favoured man in this centur/Q8 /et the net fai"ed to entrap him throu&h his %ant of faith. B If Kashiapmadan&a.a"i Sa/"i Bhi$$hu ?pro#a#"/ a"so found in the . FBD supposes there %as a Chinese divinit/ of this name #efore the introduction of the . as in KJan&2hi.a"i amon& other thin&s in retainin& from anscrit the "etter sh. In the !an d/nast/. near"/ as in the +ar" of Beaconsfie"d5s Lothair the opportune arriva" of a Roman shop$eeper5s %ife. There can #e no dou#t that he made use of sh and s as separate "etters.D. his discip"es e"evate him to the summit of humanit/."/ Kumara3iva himse"f. !e is deified at the moment of deathQ that is. #et%een the character and the meanin&s %ere inserted 8o"d sound. to #e used ever after as the desi&nation of the mem#ers of the Buddhist communit/ in China. The .a&adha "an&ua&e@. under the s/""a#"e Fuh. and tempted #/ the most #ri""iant %or"d"/ prospects. the sharira. +ite"5s arran&ement of the dictionar/ forms no #ar to its usefu"ness. uch a phenomenon—a &reat and disinterested mind. uch incidents %ere ascri#ed #/ the Chinese Buddhists to the presence of K%an2/in.aha/ana into China. and ". In ha$/amuni himse"f humanit/ is first seen. and usua""/ ( for /. Fo:8 ever/ one %ou"d thus #e in a position to $no% %hat the o"d sounds of the characters are. an/ incidents of o"d #io&raph/ in an/ a&e or countr/. and teachin& mu"titudes of #oth sexes and ever/ caste the escape from sorro% to the eterna" rest of the Nirv9na—%as sufficient in the condition of !indoo societ/.8 8Dh/9na.8 or sangha. !e has entered the Nirv9na.8 )uddha or 8 J9$/amuni. and stretches out a thousand arms that she ma/ save them a"". edif/in&. FGG. surrounded #/ p"easures.e$in&. FBA to Buddhism of the Indian 1et=. and after%ards the anscrit. Thus the cit/ 8 hravasti8 %as in . K%an2/in 8"oo$s on8 ?kwan@ 8the re&ion8 ?shi@ of sufferers %hose 8voices8 ?yin@ of man/ tones. In his account of Kwan-yin ?(va"X$it`shJvara@ our author has &one too far.8 8N9&9rd3una.@ in Cashmere. if %e had a dictionar/ of Chinese %ords %ith the ancient and modern pronunciations arran&ed in succession. %hen he finds that a"most a"" the important %ords in doctrine and #io&raph/ are here traced to their anscrit ori&ina"s. %ho came from . ca""ed it Sha(ati. touch the heart or the pitifu" Bodhisatt%a. and after%ards the anscrit.8 8Nirv9na.a"i %as first used. Fuh: .recious Ones8 are )uddha. Kumara3iva himse"f adopted the name Kwan-shï-yin. The &reat va"ue of such a &uide as this Hand-(ook in the stud/ of Chinese Buddhism %i"" #e understood #/ the student.8 8N9&a. The Chinese %ords a"read/ introduced #/ his predecessors he did not a"ter. The 8Three . aided #/ the conversion p. then the dia"ect of Northern India. and announce that he is for ever rescued from the revo"utions of "ife and death. and thus ori&inated that name. and %hen his #od/ has #een #urned. !ence the author of that romance sarcastica""/ descri#es )othair as #ein& for a time. The term sam-mei is exp"ained as the 8sam9dhi8 of the ori&ina" anscrit. (mon& the "on&er and more va"ua#"e artic"es in this %or$ are those on Kwan-yin or 8(va"a$it`sJvara. the )a% or #od/ of doctrineQ and Sangha. and exp"ained %ith the aid of recent +uropean continues< *or examp"e. Our author sa/s the . FBF itse"f. it mi&ht #e said that he used the . renders the dia"ects there spo$en ear"/ in the Christian era important for the determination of the "an&ua&e emp"o/ed #/ the first !indoo missionaries in China. spea$in& in the Cashmere dia"ect of anscrit.a&adha. is honoured as a sacred re"ic possessin& marve""ous po%ers. *or examp"e. "i$e Kan&2hi p.a]d3usJr\. is deep"/ affected #/ o#servin& the miseries of human "ife.8 he uses sh for sh. in the opinion of ever/ one in Rome. evident"/ %ith the intention of restorin& the anscrit sh. and dies at ei&ht/.orrison5s Sylla(ic&$ictionary. of a marve""ous $ind. Fa-hwa-king. &iven in the Hand-(ook. the ue-ti of Chinese histor/. H In the 8 utra of *ort/2t%o ections8 he used Sha-men.8 8Triratna. the fashion of c"ose adherence to anscrit came into use under the "eadership of !iuen2tsan&. the most ancient of the trans"ators. dou#t"ess existed to&ether in Kumara3iva5s countr/.8 and 8Tri$9/a. had chosen Chinese %ords %hose initia" %as s to %rite the anscrit Shramana and Kashiapa.riesthood. practises and then teaches a ri&id asceticism. has fo""o%ed the *rench ortho&raph/ in %ritin& the anscrit sounds ch. Thus Ho-shang. !e #ecomes a chan&ed man. Our author &ives a different reason. T%o centuries "ater. the persona" teacherQ $harma. used the dia"ect of that countr/. is #e"ieved #/ the pope and his cardina" to #e an appearance of the 0ir&in . stron&. 8 am9dhi si&nifies the hi&hest pitch of a#stract ecstatic .8 8 ans$rita. %hen he p. 3ust as after%ards in China. Kashiapmadan&a. (. Kumara3iva preferred the more popu"ar and edif/in& desi&nation. .aha/ana doctrine had prevai"ed there a"read/ for near"/ t%o hundred /ears. #ut in a more comp"ete form than in that %or$. The second era of trans"ators. %ho sho%s a #enevo"ent interest in the %e"fare of that hero. some%hat odd"/. under . and adapted to #e. in the Buddhist sense. BTF The remar$a#"e extension of the .The difficu"t/ mi&ht #e met. %hich differed from the . and %hat is no% Ca#u". The trans"ators of the TJan& period. FBK . But as the student of Chinese must a"so "earn to consu"t %or$s arran&ed accordin& to the radica"s.8 8 am9dhi. %as %ritten. and in Chinese Sha-(a-ti.a"i. #rou&ht to vie% the true et/mo"o&/ as &iven #/ our author. Oc. The #est $e/ to the understandin& of Buddhism is to #e found in the stud/ of the "ife of its founder. heroic. )ut: (mo/. dictionar/. Kash&ar. Nothin& is easier than to attach to the ima&inar/ former "ives of the &reat Bodhisatt%as. to account for the ear"/ histor/ of Buddhism. %hich is "i$e the . *or Kashiapa he %rote Ka-shiap. the most popu"ar term for 8. t%o centuries "ater. the president of an 8assem#"/. as it %as t%o centuries #efore the expedition of ("exander. It %ou"d #e more correct to sa/ that the . hi&h and "o%.ya. forsa$es his father5s pa"ace for a hermit5s ce"".8 is 'padhy.D.8 8Nara$a. honour him as the #est of teachers. p. for he never confounds them in his choice of Chinese characters. Cashmere.

On the six paths of transmi&ration the reader %i"" find information under the heads -. it %ou"d #e of no #enefit to /ou. FGESH Tra/els&o+&Fa-hian&and&Sung-yunB&)uddhist&!ilgrimsB&+rom&China&to&=ndia. Buddhism ma$es no effort that can for a moment compare %ith the %or$ %hich Christianit/ has done for man$ind.8 >h/. Bodhidharma. The stones of (ve#ur/ in >i" H. !e can test for himse"f ho% far it softens manners and teaches $indness.8 But he said 3ust #efore. a sort of terrestria" Nirv9na consistent"/ cu"minatin& in tota" destruction of "ife.onier >i""iams and Dr. 8("" /ou Bi$shus. an account of the Buddhas. exp"ain.8 !ra"na.ersian inf"uence %hich produced the "e&end of (mita#ha. 4aina means 8the con:ueror. or in the %or"d of man$ind. em#racin& the six means of passin& to the Nirv9na. a state of torpor of #oth the materia" and spiritua" forces of vita"it/. !ence the Birmese confound them %ith the de/ans. the is"and of the #"essed. The meanin& of the names. FBT and ancient superstition. . have a"read/ #een saved. and %i"" not #e annihi"ated at a"". the expectation of immorta"it/ assertin& itse"f in Buddhism. on arrivin& at the time I must sti"" #e annihi"ated.8 is exp"ained as the Chinese e:uiva"ent of !aramita. %hether in the paradises of the Devas. differs. Rh/s Davids on Buddhism &enera""/ are the productions of %riters of p. the Indian protot/pe of the Chinese dan. .8 uch is the num#er of ne% pu#"ications on the su#3ect of Buddhism. Footnotes FGESB Fo% kou%&kiB&ou&Relation&des&Royaumes&)ouddhi3ues:&par&Chy&Fa-hian. %hich has made Buddhist thou&ht fami"iar to man/ readers %ho $ne% nothin& of it #efore. that it is evident the reader has it in his po%er to o#tain a thorou&h $no%"ed&e of this re"i& A. !r0tas.8 %hi"e dhy. Oc.ti. hou"d I "ive "on&er. >atters5 papers on Chinese&)uddhism have #een a"read/ referred to. ho%ever. ome %or$s from . and testifies to the vanit/ of the %or"dQ at the same time he %i"" "earn that for the reve"ation of mora" evi" and its remed/.8 ShEla ?&ood conduct@Q C. arran&ed them. and in the a#ean ori&in of u$havati ? ocotra@. In 8Buddhism in China. Dr.8 #ut Dr. not far from tonehen&e. the causes %hich %i"" u"timate"/ "ead to their sa"vation have a"read/ #een put in operation. si&nifies 8meditation. FBE not #e sad. in the s$etch of the histor/ of Chinese Buddhism in an ear"/ part of this vo"ume. in his artic"e on Dh/9na. ir +d%in (rno"d5s 8)i&ht of (sia8 is a charmin& poem. or the predecessors of the Druids. of 1od and of immorta"it/. 8(rriva" at that shore. +ite" is :uite ri&ht in ar&uin& the continued existence of the Buddhas from their occasiona" reappearance after death for the sa"vation of "ivin& #ein&s. 5!e consumed his #od/ #/ (&ni ?the fire of@ am9dhi5 is a common phrase. shou"d #e consu"ted #/ the student. and +n&"ish 8sna$e. %hi"e the Chinese re&ard them as &ood and po%erfu" and ca"" them lung. FHG &reat erudition and "on& experience. and a s$etch of the Confucianist opposition. and propa&ate m/ doctrine. retain the serpentine shape in %hich the Druids. Dr. and a"so from the do&ma of the 8>estern . introduced into China the Buddhist sect ca""ed the Ch‘an-men. +ite"5s va"ua#"e Three&Lectures&on&)uddhism. Bea" #e"ieved in the . (s to those %ho have not #een saved. $.aradise. the author has omitted an/ reference to the Ch‘an-men does not appear. 8. +ite" touches on a su#3ect of &reat interest. ha$/amuni said in his "ast that ver/ %idespread p.r. do p. In +astern (sia the nagas %ere "oo$ed on as %e"" disposed. the 1ree$ drakNn. 8. The/ contain a historica" summar/ of Chinese Buddhism.8 In the notice of the nagas there are some interestin& references to 8serpent8 %orship. and to have spread from the Ba#/"onian re&ion to the most %ide"/ separated countries.nti: F. encoura&es faith in the supernatura". It has a"most supp"anted the ori&ina" Buddhism.8 Ksh.8 <irya: D. in spite of the over%he"min& inf"uence of a metaph/sica" s/stem adverse a"i$e to the #e"ief in 1od and to that in immorta"it/. Not to "eave /ou %hen the hour has arrived is impossi#"e. others are #enefited. %hich seems to have ori&inated in the first a&es.8 $hy. But it is time to stop. The/ natura""/ thro% va"ua#"e "i&ht on Chinese Buddhism from the Indian side. 8+ner&/. ho%ever. m/ discip"es.uch cannot #e #ui"t on this passa&e from the 8 utra of the d/in& instructions of Buddha. The !e#re% nahash. 8>isdom. and thus8 ?here fo""o%s our author5s :uotation@ 8the 5spiritua" #od/5 ?+a-shen@ of 4u2"ai %i"" #e constant"/ present. .a"i have #een trans"ated in the 8 acred Boo$s of the +ast. the "ast of %hom.8 The expression Tau-pi-an. 8The spiritua" #od/ is immorta".8 are %ord2forms %hich preserve the o"d ideaQ and the account of the temptation in 1enesis furnishes us %ith a pro#a#"e ori&in for the traditions of serpent %orship amon& various nations.meditation. and the 1erman schlange. !e has. name"/. Bea". that it is necessar/ to "imit these remar$s. The s/stem of doctrine is a"read/ perfect. *sura.ora"it/. &iven an account of the t%ent/2ei&ht patriarchs. In the account of Nirv9na. 1ae"ic narar. 4une BEKG. 8Charit/8 ?or &ivin&@. . These are— B.8 #/ Rev. In &ainin& #enefit one5s2se"f. and has a"%a/s made much of the esoteric deposit of doctrine and its transmission a"on& %ith the ro#e and rice #o%" from patriarch to patriarch. %hich has p"a/ed in some respects the same part in China that the 4ainas did in India. If I "ived in the %or"d for a kalpa. and an artic"e #/ him on the 8Nirv9na of Chinese Buddhism.8 in the Chinese&Recorder. In this he is ri&ht. The %or$s of ir . *rom this time for%ard I exhort /ou. Buddhism is a su#3ect %hich easi"/ ramifies into so man/ directions. a state of a#so"ute indifference to a"" inf"uences from %ithin or %ithout. *mKgha.8 .r. 8Contemp"ation. "ater ch‘an. the reader %i"" find much to interest. ("" that %ere to #e saved.atience. to expand.

ee *ch. HKT. BCD. (dam. . ee *ch. ("exander the 1reat. ee *-"e-li. BBK. BBK. FBGSB )au2shan is near Kiau2cheu. ("eni. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. Kassapa.a"i forms are Samana. ee Hien&kalpa. CB. CHH. CHH. DH. NextS (2+ acred Texts Buddhism Index . (3atashatru. HCA. HTB. *rhans. Chinese&)uddhism.ea$. fruit.rya. and Lo-hans. HTH. east "on&itude Dt HDu. CD. CBB. TB.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. ($anit6a. at sacred2texts. HFT. BCC. FBASB ee Burnouf and )assen5s 9ssai&sur&le&!ali. and . . AG. onesidemus. BD. (2"a2han. !. ee 6gai&4u-lio. HHF. "atitude CAt. The port of Kiau2cheu exports fe"t hats. *-cha-li-ya. and ca##a&es to han&hai. and . AB. FBASH The . see *rhan. *-"e-li. (&e of >ise men. +ite"5s #oo$ is reprinted from the Chinese Recorder. (&ama period. ("i/in. HBD. ("open. 4u"ius.-che-li-ye. HEB.r. CFH. HB. (3e"i. BF. (2C!(2)I2-(. (" p. (23e2"i.FGESC Records&o+&)uddhistic&Kingdoms. (f&hanistan. CTT. um#re""as. and . ee -etO. FBF. FHB ALPHABETICAL INDE OF PROPER NAMES AND SUB&ECTS.-che-hi-ye. AF. FBHSB This account of Dr. HFT. CTT. . BBK.rya. CE. *-cha-li-ya. CBH. and #aha(hadra-kalpa. (dam5s .-che-li-ye. (chJo#h/a. HHH.BETC<. BHB. (ch9r/a ?(2che2"i@. AK. %here it appeared in BEKB as a revie%. DB. Lo-han. HCF. FGB. ("exius Comnenus.

(ra#ians—(ra#s. (mo/ ?dia"ect@. HTA. CFH. AF2AA. CTT. ee (rs=. DK. CTT. TH. HG. HHD. HTA. HAB. HCC. BTE. BKB. . ee Ta-shah. (n2fu ?. CCD. ee *ranyaka. FT. (ran/a$a. ee *nFthapindika. (na&amins. HDK. (mita#ha Buddha. CDK. (mo&ha. BGA. BHD. (nanda. HKT. ee *ranya. FBF. BGE. (na&amin. BBK. (n2"o2/en2sheu2tan&. HF. CCE. DC. ee *nagamin. ee . HFE. (n2shM2$au. FBC. HBF. HEB. AT. HDF. KB. HKC. HCA. ee *nFthapindada. FHH (ratan. ee *mogha and . ee *mida&)uddha.-nan. CA. (n_thapindi$a. ee . CFB. HGT. (rara. HEK. HFC. ee *mida&)uddha. ee *nagam.a"ace of dar$ness@. HTD. BC. DK. HCC. HEG. ee 6araka. HBA. FBTQ a"so ca""ed (mo&ha 0a3ra. (nuruddha. CDC. (2mo2&a #ad23a2ra. (2mi2to *e. HAH. HEG. HGE. HGE. CK. (ra#ic "an&ua&e. CFH. FGD. BEH. p. FGB. (naximenes.-mo-k‘ia&po-che-lo and *-mo-ga&(ad-"a-ra. FH2FD. HCF. (naximander. HTB2CGG. AE. (naxa&oras. (mida Buddha. (ran/a. FGD. DA. BCT.("tai mountains. HFA. (n2tsien ? ecret arro%@. (n2si. BKB2BKF. (nton/. BDG. HCH. HCB. BAE. BCH. ee *mita(ha&)uddha. (na&am. KG. CBB. HKA. (n_thapindada.aradise.-mo-k‘ia&po-che-lo. (mita#ha . (psaras. CBB. HCD. (n2h%ei. HFB. (mravati. DH2DF.

