# 4.

1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
© Kari Eloranta 2012
Jyväskylän Lyseon lukio International Baccalaureate

January 16, 2013

© Kari Eloranta 2012

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.1 Oscillating Motion

4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
The following graph represents the horizontal displacement x of an oscillating cart attached to a spring on a cart track.
cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75

t s

Figure : An oscillating cart is in simple harmonic motion. Horizontal displacement x varies sinusoidally as a function of time t .
© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.1 Oscillating Motion

4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

Horizontally oscillating cart on a cart track, vertically oscillating weight suspended from a spring, and a simple pendulum are examples of oscillating motion (4.1.1). In the absence of resistive forces, under special circumstances, oscillating motion is simple harmonic (Topics 4.1 – 4.2). When the resistive forces cannot be neglected, oscillating motion is damped (Topic 4.3).

© Kari Eloranta 2012

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

4.1 Amplitude A of Simple Harmonic Motion
Amplitude Amplitude is the greatest distance from the equilibrium position.
cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.5

x = A , amplitude = A t s

1.0

1.5

x = − A , amplitude = A

Figure : Double arrows show the times when displacement from the equilibrium position x = 0 is greatest (displacement = amplitude, that is, x = A ). Because amplitude is the magnitude of displacement, it is always positive.
© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

4.1 Period T of Simple Harmonic Motion
Deﬁnition of Period T Period T is the time taken for one complete oscillation.
cm x 4 3 2 1 −1 −2 −3 0.5 Period is T = 0.60 s 1.0 1.5

t s

Figure : The period is T = 0.60 s.
© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

4.1 Frequency f of Simple Harmonic Motion
Deﬁnition of Frequency f Frequency f is the number of oscillations per unit time. Frequency f The frequency is
1 f = T

(1)

where T is the period of oscillation. The unit of frequency is
1 1 [f ] = = = 1 Hz (hertz) [T ] s

For example, if the frequency of the oscillations is 10 Hz it means that 10 complete oscillations take place in one second.
© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) 4.1.2 Basic Deﬁnitions

4.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
Deﬁnition of Simple Harmonic Motion In simple harmonic motion the acceleration a of the object is proportional to the displacement x from the equilibrium position, and directed toward the equilibrium position. Deﬁning Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion The deﬁning equation of simple harmonic motion is
a = −ω2 x

(2)

where a is the acceleration of the object, and ω is the angular frequency of simple harmonic motion. Examples of simple harmonic motion include a horizontally oscillating pendulum bob suspended from a string, and a vertically oscillating bob suspended from a spring.
© Kari Eloranta 2012 4.1 Kinematics of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)