DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

Trang Cao Minh, Boris Bellalta, and Miquel Oliver
Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain {trang.cao,boris.bellalta,miquel.oliver}@upf.edu

Abstract. Wireless sensor networks have wide applications in many areas from detecting enemy targets in the military to monitoring patient health or water/gas usage in the civil. However sensor devices are usually equipped with a limited power battery and deployed at a very high density in inaccessible environments. Therefore, it is impractical to change or maintain manually these sensor networks. In this paper, we have designed and implemented a general and extendable management framework called DIstributed Self-Organizing NEtwork management (DISON) framework to provide an autonomous management mechanism for WSNs. In DISON, sensor nodes exploit local knowledge or cooperate with other nodes to coordinate and adapt management and application tasks effectively according to their capabilities. To verify the efficiency of the proposed framework, we have evaluated DISON in a data collection application scenario, where DISON is used to optimize the number of active nodes. The simulation results show that running DISON reduces the energy consumption up to 30%, and also improves other key parameters such as the packet delivery rate and the end-to-end delay. Key words: network management, wireless sensor networks, self organizing

1 Introduction
With the rapid development of technologies in IC (Integrated Circuit) and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), networks of tiny sensor devices, have been extensively used nowadays in various applications such as target tracking, habitat monitoring and many others. However, sensor nodes have very limited power and resource constraints. Therefore they are prone to fail. The sensor failure may cause changes in network topology and affect the quality of offered services. Moreover, sensor nodes can be deployed in a large number of nodes and in inaccessible environments depending on the application. Thus, the manual replacement of failed sensor nodes is impossible or expensive. To cope with these challenges, the development of self-organizing management functionalities in WSNs is desirable. Due to the limited resource nature of sensor nodes, a management system for WSNs needs to be lightweight, autonomous and scalable. In addition, the requirements of WSN applications are expected to evolve over time. Therefore a

the authors divided the network into multiple clusters in which each cluster has a gateway node that organizes and manages network operations based on application requirements and the available energy in sensor nodes. WSN management system should be able to adapt the network operations not only to the network state. the capability to adapt to the changes in application requirements is not completely taken into account in current management approaches. in their approach management policies are represented in the high level XML language [1] at the base station. analyze the global state of the network and execute management maintenance operations if it detects any interesting event. the base station works as a central manager to store. proposed a hierarchical framework in which the base station is responsible for interpreting high level management policies and distributing them to sensor nodes. a generic architecture for managing WSNS. WinMS [6] allows individual sensor nodes to perform management functions locally based on the network state of their neighbors. cluster heads and sensor nodes. it is complex and not efficient to develop an adaptive management system for each application or each hardware platform. A hybrid management solution is presented in [6]. Second. it is required to develop a management system that supports various applications and platforms. [7] describes MANA. [5]. Therefore it is required to have a specific mechanism to distribute efficiently these agents. Therefore their approach requires the base station to maintain the up-to-date global view of the network which is not always available. [5] proposes three level management policies to distribute management tasks to the base station. In this paper. Many network management architectures for WSNs have been designed. However. WinMS also has the issue similar to [2] when the number of nodes increases. there is no work on defining in detail management data models or management mechanisms used in sensor nodes. their approach mainly focus on finding data relay routes and arbitrating medium access. Ruiz et al. In case of nodes that . Thus. In addition. and interpreted to the machine code at sensor nodes. but also to the changes in application requirements. Some policybased management systems are also presented in [12]. In DISON. we propose a DIstributed Self-Organizing NEtwork management (DISON) framework that provides the autonomous management mechanism to allow sensor nodes to self configure and adapt to the changes in application requirements. Hence. However. especially in large scale networks. resources and network state. [8]. However.2 Trang et al. First. The delay when performing a management task is also an issue in large scale networks since manager nodes need to wait agents visit sensor nodes. In [2]. Moreover. In MANA. Cha et al. Some policy based management approaches are introduced in [2]. Le et al. management services are distributed to some manager nodes and agents. there are some issues which are not covered by the existing approaches. In [9]. Sensor nodes with limited resources exploit their local knowledge to reconfigure their operations and provide management information for other nodes. sensor nodes perform management tasks at different level according to their resources. These policies are applied locally on sensor nodes as soon as the node state matches the policy condition.