BT. CBB. HBF. BCK. HKC. ee 5u-cho. ee <aishali. AE. HAC. (suras. HKK. HKE. AT. DC. C. Ba2&a2vam. BGH. (ve#ur/. BGF. HBD. FD. KB. CFB. FBEQ vie% of nature. BEF. ee */alokite and Kwan-yin. KK. . CFH. BC. DT. ee */alKkit0shwara. Ba&a. EC. BGF. ee #a-ming. ee . HT. BEH. HGE. (va"o$ite. FGTQ fetishism. BCT. HHG. FGC. CBB. KF. Baishevu. HET. AT. HGA. ee #agadha. (u&ustus. CCT. ee *shKka. HE. (shX$a. (cura. (va"X$it`sh%ara. CDA. Ba#/"onian re&ion. FBQ mon$ish esta#"ishments. FBF. HE. KT2EB. BAAQ %or"d. CFC. CAF. HAH. HDKQ of the +ast. DE. AA. (rhans. ee )haga/at. DE. BTA. HH. HTG. HKA. HAF. BED. CB. BDA. BBGQ specu"ator. BGE. HE. BBE. BCH. (sen&ha. BGF2BGK. BFK. HHD. KA. ee !a-ho-si-pa. (sh%a&osha. AG. Bactria. Baschpa. (rs=. (2/o. (siatic countries. BGK. (sita. (r/an personification. Bahar. ee Sieu-lo ?Su-la@. CH. HBB. BAT. BCE. HBF. Ba2"a2men. AD. BF. FBT. ee *-la-han and Lo-hans. FBD. HFB2HFD. HFE. BBD. HAA. BGD. CBG. (sia. HAF. (vatars. CB. B(B-)ON. ee *-yo. HBD. Ba"$h. DE. FGF. FBA. (ristot"e. FBT. CAC. HTB. AF. BHG. CB. HTK.-pi&ti-yü. HEC. Ba#/"onia. BTD. HKE. HEH. TG. Ban#an. CDD. CGF. HKE. ee *n-si. BTH. ee )rahman. (vichi nara$a. ee *-la-han and Lo-han. HBD. BDA.(rhan. HAH. HHK. HKT. Bai2sha2"i. BEF.

EB. HB. ED. BDQ peninsu"a. CBD. Rev. Bh9isha3/ar93a. ee )ikshu. CB. BHG. C. BGT. Bi$shu. FGH. BJin&2an. BE. HEK. ee o-wang&p‘u-sa. Bhadra2$a"pa. ee )i-ch‘u and )ikshu. Bi#a Buddha.ra. Bod. Bi2$Ju. FGB.Base" . FBG. ee Kalpa&o+&the&Sages. Benares. Bishop. Bindupa"a. ee <im(as. BD. ee <iharapala and !i-ho-lo-po-lo. FBTQ chrono"o&/. BF. Bit2chJu. HBG. CAA. HGE. BKB. B"ac$ river. HG. HGG2HGH. DF. FBK. HCD. HTK. CG. B"ac$ %arrior. ee )ikshu.. F. CG. F. FGB. HAC. ee !aranai. CAT. DB. CD. KD. HHE. Bhadra. HH. Ben&a". HKA. FBK. Bi&andet. Bi$shus. BAA. CD. CTT. TF. ee <im(as. CGK. BHG. HGH. Baur. B"ue dra&on. . HE. HF2HE. HEC. Bha&avat. HKA. CBF. KB. . BGA. HTG. HGH. FH. DB. HBK. HTH. BHG. ee Kosala. Bim#asa"a. BFD. ee )ikshu and )i-k‘u. Berar. FBK. CCK. ee )a-ga-/am. CC. Birmah. CCK.ra. FBK. Bh9isha3/a&uru Buddha. FGE. ee o-shï&Fo. CA. Bi2ha2"a2pa2"a. HKK. Ba/ of.ission. Bea". BK. Bi$shuni. Birmese. Bhi$$hu. HBF. ee )i-ch‘u and )i-k‘u. CKG. HBB. BGK. FH. BDA. HEK. HDD. FD. Bharhut. BFD. CAH. Basiasita. Bi2ch5u. Ben&a"i. BGF. Bim#isara. HGH.

HC. HDF. BGG. BHE. HFB. HK. HBK. HEH. BK. EE. BCC. DC. BCD. BCH. ED. KTQ tooth. CTT. CA. HHF.Bodhi. BFD. HAB. HFA. BEH. Brahmans. HHB. HKT. CFK. HDAQ hair. BGCQ moustaches. HTH. EC. DE. HH. CTT. Buddha/asha. Dr. HB. HBD2HBK. HTC. AF. BGH. KK. FB. ee )osat and !‘u-sa. HETQ ideas. HG. CKE. BCH. HAF. BBFQ doctrine. HTG. CDA. HED. HBB. HBQ persecution. ee Ta-mo. CHH. HAF. HDG. HCA. Brahma2"o$a. BKH. BBB. FGH. BFD. HDAQ "a%. FBD. KT. HHT2HCH. BTE. BGD. KB2KC. ee )rahma-loka. FBCQ tree. AH. Bo2di. CTA. HFF. HTB. HEG. FGHQ "iterature. ABQ maiden. BDD2BAG. ee Fan-hing. Bosat. DH. ee )odhiruchi and !‘u-t‘i-lieu-chï. FGB. Bo%rin&. BTG. FGB. BBEQ m/tho"o&/. DTQ nature. BHK. Buddhamitra. CK. BK. D2K. FFQ footstep. HBK. CAF. CHQ use of a %ord. HADQ s/stem. HFK. Budanandi. Buddha of %isdom unmoved. Bo2di2"u2chi. HBD. BED. BCG. BKG. HGE2HBG. ee )o-di-lu-chi and !‘u-t1i-lieu-chi. FBH. FBE. ED. FEQ Northern #io&raphers. FHC Bodhidharma. BGF. CKC. HFC. HAD. HCK. HFE. HCC. CT. BBA. HH. EF. Bonpa deities. BCE. p. FGH. HHC. CBC. FC. BHCQ #oo$s. TT. BKT. BAT. CK. ir 4ohn. BTA. ee )odhisatt/a and !‘u-sa. HBC. FBD. HC. HBF. HCA. FC. HEA. Brahmas. CEF. BGK. BCD. DB. AC. K. CA. FGTQ of pure "ife. Brahmanica" arithmetic. Bro%n. Buddhistic character of em#assies. CT. HD. EA. HFK. FK. BF. Bodhisatt%as. CH. CKF2CKA. FGD. KB2KF. TK. HEK. DD. DC. BCH. BHE. BCDQ chair. DB. BCT. HFE. BFKQ c"assics. Brahmach9ri. Buddha5s #one. HED. Brahma. Bri""iant vapour. FE. Bread sect. HCB. Brass Buddha. HGFQ vie%s. CEQ po%er. H. BT2HH. HCH. DE. BBEQ teachin&. HHG. Brahman. KB. CB. HHD. HHK. KC. HAC. BTC. CTA. Bodhisatt%a. Brahma heaven. TTQ ru"es of purit/. ee au-k‘i. HAF. ee )odhi. CEDQ statue. HCD. AD. HF. ee #an-t‘eu-kiau. BDH. BFH. HBAQ %isdom. ee Fan-t1ien and Fan-t1ien-yang. Buddhanandi. CBG. KE. HFB2HFC. BBEQ father. BBG. BHT. BCD. HDAQ true %ords. CGCQ caste. BTD. TKQ inscriptions. HAC. . KT. CT. HHA. HHD2HHK. HHF. Brahmanism. HHT. HGT.. HCF. CFG. BFG. HHAQ fami"/. BCDQ heart. Bodhiruchi. CDD. HED. CBD. FBHQ ima&e. ee )rahma&hea/en. BH. Bo$haria. EA. BAH. BGC. BEA. BTK. HGA2HGE. Buddhas of the ten re&ions. BGF. BCB. HDE. HQ thou&ht.

BGE. FFQ phi"osoph/. FBC. ET2TB. HEH. HEG. BGF. KC. HKK. p. FH. ü-hwang-ti. CE. Chandra&upta. ee Ka-shi-mi-lo. FGB. Cha"deans. FBD. BGG. CEK2CTHQ a"so ca""ed Chang&T‘ien-shï. BGA. FGH. ee 5heel&king. HKE. BHG. HEC. EE. BDA. ee Chang&T‘ien-ti. ED. ee Chang& i. BHA. BCH. Chan& KJien. HFE. ee Si-an&+u. C(BU). ee 5u-wei-kiau. Caucasus. HG. BH. Chai2%an&. B/Rantine emperor. BDG. HKK. EE. Chan& Tau2"in&. CTT. HBF. BBB. Chan& -i.Buddo3an&a. ee !rince&o+&Fuel. EC2ED. and ü-ti. BBA. ET. CT. Candahar. Bur&er. Chanda$a. BKB. AC. HHE. FHF ChJa2$iau. Dr. BAE. Ce/"on. FGGQ India. CA. Cha$ravarti. HEK. FBA. ee Fo. BD. EC. F. CKE. HHT. Chan& TJien2ti. HDA. HH. TT. BBK. FBD. ChJan. BGT. CBD. ee -etO and Kipin. Cadmus. Chai2tan&. CCKQ China. CAG. CHE. HBB. DF. Burnouf. HDA. HFF. BTG. TB. EH. ü-hwang. ee Lenga&=sland. TB. BBF. ec Siam. FGH. FGB. BGK. FGB. ü-hwang&shang-ti. CKF. ChJan&2an. HET. KG. CHH. HKK. FGCQ $in&dom. FBG. BEF. HFT. KH. Chandra. ee Fo-t‘u-cheng. Cashmere. BAK. CCH. FBH. Centra" (sia. BGG. FBA. ü-hwang&ta-ti. BFD. FBE. Caspian ea. HBF. Canton. HET. CTB. HTG. FF. CTT. BTD.. TF. Chan& Kun&2$un&. BGA. CTH. C. . CAK. ee ue-hu. BBK. BCB. FGF. Chan& ien. FBG. ee Cophen and Kipin. BGG. TB. BET. BHT. HKK. BGE. BBF. FBGQ province. Cam#odia. ee #adhyamika. EE. H. TB. FGF. FGT. EF. Bunam. AK. BBT. HAT. BFF. +u&lne. But. CTH.

Chen2sin& ?p"anet aturn@. Chan2chitin. BGH. CTB. BGH. BDT. CAG. HB. ChJan2shM. HTB2HTC. ChJen2sin& ?p"anet . ee Chï-k‘ai. Chan&2pi2mo2%an&. HBB. BAD. ChJan2hio. HGT. CDE. AC. HDD. ee Chen-ting&+u. ChJiau2chJen23u. BKT. TC. ChJM2cheu fu. BGK. CDT. Chen2cheu. ChJen& -i2ch%en. Chen&2fa2/en2tsan&. BCA. ee $harani. BBG. BHTQ fami"/. Che2$ian&. ChJen&2h%an&2/e. Chen2tsun&. HKD. BKE. BKH. ee -odinia. ET. ChJau $in&dom. Cheu. HBB. BHT. BKT. BDA. CTG. Chen&2te period. BFH. CEE. HCCQ $in&dom. CKH. Chen d/nast/. BAQ emperors.ercur/@. BFH. CKC. ChJen&2h%an& miau. TC. Cheu Kun&. FGB. CAB. CHH. Cheu !in&. BGD. TH. Chen2tan ?China@. BHA. BAD. CHF. ChJen& . ee Ch‘an-men. FBE. Chi *a2"in&. BHD. FGK. ee Ch‘an-hio. HDD. ChJan&2tsJien monaster/. . ee !e-chi-li and Shan-si. BCK. ee Chen&cheu. ChJan2men. TG. Chendaras. Cheu d/nast/. CKK. Chen2tin& fu.Chan&2$in& sM. ChM2che. Chau2cheu. CAG. BCT. Ch`n23`n fu. ChJen&2tu.

ChM2hiI. BFG. Chu2dharma2"an. HEG. Chu M2hin&. Chu !i.. Chu2dharmara$sha. FGG. ee 4en-ki. BKB. BGE. . BGK. BDA. BAE. BGE. HCT. Chi2men&. ee !e-chi-li. DG. BBK. BGT. ee Chu&+u-tsï. BEH. BKT. ChJM2$%o. ee Chï-che. BGK. DE. BAD. Chu2"iI2/en. HKD. and Heng. KH. HGE. BGK. ee -anges. Chufahu. HEG. BEG. FB. BGT. ee Kwan-yin. KC. BAG. BDK. BAG. HEG. HEE. Chun&2tsun& ?emperor@. BKH. BEF. BFG. Chu2fa2"an. BEA. ChM2$Jai. BBK. Chï-p‘an. BTG.ChJih2chJen& ?a hi""@.. HEG. Chun2ti. CHD. CAG2CAH. BAE. Chu2hun&. BEK. Chunda. Chosroes I. ee Chu&Hi. China Branch of the Ro/a" (siatic ociet/. HEG. BKG. BKA2BEH. HAB. Chu *o. Chi2"u2$a2tsJan. ChM2$%an s/stem. ee $hritarashtra and T‘i-to-lo-to. ee T‘ien-t‘ai-kiau. Church . ED. BHG. Chitsin. ChM2tun. Chu fu2tsM. Chi2/au. BKD. BKB. ChI2men ?a movin& star@.—II. ee K‘u-sa-ha and 6ushir/an. Chin d/nast/. Chi2"i. BGT. CAB. BHB. CKK. HEG. BDH. -ang-pa. ChJin&2chJia. BBA.issionar/ ociet/. CFA. ChM2$un&2min&. ChM2$io. CE. ChM2$ian.

Con:ueror of the Dra&on. TEQ c"assics. HCG. TD. BDD. CTC. CTA. ee !a-ta-lik. Da"ai )ama. ee Ta-hia.ata"iputra. CH. CBD. HGH. HAK. Ch%an& Cheu. ee Ca(ul and Kipin. Constantinop"e. BCH. HEH. ET. HAA. HEK. CDKQ commentar/.Chusan.. CBH. CCT. H. HAT. Dau&hter of the Dra&on $in&. HGG. ee Lung-sheng and 6agar"una. D(B(D(R(. HEG. Csoma Karasi. CHC2CHD. HEE. TA. ee $harani and To-lo-ni. . HGG. Da2"a2ni. BHT. BTF. BCH. CEB. TEQ re"i&ion. TK. FGG. BCG. p. C/rus. BFC. HGC. TE. FGG. BKE. BHD. FGFQ . CBT. CGE2CBG. CAG. BDTQ opposition. CCC. BBHQ doctrine. CFDQ historian. BHC. BFEQ mountain. BDBQ pre3udices. FBTQ vie%. Confucius. BBA. BBDQ river. CHB. BDC. DD. Co"e#roo$e.. FBK. . HKFQ fourth do. Dan. HKC.. Confucianist. ee Lung-nü. BBF. BDG. BHH. Confucian. HGG. Corea. Da"uchi. CKT. BGD. FBB. EE. Corean "etters. CDG2CDH. BTF. Dasaratha. HKG. BCB. CDD. CKG. BHK. BCAQ reasonin&. CDH. Cousin. BHDQ criticism. HDA. CDB. CTK.. CET. HGC. CDD. CHDQ %orship. BKB. BBF. Dah= ?Dai2he@. Counci" of Cashmere. Cophen. FHD Comte. Coreans. CHCQ e"ement of fen&2shui. ee $hyana. CAB. BHTQ mandarins. CBE2CHG. BCBQ memoria"ists. HDE. CEB. BBB. BBA. Constans II. TT. HGH. HGH. Dardu. D9na ?Charit/@. CFD. CHD. CHG. BBK. BBG. FGB. CHA. HGG. BFA. Confucianists. BFB. HCTQ archipe"a&o.. CTC. FH. BDHQ s/stem. CDK. CDKQ trans"iteration. CEA. T. HFH. HGBQ historian. FBE. Constantine. HEG. CTK. CBC. HGB. CK. !. BBF. Confucianism. HHT.

