GED Language Arts, Writing Lesson 7 Mechanics

just like you give to wealthy depositors and businesses. Statements were sent out on the first Monday of the month. grandmother) are capitalized when they are used to address a person directly. "How do you do.always makes a better impression than writing that contains errors. Boyle worked for the Franklin National Bank. By New Year's Day in January 1952. Ms. RULE 2 Capitalize a proper adjective. William Boyle invented the credit card in 1951. or thing RULE 1 Capitalize a proper noun. punctuation. RULE 3 Capitalize a title that comes directly before a person's name. Writing • Mechanics . Mayor. He lived on Spark Street in West Stead on Long Island. I would appreciate a line of credit. Ms. asked for credit to pay a big heating bill. or thing. On the bank's board of directors was Mayor Graham. About 25 percent of the multiple-choice questions will be based on these topics.Mechanics Mechanics is an important content area on the GED Language Arts." "Mr. father. Writing that is mechanically correct . These additional rules will help you decide when to capitalize other words. proper adjective a descriptive word formed from a proper noun 132 Language Arts. proper noun a word that names a specific person. Titles and family names (for example. place. Ailey. A depositor.that is. punctuation. and spelling . place. and spelling. a descriptive word that comes from the name of a specific person or place. mother. days of the week. Mr. Writing Test. Mechanics concepts include capitalization. Sir. Ailey said. a word that names a specific person." RULE 4 Capitalize the names of holidays. Franklin's main competitor was First American Bank. group. Boyle. and months of the year. Franklin National Bank had set up over 700 credit card accounts for its customers. writing that has correct capitalization. Capitalization When to Capitalize You probably already know that the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I are always capitalized.

Incorrect: Alice wants to take a History course. that is. but William grew up in the South. RULE 1 A title or a family name that is preceded by a. RULE 3 A school subject is not capitalized unless it is the name of a specific course or a language. Correct: Alice was born here. RULE 5 A geographic place is not capitalized unless it is part of a specific name you can find on a map. RULE 4 A direction word is not capitalized unless it refers to a specific place. Correct: She went with her Uncle William. When a word should be capitalized. Incorrect: The school is next to a huge Lake. its abbreviation should be capitalized too: Mount Shasta. Correct: She went with her uncle. Put a check mark next to the sentence that has a capitalization error. Incorrect: Alice went to see the Dean. b. Hank is staying with his Aunt Carol on this side of the River. Hank. RULE 2 The names of the seasons are not capitalized. Correct: The school is next to a huge lake. so he doesn't have a long commute from north of town. Correct: Alice went to see the dean. Correct: Alice wants to take a history course. such as a region of the country. Mt. they capitalize words that should not be capitalized. a. or a possessive pronoun such as my is not capitalized. Joe and his cousin. Incorrect: They walked South to the administration building. Correct: Alice wants to take American History 101 and Swahili. You were correct if you checked option b. Incorrect: She went with her Uncle. Incorrect: Both are going back to school in the Fall. the. There is no reason to capitalize river because it is not part of a specific place name. Lesson 15 • Capitalization 133 . are taking geometry and English in school this summer. Correct: They walked south to the administration building. Proper nouns are sometimes abbreviated.When Not to Capitalize Some writers overcapitalize. Correct: Both are going back to school in the fall. Correct: The school is next to Lake Ontario. You need to learn to avoid using unnecessary capital letters. Correct: Alice went to see Dean Asher. Shasta.

keeping the leaves and stem because they provide food for the bulb. claims that. Sentence 7: At the end of Summer when the leaves are dead. Which correction should be made to sentence 1? (1) change throw to threw (2) change Easter to easter (3) insert a comma after lilies (4) change mother's day to Mother's Day (5) insert a comma after plant Which correction should be made to sentence 7? (1) change Summer to summer (2) remove the comma after dead (3) change dead. Sentence 4: In far northern areas. and cover it with pine needles or mulch. (2) The National Lily foundation. (4) In far northern areas. with some care and rest in your garden. claims that. Cut (4) change pine to Pine (5) no correction is necessary The names of many holidays and other proper nouns consist of more than one word. (6) Plant the bulb about eight inches deep in a sunny spot and feed it about once a month. Which correction should be made to sentence 2? (1) change National Lily to national lily (2) change foundation to Foundation (3) change claims to claim (4) replace potted lilies with they (5) change bloom to be blooming 3. 2. (8) Your lily should blossom for many years. Sentence 1: Many people throw out potted Easter lilies or mother's day plants soon after they bloom. with some care and rest in your garden. however. 134 Language Arts. cut the plant back. potted lilies can recover and bloom the next year. cut to dead.GED Practice Directions: Choose the one best answer to each question. and cover it with pine needles or mulch. From Gifts to Gardens (A) (1) Many people throw out potted Easter lilies or mother's day plants soon after they bloom. (5) Knock the bulb out of its pot. Be sure to capitalize all the relevant words in a proper noun. 1. Answers start on page 745. Sentence 2: The National Lily foundation. this usually means waiting until mid-june. Writing • Mechanics . potted lilies can recover and bloom the next year. this usually means waiting until midjune. (7) At the end of Summer when the leaves are dead. (B) (3) Wait until the last frost in your region. however. Questions 1 through 4 refer to the following paragraphs. Which correction should be made to sentence 4? (1) change northern to Northern (2) change means to meant (3) insert a comma after waiting (4) change mid-june to Mid-june (5) change mid-june to mid-June 4. cut the plant back.