sensor nodes can not do complicated processing. For example. The NM role is used to manage the whole network. Nodes in the network can have different roles in performing management tasks based on theirs capabilities. Section 3 presents the detail of the DISON Management components. The GM role is normally performed by nodes that have rich resources and energy. Our simulation results show that DISON can reduce the energy consumption. Be aware that a sensor node can have more than one management role (e. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The conclusions are presented in Section 6. Therefore the NM role should be performed by the base station.). Sink nodes or base stations which are normally connected to large power suppliers and have strong computing capacity are responsible for global management tasks such as topology management and disseminating new code to support new management tasks.g SM and . we have developed a hybrid self-organizing management framework for WSNs. and improve other network performance metrics such as the packet delivery rate and the end-to-end delay. more complex management tasks can be performed by them. In Section 5 we show and discuss the simulation results. We have implemented and evaluated DISON framework in SENSE simulator [3] to organize active sensor nodes in a data collection application. it stores the network topology or decides the nodes that have the GM and the SM role. In this article. central management systems are not suitable for WSNs due to the delay to take management decisions and distribute them. The GM role is used to achieve an effective utilization of the resources in a set of nodes by coordinating nodes’ capability. Some examples are coordinating application tasks among a set of nodes and collecting management data from a set of nodes to detect if there is any problem and reconfigure them if needed. In our framework. 2 DISON Framework Since wireless sensor networks can be deployed with a large number of nodes. up to 30%. A SM role contains abilities to control. The GM role is normally assigned to some sensor nodes which have rich resources while the SM role should be performed by every node. Due to the limited energy battery and resources. Every sensor node should have the ability to do simple local management tasks while complex management decisions should be only performed by some powerful nodes. Therefore it is essential to use a hybrid solution for management in WSNs. Group Manager (GM) and Network Manager (NM). The distributed management solutions also have drawbacks. and the traffic congestion at nodes which are close to the central manager. regulate and adapt the node’s behavior in accord with the changes in application requirements. we describe the DISON system overall. more powerful battery or larger memory etc. the node’s resources and the neighborhood information. Section 4 presents the scenario in which DISON is evaluated.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs 3 have more resources (ex. we define three types of management roles: Self Manager (SM). In Section 2.

Figure 1 depicts our proposed framework. Only the GM role needs to be distributed through the WSN in an efficient way. a common case in wireless sensor networks. sensors and the power supply of the sensor node. The chosen cluster heads. Since the clustering algorithms do not make any assumptions about the presence of infrastructure.4 Trang et al. The second element of the DISON node is the Communication Protocols that govern data transmission through wireless channel by using the Hardware APIs interfaces. Another approach is the use of clustering algorithms [4][10]. which are elected by using a clustering algorithm. The MAC protocols provide nodes a way to transfer data packets with neighbors and make wakeup/sleep schedules. The location protocols supply absolute or relative positions of node by using attached . In the Communication Protocols. DISON System Overview GM) if it has enough resources. If the node only has SM role. they are useful for networks that do not have a fixed and stable topology. The network is divided into multiple sets of nodes. The routing protocols specify how packets are transmitted to the sink or the base station. Hardware APIs. One distributing approach is using central servers (base stations) to assign the GM role to a certain group of nodes based on the network topology. We propose a new protocol stack for the sensor nodes as illustrated in Figure 2. The whole network is managed by Base station with the NM role. The first element. In this article. Base Station Manager node Normal node Fig. storage resources. Examples of these interfaces are switch on/off the node. read/write the memory. are suitable to role as Manager nodes. communication devices. several protocols are implemented: MAC. provides access interfaces to the controller. it is called Normal node. This approach is efficient for networks which have a fixed topology and a small number of nodes. switch on/off the radio. called Manager node. 1. Every nodes are assigned SM role. routing. Each set of nodes are managed by a node with the GM role. we focus on the design of a WSN architecture that have GM and SM roles. location and time synchronization.