KD. DC. HC. Deva. Dhritar9shtra. DF. BDA. Dharani. CCC2CCD. HGT. BBK. FBD. HGA2HGE. FGK. HBA. HAG. ee Lung-wang and 6aga-ra"a. HEG. ee Fa and Law. $an. BTK. CBG. Dharma$a$a"a. EB. BHT. ee 5u-wei-kiau. HBA. HKG. Devans. BBD. Dipan$ara. HHD. CKH. ee Ch‘an. FBE. BBE. ee Ch‘ï-kwo and T‘i-to-lo-to. CKK. BCH. HHE. Devana&ari. HBT. Dh/ana. HFF. FBK. BBD. Do2nothin& sect. DE. CFC. DB. HCT. CTT. FHA Dra&on $in&s. De 1ui&nes. HFC. CHC. HGK. Dharma/a&ama. Dian. $ian. CDD2CDK. Dh/ana Buddhas. HED. HCG. CDA. HHD. $a-la-ni. ED. HGA. KK. KG. CBG. BGT. KA. DA. HHG. HEK. BTG. FGA. CEH. ee 4an-teng. DC. BCC. BTF. DH. ee $hyana. HGA.Deer &arden. BCK. BTH. CHE. BFK. FBF. HHA. AT2KC. ee Lung and 6aga. Dharma. FG.. CCD. CFK. BGT. BBG. and To-lo-ni. BBG. HBK. BTG. CKK. Deva2"o$a ?Deva %or"d@. BFH. DA. Dharmanandi. BGE. KK. HE. EA. ee Lung-leu. HEH. p. CDG. HBG. DE. ee Lü and <inaya. HBDQ pa"ace. Disrae"i. Dra&on2$in&. HBF. HB. HDD. Devatas. FBT. BET. Dra&on. Dharma&uptas. KA. BBG. Dharmara$sha. CEC. HBK. ee $hyana. BHT. HKTQ to%er. CHT. ee T‘ien—paradises. CAH. FGB. HAK. 4. HKT. HGK. TC. CEK2CTG. HFG. BBD. Dra&on2horse. CHC. HBF2HBK. Dharmati. BGG. B. Demon. ee Cheu. CTG. HD. HED. BCH. CTA. D3an. KK. CT. HKT. CT. BE. AD. CFK2CFT. ee Lu-ye-yuen and #rigada/a. BDE. BTG. DE. . HEB. CFC.. HHC. HEC. Discip"ine. HHK. HHA. CFK. BGE. AF. HE. FBK. HAC. Dharmapara. HF. BKH. BH. CTD. HFE. CCE. ee Fa-mi-pu. ee Hu-+a. CAH. Devas. HEG. Demons. DharmashX$a. and $"an. BBE. DC. BK.

BAAQ s/stem.Dra&on2tree. CFB.ersia. +phesus. HEBQ continent. CAF. ee 6agas. A. HD. HHG. BAEQ doctrine. +"#urR mountain. BAHQ tradition.aradise. BAH. CT. FBEQ doctrine. 4. HKE. BDTQ Buddhists.BETC<. Dura. Du$Ja. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. BGTQ TsJin. BAT. NextS *2. CT. CDD. EH. BDT. CKC. CBCQ "an&ua&e. HG. CHD. CKCQ Buddhism. ee $harma and Law. BDE. BAG. acred Texts Buddhism Index . FCQ schoo". HBE. BFH. BKGQ sects. FGC. ee Tsung-men. CDA. HK. KB. +( T+RN ( I(. Druids. CFG. BAEQ Buddhists. CAC.. +uropeans. HBB. FBKQ fashion. HKTQ . +. BFH. HAB. TG. +&/pt. BGE. ee Lung-shu and 6agar"una. C. Dud&eon. DRin d/nast/. HG. CCG. CFEQ criticism. ET2TBQ Tur$ Chinese&)uddhism. +urope. HCBQ deposit. BCBQ mora" *(. ee Kiau-men. Dravida countr/. +soteric #ranch. BGEQ provinces. DRin2#a2da. BAKQ teachin&. +xoteric #ranch. FBT. ACQ e"ement. CFBQ Buddhas. CEC. HDH. +uropean accounts. BFB. BFFQ . FC. CKBQ Thi#et. Dri$ata. HDCQ &overnments. BBK. FBH2FBF.. CEE. BFC. FBT. Dra&ons. BKG. DRin"on. FBK2FBT.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. CCT. BFB. HBAQ India. KB2KC. TC. C. Dr. FGE. BTCQ schoo"men. FBTQ (siatics. BHC. CD. HAA. BEFQ specu"ation. CD. CTB. Dr. CKK. BAA. KG. +n&"ish critic. +i&ht2faced K%an2/in. BAG. Dur&a. BDEQ schoo". ED. BHD. HDA. FG. . CCA. HBG. HBA. HAH. CB. HGBQ $in&s. ee Ts‘in&dynasty. at sacred2texts. +ite". BKG. CKCQ Buddhism. HKT. ee Sumeru. CDDQ astronomers. BDD. HKH. .

BKG. *a2$I. *oocho%. *a2/en schoo". BA. HDB. CCC. ee King&o+&the&)rahma&hea/en and #aha(rahma. HFC.. ee )uddo"anga. *an&2$%an& monaster/. *a2sin&2tsun&. *a2mi2pu. BBK. BBE. BAA. *an2tJien.*a2chM.shtra. BKG. *o2tJu2chen&. CCB. ee )rahma-loka. TB. BHB. EC. FBC. HBK. HEG. ee )rahma. BGT. *u2$ien province. ee #emorial&on&the&(one&o+&)uddha. ee Sanscrit. *o2tin& shan. BBF. 4. *an2tJien. CCT. BGT. *a2tJien2pen. *u -i. <aishramana. HGK. ee )ut. CTT. CCE. FF. *ichte. *a2tsan&. BA. DK. HBA. *a2shun. HCC. BDT. *a2"in&. *o. ee $harmaguptas. FGT. BAE. EC. and <irupaksha. *en&2shui sien2shen&. *o2$u2piau. FGH. HDG. TG. ee $hritar. HBK. HBD. FGA. HFB2HFD. HEK. *erin&i. *a2sian&2tsun&. CDF. CFC2CFD. ee Treasure&o+&the&Law. BCK. BAB. *en&2tu ta2ti. CED. CFT2CDH. *a2hien. BKK. HEG. T. FGB. ee )rahmans&o+&pure&li+e. <irudhaka. BHA. *an "an&ua&e. *a2"in. ee -eomancer. HHC. BKG. HAF. CCH. *er&hana. *en&2shui. BCD. HF. *an2hin&. BDG. CTC. CHK. *an2tJien2%an&. *our &reat $in&s of Devas. CCG. BGK. BBD. *u2"un& fen&. . BEK. *a2hai sM. HD. CHT. HCT. FBG. CEC. BKK. CAB. BCA.

. FHK *uh2pan. EA. *rench ortho&raph/. BHB. HBB. 1audama . FC. AB. CHE2CCK. +. FBT. *un&2sian& fu. FBT. HBDQ %riters. CFD. 1erman "an&ua&e. HCF. 1autama. CFF. .*u2"un& monaster/. HEG. 1aruda. 1eomancer. 1eomanc/. HTC. 1et=. BBA2BBE. EH. CDH. BCC. HKE. BGE. CCH. BDK. BDG. 1a2"am. HFD. HKA. HH. 1a/a. HCD. HBK. BKC. FBFQ phi"osopher. CGC. *u"im. p. ee Feng-shui. ee Lung-kia. CBCQ revo"ution. FBC. 1an&2&a. BHB. FBB. FBT. FH. BHH. BGT. CFA. HFE. 1an&es. HCA. BHC. CFC. BHA. HGK. ee -ridhrakuta. CFK. ee Ch‘ing-ch‘ia. 1a""e. 1audamsiddha. KD. BGG. HHE. and -anges.ra3na"uti. BHG. and Heng. EE. 1andhara. CHT. 1andharvas. 1i23a2$u2ta. ee Fo. AQ trans"ator. BBA. CDF. *uh. HFE. CKF. 1i##on. ee K‘ia-lan. 1arudas. FH. BC. 1eomancers. BEG. ee Feringi. HBD. HTB. 1(+)IC "an&ua&e. CHK. 1audamara. CDG. 1audamsen&hadlva. BBK. ee ue-ti and *+ghanistan. F. 1ata$ana. CKF. 1erman/. 19ti. *uh2hi. BBE. F. BBK. HBF2HBK. HCAQ sino"o&ues. ee Ch‘ing-ch‘ia. BD. FGC. -ang-ga. CDG. HBB. ee Shakyamuni. ee Feng-shui&sien-sheng. CFT.

FBA. CCT. CAC. CE. FGCQ $in&dom. FGAQ c"ass. HAK. HKK. CHB2CHF. BHA.. HBA. BGA. CDG. CHHQ &ods. #ahayana. HAT. 1reat +xtreme. DC. BAT. CFK. !an d/nast/. DH. CFF. !eaven"/ emperor. CDG. CACQ invasion. HFTQ vie% of nature. BFC. !ard/. HGT. 1reat Bosat. BDB.e2chi2"i. HEA. and Ta-ch‘eng.. HEK. CCD. HDA. HKTQ s/stem. FH. CTB. 1u"f of .other. EE. HECQ #oo$s. CFBQ %ord.r.. BKD. HKK. EF. HFF. BKB. DK. 1rand cana". BGTQ schoo". !an -I. BHA. ee -autama. CCD. HKK. BHG. CFC. FBG. BEFQ $in&s. 1reece. ee !e-teu. CCT. HKE. FGB. HBF. CTKQ race. CHG2CHH. CFCQ "an&ua&e. EA. 1o2din2nia. EC. CEH. HBK. 1ridhra$uta. HET. BA. ee Kin-mu. 1ree$s. 1una#adara. Dr. BBC. FG. 1odam. CBK. CBT. TT. BBE. HKA. HE. FBTQ mind. ee -i-"a-ku-ta. 1oddess of . HCG. HEG. BHA. 1una#idi. HD. 1odinia. BBG. !(K)+N(. ee Kwan-yin. FBTQ name. HCA. CCK. HCG. (. CHH. 1reat Deve"opment. CACQ phi"osoph/. !ami"ton. ee -reat&$e/elopment. CBK. A. HEBQ c"assics. BET. CKK. 1reat 0ehic"e. CFGQ domination. HGT. 1o&er"/. ee T‘ien-ti. HFT. !ei2"un&2tJan. 1o"den . HBF. FBA. K. CDF. 1utR"aff. CDB. ee T‘ai-ki. ee Han&5en-kung. BTG. BAD. BDA. . ee Ch‘iau-ch‘en-"u and -o-din-nia. CFF. C. CEC. !an&2chen. HKD. ee #a-ha-sat. HCG. CCAQ scu"pture. Rev. Rev. !.erc/. FGB. HFE.1i"es. 1reat #ear. 1reater Deve"opment. ee -reat&$e/elopment. FGB. CFCQ dra&on. CCT. ee Han& ü. BCQ doctrine. CEK2CET. BGGQ course. HGH. 1ree$ dates. BT. CCCQ &enius. Dr. FGE. CDE. !e#re% "an&ua&e. BKB. HDKQ inf"uence. CBT. ee Ch‘iau-ch‘en-"u and -odinia. !an >en2$un&. HEBQ sutras. HEB. HK. FBG. DB. BDB. HKT. BHK. CKT. CDA. pence. CAFQ historian. ee #ahayana and Ta-ch1eng. .

TT. !iau >u ?emperor@. !indoo. !en&2ho2er2tsian&. CFB. !iuen2tsan&. CDCQ ori&ina". BE. BBA2BHB. !ien2tsun& ?emperor@. BHB. CACQ notions. !o. !i&h (sia. CDF. FGDQ minds. TH. !iuen2tsun& ?emperor@. C. BDT. HBE2HHG. HEC. HAE. ee Heng and Ho. CFFQ trans"ations. !en&2cheu. K. BCEQ . HFH. HKF. HGHQ sa&es. HHG. FGFQ cosmo&on/. CHC. BFQ sects. CACQ author. !ieou2thou. EE. BGK. !ien $a"pa. HHGQ %ords. BKB. HDA. BTB. BTE. BKG. HAFQ he""s. CCTQ popu"ar account. !iau2fan&. HBH. CAHQ inf"uence. HET. T. HEQ missionaries. BDT. BCH. CFH. BKH. HKK. HHG. CDF. !ina/ana. BBG. !iun&2nu. !indoo Kush. HACQ na$shatras. BKB. HHH. ee Heng-ho-er-tsiang. HBBQ pantheon. CFH. HKD. HBE. HGH. HFG. FBH. BTK. BHF. FGH. HAF. HHH. CFFQ 4ains. BAT2BKB. CCH. !indostan. BDA. CACQ arithmetic. CTC. HGHQ astronom/. CFFQ nation. BBB. CFB. HTH. CCTQ ori&in. CQ %orship. CAFQ Buddhists. CAC idea. !im9"a ?forest@. BAG. BDKQ $in& of death. HGT. BTQ m/tho"o&/. BKB. CTF. HG. FBCQ %or"d. HEG. HGK. !ippo"/tus. HAH. p. HHH. HKT. BHA. !in&2sM2fan&2fei2chM2n&o ?schoo"@. !indoos. HBK. HGT. CFBQ architecture. FGCQ )o2hans. HBC. !ien2sheu. BTK. CCT. ee Heng-ho-er-tsiang. BEAQ patriarch. FHE !en&. BDT. !iun&2er ?mountain@. BEA. HBH. C. CE. FGAQ thou&ht. HB. CFH. FBAQ monastic societies. CCAQ notion. FGG. HHEQ nomenc"ature. HFG. FBHQ trans"ators. HHTQ vie%. BTAQ "an&ua&e. BBK. HTA. BTKQ divinities. FG. TT. BBD. HBE. BGC. HBK. BC. BCA.retas. EC. CHH. CAF. CFF. !en&2shan. CACQ phrases. HDD. BKTQ phi"osopher. AC. CACQ arts. ee -anges. HAH. A. BBG. TC. C. BFA. HHT. CGT. HBA. BKG. FBA. HHCQ name. HGHQ re"i&ion. ee Siau-ch‘eng and Smaller&$e/elopment. CCT. FGDQ #oo$s. FGT. ee #aha(hadra-kalpa. BBH. HG. HBA. CFB. FGF. BFA. BAG. HFTQ mind. HEHQ deities. HBF. BAT. HBC. BA. HFG. BHK. HAEQ race. CDE. HBDQ &ods. !i2$Jiau. BTFQ practice.!en&. CBCQ phi"osoph/. HAG. HHKQ shape. BTC. HKF. TC. !in&2sM. . CGCQ authors. CAFQ societ/. ET. HEH. CBT. !erac"itus. FGCQ universe. CAHQ ph/sics. !ima"a/as. FGB. FBFQ s/m#o". BFK. HGA. !ia d/nast/.

CGC. BAD. FBK. BKE. HKT. (##n. CBG. !%a2shM. !un&r/ &hosts. HAD. !omer. HBG. KF. . DB. CFC. !uc. !%an&2cheu. HG.. ee Shi-li. !%a2tsan& universe. !ume. CTG. BT. !%ai2nan2tsM. BTD. BBK. !u2fa2%ei2to. HHC. BHG. BGT. !o2nan province.. FGK. BHA. Brian. !%a2/en ?Bodhisatt%a@. HFK. BGT. CD. !o2nan fu. ee !ersian&language. !o2shan&. !on&$on&. !%a2/en sM ?monaster/@. !. FHT !%a2/en doctrine. !o2min& shan. HFG.. HKH. CAC. BFC. HAT. !ordern. BAG2BAH.. !%ai2nen&.ya. ee 'padhy. BGC. ee ü-lan-p‘en. TT. CHB. . CBD. EB. HBG. HGK. BHD. !%a2$%an&. BCH. BAG. !%a2shie. ee $harmapara. !u2nan province. CAF. BEG. HCC. BFC. HA. David. ee !ataliputra. BTA. . BDT. CDD. !un&2fa2tJan& ?temp"e@. !%ei2h%ei %ord. HFH. BA. CDG.!od&son. !ormouR. CBH. ee 6imala&paradise. !u2fa. !%ai (n2tsM.r. p. ee Lo-yang. HGH. !%a2tin& ?mountain@. HAE. HGG. HBB. HEB. ee <eda and 5ei-to. H. !%a2"o. CGC. BCT. ee Ho-shang. HAC. !%ai23an&. !u TJo. HBE. !u2to ?river@.