and fresh fruit. so. However. RULE 1 Use a comma to separate items in a series-a list of three or more. Do not use a comma to separate two subjects in a compound subject or two verbs in a compound predicate: Mary and Jim fished. pies. It tells when to pause in a sentence or which elements in a sentence need to be separated in a meaningful way. Everyone is helping. for.Commas Items in Series and Compound Sentences The comma is a guide for readers. pizza. or tens. and cookies will be sold at the charity bake sale. Liz fished and swam. do not use a comma. joined by a coordinating conjunction: and. called independent clauses. a. using commas throughout the rest of a series is required. The newer ones also make change for bills in the denominations of ones. Committees have helped with getting publicity. Lesson 16 • Commas 135 . A comma before the final and in a series is optional. RULE 2 Use a comma between the clauses in a compound sentence. nor. Remember that a compound sentence contains two or more complete thoughts. coffee. Correct: The advertising committee wants more posters and flyers . Old-fashioned vending machines were usually filled with stale candy or sandwiches. When three or more items are all separated by the conjunction and or or. Some newer vending machines contain rolls pizza coffee and fresh fruit. or yet. Put a check mark next to the sentence with a comma error. soliciting donations. and decorating booths. You were correct if you checked option b. The series needs commas: Some newer vending machines contain rolls. do not use commas. fives. but. or. Learning the rules for using commas will help you become a better writer and a better reader. Correct: Cakes. When there are only two items. c. b. so the bake sale should be a hit. Correct: The advertising committee wants more posters and flyers and mailings. The items in the series may be words or phrases.

You were correct if you checked option a because In addition to skills is an introductory phrase that should be followed by a comma. My job counselor. Some common parenthetical expressions are for example. Ron has cards. b. But: appositive a noun phrase that adds information about a noun or pronoun When all his bills came in. it is nonessential. incidentally. It begins with a subordinating conjunction such as before or if. a. As a result of overspending. for most stores in the mall. RULE 1 Use a comma to separate introductory elements-words or phrases at the beginning of a sentence-from the rest of the sentence. RULE 4 Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions. An appositive is a noun phrase that further explains or describes another noun or pronoun. If the appositive simply adds some information but is not necessary in order to identify the noun or pronoun. it is essential. Essential: He is reading the library book Ten Ways to Get Out of Debt. Nonessential: Ron. No. Ron's funds are low. for example. Writing • Mechanics . He was stunned when all his bills came in. and on the one hand. 136 Language Arts. a second comma is needed after the nonessential appositive Della Rollins. Remember that a dependent clause contains a subject and a verb but is not a complete thought and cannot stand alone. he was stunned. Do not use commas for essential appositives. parenthetical expression a word or phrase that adds nothing essential to the meaning of a sentence A parenthetical expression is a word or phrase that adds nothing essential to the meaning of a sentence. In option b. Della Rollins helped me pick an interview outfit. If the appositive is necessary to identify the noun or pronoun.Introductory Elements and Appositives Words and phrases that introduce or interrupt the main idea of a sentence are usually set off from the rest of the sentence with commas. RULE 2 Use a comma after a dependent clause that comes at the beginning of a sentence. the bank is closed on Memorial Day. appearance is important at an interview. my friend. has 13 credit cards. of course. RULE 3 Use commas to separate a nonessential appositive from the rest of the sentence. however. Many parenthetical expressions are transitions. Put a check mark next to the sentence that uses commas correctly. In addition to skills.