. 2. It can also access the interfaces in Hardware APIs component to trigger sensors and receive sensing data. This element provides mechanisms to analyze the changes in application requirements. As illustrated in Figure 3 there are three main components: Context Establishment. It is important to note that only the basic functions of the DISON architecture are implemented in each node at the initialization. It is responsible for sending sensor data and receiving user requests by using communication protocols. 3 DISON Management Components This section presents further details on the DISON Management part of the proposed protocol stack. the node’s residual energy or the packet error rate. a node can request to the base station or other nodes to provide it with new functions to ensure that it can complete the management tasks it has assigned. node’s resources. The Context Establishment component is responsible for extracting meaningful contexts from the raw data such as application requirements. The Controlling Response component is responsible for executing the actions indicated in those policies. and network state to reconfigure the communication protocols and the application if needed to ensure the required quality of service or to prolong network lifetime. the Policy based Reasoning component selects a set of policies that govern node behaviors or network operations. Policy based Reasoning and Controlling Response. The last element is DISON Management. a meaningful context is the information that affects node’s operations. The time synchronization protocols provide low power methods of synchronizing clocks among nodes in network. Protocol Stack of a sensor node in DISON framework GPS devices or location algorithms. The third element is Application.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs 5 Application DISON Management Communication Protocols Hardware APIs Fig. In our framework. When there is a change on a node’s resources or in the network state. Based on the meaningful context extracted by the Context Establishment component.

Using these formats. INFORMATION TYPE describes the source of the raw information. the CE component predefined context formats are stored in the Context Database. the residual energy.1 Context Establishment The main goal of the Context Establishment (CE) component is to form the meaningful context from the given current raw data. DISON Components and Process 3. Network State which includes some network performance metrics such as the transmission delay and the packet error rate and the neighborhood information such as the number of neighbors and their information. the data sample rates. and INFORMATION VALUE is the value of that specific information in bits. removes redundant data and finally forms the requested context. To achieve this. we model the context which are stored in the Context Database as follows [CONTEXT ID] [INFORMATION TYPE] [INFORMATION ID] [INFORMATION VALUE] where CONTEXT ID is the unique identifier of the context. As shown in Figure 3 there are three sources that produce context information: Node Information which is the information about sensing capabilities. Context Establishment Application Requirements Node Information Network State Context Interpreter Context Manager Context Controlling Response Context Database Context Reasoning System Action Management Database Management Functions Execution Engine Policy Database Policy Manager Policy Policy based Reasoning Fig. Then the resulting context is transmitted to the Policy based Reasoning component. the node location and the radio state. handles missing values. and how long data is collected. INFORMATION ID represents the identifier of each specific information such as the sensing capabilities. Application Requirements which include the query information such as what types of sensing data are needed. when it needs to collect data. the memory status. the sub component Context Interpreter recognizes the context values. the context representation scheme and the context interpreter mechanism need to be simple but efficient. 3. Due to the limited resources of sensor nodes.6 Trang et al. This model ensures that the context is stored and . the residual energy. In order to accomplish this goal. etc.