BKG. CFF. Indians. ee Ti-shï. TH. HF. HBF2HBA. CFHQ $in&.!%ei2nian& ?schoo"@. FBE. FGH. HHA. DA. BDA. HDG. !%ei2sM. !%ei2/uen. DE. HBD. 4an2ten&. CDQ $in&s. HBH. CFH. BHAQ protot/pe. BDA. FT. ee $ipankara. CFFQ . BFH. EE. HHD. HFT. HET. HAA. TCQ m/tho"o&/. CBC. ETQ Buddhists. HEK. B. HGK. ee Swaracs. ee e7degerd. !%ei2tsun& ?emperor@. Independent Tartar/. FGT. BGHQ shastras. ET. CTF. 4am2ma2ra3a. BGDQ $in&doms. BAG. HBD. 4ains. HCB. TT. BKB. FQ re"i&ion. Ish%ara. HC. 4am#u continent. BCH. FD. I2DPI2PI. CFH. India. EA2TF. BDK. BHH. CBT. C. CHH. 4ainas. HAK. HAAQ phi"osophers. EC. EC. THQ numera"s. HBB."uto. BAB. HCT. I2tJa2chi. BHT. CB. BAKQ dia"ect. BBF. ee 4am(ud/ipa. Indra ha$ra. HT. HCG. BAK. EE. FBE. TC. BFF. BAC. BDG. CAG. HKT. HG. CFC. F. CHCQ spe""in&. HBF. BGE. 4apan. HBG. BEF. BD. KK. BDA. CDG. BCB. FGH. Indus. CH. BBCQ tit"es. BFHQ /ear. BBA2BBE. HBE. BGG. HFB. BKH. HKK. TB. BBK. BDK. Ionian phi"osophers. BFK. BHGQ &eo&raphers. HHH. BHCQ Ocean. TG. BTG. BFD. FBEQ race. HBQ priests. CEHQ Buddhist. BH. CD. HFC. BFD. HBG. HFC. BGC. . CFFQ $a"pas. BDE. BGAQ mode"s. CBHQ phi"osoph/. CKG. CDF. BFA. BGG. T. CAG. CBTQ statement. BHB. CBTQ sa&e. DA. FG. CCT. BFDQ Buddhism. HCF. BTD. BCTQ &eo&raph/. BGB. BKB. DEQ "iterature. HBA. DD. HBE. HHG. HG2HH. CFBQ phi"osoph/. HBF. HGT. HHH. HEG. BCG. BBK. Indian. BCK. CEA. ee ama and en-lo-wang. HBH. BGT. 4(IN(. 4am#udvipa. CHH. BCTQ 1et=. DT. HTH. BBK. BHT. 4am2ma2"a23a. BTG. AG. CG. BFF. Indo2+uropean mind. FHQ stran&ers. !%ei2%en. FG. ee ama and en-lo-wang. CAC. EAQ states. HKD. ET. BGT. FE. H. FBAQ ideas. CCT. FT. !%ei2shen&. BCFQ monarch. Indo2Chinese peninsu"a. CAG. FBE. BBQ name. I2tsun& ?emperor@. HK. CTB. H. BGE. EH. Ionians. HBT. 4ainism. BAA. HGH.

FHH. CFG. HBF. CDD. HGE. HEC. ee Chosroes II. HTG. HTH. CBG. DB. DF. p. 4udaism. BBA. A2E. HTG. HHH. KJ(I2*+N1 *U. D. FGG. CFH. 4e#a#ada. CTB. FGH. HGK. BKC. HCT. HBB. FGT. CB. ee Tath. BE. HBG. 4axartes. Ka"pa. HHK. CTB. BDKQ term. HFA. F. ee Sui-sing. FBK. HHB. FT. Ka"utanasi. C. BBK. Ka"avin&$a. HCC. HTH. 4u"ien. HET. HCC. BFAQ narrative. 4en2%an&. BH. FB. CTB. BCE. BH. 4en2$i. BCT. FBE. HFD. FGG. 4esuit. BFT. . HCD. HEF. BBK. HB. ee !ien-ch‘eng and !ien-liang. BCK. KD. BB. HHB. HAB. HTC. BTA.4apanese. BF. KK2KT. HTD2HTK. CB. CKQ scriptures. DG. KB. Kanadeva. 4eho". CDDQ trans"iteration. KB. CK. 4/otishpra#ha ?a Brahma@. BCCQ intercourse. 4u"ai. FCG Ka"pa of the a&es. HAA. CTT. HHH. BH. BB. 4onah. DB. KB. EH. 4a/ata. HTH. BBK. BF. HCF. 4ud=a. HBD. 4upiter ?p"anet@. Kan2do ?countr/@. Ka"pas. F. 4en2tsun& ?emperor@. 4i2$%an&2pien2chau. 4u2$iau. ET. BTD. 4etavana. tanis"as. 4ava. Kan_de. Ka"ashX$a. HGH. 4eta. CEH.gata. 4e%ish "i&ht. TC. FGE. FD. CF. BTA. BAK. TC.

Kan2mu2"u. BTK. BAE. HFT. Kasha/a. CB. BGT. CBH2CBF. BAG. F. HFB. HEG. FGF. ee Kapili. TC. BDA. Kassapa. TG. Kash&ar. ee Kashiapa. FBA. Kan2"u. DK. HFE. BFT. KJan&2sen&2h%ei. . AC2AD. Kapi"avastu. FC. HKK. BCK. HDK. HEG. EB. HTB. CD. HFC. FBA. Kanish$a. Kapi"a ?countr/@. BGK. CDF. HKA. HGF. BFF. Ka2shiap. BFC. DD. Khoten. ee 'din and u-tian. BDA. CGA. FBA. BKA. HEG. ee Kapila/astu. TF. FGB. Kapimara. HHH. FBC. HEG. KA. FGG. BKK. Ka2shap. CFF. TF. ee Kashaya. Kau2chJan& ?countr/@. Kausham#i ?countr/@. FBA. DE. ee Cashmere. Ketu. HTC. BFA. KH. HBH. BF. HKK. KJan&2men&2ts5ian&. BFC. K9sh/ap\/as. KJan2/I. FH. CB. Kau2min& monaster/. EE. ee Ki-tu. BBE. Kan2su province. Ka2shi2mi2"o. KJan&2$u. HB. Kapi"i. FGB. FGB. Karma ?fate@. Kasha ?priest5s ro#e@. BDH. KE. BCH. KJan&2sen&2$6ai. HEG. BD. HKH. Kapi"a ?a phi"osopher@. TC. Kashiapmadan&a. FGB.KJan&2hi. ee Kashiapa. HE. FGF. BFC. CG. Kau !%ei2%en. BGT. FT. HEC. HAB. BA. ee Khoten and 'din. HGC. ee Kasha. CCK. ee Kia-she. BGC. ee Kashiapa. ee Kia-she-pi-ye-pu. CCH. BGT. FBD. Khodin. ee Thi(et. Kau2tsun& ?emperor@. Kashiapa.

BEH. HKD.Ki ?name of a star@. BDT. Kieu2h%a. HGK. Kia2$Jin&. BKG. CEE. ee Kashaya. BBG. ee Kapila. Kipin. BDB. HCD. BGE. BGT. CTE. . KC. HKA. Kia2hin&. BDE. ee Sutra. CCE. BAG. AK. HAB. BAK. ee <a"rasattwa. ee <a"ramati. Kin& of the Brahma heaven. Kiai2hien. Kieu2mo2"o2shM. CKE. FGB. CKK. ee Kashiapa. HBD. HAC Ki2"o2shM2$iai. ee Kumara"i/a. BAE. Kisi2tJan ?a"tar@. HDC. BCC. KH. Kia2sha. CAE. ee Candahar and Cophen. BCK. CEK. Kie ?emperor@. Kia2pi2"o. HFK. CDF. Kiau2men. ee Fan-t‘ien-wang. CKK. BAT. ee -olden&#other. Kian&2si province. Kin&. Kia2tsin&. Kian&2nan province. HEB. BDG. Kinnaras.shyapEyas. Kie2tan. CKB. HAF. Kian& TJai2$un&. ee -a-lam. HAD. ee K. EF. ee $iscipline and <inaya. HKK. BBF. Kia2she2pi2/e2pu. HKD. BAE. HKT. BAT. Kieu2"un&2tien ?ha""@. Ki2$Jin&. FB. BAE. Kiai2"I. HBF. ee 6ü-chih&dynasty. HGK. KJia2"an. BBE. CFE. ee !aradise&o+&*mita(ha. ee 98oteric&(ranch. BGE. HAF. BCT. Kin2mu. CD. BGF. CBC. Kin2$an&2sat2%a. FBG. HFD. HAC. BAT. HBA. Kin d/nast/. BA. Kieu2$ian&. Kiau2cheu. BFB. Kin2$an&2chi. Kia2she. Kitchen &od.

Ku"usan ?a Buddha@. Kshatr/as. Kushinara. HFD. TG.ude. KJu2sa2ha. K"aproth. p. FGB. FBD. HCB. BH. FB. ee !i-lieu-pa-cha and <irupaksha. HEK. AH. Koeppen. FBA. K%an&2/in2tJien. BDG. ee )erar and . ee Kwan-ti. BF. Kunashemuni ?a Buddha@. BHG. ee Kushinara. HBD. CBE. CTE. FH. BA. Kui2tsi ?countr/@. KJiun&. HAH. KIh -uen. FH. . DG. ee Kwan-+u-tsï. ee Khoten. FBD. K%an2shM2/in. CCE. FGE. ee Chosroes I. *ried. CTE. ee Ketu. K%an2ti. FGA. Ku"u ?countr/@. FG. Kucha ?countr/@. EH. Ku#"ai $han. BKB. KI2/un& $%an. ED. HTH. BBT. CTC. HCT. HEC. FCB Krishna. HFB. EB. HCB. Kshatr/a. BDT. HHG. BTB. FH. HFG. HTC. Ku2ma2"a2Rhip. HFK. K%an&2n&o2tu2rM. BFK2BFT. BTG. Kustana. HBH. DH. BFC. Ku#9ndas. EE. BKB. ee Kushinagara. HGE. BF. K%an& mu. BAE. HCF. BDG. Ku2shan. Kosa"a. HGK. HEG. AF.Ki2tu. HDA. BTK. BBK. HTB. HGG. Kumara3iva. HDK. HAH. BHE. ee The&hea/en&o+&(rightness&and&sound. ee Kumara"i/a. ee Kwan-yin. ET2TB. K%an&2fu2sM ?monaster/@. HBF. K%an&2min&. CB. Kushina&ara. BD. K%an2fu2tsM. Kumarada. FBH.. 4u"es. CEH. and 6ushir/an. BCT. HBA. BGE2BBG. FGF. FH. CFG.

HFT. EB. Dr. CCA. ee 'p. HFA. )andresse. HDC. HCA. HAH. )au2tsM. BCH. HEG. )ar&er Deve"opment.saka. ee Ceylon. K%an2/in2tien ?ha""@. HDTQ monasteries.. CKH. TC. )ater TJan& d/nast/. ee $harma and Fa. CKC. CTG. HAAQ temp"es. BHE. HDE. CKK. FBF. HFH. FBG. )amaser/. )au2shan. ee */alKkit0shwara and Kwan-yin. CD. HDA. HFG. )atin "an&ua&e. 4. BCC. CE. . )atins. BCK. HKH. HAC. K%an2/in. CT. BKA. ee *rhan and Lo-han. HGE. CKH. HFB. BKC. K%o2tsJin& monaster/. CG. HAH. )a%. CEA. )au2$iIn. HAH. FG. )ai2cheu fu. BKG.K%an2tsM2tsai. HFD. K%un2"un ?mountains@. CAH. HCK. HDT. HBA. HDD. ee Lau-tsï. BCC. )ama. FBK. ee Lo-heu and Rahu. )e&&e. )a2hu. )ater Tsin d/nast/. BTG. HKC. BCB. )ater un& d/nast/. D. )assen. C. )amaseries. CEH2CEF. HKG. )en&a Is"and. HHA. HGT. HAG. )and of !an. HDG. FBD. FBC. HKDQ tJan. CKG. )a/ Buddhists. )(!(N. )en&2/en monaster/. K%ei2$i. K%o2hai K%an2/in. FGT. BKK. )en&a ?a priest@. BDH. )an2chin. ee Lau-kiün. CEB. FGA. BKB. HCC. CFF. FGT. ee -reat&$e/elopment. )amas. HFD. BAC. Ch. CAG. BAE. FGE.. HBH. BEG.. ee */alKkit0shwara. FBA. HAB2HAK. DD. HAG.

. BEH. )o$ad3/esht6a. CTF. BCF. CKC. )o2tsu. )u2/an&. )ian&2shan. )in )in&2su. A. BAB. BGF. )o2han. TF. BGK. HKD. BBH2BBD. HHD. )oo2choo. BGE. ee Rahu. FCH )in2tsi schoo". ee Lo&Hwei-neng. DB. BGH. TE. FGC. ee Shastra. )iu ?a ma&ician@.issionar/ ociet/. CKB. )ion $in&dom. BFA. DD. )esser Deve"opment. HEG. )ieu . HFT. )hassa. HBH. ee Shï-tsï-kwo. ee Hinayana and Siau-ch‘eng. )o !%ei2nen&. BBA. BGE. )i )au2tan. )ien2chen& ?a star@. HAG. CFF. BGE. p. HFB. BA. )un. BCE. HKD. ee Lo-tsu. )ieu !in&2sM. CKF. ee Lau-kiün and Lau-tsï. FGK. )i !%ei2sM. BFH. TT. ee *rhan and . HKG. )o$esh%arara3a. BEF. CKK. HEB. HAC.-lo-han.)esser Conve/ance. )o2hans. )I ChJun2/an&.ei. ee Lesser&$e/elopment. CEH. CTB. BFH. ee $iscipline and <inaya. BAG. HKG. BKE. HAA. HKK. CFK )ien2sM2ta2shM. HDA. BKK. )o2heu. )o%er 1an&es. BBE. BGT. )ien2tsun&. )ian&2cheu. DG. D. EE. )I. FGG. CKE. HEB. TT. HDF. )ieu Te2%ei. BAE. ee Hwei-sï. BAE. BAC2BAA. HFH. HEB. )ian& d/nast/. ee Tsing-tu. CGC. ee Shï-tsun and 5orldCs&Honoured&. BEH. BGH. CTF. CKB. ee Shï-tsun. BKG. BDA. CH. )i TJai2pe. BAG. BTE. BCC. BHK. A. )ondon . BGB. BHA.

CBB2CBK. . CG. FT.a2ha2pa23a2pa2ti. BAG. )u2/e2/uen. BCK. CE.aha . ee #audgalyayana. BD. )u2tsun ?a star@. FH. . ee -eomancers. HHB. HKTQ s/stem. BBG. ee -reat&)osat. ee $ragon&tower. )un&2hu2tan.aha Kashiapa.aha#hadra2$a"pa. ee #ah. HBA. )uther. HHF.ahashasa$a schoo". HCG. ee Fan-t‘ien-wang. DB. . )un&2hu shan. CFA. BEB. )un&2shen&. HBK. HHH. BKH.ahapadma. . CGC. . ee Con3ueror&o+&the&$ragon. HFF. . CFA. FBT. HDA. HBF. FBAQ phi"osoph/.aha Ish%ara. HKK. ee #ahapadma and #o-ho-po-t‘e-mo. . HKT. AC.patE.pra". ee $ragon and 6aga. HCE. HKC.aha Kuhi"a. . HGK. FGF. HKEQ doctrine. BEF. HTG. HBF.adura. ee #a-ha-pa-"a-pa-ti. CTG. )un&2h%a. )un&2%an&.artin. BH. .)un&. HCB. KC. . HET. CFK. ee #ah0shwara and Ta-tsï-tsai-t‘ien. HCG. )un&2shu. . FGA. ee $aughter&o+&the&$ragon&king.aha$a"a miau.adh/ami$a. FK.a2ha2pa2de2ma.a&adha. )un&2$ia. HE. A. HHF. . . . CB. . DH. HFK. CCC. .ah9pra39pat\. HKE. HBG. HED. KK. BEF. AC.aha#rahma. HBD. HFH. . HTG. FBDQ #oo$s. BCHQ schoo". CTG. ee $eer&garden and #rigada/a. KK.aud&a"/a/ana. FBA. FBDQ "iterature. BKB. CTT. .( T>(N2)IN. CHD. BAT. BAGQ sutras. . ee *ge&o+&5ise&men and Hien&kalpa. BKG. AH. BGG. CTT.adh/anti$a. . CB. AE. ee $ragon-king and 6aga-ra"a. ee $ragon-tree. )un&2nI. FBD. FBK. ee #a-ha-pa-de-ma and #o-ho-po-t‘e-mo. .a&ian %orship. CGH. HG. . HCG. )un&2"eu.a2ha2sat. BAT.aha/ana. AF. HFB.