(1) Friday Saturday. choose option (1). (B) (5) Before the event. (2) Friday Saturday and Sunday. (4) In addition samples of our delicious smoked ham. Sentence 1: Next Friday Saturday. and Saturday and Sunday (4) Friday Saturday. Sentence 7: You can help by encouraging your friends. Memo TO: Staff DATE: September 12. and salads will be half-price. and relatives to visit our new department. roast beef. Which correction should be made to sentence 7? (1) replace You with One (2) change help to be helping (3) remove the comma after friends (4) insert a comma after relatives (5) no correction is necessary Which is the best way to write the underlined portion of this sentence? If the original is the best way. you will have the opportunity to meet all the new staff in the deli department. and tuna salad will be served throughout the store. 1. the Four Corners Supermarket will hold an in-store sale to introduce our new deli department. Answers start on page 745 Lesson 16 • Commas 137 . (7) You can help by encouraging your friends. Questions 1 through 4 refer to the following memo. and Sunday. (3) Friday. the Four Corners Supermarket will hold an instore sale to introduce our new deli department. (6) The new deli manager. roast beef.GED Practice Directions: Choose the one best answer to each question. and Sunday (5) Friday. and Sunday. 2002 RE: Deli Opening (A) (1) Next Friday Saturday. Sentence 4: In addition samples of our delicious smoked ham. (3) All delimade sandwiches. Which correction should be made to sentence 6? (1) change manager to Manager (2) insert a comma after Howard (3) insert a comma after sales (4) change expects to expected (5) replace the special event with it 4. and tuna salad will be served throughout the store. (2) We will have tasty cooking demonstrations for customers. soups. Sybil Howard expects that the new department will increase store sales by 50 to 75 percent during the special event. and Sunday. Saturday. and Sunday. and relatives to visit our new department. Sentence 6: The new deli manager. 2. Sybil Howard expects that the new department will increase store sales by 50 to 75 percent during the special event. Which correction should be made to sentence 4? (1) insert a comma after In addition (2) remove the comma after ham (3) insert a comma after salad (4) change will be to was (5) no correction is necessary 3.

In option a. Put a check mark by the sentence in which all possessives are spelled correctly. yours. the singular possessive Jills' should be spelled Jill's. try to turn the words into a phrase with of. Plural Possessive: The children's rods are stacked in the garage. RULE 1 Add 's to show the possessive for a singular noun and for a plural noun that does not end in -s. the plural noun sister's should be spelled sisters. You make a noun show possession by using an apostrophe (') and usually the letter -s. They are of my Grandmother Tess and her two younger sister's. Singular Possessive: Jess’s old reel is oiled and ready. a. Possessive: Bob's sister = the sister of Bob That big catch of trout is their's. theirs. RULE 3 Don't use an apostrophe with the possessive pronouns his. d. the possessive pronoun Who's should be spelled Whose. You were correct if you checked option d. Bess and Jess.Spelling Possessives Possessives are words that show ownership. Plural nouns that do not show possession do not use an apostrophe. Writing· Mechanics . b. Her brothers' names are Fess and Les Rimes. Here is Jills' picture in the photo album. its. and whose. hers. In option b. Singular Possessive: John's sons are going fly-fishing next week. In option c. That big catch of trout is theirs. Who's pictures are these? c. 138 Language Arts. The possessive plural brothers' is spelled correctly. possessive a word that shows ownership RULE 2 Add only an apostrophe to show the possessive for a plural noun ending in -s Plural Possessive: Plural Possessive: Both sons' fishing flies are already tied. ours. Incorrect: Correct: To check for possession. The flies' hooks have been carefully inserted.

contractions use apostrophes. Incorrect: Correct Possessive: Make sure each word has it's apostrophe in the correct place. Most contractions combine a personal pronoun and a verb: you've = you have she'd = she had it's = it is isn't aren't don't doesn't haven't can't couldn't = = = = = = = is not are not do not does not have not cannot could not we're = we are he'd = he would they'll = they will wasn't weren't didn't won't hasn't shouldn't wouldn't = = = = = = = was not were not did not will not has not should not would not Negative contractions combine a verb and the word not: To check the spelling of a contraction. the word is a contraction. It's due date was last month. If the sentence makes sense. A contraction is a shortened way to write two words by combining them and omitting one or more letters. Lesson 17 • Spelling 139 . The apostrophe replaces the a in are. mentally substitute the two words that form the contraction. Incorrect: Its a common spelling problem.Contractions contraction a word formed from two words that are combined and shortened by leaving out letters. look at the placement of the apostrophe. Correct: Don't put the apostrophe in the wrong place. so that is a contraction and needs the apostrophe. You can substitute It is in the sentence: It is a library book. RULE 2 Do not confuse contractions with possessives that sound the same. b. RULE 1 Use an apostrophe to take the place of the missing letters in a contraction: I + am = I'm. An apostrophe replaces a letter or letters in one word of a contraction. so its is a possessive. For example: We're = We are. Correct Contraction: It's a common spelling problem. You were correct if you checked option a. It's a library book. To decide whether a word is a contraction or a possessive. Like possessives. Make sure each word has its apostrophe in the correct place. a. Incorrect: Do'nt put the apostrophe in the wrong place. You can substitute it is in the first sentence. Put a check mark by the sentence that uses a contraction correctly. An apostrophe takes the place of the missing letter(s). You cannot substitute it is in the second sentence.