is responsible for determining whether. For example. For example. Rules can be modified and added . The advantage of rule-based solutions is their flexibility. 3 bits for the information identifier in case of the Node Information source.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs Sensor Type NO SENSOR TEMPERATURE LIGHT HUMIDITY Bits 0000000 0000010 0000100 Meaning No sensor is enabled Light sensor is enabled Humidity sensor is enabled 7 0000001 Temperature sensor is enabled ACCELEROMETER 0001000 Accelerometer sensor is enabled MAGNETOMETER 0010000 Magnetometer sensor is enabled MICROPHONE SOUNDER 0100000 1000000 Microphone sensor is enabled Sounder sensor is enabled Table 1. or which respectively. 001 indicates that the application is a query. Therefore. a rule based policy system is to decide the set of actions to be executed in a given situation based on rules. 3. For example. 01 001 0000011 means temperature and light sensors are on. we limit the number of contexts each node can have according to its management role. Sensing Capability Value queried efficiently based on the characteristic of each source of raw information and the information itself. Policy-based Reasoning (PBR). In order to prevent any waste of memory resources. Nodes with the SM role will have less contexts than nodes with the GM role. After analyzing the query. network conditions or application requirements. the above context is represented as 10 001 0000001101010 where 10 indicates that the information is an Application Requirement. The Context Manager in the CE component is responsible for adding new contexts or removing old contexts if the number of contexts reaches a predefined threshold. In general. the array of bits 0000001101010 contains the sensing type. the “temperature sensor is on” context is represented as 01 001 0000001.2 Policy-based Reasoning The second component of DISON Management. the query period and the sampling frequency. to enable a sensing ability. From the Table 1. the Context Interpreter analyzes and extracts the meaningful context from the input data. actions should be taken referring to the changes in node’s state. let us consider that the node receives a query that requests to collect temperature during 10 seconds with a frequency of 2 seconds. it is easy to see that each position in 7 bits corresponds to one sensing ability. we just need to turn on the bit at the corresponding position. 7 bits for representing which type of sensors in a node are active (referring to Table 1). It is essential to see that in this scenario the rule based policy solution appears naturally. assume that we use 2 bits to represent the information type. In case of complex contexts.

. We form a rule based policy in the Policy Database as the following formula: [SET OF CONTEXTS] [SET OF ACTIONS] The left hand side of a policy includes identifiers of contexts (CONTEXT ID) which is combined by conditional elements such as ’AND’. Similar to the CE component. Otherwise.. 3. Therefore we have built our reasoning mechanism based on a rule-based system. Each action is represented by a couple (ActionID. etc. at application runtime with no need for code recompilation. it is beneficial to use a mechanism that offers such flexibility for the reasoning process. it extracts the list of actions in the policy and sends them to the Controlling Response. it gets the default policy that includes actions such as ignoring this context or asking support from other nodes. the subcomponent Execution Engine maps the actions with the management functions it supports and executes them. When receiving the context from the Context Establishing component.3 Controlling Response As soon as receiving the list of actions to be executed from the PBR component. reconfiguring networks. the first 0001 is the identifier of the context TEMPERATURE IS ON. it chooses which policies have to be activated. Utilizing the query results. route discovery .) and Parameters is the list of the parameters used by the action. a policy is defined as 0001 0001 1 0000001 in which. To support that scenario. ’NOT’. the Reasoning System queries the list of policies in Policy Database that matches to the context. If one of the existing policies satisfies completely the context. it needs to turn on the temperature sensor to collect data and start the communication protocols to transmit the data to the sink. 4 A Data Collection Scenario In this section we apply the proposed DISON framework to resolve a popular data collection application scenario in WSNs. In this scenario we consider a .g. the PBR component also limits the number of policies and the complexity of the reasoning system according to the node management roles. The Management functions element includes the local functions that control hardware devices and protocols that implement the cooperative management tasks. For example. Nodes with the GM role have more policies and more powerful reasoning systems. Parameters) where ActionID is the identifier of the action (e. the second 0001 indicates the hardware function that needs to execute is the “switching sensor”. ’OR’. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of sensor networks. The right hand side is the set of actions to be executed when the policy is applied. when a node receives a query that requests to collect temperature.g 1 means switch on and 0000001 means temperature sensor). 1 0000001 are parameters provided to the switching sensor function (e.8 Trang et al. The Management Database is used to store buffers and variables used in management tasks.