.ah\sh9sha$as. . CA. CD. HTH. ee Ta-yue-chï. HHD. TG.anchurian mountains.a"achJa. . BAG. HBB. . FCC .arcus (ure"ius (ntoninus.aud&a"/a/ana. BAH. HFB. . BBE. ee #an"usiri. BHH. CTT.ara. KF2KA. ee #ah0shwara and Ta-tsï-tsai-t‘ien. HBF.ah`sh%ara. EG.aten&a. HKBQ emperors. HB. EH2EF. CCF. FC.a"e/a ?$in&dom@. BF.. HFF. CKG. HGG. . . HAG. HBK. BGE.a"a/s. HGE. BKG. CEF.aras. BFA. .artin. . BHC. . . HEF. HEG. AE. . HFG. BBD. BDT.assa&et=. ee S/astika and 5an. HK. . . HHH.anda mountain.I""er. HBE. .ars ?p"anet@. CKE. HTD. ee #aha&=shwara and Ta-tsï-tsai-t‘ien. . HHK.anes. BBF. . CG. CK. . HTB2HTC. . . AC. . .an3usiri. ir 4ames. CCT. HAF. FGA. . ee ung-hwo. p. FBC.ahora&as. ee #i-li.aitre/a. CDD. . HKE. FBF. HAC. .andarin "an&ua&e. HBF. . HHF. CGG. BCT. CF. BDH.rofessor. HCB. DC. HC. DH. .a]d3usJr\. HGG. HEG. DC. FH.a2tsu. BHE. . BHT. ee #ahashasaka&school and #i-sha-se-pu. HAD.anchu. ee *shwagosha.a2min&.an. HGE. 4.arshman. HBE. CTT. CDD. ?the path of reformation@. HH. . HEH. .andu2$a"pa. -reat&$e/elopment. Dr. .adura. BEA. AA. . HDA. HTB.an2tJeu2$iau. ee 5en-shu. A. HKT. HHG.a2hi2shu2"a. CCDQ "an&ua&e. HDF. . CB. CTT. ee #o-kwei. BHB. . HG. FT. FE.

eh Ti. BBD. HKT. BHE. >. BAK. . . HFC.edhurst. . CTT. CDK.encius.a/a.ercur/ ?p"anet@. ee #ah0shwara. !. . . CCDQ ?$in&dom@. BD. ee Ch‘en-sing.ithras.o2ho2po2tJe2mo. ee #aitreya. CFH. HGH2HGF.ih2"i2i2"in& $ai2sa. BGE. ee 6ingpo.i2"i. . 4ohn. HAE. CCD. BEC.ohammedanism. HGE. .e&asthenes. CHF. CKC. CTHQ emperor. ee #ichaka. HTC. BA. ee #ahapadma. . HDC.en23u2si2" HC.. . .in& d/nast/. HBB.icha$a. HHE.itarani. BBE. . CHT.i2sha2se2pu. . FBA.o&a""ana.o2hi2sheu2"o. HFF. CBE. . BGD. .i&asha$/a. BDB.etemps/chosis. ee #an"usiri and 5en-shu.shakas. CFB.emoria" on the #one of Buddha. CCD. HAD. BHA. . BAA. HGC. BDB.ohammedan sa&es. BAB.o&in"in. HTG. CBE. HBB. DK. ee #audgalyayana. CKE. . HEH. BF. . .iau2fen& shan. BCD. .i"etus. . CAB. . .in&2ti ?emperor@. HFK. . . CAG. . CCF. HDK. CDE. FGG. KH. BBG. CCH. HKB. HGG. CHD.in2tsi.ohammedans. CG. BTA.. . HB. EK. BHA. HTG. CDD. Dr. BTB. CFG. . HFE. CAF. CAF.in2$un&.isucha$a. . ee #ahEsh. ee #ikkaka and #isuchaka. . ee Fo-ku-piau. CEH. CTT. KH. BBK. BDB.i"ton. . FGG. . . BAC. ee #ichaka. HTA. HKF.i$$a$a. . CKE. BTK. HFG. CED. . HFK. KB2KC.

Nan2hai pJu2to. BKG. FCF Nanda ?a $in& of the Na&as@. HAGQ emperors. BAT. BKG. BDG. DT. . AK. HG. HFK.o2%an& ?$in& of the . ET. . HH. HE. Nan2n&o schoo". and Lung-shu. HBD. Nairan3ana ?river@. . FC. .com Chinese&)uddhism. HCE. BFT. . BGB.ri&adava. AA. BDA. ee #aras. ee $ragons. CA. HBH. DT. ee $ragon-tree. ee $ragon and N(1(. HCKQ sacred #oo$s. CCD. HF. . FBD. ee !‘u-to&o+&the&Southern&sea. CDA.o2$%ei. CAAQ d/nast/. . FBE. FBC.. HKG. HBK. BKB. .uh2$ien2"ien. FB. .F.on&o"s. N9&9rd3una. BDG. Nan2shan schoo". CT. HGK. FG. BDA. ee 6agar"una. HKE. BBG. FGAQ voca#u"ar/. DE. Namo ?a mon$@. Dr.ount Uda. CDC. HDT. BAT.on&o" account.on&o"ia. BDH. BKG. FGAQ "amas. F. Na$shatras.on&o"ian Buddhism. Na&ar3una. . CG. BFK. HBE. FGAQ "an&ua&e. BGD. HET. BDT. HF.. NextS N2R acred Texts Buddhism Index . BDG. HCK. Nan$in&. FGD. KE. HAD. HEC. FG. BFT. HKF. F. BAG. FBT. p. F.orrison. BBE. CG. .revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. BFE. HBE. Na"anda. HFK. BBD. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. BFKQ emperors. DG. BKT. HCG.on&o"ians.BETC<. BFK. AT. BEF. CKK. HBA. Na"ana. HAG. KK. HBG. HCAQ emperor. at sacred2texts. HF. ee $eer&garden and Lu-ye-yuen. HAA. Na&as. ee $ragon-king and Lung-wan&. CFF. BCT. FBF. BAG. HKD. R. FBC.aras@. HHD. Na&a2ra3a. .

CDF. CDD. HAA. Ne&roes. HAF. North China. AE. ee 6ir/. FBB. BGG. BHG. Ni"&herries. Niroda. N&ai 4u2"io. HBK. ee 6ie-p‘an. BHA. Nirv9na. HAC. CEF. BCK. Nara$as. HFE. BBK. H. AH2AF. Nima"a paradise. FBT. CBD. BAE. BAA. BCA. CDD. Neumann. HH. FGB. K. Ni2sen&. BKF. Nie2pJan. BFE. Nepau". KB. Nats. ee 6ir/. CBG. BHB. CEF. KF. BGD. ee 6ir/. HAT. HHF. ee 6ir/. AA. CGT. KG. CKB. BD. CDD. CKK. Nicephorus Bataniares. CKG. CG. K. Neander. Nin&po. CKB. FBK. HEB. ED. FGHQ anscrit. FGB. ee Hwa-lo. Nir#ana. HHD. BTD. HK. CDFQ mon$s. ee 6irgrantha. . ee #ing-cheu. HHE. Na2tJo ?a prince@. No. FBF. BCH. Nir&rantha. BGG. BFA. ee ang-ko. CAG.Nara$a. K. BED. Ne#uchadneRRar5s ima&e. HDG. Nir%ana. N&an2h%ei. BD. Nif%an. Ni$an. KT. HTC. CD. EE. ee Hungry&ghosts. ET. FBF. HF. HGE. BDT. CKC. CDK. Nir#an. BTB. Nit2#an. HBK. CBB. FGB. Ni2$u. Nestorians. FD2DK. ee 6ikan. BKB. BAG. Nepau"ese #oo$s.. BBD. . N&o2$%ei. KC. ee 6i-ku. FBG. CGD.rofessor C. HBF. HKA. TK. ee 6ir/. Nestorian missionaries. HDA. HCE. BCD. HHD. FGH. KC. BGK. BT. ee 6ir/. HKT. EA. BTK2BTT. FGB. CDDQ priests. CEA. BAC. *.na. EB.

HFA.. FBA. ee *-cha-li-ya and *ch. TB. NI2chih a"pha#et. BHB. O"/mpus. (rchimandrite. HTG. Oude. BFK. . CAGQ "an&ua&e. O2"o2han. FGAQ %ritin&. KB. FGA. FGHQ "an&ua&e. ee *mogha&<a"ra. BHGQ ton&ue. FGC.Jan&2$I2shM. Ori&en. FGC. Ou3ein. BBK. FGA. DD. ee *nanda. FBAQ schoo". HDE. . .Northern Buddhism. . BFT. ee !ra"na. HGE. HHT. FGCQ sea. . DC. AD. HFD. HFK. CTT. BBFQ d/nast/. BGT. CE. ee *nagam. #oo$s. O2nan.a2nan K%an2/in.a]]/a. FGBQ Buddhistica" anna"s. . . BGA.a"atsJan&a. BKG.a""adius. BBG.(. HKA. BT. ee Kosala. HCC. HB.(2!O2 I2. BHQ histor/. BEF. HFA. BGK. FGB2FGF.Ja$2tie. BFTQ countr/. .an2cheu. Oui&hours. BGAQ inscriptions. FBKQ ori&ina"s. . BTGQ TsJi. ee *-la-han and *rhan.rya. BC. CEA. . FBC.a"i. BGG. HDB. Om2mani2padme2hum. FGB. FGB. . BFAQ "an&ua&e. . Oxus. CCH. . HGE. FBGQ Buddhists. ee *mida&)uddha.a"e/. BBA. BFD. BTF. TB. FA. CFC.a2"i2ch%an& pa&oda. HKDQ India. EH. BHEQ China. CTT. FGB. ee )aschpa. CAF. TT.a"input. O2C!+2)I2-+. FBB. O2mo2$Jia po2che2"o. BKB. ee */ichi&naraka. HCD. FH. O2na2han. BC. ee !ratyeka. Nushirvan. HKK. HFBQ i#eria. BKTQ co""ection. North2%estern India. O2mi2to *o. CTT. CA. FH. and K‘u-sa-ha. HCC. Oui&hour characters. ee !ataliputra. BCT. O2pi ti2/I. BKB. ee Chosroes I. Dr. HEG. BTA.

FBE. !unayad"a. . ee )enares. $rikata. . #ichaka.aranirv9na. HKC. BKG. CTT. . Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y *nanda. DA. 'pagupta.aramoda. BKF. . . . HEC. HEG.aradise of (mita#ha. HET. . FBK. HGE. A. E. ee !ratyeka.arthians. FH. )uddhamitra.at2"a2si2na23i2ta. BBA. K. . .atriarchs— B. HKC. . CFC. HHC.atie$an. HAH. CAD. HCDQ of Indra ha$ra. Shangna/asu. ee !ra"na. CEK.aranai. . ee Hwa-shï and !alinput. BB. !arsh/a. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y ee #aha&Kashiapa. H. T. BTE. ee T‘a-hwa-tsï-tsai. KF. HHC. BAK. BGA. C.. HHFQ of the >estern heaven.aramitas. Indian. . BKE. )uddhanandi. p. ee Constans II. BGT. FGC. BTD.aramiti. HET.aranimita.ata"iputra. . CTT. BG.at2"a2mit2ti. FG.aramita. BC. . KD. CDA. . D. HFA. CAG. KF. ee !aramiti.a2ta2"i$.atna. F. ee !at-la-mit-ti. . HAB. BKH. HCF. . FCD . HDK. . ee !rasena"it. KD. FGB. <asumitra.arthia.at2nia. CTT. . FGC.an2shM. BBK.arshva. . FGK. Hung-"in. HH. BE. . HKG2HKH. FBB. TG. Kapimara.e$in&.au Chen&. Kumarada. FBC. HC. HFT2HDH. Sanghanandi. <asu(andu. Kanade/a. . . Y Y Chinese.au2chM. BA. CHT. Tau-sin. HKD. BT. . CDC. HK. HAH. BDG. #anura. CDE. HKF. . HE. BAD. HAK. )odhidharma. ee !utnomita. HF. . HG. Y Y Y Y Seng-tsan. CH. CTH.e2chan&. BH. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Indian. HDF2HDA. BAE. CC. BHE.D HA. CG. BD. Rahulata. ee Hwei-k‘o. BCK.o2tsM. HEG. . Y Y !rad"natara. BC. Hwai-neng.atta"a.BH.e2chi2"i province. )asiasita. HAG. Sangkayasheta. CCD. FGB. HBB. HB. CDG. HT. . FGA. HAA. CB. CCK. ee Tatta. HGT. 4ayata. Haklena. BF. .e&uans.eh2/en. 6agar"una. CCF. Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y *shwagosha. BDH. HDT. . BK. Singhalaputra. CCE. HAE. BHE.

i2"eu2"e2cha. FGB. ee !ratyeka&)uddha. BBK. .i/adasi. HCT. . HTG. p. CFE. ee Kwang-mu and <irupaksha."atonic dia"o&ues. CFH. ee K‘ai-+eng&+u. . CTT. FGB.o23e. HCT. .v2$iun ?a star@. ee <iharapala. ee !ratyeka&)uddha. HKA.ita$a. HEB.e2tsJi d/nast/. .. .ersian. ee 5hite&horse&temple. HKG.e2teu. HDF. HDA. . BFT.ish9cha demons. BDG. . . .i2/In sM ?temp"e@. HCT. . . ee -reat&)ear.Jit2ti. . . ee *shKka.hi"in&. BAE. . CTG. BFA.i2"an2na2shi2"i.isha#arma ?a $in&@.i2$Jieu. BBG. HTG. ee )ikshu. ee Tseng-chang and <irudhaka. . BFDQ "an&ua&e.i2hia /uen2chiIn ?a divinit/@.i2"u2si. . HKE. FGB.i2sha2men. . ee To-wen and <aishramana. CB.ersia.i2chM.ien2chJen&. BBK. . . AC. ."uto. CFK. FCA .Jit2ti2$a2"a. . BKB. HBBQ priests. ee San-ts‘ang. .i2ho2"o2po2"o. HBF.ien2"ian&. . ee Fulim. BBA. CE. .e2sun& ?mountain@.i2"eu2pa2cha. .i2chJieu. ee )ikshu. .e2ma sM ?temp"e@. CE. HFA. CAF. HED."ato. HCG. CAC. . HFT. BBK. ee !ra"na. . .eruvians. TH. CFC. HKB.esha%ar. TC. ee K‘ai-+eng&+u. ee !ratyeka. . .

urusha. ee !otaraka.ortu&uese. FB. FB. FG. ee !otaraka.Ju2tJi.rasena3it. ee !u-lu-sha. ee !aramiti.rotestants. BAT. . HAT. HDA.ota"a.rad3]atara. HAD.o2"o2sM2na2shM2to.rat/e$as.o"e star. HF. HTG. HTB. . . CDD.ra3na. ee Chai-wang. HGE. HAA. . HHA.o2shin. FD. . CTT. . BHE. ED. KF. HAH. . . BEK.oseidon. CTT.otara$a. . EB. HDC. HFB. ee Sanga. CB. BEC. . . BT. HTG. CAF. . ee Samanta(hadra. .uruna. HFK.. . FGB. ee Fo. FBC. CEF. FGC.utanas. . FBK. CTT. CT. HFC. ee !o-"e. .urana Kashiapa. CKG.u2"u2sha. FBK. . ee *mogha. CDF. . CHH. HGA. ee )odhi. CTT.o"/nesians.Ju2tJi2"ieu2chM. DB. CEC. FGH2FGF. . . ee )odhisattwa. BEB.ut. HCC.Ju2hien. . . .o2"e2mi2ti. CKG.un3a#. DH. HG. HEB. CED. BAC.u2$Jun&.una/ad3a.riesthood. . HKE. ee !i-chï and uen-kioh. HKE. FGB. CCA. CD. . CG. HBA. HB. . HDD.Ju2ta2"o2$ia. BCT. HDF.o2%an&. . HBE."em/.Ju2sa. TC. FT. . D.uta"o$a. . BTG. BCT.rince of fue". .rat/e$a Buddha. BCT. BCD. BCT. . EG. . ee !o-lo-sï-na-shï-to. CAD. BCH. HTH. EC. . TC. CGT. BHD.racrit. ee !otaraka. AA. ee !otala. . ee !urusha. HAA. ee )odhiruchi. HTG. ee Si-yang&"en. CFC. BFF. ee . ee !rasena"it. HFG.

CDD. KT. BHE. CH2CF. BCT. CDD. BF. Ra3a&riha. BDB. Rishi. . ee Sien-"en. EA. . HBF. . CDF.. CCK./tha&oras. KE. Ras ("&ethi ?a star@. !. FBD. HFTQ shop$eeper5s %ife. FD. BBK.ission. ee 5ang-she.revious Next Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon.BETC<. NextS R2P acred Texts Buddhism Index . CFE. (. D. FBB. BDA. HHHQ merchant. CB. Roman Catho"ic missionaries. HAH. BDB. AA. HBB.. BGT. CDD. EE. CFF. HAD2HAK. Remusat. CKK. Ra$sha. ee 6an-hai&p‘u-to. Russian +cc"esiastica" . Romans. CFH. DE. BDH. FGH. HBH. Rahu" R(!U. BBK. HFE. FBD. TB. HAT. BGEQ empire. BBF. HGH. HHG. Roman Catho"ics. HGA. . . HBF. Russe"". BCT. Ra$ Chinese&)uddhism. Rama. FGE.utnomita. at sacred2texts. 4. HBA. H. #/ 4oseph +d$ins..Ju2to of the outhern sea. Ru"i. HKC. Red #ird. Rhode. A. EA. HBK. BGEQ re"i&ion. Ra$shas. Roman emperor. AH. BKC. ED. HGK. . AF. BKB. Ratnapra#ha. HDT. CCK. CTKQ scu"pture. BDA. KB. Ricci. ee La-hu and Lo-heu. Rome.atteo. Bishop. ee Ti-tso. BCK.Ju2to. HEK. Rahu"ata.

andracottus. FBK. CTT. BAE. FBK. an&a. FGT. an&hanandi. ee Saha. KA. an$h/a phi"osoph/.(B( ?a %or"d@. a&arda&am. EB. a"ari#hu. an&$a/asheta. a&e of the house of ha$/a. p. . FBA. HT. ee Shramana. BET. and/ desert. HTC. HBF. cdefgdhijjik. DH. BEA. ee Chandragupta. amanta&andha. ee Shakyamuni. amadhi. HFK. EG. an2$%an. ee San-mi-ti-pu. ee Shamen. BDG. BBE. HBF. am2mei. HTH. CFA. BFD. ee !‘u-hien. KT. 59$/amuni. anchi topes. HGE. CBB. BGA. AA2AE. BFF. HHH. an&adeva. BBG. a#i$aras ?a heretica" sect@. ee Sa(a. BBE. CDF. an2fo2tsJi. HGT. amidhi. ee !riesthood. HEK. amarcand. CEF. amanean. HTA. DH. HE. BEK. AH. BB. HT. HGT. FBF. amanta#hadra. ammit\/as. aha. HG. amana. FBF. ee Seng-k1ia-t1i-p1o. HB. CGE. BCT. HDK. TC. ee Shakyamuni. ee Sidagam. HBF. ee Shramana. FBK. HF. an&arama. amuda/a. CBFQ schoo". HFD. FCK amanta. an2mi2ti2pu. HK. ET. EG. CBH. an2$un&. KK. DC. ee SammitEyas. an&2mun.

