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- 4.1 Introduction to Simple Harmonic Motion

1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

**4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
**

© Kari Eloranta 2012

Jyväskylän Lyseon lukio International Baccalaureate

January 16, 2013

© Kari Eloranta 2012

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.1 Oscillating Motion

**4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
**

The following graph represents the horizontal displacement x of an oscillating cart attached to a spring on a cart track.

cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75

t s

**Figure : An oscillating cart is in simple harmonic motion. Horizontal displacement x varies sinusoidally as a function of time t .
**

© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.1 Oscillating Motion

4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

Horizontally oscillating cart on a cart track, vertically oscillating weight suspended from a spring, and a simple pendulum are examples of oscillating motion (4.1.1). In the absence of resistive forces, under special circumstances, oscillating motion is simple harmonic (Topics 4.1 – 4.2). When the resistive forces cannot be neglected, oscillating motion is damped (Topic 4.3).

© Kari Eloranta 2012

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

**4.1 Amplitude A of Simple Harmonic Motion
**

Amplitude Amplitude is the greatest distance from the equilibrium position.

cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.5

x = A , amplitude = A t s

1.0

1.5

x = − A , amplitude = A

Figure : Double arrows show the times when displacement from the equilibrium position x = 0 is greatest (displacement = amplitude, that is, x = A ). Because amplitude is the magnitude of displacement, it is always positive.

© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

**4.1 Period T of Simple Harmonic Motion
**

Deﬁnition of Period T Period T is the time taken for one complete oscillation.

cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.5 Period is T = 0.60 s 1.0 1.5

t s

**Figure : The period is T = 0.60 s.
**

© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

**4.1 Frequency f of Simple Harmonic Motion
**

Deﬁnition of Frequency f Frequency f is the number of oscillations per unit time. Frequency f The frequency is

1 f = T

(1)

**where T is the period of oscillation. The unit of frequency is
**

1 1 [f ] = = = 1 Hz (hertz) [T ] s

For example, if the frequency of the oscillations is 10 Hz it means that 10 complete oscillations take place in one second.

© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

**4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
**

Deﬁnition of Simple Harmonic Motion In simple harmonic motion the acceleration a of the object is proportional to the displacement x from the equilibrium position, and directed toward the equilibrium position. Deﬁning Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion The deﬁning equation of simple harmonic motion is

a = −ω2 x

(2)

where a is the acceleration of the object, and ω is the angular frequency of simple harmonic motion. Examples of simple harmonic motion include a horizontally oscillating pendulum bob suspended from a string, and a vertically oscillating bob suspended from a spring.

© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

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