These identifiers can be assigned to sensor nodes manually before deployment or automatically in run time. Nodes are deployed randomly in each cell of the grid. 10. some nodes can have both the temperature and the light sensor while other nodes only have the temperature sensor. we can use the GOOGLE map application to build the network grid. every node broadcasts its presence to neighbor nodes. The grid is symmetric or asymmetric. This device has the GPS module and the WIFI/3G connection that allows it to detect its geographic position and communicate with the base station to determine the cell where it is currently located. the sampling frequency and the collecting period. A sink node (base station) broadcasts a query to network at specific times to collect sensing data. However their solutions are based on the assumption that sensor nodes know their geographical location. For example. it is not constrained by the energy or resources. Then. Therefore.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs 9 WSN in which sensor nodes are randomly deployed in a square or rectangle area. we can have a special device moving around the network area. In our proposal. We assume that it . the process of building the network grid is performed at the base station before deployment. In case sensor nodes are deployed on streets. After building the network grid. We assume that each node can know the identifier of the cell where it is located and its sensing radius covers that cell. they assign their cell identifier to the one indicated in the beacon. the network is divided into sets of nodes. the network grid is built based on the structure of the deployment area. For example. 1000). each cell in the network grid is assigned a unique identifier. For example. This assumption is not practical and expensive even though we can use location algorithms to find approximately locations of sensor nodes. There are some approaches to handle this issue as in [11]. some random nodes calculate the capability function based on the node resources and decide to start the manager election round. the network grid will be the room structure of the building and each cell is corresponding to a room. there might have more than two nodes at each sensing area unit. The types of sensing data is encoded based on the Table 1. In each set of nodes there is a Manager node with the GM role. A query includes three parameters: types of sensing data. For example. First of all. After deployment. we divide the network area into a grid of multiple adjacent cells. Therefore it is necessary to choose some active nodes to collect and transmit data while other nodes are switched to sleeping state to save energy if they do not affect the network connectivity and the full sensing coverage. After the round ends. It results in the data redundancy and non efficient resources usage if all nodes collect data and transmit it to the sink. The sink roles as Network Manager. a query to collect light and temperature every 10 seconds for 1000 seconds is represented by a triple (3. if sensor nodes are deployed in a building. Second. Then it broadcasts beacons that include the cell identifier to nearby nodes. As soon as sensor nodes receive a beacon. Since sensor nodes are densely deployed. This assumption is different to the assumption in which the node knows its geographic location. We assume that sensor nodes have different energy and sensing capabilities.

the priorities of the battery level and the number of external links are setup higher than other ones in order to ensure that if nodes have higher power and more connections to other cells. the Manager node broadcasts a Task Response Message (TREP) message to inform nodes in its managed set. If a neighbor node receives an SLP beacon and detects . they will have higher probability of being selected. The cell code is a special value to encode adjacent cells that a node can connect. When receiving a query from the sink. First of all. the number of hops to the sink. the node checks if it is a redundant node. The TREG message includes the unique identifier of the request query. we can infer that the node A has a better cell code than node B. It it important to note that these parameters are normalized before they are used by dividing for the corresponding maximum value. The node maps the relative location of the connected cell to a corresponding bit in the cell code. Then. the node broadcast a SLP (Sleep) beacon to its neighbors to inform it will go to the sleeping state. Other nodes are considered as redundant nodes. the identifier of the cell where the node is located and the cell code. the bit 1 of the cell code is ON. A cell code 01001001 indicates that the node can connect to the cells: north west. knows the cell identifier of every node in network. If yes. it executes the corresponding action. each sensor node needs to consider whether or not it performs that task. α2 . For example. HC is the number of hops to the sink. the task registering by transmitting a Task Register Message (TREG) to its Manager node. Node A has a better cell code than node B if all ON bits of cell code B is ON on cell code A and there is at least a ON bit in cell code A that is not ON in cell code B. the number of internal links and the number of external links correspondingly.10 Trang et al. α1 . If the node has the required sensing capabilities. In each group it chooses nodes which have the highest capability and the best cell code as active nodes. the node capability. node A can ensure the connectivity of adjacency nodes are not affected. the number of hops to the sink. IL is the number of internal links. EL is the number of external links. In our scenario. if cell code A is 01001001 and cell code B is 00001001. As receiving TREP. if the node has a link to the north west cell. α3 . if node B switches to sleeping state. node A covers all links to other cells of node B. Otherwise. the number of internal links which are links to nodes in the same cell and the number of external links which are links to nodes in other cells as in the Equation 1. The node capability is calculated based on the battery information. it groups all nodes that have same query request and same cell identifier together. and south. west. that is. For example. Figure 4 illustrates how to calculate the 8-bit cell code on the two plane area. When the Manager node receives TREG messages from nodes in its managed set. it checks the context of the query. In other words. it starts performing the requested query task. α4 are the priorities of the battery level. This assumption is used to calculate performance metrics. capability = α1 · BL + α2 · HC + α3 · IL + α4 · EL (1) in which BL is the battery level. then it waits a period of time T before going to the sleeping state.