FBA. BBE. >. FGH. en&2chau. BBD. HKK. chott. CDF. HEH2HEF. FBHQ ori&ina"s. EE. cinde. AK. HGE. HDT. CGT. ee Sangade/a. FBG. BKC. HAG. ha$/a. emitic ori&in of anscrit. 4. FGH. FGKQ Chinese dictionar/. HAB. A. CTT. BCH. TCQ form. CTTQ "iterature. BAT. BGKQ %ritin&. BBC. CDF. BCA. D. HEK. BH. BK. emite. CB. HAB. HAF2HAA. BCK. FGFQ dictionar/. BGA. BGA. HAH. >. FGC. BGK. BCB. BBT. HE. CGT. HGG. I. HHHQ forms. CFB. BAE. BCKQ characters. CGH. BFT. FGAQ charm. BC. ET. CE.. HHH. HBC2HBD. BFB. FGB. TT. HHD. CBD. TA. CGHQ termination. BHT. CGHQ inscriptions. A. ee Shakrade/a&=ndra. BCK. BGA. BBFQ name. ee Shakyamuni. HBD. HEC.anscrit a"pha#et. FGF. ha$2de2%an2/in. F. BDF. FBFQ sutras. an2tsan&2fa2shM. HKA. ha$/a c"an. ha$radeva Indra. BGA. arv9stiv9das. CDQ text. FBCQ cop/. FGG. DG2DH. BFD. AD. BFF. BDG. ha$/amuni. FGD. FBCQ character. BGKQ sentences. BBE. ee Tripitaka. BHBQ scho"ar. BB. FBKQ professor. erampore. chmidt. HGK. ee Shang-tso-pu and Shwo-i-tsie-yeu-pu. TF. CEA. BBA. HCEQ scho"ars. HBG. FG2FH. FGH. FBKQ "etters. ee Shakrade/a&=ndra. CAC. CD. BH. hamen. HHEQ manuscript. HFGQ names. HHH. CBB. HBC. HBB. FGFQ trans"ations. FBAQ %ords F. HFA2HDG. BGT. ee Shak-de-wan-yin. BBH. FGH. BGH. aturn ?p"anet@. BFAS metres. BEG. FBB. BFG. CEF. en&2&a2de2#a. FD. HDA. FBA. ee Chen-sing. BT. FBCQ &rammar. H. HCH. BCQ %ord. CTTQ #oo$s. ee Shramana. FBA. FBHQ e:uiva"ent. KG. avatthi. BHT. FCE ha2"a. BGKQ s/""a#"e. BTH. HHK. CTT. HDK. BTH. HBK. an2t6ai ?three conste""ations@. FBF. BGKQ pronunciation. BKB. FGKQ "an&ua&e. AC. an2tsan&. ee Shra/asti. BBE. FGA. HGE. BCK.. BTH. BAE. AF.. TG. HBG. ha2#a2ti. BC2BD. BAA. BBE. BKB. BGK. BKAQ manuscripts. HFT. K. KB. ans$rita. p. CTT. CAH. BGKQ version. BDK. HTG. BGF. FBF. HC. HEK. BFT. CDK. BCD. BHGQ term. A. BBK. ee Shakya. FBA. e"eucus Nicator. HCT. FGD. FGB. en&2$Jia2tJi2pJo. CFE. ha$2$a2"a2de2#a In2da2"a. CAC. BAK. BHA. ee Sanscrit&language. CDD. HBF. BGG. HBE. HEH. HHE. HA. HG. HKT. HHH. T. arvavain_sicas. BBE. AH. BHC. HKF. BDT. BGG. HDD. HEC. ch"e&e". BFF. CTT. FGB. HCB. F. HCG. candinavian inscriptions. FGBQ sounds. BGTQ dia"ect. TF. CFF. FC. HFB2HFF. HT2CH. BBD. H. CEG. FBK. BCK. CTT. HBF. FDQ fami"/. AC. FK. BCK. ee Shra/asti. (. . ee Sangade/a. ee Shin-do. BBT. FGG2FGA. HDC. HDE. CGCQ mode. BCH. FBHQ %or$s. BGG. HD.

CTT. han2tsJai. AH. HTG. KC. CKB. BGE. . HFE. hin2do. AD. CHA. CKB. HDT. BAE. HFA. BKG. han&2tso2pu. CBG. BHE. hM2h%an&. HB. ha2nai2shat2chat2"a. CGC. ee Shakrade/a&=ndra. CGA. BFT. AA2AT. CKC. han2tun& province. BHG. h###BOT_TEXT###quot;a ?mora"it/@. hi2"i. BFK. he2na2/i2shM2the2"o. BKB. BBK. ee Shr. CGH. CTT. ee =ndia. BFA. HCH. BDT. BCC. hen2"en&2/en Ra3ah. HKG. BBE. hipara discip"ine. TC. BHA. CGA. hen2si province. FT. HBG. BBT. HB.sti/. HTA. BAA. ee Hormou7. ee Sar/. CTT. CB. HFB. CHE. BDT. hM2ch%an&. ee Sha-nai-shat-chat-la. BCC. ee Shramanera. CGF. BBG. HKT. HKT. BAC. TG. hen&2tJien. D. HFC. han2si province. han&hai. BAC. CD. BAG. HFB./aka. han& d/nast/. ee Shakya. hi$hin ?a Brahma@. CKE. BAG. AE. hen&2%en. ha2%ei. hM2$ia2"o2tJi2pJa -in2tJo2"o. ee Shanaishchara. HFA. HFT. BCF. hariputra. BGK. BF. HFE. hastra. hen2tsun& ?emperor@. KK. hM2chM. BHG. hen2$un&. CEE. CAA. HEE. BBA. hastras. BAT. hen -o. HBD. FBG. ee Shra/asti. HFH. ee Shanaishchara. CKT.das. BGC. hanaishchara. KA. CGF. EE. HDE. FGK. EE. TG. ee Lun. CBH. F. BBH. han2h%ei. HKT. FBG. BAH. hin2sieu. BBC. BFH. HKK. DF. han&navasu. AA.hami. BAD. FBK. CTB. HFB. BCT. HKH. hM2$ia *o. HAD. BF. CTT. CEF.

BDG. AC. BKB. FB. ee Hinayana and Smaller&$e/elopment. BBE. CBG. hu countr/. iam. hM2tsun. A. CGF. BE. FGH. AK. hramanera. FBA. hr9va$as. ieu2"o ? u2"a@. CAA. HTG. ee Shu&country. iamese. ian&2pe mountain. HKK. BT. HHA. BBD. AD. ee *sura. ET. ee Shamen. BCT. ee Ceylon. BKC. HFA. BBG. . HTA. FH. BBD. KT. ida&am. hr9va$a. FBA. BF. HHG. HAD. CA. hramana. AD. FGB. hM2tJeu. CA. HKG. BD.das. BFC. BDH. iau2ch6en&. in&ha"aputra. M2chJ%en province. ET. i2an fu. HE. M2ma >en2$un&. i2fan. HEB. BDQ prince. ee Shï-tsï. HBA. BCH. BAG. ee Sar/. TF. TB. BGF. in2chan& ?to%n@. BFA. hramanas. CBB. ee Singhalaputra. HEG. iddharta. ee Sï-ch‘wen. HDA. HFT. hun2chM. ee Sheng-wen. ee Thi(et. KT. HAD. BHQ chrono"o&/. EF. BEH. EF. ee Shami. ee Rishi. CEF. HTH. hivaism. HBD. ee 4ulai and 5orldCs&Honoured&. hiva. hM2tsM2$%o. CTG. h%o2i2tsie2/eu2pu. CB. ian ^. ee Sha-wei. in2an ?district@. FT. HBB. BHE.hira. M2ma Chien. HTK. CTG. BBT. F. ee Shakyamuni. i2hien. ien23en.sti/. hravasti. FGF. hM2tsM. BBA. ee Ch‘ang-an. CDG. BFT.

HG. iuen2tsun& ?emperor@. HFH. !i"aire. HFT. R. CEH. BDH. HHH. isters of . HKH. u -eu. H. BH. otapan. TC. CBB. CDDQ India. ee Shï-tsï-kwo. BBGQ schoo". t. BC. BCQ priest. HB. i2/an&23en. CE.. HEHQ sutras. CE. tonehen&e. CCGQ Chinese dia"ects. ee So-da-(an. ocrates. I Ki2/I. HEC. HKKQ Buddhists. BBBQ Buddhists. i2/I sM. FH. HKT. iIn Kin&. CFH. BD. HBB. schoo"s. ee Srotapanna.erc/. BA. CDK. ee Four&-reat&Kings&o+&$e/as. mith. FH. in2siu ?sect@. HKC. CBE. ma""er Deve"opment course. AE. in2"a. rotapanna. BTK. CFC. HKKQ China.. ee Corea. I K%an&2$Ji. CA. inha"a. o2da2#an. HGC. KK. BCT. outhe/. FBT. HGAQ India. HDC. ee Lesser&$e/elopment. HCT. HEGQ ocean. HKDQ continent. KA. I *a. TF. F. CFH. FGCQ sea. FGB. HFH. FGGQ co""ection. ee !ortuguese. FCT M2ta2tJien2%an&. CTD. HEHQ dates. CFH. BDA. Dr. toics. outh China. BGB. BHDQ temp"es. ee Srotapanna. CAG. BH. inim. KK. FBGQ Buddhist"ese. TF. B. ma"" Deve"opment schoo". i2tso. EA. >. BCH. BHE. outhern Behar. FGB. ED. iuen2ho. FGB. p.. . I Kien. BDQ Buddhism. BGG. ee Hinayana. BKT. iuen2%an&.

CDTQ phi"osoph/. BHG. HKT. CBF2CBA. BBG. HKE. HTG. utra. CDE. CHH. HBE. CTHQ ?+ar"ier@. HKD.u#hadra. CHC. /ria. HBC. BBK. HGT. CFF. CBT. HG. HBB. ee Srotapanna. EE. HB. ee $ahO. CAD. DD. BAE. TJai2pe ?p"anet@. un KJiuen ?a prince@. HCH. BK. FGTQ 4u. BEA. BHT. HTC. DT. HBT. BGG. BGT. DB. HHH. TT. BFE. un&2tsM K%an2/in. BDT. KG. BGE. CFF. BBK. BGG. DF. AC. HGA. FE. FB2FF. CDA. FB. CHD. CEC. /rian Christians. TC. I2tJo2h%an. BBB. HEB. CGE. BBT. BKA. BGA2BGT. ee 4upiter. HCC. TJai2$i. HCG. CHAQ phi"osophers. /$es. CCA. TB. CBB. HTC. CBT. ee 5an. uddhodana. CBH. CAC. HTB. CGK. CHB2CHA. CH. HBD. CDT. Co"one". DE. udatta. EE. BCC. AE. HBB. un& $ian&. BDG. TJa2h%a2tsM2tsai. BKD. ui2sin& ?p"anet@. umeru mountain. HDG. BAT. CGH. usima. FK. BGA. vasti$a. HCF. HCF. CDFQ inscription. HBF. BEH. HEB. BHF. T(2C!J+N1. u2da2%an. BCC. TJai2pin& re#e""ion. HKD. BCT. HCA. HKG. BEH. BCF. DC. ee -reat&$e/elopment and #ahayana. u2tsun& ?emperor@. utras. CTG. TF. AE. CAB. BD. BDA. BDH. BFH. HB. BCB. ee <enus. BBE. BHE. BFK. . CDK. %aracs. CHC. ee !aranimita. HCG. ee Tsing-+an. ui d/nast/. CGE. TC. FGB. HHC. HTH. HAH. ee Srotapanna. u#hVti. /riac. BBT. FH. HTA. ee -reat&98treme. CDC. BFA. CBE. CE. CGD. un&2/In. HHC. BBK. TJai2cheu. HCT. HKK. D2K. FF. CGK. Ta2hia. BFT. FGB. CEC. BGG. un& d/nast/. FF. TE. HCG. CBB. CBE. BGC. BGA. BFT. FBA. un Tsiau.

CKCQ &enii. CATQ rec"uses. ee Shakyamuni. CTCQ notions. CTDQ temp"e. BGC. TJan& ?emperor@. Ta2shM2chM. ee )odhidharma. CDG. Tartar/. CEKQ pu#"ications. Tartar chief. CHB. CHB. CEHQ authors. Tantra. TJai2tsu ?emperor@. CTK. ee Roman&empire. CTBQ persona&e. EA. FBB. CETQ mind. CTC. BBK. BKBQ ? un& emperor@. AA. Tami". BAT. CKF. BGH. HKD. HBG. CTB. . DB. TJai2tsun& ?TJan& emperor@. HBB. HAC. CTH2CTD. HCF. CDA. CTFQ hermits. CHC. CETQ he"". HATQ schoo". Ta2min& fu. CHDQ pra/ers. CABQ "iterature. HGK. BHD. BCG. CDB. HFKQ ima&es. HFA. Tauists. CEK2CET. BHK. CAG. CTF. BKH. BBK. BFA. ee *ra(s. BCF. BHF. Tan2"i heaven. CHF. HGT. CDF. CTC2CTA. CABQ sects. Tauism. HFT. HDD. HKBQ phi"osophers. BGE. Tau2an. CDB. FBD. TJan& han&2shu. CEC. CTBQ co""ection. CBTQ %iRard. BHF. TB. CEB. BBK. THQ fami"/. TC. BDCQ tone. HGT. BFK. BDE. Ta2tsM2tsai2tJien. Ta2shih. CKHQ #oo$s. CTBQ priests. BAC. CHD. HBF. Ta2$io2$in2sien. Tatta. Ta2mo. BAE. CTHQ ido"s. BGK. HFK. CBTQ e"ements. FE. CBTQ ma&ician. CTBQ discip"ine. HHG. BDE. CAG. BGC. BBD. CKF. BHH. CEBQ monaster/. BAF. BA. TJan& d/nast/. BCF. BCD. BFH. Tauist. HGT. HTH2HTK. BCB. CHG. HGKQ teachin&. FK. CAD. CF. CEK. TJai2tsM2tJa. CFDQ . Tai2%ei ?conste""ation@. BGK. Tau. HDH. HG. CCTQ expression. Tath9&ata.atriarch. FFG Tan ChM. Tau2$%an&. CBTQ ph/sica" s/stem. CKH. CCE. HHG. HDG. BKDQ re"i&ion. HAH. HAK. CAT. CCA. CKEQ part. ee #ah0shwara. CDEQ ma&ic. CEE. FGG. TE. HDD. HFK. TB. CEH. p. CTDQ schoo". ee 4ulai. BGK. BBA. CHF. FGF. A. CTB. BFD. HHC. TJai2/uen fu. CEKQ %riters. ee !attala. CTD. HGK. HTG. Ta2tsJin. BBBQ superstition. CTBQ hierarch/. CEK. CAF. Tan2cho sM ?temp"e@. HBE. HAD. BA. CEEQ divinit/. BFH. HFAQ doctrine. TT. BHE. BAD. BHB. EH. CTFQ ideas.TJai2shan. BCF. CKC. BFHQ heaven. HCE. CCC.

HDD. F. and Sanga. TJien2tJai shan ?mountain@. BDG. . TJien2fen& ?mountain@. HDBQ inscriptions. HDG. ee o-ga-mi-kiau. HFA. CFG. HDTQ $iau. TJien2tsJin pJu2sa. BDGQ character. CTB. EC. FGA. HFA. HEG. CCA. CTB. CBG. BKE. HTA. HGH. BAT. Thi#et. HGT. HABQ incense. CFH. TC. Tha"es. Thi#etans. BBD. Tau2/uen. HACQ "an&ua&e. HE. CHE. ee $e/a. BTB. BEG. BAT. TJien2tJai. HDT. CDE. HCG. BBD. CTB. Fa. TJien2mu shan ?mountain@. BFG. TJien2ti. HCG. BKT. BKE. BEKQ schoo". HAH. BKB. CTG. BEF. FGAQ ima&e. HAAQ Buddhism. Thor. Tau2siuen. TJien. Three a&es. ee #assagetO. HAG. HTC. Thin=. BBK. TG. Three . BKE. Thousand2handed K%an2/in. BFKQ architecture. BEF. TJien2nin& sM ?temp"e@.Tau2"io. BBBQ %ord. BKD. Ta2/ue2chM. HDG. BFA. HGT. HAH. FBK. HEK. FG. BEF. HAHQ route. HCBQ s/stem. Teda ?$in&@. BATQ pra/er. HFH. TJien2tJun&. BFD. BCT. The secret teachin& of -o&a. BFT. BKG. BFF.recious Ones. BCA2BFG. BKH. ee Hea/enly&emperor. BEA. HKE. AC. The pure ca"m and spontaneous"/2perceivin& 4u2"ai. BKG. CEA. HCG. HGT. Tientsin. BDA. ee Tsie-yin&Fo. BDGQ priests. FB. Three . BFTQ Buddhists. BKB. BDT.ure Ones. FGAQ "etters. BDH. ee Tsing-tsing-tsï-"an-chio&"u-lai. BBF. HAA. The &uidin& Buddha. ee Fo. Tau2%u. HHT. ee Kwang-yin-t‘ien. ee Si-+an. CTD. Te2tsJin&. HDBQ pra/ers. BFT. HEG. FGAQ priest. CFB. The heaven of #ri&htness and sound. HAB. Thi#etan. BKH. AA. ee <asu(andu. AC. Te2shau. Teu2sh%ai sM ?temp"e@. CAH.

