Politics – theory of power sharing Goverment – what results from the application of political principles Geography – study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it effects and is affected by these. (lands, features, inhabitants, phenomena) History – study of past events PHILIPPINES  an archipelago (group of islands)  Chao Ju-Kua’s Chu fan-chi (1225) Lusung – Luzon Pi-sho-ye – Visayas Min-to-lang – Mindanao approximately 7,017 islands Ten biggest islands  Luzon  Panay  Mindanao  Mindoro  Negros  Leyte  Samar  Cebu  Palawan  Boho 2 total land area of 300,000 km located between Taiwan (formerly Formosa) and Borneo South China Sea (North and West); Pacific Ocean (East) and; Celebes Sea (South) Philippine Deep – one of the deepest sea trenches in the world Mount Apo – in Mindanao, highest peak Sierra Madre – longest continuous mountain range in the Phil. Mount Mayon – in Albay, famous for its perfect cone shape Mount Taal – smallest volcano in the world  tropical and maritime climate o dry season – December to May o wet season – June to November a democratic country subdivided into 17 regions and provinces National Capital Region (NCR)  Caloocan  Las Piñas

  

 

 

Makati Malabon

 Mandaluyong  Manila  Marikina  Muntinlupa  Navotas  Parañaque  Pasay Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)  Abra  Apayao  Benguet Ilocos Region (Region I)  Ilocos Norte  Ilocos Sur Cagayan Valley (Region II)  Batanes  Cagayan  Isabela Central Luzon (Region III)  Aurora  Bataan  Bulacan  Nueva Ecija CALABARZON (Region IV-A)  Batangas  Cavite  Laguna MIMAROPA (Region IV-B)  Marinduque  Occidental Mindoro  Oriental Mindoro Bicol Region (Region V)  Albay  Camarines Norte  Camarines Sur Western Visayas (Region VI)  Aklan  Antique  Capiz Central Visayas (Region VII)  Bohol  Cebu Eastern Visayas (Region VIII)  Biliran       Pasig Pateros Quezon City San Juan Taguig Valenzuela        Ifugao Kalinga Mountain Province La Union Pangasinan Nueva Vizcaya Quirino    Pampanga Tarlac Zambales   Quezon Rizal   Palawan Romblon    Catanduanes Masbate Sorsogon       Guimaras Iloilo Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Siquijor Eastern Samar .

aerial (air) o subsoil. ARTICLE I . Sabah (North Borneo)   agreement: for scientic research ARTICLE II – Declaration of Principles and State Policies . boundary. Scarborough’s Shoal 3. insular shelves. fluvial (water). It lays down and guides the duties and powers of the government. submarine areas follows the archipelago doctrine –UNCLOS geographical proximity 1. territorial seas.National Territory  area of responsibility. seabed. Spratly’s Island 2. extent of jurisdiction o internal waters – water surrounding the islands o terrestrial (land). and the duties and rights of its citizens and residents.   Leyte  Northern Samar Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX)  Zamboanga del Norte  Zamboanga del Sur Northern Mindanao (Region X)  Bukidnon  Camiguin  Lanao del Norte Davao Region (Region XI)  Compostela Valley  Davao del Norte SOCCSKSARGEN (Region XII)  Cotabato  Sarangani Caraga (Region XIII)  Agusan del Norte  Agusan del Sur Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)  Basilan  Lanao del Sur  Maguindanao Catholic main industry: fishing & agriculture    Samar Southern Leyte Zamboanga Sibugay   Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental         Davao del Sur Davao Oriental South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Sulu Tawi-Tawi 1987 CONSTITUTION constitution – serves as the supreme or fundamental law.

rival each other for the possession of rich colonies in America. (also for trade. Asia and Africa.ARTICLE III – Bill of Rights ARTICLE IV – Citizenship ARTRICLE V – Suffrage ARTICLE VI – Legislative Department ARTICLE VII – Executive Department ARTICLE VIII – Judicial Department ARTICLE IX – Constitutional Commission ARTICLE X – Local Government ARTICLE XI – Accountability of Public Officers ARTICLE XII – National Economy and Patrimony ARTICLE XIII – Social Justice and Human Rights ARTICLE XIV – Education. Culture and Sports ARTICLE XV – The Family ARTICLE XVI – General Provisions ARTICLE XVII – Amendments or Revisions ARTICLE XVIII – Transitory Provisions Modes of Acquisition       Discovery Legal Historical Cession Occupation Geographical ENCOUNTER WITH THE WEST (1400-1600)  The West. to prove the earth is round) PORTUGAL  first to send expeditions to the east . spices. Arts. led by Portugal and Spain. Science and Technology.