b. belief) right (correct. The instructor's lesson will positively effect the class. head of a school) principle (rule.Homonyms homonyms words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different spellings and different meanings. you will know the intended meaning of the word. track) feat (achievement) feet (plural of foot) grate (to shred) great (extremely good) hear (to listen) here (in this place) hole (opening) whole (entire) knew (past tense of know) new (latest. direction) weigh (to measure heaviness) weak (not strong) week (seven days) wear (to have on clothing) where (what place) weather (climate) whether (if) wood (what trees are made of) would (verb expressing a wish) Some words are not actual homonyms. you're/your. The instructor's lesson will positively affect the class. opposite of left) write (to form words) their (belonging to them) there (in that place) they're (contraction of they are) to (in the direction of) too (also) two (the number 2) way (path. Here are some other commonly confused homonyms: board (piece of wood) bored (not interested) To avoid errors with homonyms. Writing • Mechanics . rest period) coarse (rough. additional) passed (went by) past (a time before) principal (main. a. You simply have to learn how to spell the particular homonym you want to use. There are no rules to help you write homonyms. affect (to influence) effect (a result) than (comparison) then (after that) Put a check mark by the sentence with no misspelling. 140 Language Arts. You were correct if you chose option a. some contractions and possessives are homonyms: it's/its. As you have learned. brake (to stop) break (to damage or destroy. but they are often confused because they sound so similar: accept (to receive or get) except (excluding) For more information on homonyms see the Writer's Checklist on pages 888-891. who's/whose. read the entire sentence before you decide how to spell the word. That way. textured) course (path. The instructor's actions will influence the class positively.

Sentence 2: If you act now. you'll receive 48 weakly issues of OnLine Emblem. Answers start on page 745 Lesson 17 • Spelling 141 . jobs. Study them and practice writing sentences with them.95. and sports. (2) If you act now. most accurate publication" covering the Internet today! Which correction should be made to sentence 2? (1) change you act to one acts (2) remove the comma after now (3) change receive to have received (4) replace weakly with weekly (5) replace great with grate Which correction should be made to sentence 6? (1) replace wait with weight (2) insert a comma after service (3) change Professor to professor (4) change University's to Universities (5) no correction is necessary As you work through these exercises. plus 12 monthly special reports for the great rate of only $18. plus 12 monthly special reports for the great rate of only $18. Which correction should be made to sentence 5? (1) replace your with you're (2) remove the comma (3) replace well with we'll (4) change special reports to Special Reports (5) no correction is necessary 4. Questions 1 through 4 refer to the following letter. note the homonyms that give you trouble. (5) With your paid renewal. Sentence 4: Our magazines' coverage provides you with breaking news on e-mail. Dear Thomas Peters: (A) (1) Don't miss this special renewal opportunity. shopping discounts. Which correction should be made to sentence 4? (1) change magazines' to magazine's (2) change provides to provide (3) replace you with one (4) replace breaking with braking (5) no correction is necessary 3. and sports. you'll receive 48 weakly issues of On-Line Emblem.95. (C) (6) Don't wait another minute to continue the service that Professor Jane Notch of Dwyer University's School of Computer Science calls "the best. jobs. (B) (3) Don't miss the only newsmagazine covering the people. shopping discounts. well send you an additional 12 monthly special reports covering exciting Internet issues. Sentence 5: With your paid renewal. Sentence 6: Don't wait another minute to continue the service that Professor Jane Notch of Dwyer University's School of Computer Science calls "the best. and community actions shaping the Internet economy. That way.GED Practice Directions: Choose the one best answer to each question. local news. 2. well send you an additional 12 monthly special reports covering exciting Internet issues. you will know them when you take the GED Writing Test. most accurate publication" covering the Internet today! 1. (4) Our magazines' coverage provides you with breaking news on e-mail.