TsJai2shen. ee =ndia. BDT. CTB. CTB. HCT. TsJi d/nast/. HKD. AD. Tsin&2fan. HCT. To2"o2ni. HDF. ee =ndra&Shakra. p. BKH. HGK. CHA. HHK. TsJin& cheu. BGK. ee Fa-tsang. CDC. Tsin d/nast/ ?>estern@. Tsau2$iIn. ee <aishramana. ee The&pureB&calmB&and&spontaneously-percei/ing&4u-lai. BDA. FBBQ sect. . HKK. CAF. ee $7in&dynasty. HEC. Tsin&2tsin&2tsM23an2chio23u2"ai.TJin2do. CFE. TD. Tsi ?state@. CAF. BEG. HCT. FFB Tin&2$%an& *o. ee San-tsang. TC. BDT. HFK. BKB. CTB. TD. ee $harani. CEA. Ts6in d/nast/. FBG. HFA. HAHQ schoo". TsM2%ei ta2ti. HAC. TsM2h%an& shan&2ti. BAB. To2%en. TsM )ian&. TsM2pe ta2shM. ee Suddhodana. HFD2HFK. BD. HCF. TsJin&2/uen schoo". TsJau2$Ji. BAT. HDD. HGT. Ti2shM. BAG. HFC. Tirthancaras. Ti2tso ?conste""ation@. Tsai2sheu. HAA. HAD. HGT. Ti2tsan&. ET. HCC. CTC. BTE. TsJiuen2cheu. Tsin&2tu. HHK. Tsen&2chan&. Treasure of the )a%. TsM2han&. ee The&guiding&)uddha. HGC. CAB. CTT. BKG. Tripita$a. AF. BDT. Tsie2/in *o. HFH. HAG. ee <essel&o+&#ercy. TsJau2tun& ?schoo"@. TJi2to2"o2to. ee <irudhaka. BCT. ee Dhritar9shtra. BTD. ee Ras&*lgethi. HBG.

Tsun&2men. BGT. Tso2tsM. Tur$s. CTT. BAG. BAG. 1. TJu2ti miau. BGD. FGD. BFB. Tun&2n&o ti2$iIn. CTT. ee Ho-shang. FGF. Tu !%ai23an&. CG. CG. CDT. TsJun&2"in& mountains. Tushita heaven. CTC. Udin. HHC. HDA. CDK. BH. HB. CDT. Tu2$iue. HBG. BFC. ee 'dyana. . ee ü-lan-hwei and ü-lan-p‘en. HTG. ee Tushita. ee eu-leu-kia. Tun2h%an&. ee '-chang-na. BC. HEG. U"u$a. FGK. CTT. BHA. Tushito. BCB.. FGD. HFA. U"uvi"va Kashiapa. DK. FGF. Tu2shM $Jeu. HHD. CTF. HFF. Tu *u. CAC. BGG.Tao2fu ?a star@. Turanian "an&ua&e. Uda/ana ?$in&@. Ud/ana. BD. BBK. ee 'dyana. BFC. BFF. TJu2ha2"a. CD. CGA. Tur$ish "an&ua&e. CFE. U2C!(N12N(. HAG. TG. AB. U2d/un&2na. CTF. ee Khoten. BBK. Upadh/9/a. Tur$estan. HAT. ee 5estern&Turks. ee 9soteric&(ranch. FBK. U"/sses. BKG. TJun&2tae monaster/. BH. Uda/a. U2"am. CH. HFK. BGA. Turnour. BH. BKG. United tates. FT. BBG. CBC. Tun&2/o temp"e. BDE. BBA.

BAE. HGK. 0ishva$arma. 0ina/a. Up9sa$a. 0a3ramati. HBA. 0asu#andu. Upanishata.Upa&upta. FD. 0ir&in . DG. HBA. CB. FGC. ee )im(isara. ee Kwang-mu. HBC. HEK. HTG. Upa$utta. 0(I w !IK( . 0e2shi2nu. BDT. FGC. FFH 0esa"i. HBA. ee <esali. ee <aishali. HHG. HEC. ee <e-nu&$e/a. BFC. KH. ee T‘ien-ts‘in&p‘u-sa. HBB. HKE. 0aisha3as. BAT. 0irupa$sha. 0esse" of . HBT. ee )i-ha-la-pa-la. 0e2nu Dove. 0im#as9ra. 0irudha$a. ee Ts‘ï-hang.erc/. 0asumitra. FBK. ee 5ei-to. HEF. . ee <ishnu. HBT. ee Kin-kang-sat-wa. HBA. HEB. HEF. BGE. HAA. HKK. HCT. CTT. HKK. 0aranasi. ee 5ei-mo-kie. 0aishramana. 0ir&a ?+ner&/@. HK. 0iharapa"a. HT. BAC. 0a3rasatt%a. HBA. ee eu-po-li. ee To-wen. ee Lü. Up_"i. BAE. FBD. 0enus ?p"anet@. CDC. 0eda. ee Kin-kang-chï. HCT. CT. 0aisha"i. 0edas. CTT. 0ishnu. p. HFH. HFE. BEH. HDC. ee Tseng-chang. HBD. BAT. ee eu-po-so-kia. CBG. ee <ishnu. 0ima$ita. FH. ee )enares. HTG. HE. AC. BBG. HBT. HCT. HKD2HKK. CD. ee T‘ai-pe. CAC. KC. AK2KG.

TH. >. CHF. BCT. BCF. >en >an& ?$in&@.>(D+. >en2ti ?emperor@. HAA. KD. HEQ of cease"ess revo"ution. CAH. >atters. DF. BBB. >. CDG. AC. >estern (sia. HFG. BHK. >en2chI ?a star@. DEQ of Buddhist preachin&.. . HBA. *. >ei2ma. HFC. . ee <imakita. HKEQ of the honoured "a%. HEF. AH. BFF. BCD. CDK. BBK.. Dr. CDGQ authors. CFA. CGE. >i&ht.. FBC. HEGQ ori&in. IR T. ee #an&and&S/astika. ee Ra"agriha. >ei2shi2sian&2$iau. BAT. >ei -uen. CHF. HH. HEF. HEQ of the ho"/ doctrine. BGA. BKT. HDD. HFF. >an2nien monaster/. HFT.. HDHQ India. >an&2she.. CED.rofessor !. . F. CBH. BFC. CBC. HE. HB. >a\d`h\. HAGQ Tur$s. >ei2to. BHT.. CACQ tri#utaries. CAT. BGH. BDT. ee !e-ma&sï. >an& !i2chM. >hite ti&er. HFD. >hee" $in&. >en2shu. HBF. BAE. . >ei2mo2$ie. TE2BGG. BCK.. CEF. >. >i"son. CAK. EC. HK. ee 5ei-mo-kie. HGE. HEBQ China.. HEHQ Buddhas. BBT. CCC. HFAQ of the Buddhist "a%. BAC. HGK. >hite horse temp"e. >ei K%o2$un&. BBK. TCQ of the "a%. >en&er. HCB. CHB. >i""iams. HH. HBD. HFB. EG. >ei2mo. HCK.e2/an&. TH. CGH. >i"tshire. BFF. >ei d/nast/. ee 5ei-mo-kie. BF. BGK. CAFQ heaven. HTFQ of doctrine. TF. >an. >ei . BEDQ of a thousand spo$es. BDEQ hi""s. O. BFDQ countries. CTE. T. >en2ch6an& ti2$iIn. FBT. BHE. EH. FBT. >i""iams. CACQ races. ee #an"usiri. !. CKDQ of the metemps/chosis. >an& ?ro/a" name@. BBG. HKEQ $in&s. CCK.. HCA. TB. CKF. ee <eda. HFCQ of the %onderfu" "a%. >ard.

BHH.!ON. HHD. -ar$and. CKH. -an&imara. >u2"ian&2sheu. CKB. -an&2cheu ?$in&dom@. CKAQ $iau. -a$sha. HBK. CKH. -a$shas. CKE. . FFC CDT. A. BGE. BGH. CEF. ee *mita(ha&)uddha. BBC2BBD. ee 6o. >u2$ien ti2/I. BCH. HDT. >u ?empress@. HBA. -(4(. CGE. CGK. HAF. HFH. BAT. TD. -an& ?Choo@. CKDQ sect. CH. -ashaita. . BHE. BCC. BK. HCF. BDT. BHE. BGK. BDT. BBB. >or"d5s !onoured One. TCQ ?province@. HBF. . CAB. CE. >u2%ei. -an&2$o. ee *sengha. HBK2HBT. -an&2tsRe $ean&. BGF. >u2/en2tso2%an&. BHA. BHKQ ?TsJi@. AC. BCT. DK.r.. EE. HHDQ paradise. BGKQ ?!an@. >u2ti ?ChJin emperor@. FBG.. CFK. CEF. EEQ ?)ian&@. DG. HCA2HCE. CCF. BCT. EH. HKT. HAT. >u2"eu. CT. ee Shï-tsun. HBB.>o2mei shan ?mountain@. ee */ichi&naraka. -ates. HFA. HB. >oo2%ei mountain. CKF. HTK. HHC. HAD. CBB. CC. CT. -ashodara. >u2tJai ?mountain@. >/"ie. CTFQ nara$a. p. CKC. CTH. BTD. EC. TE. T. -ama. HHC. >u2/eu2%an&. BFA. >u2cho. BGT. CKD. CKCQ tau23en. CKTQ re"i&ion. >u2tsun& ?emperor@.. BGB. N+NO. (. BTA. >u state. >u2chI ?a star@. Dr.

CGC. HEB. HBE. HBE. -em2ma. BHD. HHA. DD. BAE. . BCT. -o&achara schoo". -in&2tsu. -ih2hin&. HFH. ee =-d7i-7i. BCH. BHC. HBE. -eu2po2so2$ia. ee !eking. -au2tsu. -o&a schoo". -ue2hu. -o&atchara. CFE. -en2cheu. BBK. HFA. -eu2"eu2$ia.-au2chu heaven. BHD. -eti"i. -uen d/nast/. ee The&secret&teaching&o+& oga. HBE. -en2mo2"o2she. -eu2pi ?a star@. BFT2BDB. HCD. HFA. -eRde&erd. -en !%ei."a. BHE. ee ama. BDT. -I ?emperor@.isha"yaguru. -en2"o. ee Chandragupta.isha"yar. CTF.saka. -en2ma. BAT. BGD. ee )rilliant&/apour. -o2%an& pJu2sa. HFA. ee )h. CKK. -au2$Ji. ee 'luka. -o2shM *o. BGA. HBT. BAT. -o2%an& shan ?mountain@. BCH. -e""o% river. -I Chau2shM. CKK. BFA. -ue2$%an&2pien2chau. HCD. BAT. HBB. CKT. ee ogachara&school. -o2tsan& pJu2sa. ee )h. HCA. ee 'pFli. CKK. -eu2po2"i. -o2&a2mi2$iau. ee ama. ee ama. CBC. CHC. BHH. BAT. HBG. ee 'p. -i2tsin&. ee oga&school. HGE. -en2tsun& ?emperor@. CFK. ee ama. BTA. ee ama. -en2"o2%an&. HFD. ee ogachara&school. BKG. CTT.

HDA. CTB. -In2men ?schoo"@. FFD . -In2ts6i monaster/.entioned in this >or$ acred Texts Buddhism Index . EA.-uen >ei d/nast/. ee ü-hwang&shang-ti. CTQ CTH. ee 5ei&dynasty. HET. -uen2mina /uen. CGF. FBA. NextS ("pha#etica" Index of Tit"es of Boo$s . -I2h%an&. HAF. P+NO. HK. -u2tian. CHT.BETC<. BKBQ schoo". HBB. -un&2pi. CCD. ee Khoten. ee ü-lan-hwei. Poroastrian fire %orship. ee ü-hwang&shang-ti. CBG. -I2"an2pJen. ee !ratyeka. BAB. CGA. ee '-lam. CTB. ee ü-hwang&shang-ti.revious Bu/ this Boo$ at (maRon. CAG. at sacred2texts. CTC. -I2h%an& shan&2ti. HBG. HFK. CGC. CET. HAE. . CAB. HBG. -I2ti. -I2h%an&2ti. ee #ars. ee -etO. -uen2$ioh HTG. BTE. -I2tsJin& $un&. ee ü-hwang&shang-ti. CCF. CTB. -I2"an2h%ei. -I2nI. CTG. #/ 4oseph +d$ins. CET. FFF p. ee ü-hwang&ta-ti. Chinese&)uddhism. HKF. CAF. -ue2ti. -un&2ho2$un&. -un&2h%o ?p"anet@. CFH. BFC. -un&2"o. -I2h%an& p.

ee Han-lung-king. ee Fa-kü-king. HEA. Boo$ of a Thousand Characters. BHG. FBG. Boo$ of *ort/2t%o ections. ee *n&*ccount&o+&*stronomy&(y&the&)rahman&-igarishi. Ba2"a2men2s%an2$in&. ee *mida&Sutra. Boo$ of K%an2/in. BEE. ee Seng-ki-lü. ee Fo-kwo-ki. BEG. HCC. HG. Boo$ of . (san&$h/ea 0ina/a. . CCT. HEK. (n (ccount of (stronom/ #/ the Brahman 1i&arishi. (#hidharma2"un. ee *mita(ha&Sutra and *-mi-ta-king. CHF. BHC. ee Tsien2tsM2%en. p. HCA. ee Fo-pen-hing-tsi-king. BHB. HEC. ee Kwan-yin-king. Boo$ for sha$in& the Dra&on. and 5u-liang-sheu-king. Boo$ of a !undred . (#hinish$ramana utra.isce""aneous . BHC. Boo$ of Chan&es.ara#"es. ee Shastra&o+&#etaphysics. BKB. Boo$ of !istor/. CKE. BDT. (ccount of Buddhist Kin&doms. Ba2"a2men2s%an2fa. TB. Boo$ of Reason and 0irtue. *-mi-ta-king. (dditiona" (&ama utra. BBG. BKE. ( Catena of Buddhist criptures from the Chinese. (mida utra. ee )a-la-men-gih-ga-sien&"en-t‘ien-wen-shwo. (&ama utras.ALPHABETICAL INDE OF TITLES OF BOOKS MENTIONED IN THIS !ORK. (2mi2ta2$in&. (#hidharma Kosha. CAH. BHC. (mita#ha utra. HCF. ee ee *mida&Sutra. BBG. HEK. BGT. Ba2"a2men2&ih2&a2sien 3en2tJien2%en2sh%o. BHC. ee i-king. FFA Boo$ of the Dharma in entences. CAK. DB. BTE. ee Tsa-yü-king. HG. C.ara#"es. BHF. ee 6ir/. Boo$ of Odes. HEA. Boo$ of the Nirv9na. Ba2"a2men2/in2/an&2s%an2"i. HEB. HEC. CKH. ee !e-yü-king.

ee Ch1eng-shih&Sutra. TK. Chun&2"un. ee Chung-lun. BKB. HET. BKG. Chih2fan& %ai2$i. BKB. HEK. HKG. BGT. CHB. BHK.Brahma3a"a. Comp"ete utra. A. Chun&2/in2tu2na2"an2to2ta2tau2chJan&2$in&. the&great&seat&o+&worship&in&Central&=ndia. Chinese Recorder. ee Central&Shastra and #edial&Shastra. ChJen&2shih utra. HKT. BGC. BBG. BBT. Curse of Kehama. BA. Centra" hastra. HCG. ee Fan-wang-king. ee Complete&Sutra. HKK. BHC. Cheu2"i. and Leng-yen-king. ee The&Sutra&o+&6alanda. CKF. BEF. BTK. FB. BDT2BAB. HCG. ChJan&2a2han2$in&. BGT. Chan2tsM2$in&. ee Shastra&o+&the&#easure&o+&5isdom. ChM2/ue2"uh. ee $iamond&Sutra. HBD. EA. ChJen&2%ei2shM2"un. Ch%an&2tsM. ee #0moires&sur&les&Contr2es&. HEK. Diamond C"assic. ee Longer&*gama&Sutra. BGT. Chun&2shen&2tien2$i. BHB. F. HKE. ChM2tu2"un. Centra" (&ama utra.ra/ers. FB. HEK./tho"o&/. . FBH. CKH.ccidentales. HBB. Dharmapita$a utra. Bri&ht utra. Chin&2tsR2tJun&. Chinese Repositor/. Ce/"on *riend. ee !‘o-lo-men-t‘ien-wen. Diamond utra. Brahmanica" (stronom/. ee #ing-king. Description of >estern Countries. HBT. ee S. BAK. Ch%en2tsJai2$in&. ee Liturgy&+or&turning&the&co++in. BHB. FBT. ee Kin-kang-king. E. Dai"/ . CFH. BA. Cheu2shu2/i2$i. CEK. HKE. Chen&2sin2$ Dictionar/ of 1ree$ and Roman Bio&raph/ and .taka.

