Supersonic Aerodynamics

Methods and Applications

Outline
• Introduction to Supersonic Flow • Governing Equations • Numerical Methods • Aerodynamic Design • Applications

Introduction to Supersonic Flow
• What does “Supersonic” mean ?
– The term Supersonic implies that the flow is faster than the speed of sound in the entirely regions concerned.

• Motivations
– High speed civil transport (HSCT) – Military fighters with supersonic cruise

Characteristics of Supersonic Flow • Shock wave • Entirely supersonic .

Bow shock on supersonic wedge airfoil Bow shock on supersonic wedge airfoil.7 . M = 1.

Characteristics of 3D Supersonic Flow • Subsonic Leading Edge • Supersonic Leading Edge .

Spanwise pressure distributions for two different cases. .

Influence on aerodynamic center .

Governing Equations • N-S Equations • Euler Equations • Full Potential Equation • Prandtl-Glauert Equation ∞ (1 − M 2 )φ xx + φ yy + φ zz = 0 .

with only small perturbations. • The flow is assumed to be essentially free stream. then the right-handside of the transonic small disturbance equation can also be neglected. .Prandtl-Glauert Equation • The flow is assumed to be steady. • If the flow is entirely supersonic. inviscid and irrotational. and the governing equation we must solve reduces to the linear form.

linear partial differential equation • Not difficult to solve in this form • In the form of wave equations .Prandtl-Glauert Equation Prandtl-Glauert Equation The right-hand-side of the transonic small disturbance equation can be neglected • Second order.

: Analysis and Design of Wing-Body Combinations at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds. J.. • – Finite Difference Methods See chapter 8 • – – Finite Volume Method MGAERO CFD-FASTRAN . 5. 6. No. pp. 528-534. Vol. A.Numerical Methods • – Panel Methods for Prandtl-Glauert Equation Woodward. F. (1968). Aircraft.

We can get some insight from the range equation: • At supersonic speed the main problem is drag ! – Wing configuration – Area-rule – Slender body theory • Control the shift of aerodynamic center .Aerodynamic Design • Supersonic flight is a challenge.

there is subsonic flow over most of the wing and relatively low drag.Wing Configuration • In three dimensions. The Mach cone becomes increasingly swept back with increasing Mach numbers As long as the wing is swept back behind the Mach cone. • • . the bow shock is in reality a cone in shape (a Mach cone) as it extends back from the nose of the airplane.

Wing Configuration • A delta wing has the advantage of a large sweep angle but also greater wing area than a simple swept wing to compensate for the loss of lift usually experienced in sweepback . .

. This condition causes the total drag to increase rapidly and. a straight wing (no sweep) becomes preferable. the Mach cone may approach the leading edge of even a highly swept delta wing.Wing Configuration • • At still higher supersonic Mach numbers. in fact.

.Wing Configuration • Arrow Wings – Arrow wing is a class of planforms for which exact linear theory solutions are available.

Wing Configuration Drag of arrow wing .

Modified arrow wing .

Jr.pp.. 1970. .” Journal of Aircraft. Vol. 5. Warner Robins and Roy V. “Aerodynamic Design Integration of Supersonic Aircraft. Baals. Nov-Dec. Haris. 7. No. A. 385-394.Modified arrow wing Donald D.

Area Rule supersonic wave drag may be minimized by using area ruling. .

Slender Body Theory • The wave drag integral: ( See chapter 5 ) • The connection between the drag coefficient and fineness ratio: .

Slender Body Theory • The von Kármán Ogive – The shape that produces minimum wave drag for a specified base area and length. according to slender body theory. .

and is symmetric about the mid-point. .Slender Body Theory • The Sears-Haack Body – This is the minimum wave drag shape for a given length and volume according to slender body theory. – The body is closed at both ends and has a very slightly blunted nose.

Control the Shift of Aerodynamic Center • Modifying arrow wing • Modifying delta wing – See Concord configuration .

Before the F-22.Application • • There have actually been only a few truly supersonic airplanes. classic “supersonic” fighters used brute force (afterburners) and had extremely limited duration. F-22 . This means airplanes that can cruise supersonically.

SR-71 .F-22 .XB-70 B-58 .Concord .The small number of actual “cruisers”: .B-58 .

XB-70 SR-71 .

Application: Concord use delta modified wing and control the shift of aerodynamic center .

Application: Low-aspect-ratio wing F-104 .

High speed civil transport .