2. (5) Its important to listen carefully to callers and ask them to repeat any names or numbers you don't understand. Writing • Mechanics . phone number. Sentence 1: In these days of voicemail and automated phone menus. Sentence 3: Here are some great tips for receiving incoming calls and taking customer's messages. the art of answering the telephone may be part of our past. say the name of the company and "How may I help you?" as politely as possible. Which correction should be made to sentence 5? (1) replace Its with It's (2) change callers to callers' (3) replace and with a comma (4) insert a comma after names (5) change don't to do'nt 4. Questions 1 through 4 refer to the following paragraphs. (8) Verify both the name by spelling it back and the telephone number by repeating the numbers. Which correction should be made to sentence 3? (1) replace Here with Hear (2) change are to is (3) replace great with grate (4) insert a comma after calls (5) change customer's to customers' 3. phone number. and any message he or she wants to leave. Sentence 7: Than write down the caller's name. Which correction should be made to sentence 7? (1) replace Than with Then (2) replace write with right (3) change caller's to callers (4) remove the comma after name (5) insert a comma after message Which correction should be made to sentence 1? (1) insert a comma after voicemail (2) remove the comma after menus (3)' replace our with hour (4) replace past with passed (5) no correction is necessary 142 Language Arts. (7) Than write down the caller's name. How to Take Phone Messages (A) (1) In these days of voicemail and automated phone menus. company. the art of answering the telephone may be part of our past. (9) Finally. (2) Yet some companies still recognize the value of personal contact. (6) To take a message for an employee who isn't available.GED Review Mechanics Directions: Choose the one best answer to each question. note the person's name who is getting the message and the time of the call. (3) Here are some great tips for receiving incoming calls and taking customer's messages. (B) (4) After greeting a customer. thank the caller and make sure the message gets to the right person promptly. Sentence 5: Its important to listen carefully to callers and ask them to repeat any names or numbers you don't understand. company. and any message he or she wants to leave. 1.

healthy. Sentence 1: Calcium is a mineral needed for strong. and lasting. do not usea comma. Which correction should be made to sentence 1? (1) change is to has been (2) insert a comma after mineral (3) remove the comma after lasting (4) insert a comma after teeth (5) no correction is necessary 6. (6) In addition. choose option (1). 5. Which correction should be made to sentence 5? (1) insert a comma after difficulty (2) insert a comma after milk (3) replace there are with they have (4) change are to is (5) no correction is-necessary 9. and fortified bread and cereals.Questions 5 through 9 refer to the following paragraphs. (5) For people with difficulty digesting milk there are now low lactose alternatives. and fortified bread and cereals. For three or more. That is the number of commas you need. leafy green vegetables. subtract one from the number of items. include broccoli. Which correction should be made to sentence 7? (1) replace that with they (2) change are to have been (3) remove the comma after calcium (4) remove the comma after broccoli (5) insert a comma after bread Which correction should be made to . Mechanics • Review 143 . (4) Dairy products are the foods richest in calcium and now many of them are also low-fat or nonfat. 8. teeth and bones. Getting Your Calcium (A) (1) Calcium is a mineral needed for strong. healthy. include broccoli. Sentence 7: Non-dairy products that are rich in calcium. leafy green vegetables. And (4) calcium. Sentence 5: For people with difficulty digesting milk there are now low-lactose alternatives. For only two. foods such as orange juice can be fortified with calcium. sentence 3? (1) change take to were taking (2) insert a comma after calcium (3) insert a comma after pills (4) change nutritionists to Nutritionists (5) no correction is necessary Avoid unnecessary commas in a series by. teeth and bones. and lasting. (7) Non-dairy products that are rich in calcium. Which is the best way to write the underlined portion of this sentence? If the original is the best way. (B) (3) Although many people take calcium in pills nutritionists recommend eating foods naturally rich in calcium. 7. (2) Doctors generally agree that 2000 milligrams of calcium a day is safe for most people. Sentence 4: Dairy products are the foods richest in calcium and now many of them are also low-fat or non-fat. counting the items. Sentence 3: Although many people take calcium in pills nutritionists recommend eating foods naturally rich in calcium. and (5) calcium and. (1) calcium and (2) calcium (3) calcium.