4. the network is deployed in a 10x10 grid. We also have built the forwarding mechanism in DISON based on the query request similarly to BDC. Sensor nodes are randomly placed in each cell of the grid with a density from 2 to 4 nodes. in order to ensure the reality of the performance results we have also placed sensor nodes randomly through all the area and vary the number of nodes in case of the asymmetric grid. Cell code illustration that the sleeping node is the unique connection to other cells. if the sleeping node receives any AR beacon from its neighbor. 5 Evaluation We have implemented the above scenario in SENSE [3]. it ignores the query task but still works as a forwarding node. Otherwise. we consider one symmetric scenario and one asymmetric scenario. The transmitting radius of a . we have implemented a data collection application where all sensor nodes transmit data to the sink as soon as receiving the query as the baseline. they drop the packet. In the symmetric scenario. Moreover. it sends a Active Request (AR) beacon to the sleeping node. Otherwise. it changes to the sleeping state to save energy. When the node need to send or forward data to the sink. DISON stores the identifier of the cell from which it receives the query instead of the node identifier because DISON could switch off some nodes which can be on the data relay route to save energy. they forward the packet. we use a 10x2 grid. In the asymmetric one. it added the cell identifier to the data packet and broadcast to its neighbors. In BDC. in which each cell has a radius of 40m. the data relay path is built on the query broadcasting process. For comparison. If the neighbor nodes are in the indicated cell. However. Each node setups the node from which it receives the query as the next node to forward data. and refer to it as BDC.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs 11 NW W SW N NE E 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 S SE N: North – W: West – E: East – S: South Fig. that could be similar to the room structure of an office building floor. In our experiments. During the period T.

2 0 120 90 60 30 0 2 3 4 Node Density DISON 2 3 4 Node Density Fig. Table 2. Grid 10x10 Coverage Percentage (%) . The period of collecting sensing data is chosen randomly in the range [1000. Network Settings Parameters Tx Power Rx Power Channel Tx Rate MAC layer Transmitting Radius Simulation Time Threshold Value 24. The sink node is responsible for broadcasting a query at a specific time to collect data from the network.6 0.12 Trang et al. 75 · 10−3 J 13. 5. The other parameters are set as in Table 2. Every random number in the simulator is generated by using a linear congruential algorithm and 48-bit integer arithmetic. The battery level of each node is generated randomly in the range of [0. 100 80 PDR (%) 60 40 20 0 Average Node Used Energy (J) 20 16 12 8 4 0 2 3 4 Node Density BDC 2 3 4 Node Density End To End Delay (s) 0.4 0.11 (DCF) 50 m 3000s 0. We define one special node as the sink and put it randomly in the grid.8 0. We set the sampling frequency to 10 seconds. 1200] seconds. 106 ]J. 5 · 10−3 J Error-free 125 kbps IEEE 802. 90] seconds.8 sensor node is 50m. The time to start querying is set randomly in the range [80. The simulation results are calculated based on the results from running each scenario with 10 different seed numbers.