Victoria o Islas de Ladrones (Island of Thieves) 4. Carlos. Samar Rajah Kulambu – first blood compact  March 31 – first mass celebrated in the Philippines on the islet of Limasawa St. Lazarus  April 8. assured the people of Cebu Rajah Humabon – Cebu chieftain. ensued a blood compact  April 15. San Antonio March 17.” developed insruments of navigation (astrolabe. and his wife. and the caravel).Prince Henry – “The Navigator. Lazarus Day – Archipelago of St. the windrose compass. 1521 – converted 800 natives to Christianity Rajah Humabon was given the Christian name. 1521 – island of Homonhon. Juana  . discovered the islands of Madeira and the Azores (Western Africa) Bartholomew Diaz – discovered the Cape of Good Hope SPAIN   naval supremacy daring and imaginative explorers Christopher Columbus – discovered North America in 1492 Amerigo Vespucci – “a new world” Vicente Pinzon – discovered Brazil in 1500 Nuñez Balboa – discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513 a Spanish pope who drew up treaties defining territorial rights to her Pope Alexander VI Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza  The Magellan Expedition Ferdinand Magellan – a Portuguese soldier who went to Spain to offer his services to the Spanish King  King Charles I of Spain agreed to send an expedition to the Spice Islands (Moluccas) under his command Five ships 1. Trinidad  only 3 reached the Philippines 2. Concepcion o mutiny 3. Santiago  Strait of Magellan 5. 1521 – entered the harbor of Cebu Enrique – Malay slave.

justice. No exemptions from tribute/forced labor 4. Government should not take advantage of the regionalization of the Philippines 3. succeeded in reaching Spain  King Charles sent other expeditions which. Encourage the Filipinos to work (indolence or “katamaran”)  Encouraged propagandists: Freedom. Felipinas in honor of Prince Philip of Spain Miguel Lopez de Legazpi – first governor-general of the Philippines blood compact:    Bankaw Datu Si Katuna Si Gala Father Andres de Urdaneta – pilot of the new mission Felipe de Salcedo – Legazpi’s grandson Tupas – Cebu chieftain Gregorio Sanciangco – The Progress in the Philippines 1. reforms Propaganda Movement . failed o Loaysa (1525-1526) o Cabot (1526-1530) o Sayavedra (1527-1528) – reached Mindanao but didn’t succeed in settling in any of the islands Antonio Pigafetta – chronicler of the expedition Ruy Lopez de Villalobos – named the Islands of Samar and Leyte.Infant Jesus – presented to Juana as a commemoration of the event. however. Freedom 2. now Patron of Cebu  April 28 – Battle of Mactan Ferdinand Magellan was killed by the local chieftain Lapulapu Massacre at Cebu  the remaining Spaniards decided to leave Cebu one ship was burned because it had become useless Trinidad – captured by the Portuguese Victoria – commanded by Sebastian del Cano. equaliity.

1.. Zamboanga executed on Bagumbayan Field on December 30. called “Doctor” in honor of him but technically did not finish medicine (thesis) established La Liga Filipina when he returned to the Philippines banished to Dapitan. insurrections. 5. Tomas – medicine  accepted late enrollment  double major in Ateneo and UST  passed medicine despite its difficulty  studied in two schools at the same time o went to Europe to continue his medical studies (opportunity) Works o Noli Me Tangere o El Filibusterismo o Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas – Antonio de Morga Relationships o Leonor Rivera o Josephine Bracken o . 1861 to Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonso Education o Ateneo Municipal – Bachelor of Arts o University of Sto. should not lose hope in fighting indolence  early Filipinos carried out trade between provinces and neigboring countries. tamad Chapter 1: Admitting the existence of Indolence  Rizal admits that indolence does exist in the Filipinos  backwardness and troubles experienced by the country  hot climate – more effort in putting work Chapter 2: Indolence of chronic illness  people.. however. 2. 4. Reforms Friars Assimilation Representative in the Spanish court Equality Important Filipino Reformists: Jose Rizal Marcelo Del Pilar Gracianao Lopez Jose Rizal – Dimasalang   born in Calamba. engaged in agriculture and even spoke Spanish  disproves the notion that Filipinos are by nature indolent  indolence is a chronic maladity but not a hereditary one Chapter 3: Wars. Laguna on June 19. expeditions and invasions o o . 3. 1986       On the Indolence of the Filipinos by Jose Rizal o o o La Solidaridad (July-September 1890) Indolent – batugan.