vice president Ford succeeded him. 144 Language Arts. (7) Even though Ford was not returned to office by the voters. Which correction should be made to sentence 6? (1) change had to has (2) change had been to was being (3) change representative to Representative (4) change congress to Congress (5) change Midwest to midwest For more information on Mechanics. Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. after Nixon resigned from the White House. California. after Nixon resigned from the White House. (B) (4) Although the job of a vice president seems comparatively unimportant.Questions 10 through 13 refer to. (6) Ford had been a representative in congress from the Midwest before Nixon named him to succeed Spiro Agnew. Which correction should be made to sentence 5? (1) remove the comma after example (2) change White House to white house (3) remove the comma after House (4) change president to President (5) change vice president to Vice President 13. California. Writing • Mechanics . Sentence 6: Ford had been a representative in Americans go to the polls on Election Day to elect a president. has produced only two presidents. (5) change presidents to Presidents 12. Which correction should be made to sentence 1? (1) change Fall to fall (2) change go to goes (3) change go to went (4) change president to President (5) no correction is necessary congress from the Midwest before Nixon named him to succeed Spiro Agnew. (2) The largest number of presidents have come from the South. vice president Ford succeeded him. (5) For example. Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. the nation's most populous State. the nation's most populous State. Sentence 1: Every four years in the Fall. Americans go to the polls on Election Day to elect a president. see the Writer's Checklist on page 888. the following paragraphs. Sentence 3: Interestingly. 10. has produced only two presidents. (3) Interestingly. 11. the country had been spared a serious gap in leadership. it is a vital transitional position for the nation. Answers start on page 746. Sentence 5: For example. Which correction should be made to sentence 3? (1) change nation's to Nation's (2) change State to state (3) change has to have (4) insert they were after presidents. Elections (A) (1) Every four years in the Fall.

Option (2) uses an incorrect verb form. Since seasons are not capitalized. and (5) are incorrect shifts in verb tense. Option (4) incorrectly changes the verb tense. (3) will focus (Verb tenses) Option (3) is correct because the simple future tense is needed in the second. Option (5) is an incomplete verb form. Option (2) incorrectly removes a comma in a series. Option (3) creates a sentence fragment out of the introductory clause. Option (4) is incorrect because 4. (1) change magazines’ to magazine's Option (1) is correct because the possessive is singular. 1. (4) replace weakly with weekly Option (4) is correct because the homonym meaning "once every seven days" is needed in the sentence. 1. (3). (2) change foundation to Foundation Option (2) is correct because foundation is part of the name of a specific organization and should be capitalized. Lesson 17: Spelling GED Practice (page 141) All items in this practice are related to spelling. 2. (3). Option (4) incorrectly capitalizes the wrong part of the phrase mid-June. Option (1) incorrectly changes the verb tense. (4) looks (Verb tenses) Option (4) is correct because there is no reason to capitalize the adjective pine. (2). Answers and Explanations • Unit 1 745 . (2). Options (1). Option (2) is incorrect because Easter is a holiday and should be capitalized. 18. Option (2) is incorrect because provides agrees with the singular subject coverage. Option (5) replaces a correctly spelled word with its homonym. (5) change mid-june to mid-June Option (5) is correct because months of the year should be capitalized. Option (3) inserts an unnecessary comma at the end of the series. 17. (1) insert a comma after In addition Option (1) correctly inserts a comma after an introductory phrase. option (5) is incorrect. The unnecessary comma should be removed.. The introductory clause (As consumer demand . (2). Option (3) inserts an unnecessary comma. Option (1) removes a necessary comma. Option (1) incorrectly creates a pronoun shift. option (1) incorrectly makes a proper name lowercase. 3. Option (3) is incorrect because the verb claim does not agree with the Singular subject Foundation. (4) change mother's day to Mother's Day Option (4) is correct because holidays are capitalized. Mechanics lesson 15: Capitalization GED Practice (page 134) All items in this practice are related to capitalization. Option (2) incorrectly removes a comma after an introductory clause. (2) insert a comma after Howard Option (2) is correct because Sybil Howard is a nonessential appositive that identifies the noun manager and should be set off by commas before and after. 2. 2. Option (4) changes a correct past tense verb to the past perfect. Option (5) uses a pronoun with a vague antecedent. Option (4) incorrectly changes the verb tense. Option (3) incorrectly changes the verb tense. the words today and often choose are clues that the simple present tense is needed. 1.. so option (5) is incorrect. increases) sets up a condition that continues into the future. Option (5) changes the verb to the past perfect when the simple past is needed. Options (1). Option (5) is correct because Friday is the first item in a series of three days. Option (3) incorrectly creates a pronoun 4. Option (2) incorrectly changes the verb tense. Option (4) inserts an unnecessary comma. and Sunday.needed. and (4) are incorrect shifts in verb tense. Option (3) inserts an unnecessary comma. Option (3) inserts an unnecessary comma. Option (5) incorrectly changes the verb form. Option (4) incorrectly uses a pronoun with an unclear antecedent. and (4) do not correctly punctuate the series. Saturday. Option (1) is incorrect because northern is a direction and does not name a specific region of the country. (5) Friday. Options (3) and (5) insert unnecessary commas. Option (2) removes a comma after an introductory clause. (1) change Summer to summer Option (1) is correct because seasons are not capitalized. (3) remove the comma after friends Option (3) is correct because a comma is not needed between two items. For the same reason. main clause. Lesson 16: Commas GED Practice (page 137) All items in this practice are related to commas. Option (1) is incorrect because manager is not a proper noun. Options (1). 3. so option (5) is incorrect. Option (1) incorrectly creates a pronoun shift. not plural.