Tra/els&o+&Fa-hian and Sung-yün. BGG. FBK. EE. ee Light-emitting&!ra"na&Sutra. BGT. 1atha of One h"o$a. BBA. FFK +ssai sur "e .ra3na. *an2%an&2$in&. HBF. CD. TB. BKH. TB. FGC. *a2/uen2chu2"in. BGA. !an2%ei2tsJun&2shu. ee Lotus&o+&the&-ood&Law and Saddharma&pundarika. BCK. ee )ook&o+&the&$harma&in&Sentences. HGE.Discip"ine of the *our Divisions. CD. ee The&Shastra&o+&. FBA. KH. HEK. BAT. HBA. FBD. ee Sï&+un-lü. +astern . KC. +ssa/ on Buddhism. ee Sutra&o+&-ood&Fortune. FBH. BHH. EH. FH. ee Fo% ko%&ki. ee Ta-yün-king. !ai2$%o2tJu2chM.onachism. BDA. ee )ook&+or&shaking&the&$ BEA. HGT. A. ee *(hinishkramana&Sutra and The&Romantic&Legend&o+&S. BCD. HBE. HEK. HEA. EA. 1reat )otus of the 1ood )a%. CH. and Records&o+&)uddhistic&Kingdoms. CBK. FB. FBG. !an2"un&2$in&. FGE. HCB. *o2pen2hin&2tsi2$in&.a"i. BTG. *o2$i2sian&2$in&. BBG. HCD. ee Shih-sung-lü. BD. BAT. FC. CEK. HEC.kya&)uddha. Fa-hwa-king. CBK. *ox $oux $i. !eart C"assic. *an2/i2min&2i. DA. CT. BGE. CFG. HAT. BDE. HFF. 1o"den )i&ht utra. FC. CB. BEG. HBD. ee Kin-kwang-king. *an&2$%an&2pat2nia2$in&. 1reat . BGT. HKK. HGK. *a2$I2$in&. CCT. ED. BGT. Discip"ine of the Ten Chants. . HCB. *a2h%a2h%ei2i. *o2$%o2$i. ee Fan-wang-king. !and#oo$ for the tudent of Chinese Buddhism. p. *a2h%a utra. ee Fa-hwa-king. *o2tsu2tJun&2$i. FBD. CDK. FK. TB. CFD. BBG. *an2%an& utra. ee Sin-king. ee )rahma"ala. ee #a-ha-pat-nia. BEF. ee Lotus&o+&the&-ood&Law. DB. 1reat c"oud utra. EA. CE. BGA. CGA.

Kin2$an&2pat2nia2pa2"a2mi2ta2$in&. BBB. BBA. BCB. Institutes of . CAK. HKE. KJai2/uen2shi2$iau2"u. !istor/ of the >ei d/nast/. FGE. BET. 4en2%an&2$in&. . HCG. 4apanese +nc/c"op=dia. BGT. Kiy2/I. CTT. ee Kieu-chï-li. BHC. ee Hwa-yen-king. BDC. AH. Introduction to the tud/ of the Chinese Characters. CKF. FBD. ee Kieu-chï-shu. BBK. ee Laws&o+&#anu. BEG. ee Hwa-yen&Sutra. HAD. !istor/ of the TJan& d/nast/. BTG. Kan2/in&2pJien. In2min&2shu2$iai. CTH. TF. BGK. !istor/ of the un& d/nast/. !istor/ of the Northern >ei d/nast/. HKE. CBH. BHG. HKT. BKG. HEG. !istor/ of TJien2tJai2shan. HTH. !undred Discourses. ee Sutra&o+&the&)ene/olent&king. CGH. Inf"uence of Tropica" C"imates on +uropeans. BGA. BCT. CHD. !istoire de "a 0ie de !iouen2thsan&. In2min&2"un. BBH. BE. Kieu2chM2"i. HCK. BEG. HHT. BHC. HCB. BBH.!in&2$io2$iuen. HBG. HAT. HF. FGG. BBT. KJan&2hi5s Dictionar/.hi"osoph/. BA. CTE. HB. BCK. !istor/ of . p. HG. BGA. TA. CCT. Introduction a "6!istoire du Buddhisme Indien. HBB. Kieu2chM2shu. BHF. BHC. HB. !%a2/en2$in&. ee <a"ra-chedika-pra"na-paramita&Sutra.odern .anu. BBG. Kin2$ana2$in&. !istor/ of the ui d/nast/. BHG. HCE. Kiau2ch6en&2fa2shu. KJai2/uen2chan2$in&. FFE !%a2/en utra. ee $iamond&Sutra. E.

HFG. FK. )a%s of . )en& /en2$in&. BT. Kin2shM2tJu2shu2pu. TC. HCF. )othair.ra3na paramita. p. BFT. ee !eacock&Sutra. HKD. ee Central&Shastra and Chung-lun. KJi2sin2"un.Kin-kwang-king.anua" of Buddhism. A. HAT. )ian& !istor/. H. CEK. HCG. BBA. BHG. FBG. ee )ook&o+&Kwan-yin. DB. HDC. FBD. ee Fang-kwang-pat-nia-king. BBG. ee Shastra&+or&awakening&Faith. )i&ht2emittin& . HBK. BEF. . K%an&2tse2"i. BGT.ahavanso. HEC. FGE. . ee The&Calendar&o+&the&)right&house. )otus of the 1ood )a%. ee $escription&o+&5estern&Countries. HAT. ET.edia" hastra. K%an2/in2$in&.ra3na utra.aha .anu. BET. HEE. ee -reat&!ra"na.anua" of Buddhist Re&u"ations and *estiva"s. HBG. BGF. HBF. BGA. FA. ee !e-chang-ts‘ing-kwei. BGT. BCG. . K%an2%u2"ian&2sheu2$in&. HTH. )ife of Buddha. FGG. ee The&)right&Sutra&o+&-olden&Light.n"an&es (siati:ues. )itur&/ for turnin& the coffin. BHH. BBK. CAC. BGG. BBC.a2ha2pat2nia. HBB. FGE. CA. .nmoires sur "es Contrnes Occidenta"es. CE. BTH. BFC. CKC. C. HG. .nthode pour Dnchifrer et Transcrire "es noms anscrits. BGE. )es (vadanas. )on&er (&ama utra. . . )en&a utra. BGC. ee Chwen-ts‘ai-king. CK. . FFT )i2men2"un. ee Ta-poh-"e-king. CT. BDC. TC. . . ee -olden&Light&Sutra. HET. HGA. HEB. HGD. BGE. ee Ch‘ang-a-han-king. CEK. CDB. HKE. Kin2$%an&2s"in&2$in&. BEG. ee Fa-hwa-king. ee =nstitutes&o+&#anu. Kun&2chJio2$in&. BT. )i2$i. )o2tsu2chJu2shM2tJui2fan2pin&2pau2$iuen.

/tho"o&/ of the !indoos.ra3na paramita. CEH. FK. . BTE. BGG. ee )rahmanical&*stronomy. FH.$in&. HKD. ee <a"ra-chedika-pra"na&paramita&Sutra. HCK. HGT. .at2no2pa2"a2mit2ta. . Nirv9na utra. BEG. . . O2mi2to2$in&2su2tsJau.eacoc$ utra. ee )ook&o+&a&Hundred&!ara(les. .in&2shu2pi2tJan. HCA.e2/I2$in&.radimo$sha utra.Jo2"o2men2tJien2%en. Nen&2t%an2$in2$an&2pat2nia2pa2"a2mi2ta2$in&. BDH. CCC. BGT. CKF. O"an&&i sodar. . . DC.ei2h%a2$in&. HBA. HEA. BGT. BEG. . HAA. . ee )ook&o+&the&6ir/.au2/in&2"u. CTB. ee #anual&o+&)uddhist&Regulations&and&Festi/als. ee Hwa-yen-king.e2/e2$ie2"a2nan. . Notions of the Chinese concernin& 1od and spirits.au2tsih utra. Narrative of Buddha pacif/in& and su#duin& amidhi. . BBB. BGT. BGE.iau2fa2"ien2h%a2$in&.en2hin&2$in&. O"d Testament. BBT. DD. . ee 6ir/. BBG. . HKT.e2Chan&2tsJin&2$%ei.ei2tsan&2mu2"u. ee T‘ung-kien-kang-mu. BGT. ee Tiau-+uh-san-mih-t‘i-king. Ne% Testament. C. FG. BF. HGD. .na&Sutra.irror of !istor/. ee !ratimoksha. CGE. BEF. . BBF. HBG. ee !ra"na&paramita. FDG . ee The&9rrors&o+&the&)uddhists&98posed. HG. BHC. FG. . CAK.en2tin&2"I. HKD. . BCB. BBT. .. ee Fa-hwa-king. HBB. Ni2%an2$in&.Ji2shih2shM2chu2%an&. . ee Kung-ch‘io-king.Jo2sie2$iuen.

ee The&(ook&o+&(irth&in&hea/en&through&keeping&the&ten&prohi(itions. hastra of fixed position. BDA. acred +dict. BGE.ethod of 1reat >isdom. der !indus. an$h/a Kari$a. . TB. hin&2min&2"un. KA. hastra of the ten positions. heu2shan2$o2tsJun&2shu. hastra of . BAG. ee *(hidharma-lun. BDH.em#ers of the Russian . hi2ti2"un. BGT. BBG. addharma pundari$a. ee $iscipline&o+&the&Ten&Chants. ee Ti-ch‘ï-lun. BBG. DB.easure of >isdom. BHF. ee Fa-hwa-king. hih2tsien. %. u. CBC. Records of Buddhistic $in&doms. KC. s. Rn"i&iose Bi"dun&. BC. an2mei2$in&. an2$iau2/i2su. hih2sun&2"I. en&2&a utra. . Researches of the . FBB. HKE. ee !radimoksha&Sutra. BBG. ee Ta-chï-tu-lun. Seng-ki-lü. BET. HKG. BGF. CHB.e$in&. ee Supplementary&*ccount&o+&the&Three&Religions. FDB huhu. BGF. ee *sangkhyea&<inaya. ee Shastra&o+&the&Ten&!ositions.ratimo$sha. FG. HEE. FC. hastra of the Non2e&o. hu2$in&. HKE. han&hai ("manac. KH. CKT. HBF. BBG.ra3na2ten&2"un. p. BBT. ee Shi-ti-lun. BBG. hastra of the . hastra of the . BDK. hen&2tJien2shMh2$iai2$in&. ee Tallies&o+&the&Shakya&communities.etaph/sics. ee Chan-tsï-king. ee Sutra&o+&the&6ot-me. 9ma 49ta$a. BHG. hi2er2men2"un. HKE.. ee Chï-tu-lun. ee K‘i-sin-lun.ission in . FGE. h%o2fu. HEK. KK. hastra for a%a$enin& faith.

M2pu2"I. in2$in&. ee Shastra&o+&the&#ethod&o+&-reat&5isdom. /""a#ic Dictionar/. HB. BBG. Ta-chï-tu-lun. ee #aha&!ra"na-paramita. BAG. utra of Bound"ess (&e. BT. ee Shih-tsien. ee #2moires&sur&les&Contr2es&. . utra of the Not2me. KK. utra of the Benevo"ent Kin&. TJan2shM2$iuen. utra of 1ood *ortune. CHH. BA. EE. DD. HKD. ee Star&classic. BAE. Ta2pei2tsJan. BHF. upp"ement to >en2hien2tJun&2$Jau. FBC. CEK. EC. ee $iamond&Sutra. HAT. FGG. FBA. utra of the ten points of rest. ee San-kiau-yi-su.ian&2chen&2$i. BHB. BEK. ee 4en-wang-king. ee Fa-hwa-king.ure name. BCK. ee Sing-king. BHG. TJai2shan2$iuen. HKE. DB. Ta""ies of the ha$/a communities. Ta2tJan&2si2/I2$i. BC. utra of the Diamond. BGE. ee Heart&classic. BCK. BBT. ee Si-yeu-ki. CT. CHH. BFF2BFA. in&2$in&. BFA. utra of the d/in& instructions of Buddha. i2/eu2$i. utra of Tom#s in connection %ith s/mpathetica""/ operatin& causes. un& !istor/. tar c"assic. M2fun2"I. BKK. utra of the )otus of the 1ood )a%. BFT. ee Tsung-mu-yin-yuen-king. TJan&2/In. BFG. Ta2poh23e2$in&. BHB. upp"ementar/ account of the three re"i&ions. ee 5u-liang-sheu-king. ee $iscipline&o+&the&Four&$i/isions. utra of . Ta2pei2chJan. Ta2tsi2$in&. FBE. BCH. i2/eu2chen2tsJeuen. CKF. FC. ee Si-yeu-chen-ts‘euen. ee Fo-ki-siang-king. ee Tsing-ming-king. CKF. utra of *ort/2t%o ections.ccidentales.

HEB. ee )ook&o+&Reason&and&<irtue. Tso2ch%en. ee Kwang-tse-li. TsJin histor/. CC. DD. HAT. ee !istor/ of T‘ien-t‘ai-shan. ee Chung-yin-tu-na-lan-to-ta-tau-ch1ang-king. HGA. . Tsien2tsM2%en. CGH. BDH. The ca"endar of the #ri&ht house. The ma&ica" formu"a of the Bodhisatt%a K%an2shM2/in. Tsa2/I2$in&. HEK. The utra of Na"anda the &reat seat of %orship in Centra" India. BKK.Tau2te2$in&. TsJin&2tsin&2$iuen. HHD. Treatise on the four tones. Three )ectures on Buddhism. ee 6arrati/e&o+&)uddha&paci+ying&and&su(duing&Samidhi. BHH. ee Sutra&o+&tom(s&in&connection&with&sympathetically-operating&causes. The Romantic )e&end of 9$/a Buddha. CBA. ee -reat&Cloud&Sutra. CGE. Transactions of the econd Orienta" Con&ress. BKK. HKE. HEK. Tsun&2mu2/in2/uen2$in&. ee Shastra&o+&+i8ed&position. ee Sutra&o+&!ure&6ame. Ti2tsan&2$in&. ee )ook&o+&#iscellaneous&!ara(les. Tiau2fuh2san2mih2tJi2$in&. %ho has a thousand hands and e/es and a mercifu" heart. BBG. BET. ee )ook&o+&a&Thousand&Characters. TsJien2sheu2tsJien2/en2$%an2shM2/in2pJu2sa2ta2pei2sin2to2"o2ni. Tsin&2tu2shen&2hien2"uh. BKF. C. Tsin&2tu2shM. The hastra of One h"o$a. BHH. TsJan2tJun&2$i. FDH The Bri&ht utra of 1o"den )i&ht. p. BCH. ee The&magical&+ormula&o+&the&)odhisattwa&Kwan-shï-yinB&who&has&a&thousand&hands&and&eyes& and&a&merci+ul&heart. CHB. Tsin&2min&2$in&. ee Ts‘ien-sheu-ts‘ien-yen-kwan-shï-yin-p‘u-sata&pei-sin-to-lo-ni. CKF. Tsin&2tu2%en. BCH. Thousand Character C"assic. TJien2tJai2shan2chM. FGE. TG. CGC. BAE. ee ih-shu-lu-kia-lun. ee Ti-tsang-king. Ti-ch‘ï-lun. CGE. FBG. CKH. ee Sheng-tien-shïh-kiai-king. BA. HET. HEB. ee Ti-tsang&Sutra. The #oo$ of #irth in heaven throu&h $eepin& the ten prohi#itions. Trave"s of *a2hian and un&2/un. BGK. The +rrors of the Buddhists exposed. Ta2/In2$in&. ee !‘i-shih-shi-chu-wang. ee Kin-kwang-ming-king. ee Tsien-tsï-wen. CHH. BTD. FBT. FBB. HBE. BBC. Ti2tsan& utra.

BCK. ee <i(hasha-lun. BFA. BGA. BBT. BBH. 0ishnu . -o2sM2"ieu2"i2$%an& 3u2"ai2$un&2te2$in&. HCD.TJun&2$ien2$an&2mu. -uen !istor/. BHG. ET. BBB. >ei2ma utra. CDK. CAD. CHD. 0ie de 1audama. HCC. HGH. CHH. -in&2h%an2chM2"io. T%an2tsi2sin2/au. CCT. CAG. CHG. -i2sho2"o2$a2"un. BKB. ee #irror&o+&History. HHH. ee The&Shastra&o+&. -o2shM2$in&. . ee The&Shastra&o+&. CGA. -in2chM2%en. ee )ook&o+&Changes. +din#ur&h O)ondon . CAA. BAT. HKE. CGH. >u2"ian&2sheu $in&. ee Kin-kang-pat-nia-pa-la-mi-ta-king. p. >ei2shM2"un. CDE.urana. HEF. BCH. CGC. -i2$in&. FBG. BCK. CAK. EC. 0i#hasha hastra. 0i#hasha2"un. -ih2shu2"u2$ia2"un. -I2"i. BGE. FDC 0a3ra chedi$a pra3na paramita utra. ^#er den Buddhaismus in !och (sien und in China. ee *mita(ha&Sutra. -I2$Jia2/en2$ -I2"an2pJen utra. >an2$%o2$un&2pau. ee <i(hasha&Shastra. -I2pJien. BFE. HCF. CAK. -i2tsJie2$in&2/in2i. -I2"i2chJau2ch%en. HBG. BGD. BAC.rinted #/ B())(NT-N+. BGG. !(N ON O Co. BGT.