and 4) to defend progress he expressed the demands of the Filipino reformists 1) representation in the Spanish Cortes 2) the right to vote 3) freedom of speech. changed his mind to become a physician instead founded the fornightly newspaper La Solidaridad in 1889 Aims of the newspaper 1) to fight reaction 2) to stop all efforts to keep the Philippines a backward country 3) to extol liberal ideas. Diariong Tagalog Works o La Soberania Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines) o La Frailocracia Filipina (Frailocracy in the Philippines) . 1850 studied at the College of San Jose and later at the University of Sto.o o  forced labor  a man works for an object. of assembly. and of the press 4) freedom of commerce. 5) removal of the friars from the Philippines because they were an obstacle to progress 6) the education of the people 7) reforms in the jails of the country and 8) the abolition of the diezmos prediales  Marcelo H. but later on. 1856 his parents were Placido Lopez and Maria Jacobo studied at the Seminary of Jaro to become a priest. remove the object and you reduce him to inaction Chapter 4: Death of trade in the Philippines  businesses are monopolized by many government officials. where he finished his law studies in 1880 founded the Tagalog-Spanish newspaper. Tomas. rampant gambling  wrong attitude towards work – the rich will not go to heaven  discrimination in education against natives Chapter 5: Limited training and education  limited training and education Filipino natives receive  lack of a national sentiment Graciano Lopez Jaena     born on December 18. Del Pilar – Plaridel     born on August 30.

Fleming and Co.  Caiingat Cayo. Legazpi.. and moral three governing bodies: the Supreme Council. as an agent of Fressel and Co. political. Valeriana. 1863 in what is not Azcarraga Street near the Present Manila Railroad station his parents were Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro because of his poverty. Marina Dizon. Romualda Lanuza. 1896 o The Pro-Filipino Societies   Circulo Hispano-Filipino (The Spanish-Filipino Circle) – lack of financial support and leadership Freemasonry – anti-friar character o Revolucion – founded by Lopez Jaena in Barcelona in 1889 o La Solidaridad – Madrid o Nilad – Manila o Walana – women’s own masonic lodge – included Rizal’s sisters Josefa and Trinidad. Kadakilaan ng Dios. and later. . he was not able to finish the equivalent of grade four today worked as a messenger of J. Sagot ng España sa Hibik ng Filipinas. Sixta Fajardo. Dasalan at Toksohan. including Andres Bonifacio Cuerpo de Compromisarios (Body of Compromisers)   Katipunan  founding of the Katipunan  Teodoro Plata  Valentin Diaz  Ladislao Diwa  Deodato Arellano  Andres Bonifacio three primary objectives of the Katipunan: civic. Provincial Council and Popular Council Deodato Arellano – first Supremo Roman Basa – second Andres Bonifacio – replaced Basa Secret Chamber  Andres Bonifacio – Agapito Bagumbayan  Emilio Jacinto – Pingkian and Dimas-Ilaw  Pio Valenzuela – Madlang-Away flag: Benita Rodriguez and Gregoria de Jesus     Andres Bonifacio     born on November 30. and many others Del Pilar contracted tuberculosis died on July 4.M. Rosario Villaruel. and Purificacion Leyva La Liga Filipina – a civic society founded by Rizal and a group of patriotic Filipinos.

1897 Emilio Jacinto    born in Tondo. Laguna on April 6. 1896 August 30 – attack at San Juan del Monte Filipinos suffered heavy losses Araw ng Kagitingan 2nd Philippine Revolution – Emilio Aguinaldo . Manila on December 15. 1875 first studied at San Juan de Letran and later transfered to the University of Santo Tomas where he studied Law Works o Pahayag (Manifesto) o A Mi Patria (To My Country) o Kartilla o Liwanag at Dilim o Sa Mga Kababayan died in Mahayhay.   anti-friar and anti-Spanish Works o Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa (Love of Country) o Decalogue (Ten Commandments) o Tapunan ng Lingap o Ang Mga Cazadores o Huling Hibik ng Pilipinas died on May 10. 1899 at the young age of twenty-four  1st Philippine Revolution – Andres Bonifacio August 19 – discovery of the Katipunan confession of Teodoro Patino to Father Mariano Gil August 21 – about 500 Katipuneros left Sitio Kangkong and arrived at Pugadlawin August 23 – Cry of Pugadlawin retreated to Pasong Tamo August 28 – Bonifacio issued a manifesto set the attack in the City of Manila for August 29.