(3) insert a comma after pills (Commas) Option (3) correct as written. 6. Option (2) incorrectly removes a comma after an introductory phrase. (3). Option (5) is incorrect because the unnecessary comma should be removed. 4. (4) calcium. Option (5) is incorrect because the sentence needs a comma after the introductory phrase. Option (3) is incorrect because a title followed by a name should be capitalized. Option (4) inserts an unnecessary comma. (3) replace well with we'll Option (3) is correct 5. 10. Option (5) is incorrect because contractions use apostrophes. Option (4) removes a comma needed in a series. 9: (3) remove the comma after calcium (Commas) Option (3) is correct because it removes an unnecessary comma separating the subject from the verb. 3. (5) change customer's to customers' (Spelling) Option (5) corrects the misspelled plural possessive.(1) replace Its with It's (Contractions) Option (1) is correct because it inserts a comma after the introductory phrase. Option (4) inserts an unnecessary comma. 4. is correct because it inserts a comma after the introductory clause. 7. Options (2) and (4) insert unnecessary commas. Option (2) incorrectly changes the verb tense. Option (2) is incorrect because is does not agree with the plural subject tips.incorrectly changes the verb. Option (1) incorrectly changes the verb tense. (4) is incorrect because is does not agree with the plural subject alternatives. Options (1) and (3) replace correctly spelled words with their homonyms. Option (3) incorrectly changes the verb tense. Options (3) and (4) replace correctly spelled words with their homonyms. 746 Answers and Explanations • Unit 1 . 3. Option (5) inserts an unnecessary comma at the end of the series. Option (4) replaces a correctly spelled word with its homonym. Option (1) incorrectly changes the verb tense. Option (1) replaces a correctly spelled word with its homonym. (1) change Fall to fall (Capitalization) Option (1) is is correct because the contraction of It is is needed in the sentence. Option (5) is incorrect because there should be a comma after the introductory clause. Option (5) is incorrect because the possessive is singular. Option (5) misspells a contraction. Option (2) inserts an unnecessary comma. Fall should not be capitalized.shift. and (5) do not use the correct combination of commas and conjunctions. Option (1) is incorrect because it inserts the comma too early in the sentence. digesting milk is part of the introductory phrase.(2) insert a comma after milk (Commas) Option (2) sentence is correct as written. so option (5) is not correct. Options (1). not plural. (5) no correction is necessary (Commas) The because it inserts a comma before the coordinating conjunction that connects two independent clauses in a compound sentence. Option (4) removes a necessary comma in a series. Option (4) incorrectly capitalizes a noun that is not proper. Option (3) replaces a correctly spelled singular possessive with a plural. Option (4) incorrectly replaces a possessive with a plural. Option (2) incorrectly replaces a plural with a plural possessive. Option (1) incorrectly replaces the possessive pronoun your with the contraction of you are. Option (4) is incorrect because a title is not capitalized unless it is followed by a name. 2. (2). Option (3) creates a comma splice. Option (4) is incorrect because special reports is not a proper noun. Option (5) inserts an unnecessary comma because the pair bread and cereals is the last item in the series. (5) no correction is necessary The sentence is Option (3) is correct because it removes an unnecessary comma at the end of a series. correct because seasons of the year are not capitalized. Option (1) incorrectly replaces that with a pronoun. and (Commas) Option (4) is correct GED Review Mechanics (pages 142-144) 1. 8. Option. Option (2) incorrectly removes a comma after the introductory phrase. Option (2) inserts an unnecessary comma. Option (2) replaces a correctly spelled word with its homonym. Option (3). (3) remove the comma after lasting (Commas) because the contraction of we will needs an apostrophe. (1) replace Than with Then (Spelling) Option (1) is correct because the homonym meaning "at that time" is needed in the sentence. Option (2) is incorrect because goes does not agree with the subject Americans. Option (1) inserts an unnecessary comma.