However it increases the packet delivery rate slightly and reduces the end-to-end delay significantly. Therefore it results in an increase of the average delay. Therefore the packet delivery rate and the end-to-end delay are improved. the packet delivery rate is improved significantly for all node density values. When the node density increases to 3 and 4. DISON solution does not improve the used energy comparing to BDC if there are only two nodes in each cell. As shown in Figure 6(a). In case of nodes are randomply placed in all the area. it is easy to see that the sensing coverage is ensured in all scenarios. The average time taken for a packet to be transmitted across the network from the node to the sink. and these packets can be sent from nodes which are far from the sink. – End-to-End Delay. up to 23% at node density 4. The end-to-end delay of the DISON solution is higher than BDC because there are more successfull received packets in DISON. – Packet Delivery Rate (PDR). it results in less traffic in the network.DISON: A Self-organizing Network Management Framework for WSNs 13 In order to calculate the coverage ratio. The percentage of the number of covered cells per total cells in the grid. If the condition shown in the Equation 2 is satisfied. Assume that each sensor node transmits sensing data to the base station in the interval T seconds with a rate APP RATE. In other words. up to 30% at node density 4. In addition. as the number of nodes that transmit data to the sink decreases. It is because the energy that saves from switching off some nodes is approximately the same as the required management overhead in DISON. Moreover. The average used energy of each node. we calculate the number of packets including sensing data from each cell at the sink node. ith cell is covered. the ith cell is considered as transmitting enough data to the sink. We denote recvi as the number of received packets including the sensing data from ith cell. The simulation area is fully covered if every cell in the simulation area is covered. In addition. . To make it clearly. it also improves significantly the packet delivery rate and the end-to-end delay. In case of the 10x10 grid scenario (Figure 5). we can see that DISON reduces the power consumption from 18% to 29% because there are more redundant nodes that can be switched off without compromising the network operation. The percentage of packets generated at the sensor nodes that are successfully delivered to the sink. The used energy and the end to end delay of DISON is much lower than BDC while the packet delivery rate is also slightly higher. It is important that the used energy is reduced significantly. – Coverage Percentage. T is the query period and APP RATE is the sensing data sampling frequency. DISON still achieve better performance than BDC (Figure 6(b)). recvi = Threshold · T APP RATE (2) We use the following metrics to evaluate our proposal: – Average Node Used Energy.

This protocol stack allows each sensor node to reconfigure its operations according to the application requirements.15 0.15 0.14 Trang et al.1 0. We have presented a new protocol stack for wireless sensor nodes to support management functions.3 0.3 0. We have analyzed and have implemented the management framework in a data collection application scenario. (b) Variable Number of Nodes 6 Conclusion This article presents a decentralized.25 0.2 0.1 0. resources and network state. self-organizing management framework for wireless sensor networks.05 0 120 90 60 30 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 Node Density DISON 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of nodes (b) Fig.2 0. The simulation results show that the proposed framework not only reduces the node’s energy consumption but Coverage Percentage (%) Coverage Percentage (%) . Grid 10x2: (a) Variable Node density.25 0. 100 80 PDR (%) 60 40 20 0 Average Node Used Energy (J) 20 16 12 8 4 0 2 3 4 Node Density BDC 2 3 4 Node Density End To End Delay (s) 0. sensor nodes participate in the self-organizing management process at different levels depending on their resources and the relationship with their neighbors and to the network at large. In the proposed framework. 6.05 0 120 90 60 30 0 2 3 4 Node Density DISON 2 3 4 Node Density (a) 100 80 PDR (%) 60 40 20 0 Average Node Used Energy (J) 20 16 12 8 4 0 50 60 70 80 90 100 Node Density BDC 50 60 70 80 90 100 Number of nodes End To End Delay (s) 0.

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