(5) no correction is necessary (Usage/Subject-verb agreement) Option (1) incorrectly shifts the verb tense to the future. option (1) is incorrect. Option (5) leaves in an unnecessary comma. (3) change are to is (Usage/Subject-verb windshield replaced.(1) move sentence 8 to the end of paragraph B 6. Option (2) is incorrect because the singular subject looks agrees with the singular subject Everyone. 10. 8. Nation's should not be capitalized. Option (3) supplies an incorrect verb form. Option (4) correctly replaces a vague pronoun with its antecedent. When a compound subject is joined by or. (Sentence structure/Modifiers) Option (2) places the modifier next to the noun Answers and Explanations • Unit 1 747 . changing the phrase into a subordinating clause.11. Options (1) and (2) incorrectly shift the verb tenses in the two clauses of the sentence. the verb should agree with the last subject. Options (2) and (4) insert unnecessary commas. (1) change Spring to spring (Mechanics/ agreement) Option (3) is correct because the Singular verb is agrees with the singular subject merchandise. 9. Option (3) incorrectly capitalizes the common noun state. Option (1) is the pronoun with a vague antecedent. Option (4) incorrectly shifts the verb tense to the future. Option (5) provides an incorrect antecedent. (5) change vice president to Vice President removes a necessary comma after an introductory phrase. The preposition for is needed in the sentence. Option (3) incorrectly makes a plural noun possessive. Option (3) incorrectly removes a comma after an introductory clause. 2. Option (5) is incorrect because Midwest is a proper noun naming a specific region of the country. Moving sentence 8 improves paragraph C. (4) change congress to Congress (Capitalization) (5) change are to is (Usage/Subject-verb agreement) option (5) is correct because the singular verb is agrees with the Singular subject person. Options (2) and (4) remove important details. (2) remove the comma after signs (Mechanics/Unnecessary commas) Option (2) correctly removes an unnecessary comma between a subject and verb. Options (I). called a Capitalization) Option (1) is correct because seasons of the year are not capitalized. and (5) do not correct the error. Option (4) inserts an unnecessary comma. Writing (pages 145-155) 1. Sentence (9) begins a whole new topic. Option (3) is an incomplete verb form. (4) The building department (Usage/Pronouns) Option (4) is correct because Congress is a proper noun naming a specific' organization. Options (1) and (2) incorrectly change the verb tense. (4) replace you're with your (Mechanics/ Spelling possessives and homonyms) Option (4) is correct because the possessive pronoun your. Option (4) capitalizes only part of the title. (Capitalization) Option (5) is correct because a title is capitalized when it is followed by a name. Option (3) inserts an unnecessary comma. so option (5) is incorrect. (2) When you need a cracked or broken (Organization/Unity and coherence) Option (1) correctly moves a detail to the paragraph it supports. Option (5) is incorrect because a title is not capitalized unless it is followed by a name. The plural verb are does not agree with the Singular subject merchandise. Option (2) kickback. Option (2) inserts an unnecessary comma. Option (4) incorrectly changes the verb from plural to Singular. 5. is needed in the sentence. (Sentence structure/ Modifiers) Option (2) correctly inserts a subordinating conjunction and a subject and verb into the dangling modifier. not the contraction for you are as in the original. Option (1) incorrectly changes a plural to a possessive. so option (5) is incorrect. (4). 4. 12. Option (4) replaces a correctly spelled word with its homonym. Option (1) incorrectly makes the verb is digging. Option (3) incorrectly capitalizes a title that is not followed by a name. not the number word four. Options (2) and (3) are incorrect pronouns. Option (4) creates a comma splice. Option (2) is incorrect because White House is a proper noun naming a specific building. GED Unit Review Language Arts. 7. not the interrupting phrase digging with hand tools. Option (5) is incorrect because you're should be replaced. 3. Option (3) moves a supporting detail out of logical order. Option (1) incorrectly removes a comma after an introductory phrase. (3). Option (1) removes a necessary comma in a series. 13. For the same reason. Option (3) is incorrect because the verb have does not agree with the subject state. the verb should agree with signs. Option (5) removes a necessary comma in a series. (2) Another questionable tactic. (2) change State to state (Capitalization) Option (2) is correct because state is not a proper noun and therefore should not be capitalized.