JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415

Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

1

ANT-WUM: ALGORITMA BERBASIS ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION UNTUK
WEB USAGE MINING

1
Abdurrahman,
2
Bambang Riyanto T.,
3
Rila Mandala,
4
Rajesri Govindaraju


1,2,3
Sekolah Teknik Elektro & Informatika-ITB,
4
Fakultas Teknologi Industri-ITB
Masuk: 15 April 2009, revisi masuk : 20 J uli 2009, diterima: 24 J uli 2009

ABSTRACT
This paper is continuity research from our previous work in Ant-Miner implemen-
tation for web user classification. In our previous work, we implemented Ant-Miner algo-
rithm for web user classification same with Ant-Miner for classification task in data mining
domain. In this paper, we propose modification of heuristic function of Ant-Miner based on
web usage mining (WUM) problem, that we name Ant-WUM. The heuristic function ACO
is based on local problem domain. Information theory is common heuristic function used
in classification task, such as implemented in C4.5 algorithm and ant-miner algo-rithm.
Ant-WUM uses heuristic function based on closeness principle that implemented in
clustering problem in WUM. We propose to use data from web access log, profile user,
and transaction data to provide some attributes as term candidate of classification rule by
Ant-WUM algorithm. We compared Ant-WUM algorithm with Ant-Miner algorithm. The
result indicates that Ant-WUM has competitive result in term of accuracy rate, amount of
rules, and computation time.

Keywords: Ant-Miner, Ant-WUM, heuristic function, web usage mining.

INTISARI
Paper ini merupakan kelanjutan riset sebelumnya dalam pemanfaatan algoritma
Ant-Miner untuk melakukan klasifikasi pengguna web. Riset sebelumnya pemanfaatan
algoritma Ant-Miner yang dimanfaatkan dalam domain data mining untuk permasalahan
klasifikasi pengguna web dalam web usage mining. Dalam paper ini diusulkan modifikasi
fungsi heuristik dalam algoritma Ant-Miner yang disesuaikan dengan permasalahan web
usage mining (WUM), yang dinamakan algoritma Ant-WUM. Fungsi heuristik dalam algo-
ritma ACO tergantung dari domain permasalahan yang akan diselesaikan. Teori informasi
merupakan fungsi heuristik yang umum diimplementasikan dalam algoritma untuk fungsi
klasifikasi sebagaimana diterapkan dalam algoritma C4.5 dan dalam algoritma ant-Miner.
Fungsi heuristik Ant-WUM adalah modifikasi fungsi heuristik ant-Miner dengan menggu-
nakan prinsip kedekatan yang digunakan dalam fungsi klusterisasi WUM dan meng-
gunakan teori informasi untuk menentukan nilai informasi suatu term yang akan menjadi
variabel untuk penghitungan jaraknya. Dan dalam paper ini, diusulkan penggunaan gabu-
ngan data yang terdiri dari hasil ekstraksi web access log, profil pengguna, dan data tran-
saksi. Dalam riset ini telah dilakukan pengujian perbandingan antara algoritma Ant-Miner
dengan Ant-WUM. Dari hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa Ant-WUM cukup kompetitif dengan
Ant-Miner dalam tingkat akurasi, dari jumlah kaidah yang dihasilkan dan aspek waktu
komputasi.

Kata Kunci: Ant-Miner, Ant-WUM, fungsi heuristik, web usage mining.

PENDAHULUAN
Interaksi pengguna (user) web
menghasilkan data akses web yang ma-
ha besar dalam periode waktu yang ter-

simpan di file web access log di server.
Data hasil interaksi ini diharapkan dapat
memberikan informasi yang bernilai bagi
pengelola web dalam rangka memasar-
1
mr.indonesian@gmail.com,
2
briyanto@lskk.ee.itb.ac.id,
3
rila@informatika.org,
4
rajesri_g@mail.ti.itb.ac.id
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

2

kan keberadaan webnya dan produk ini
yang dijualnya. Dalam kontek ini web
usage mining (WUM) mempunyai peran
dalam menemukan pengetahuan (know-
ledge discovery) dari data penggunaan
web tersebut. Selain data web access
log, data yang terbentuk dari interaksi
pengguna dengan web e-commerce a-
dalah data profil pengguna dan data
transaksi.
Business intelligence (BI) meru-
pakan salah satu fungsi WUM ini untuk
membantu dalam kegiatan pemasaran
keberadaan web dan produk yang di-
jualnya (Abraham,2003). Untuk mem-
bantu fungsi BI dalam WUM, maka di-
usulakan klasifikasi pengguna web da-
lam kategori pengguna potensial, reten-
si, dan baru dengan memanfaatkan tiga
data yaitu web access log, profil peng-
guna, dan data transaksi. Masih sedikit
peneliti dalam riset WUM yang meman-
faatkan ketiga data tersebut (J aideep,
2000). Parameter yang digunakan untuk
melakukan klasifikasi pengguna web ini
adalah sebagai berikut (Abdurrahman,
2006):
Recency: berapa waktu lama
pengguna berinteraksi dengan web se-
jak terakhir mengakses web. Frequency:
berapa kali lama pengguna mengakses
web dalam satuan waktu. Intencity: be-
rapa total transaksi pembelian produk
melalui web.
Klasifikasi pengguna web ini di-
harapkan dapat membantu aktivitas pe-
masaran web dan produknya dalam me-
lakukan aktifitas (Abdurrahman, 2004):
Akuisisi pelanggan baru dari para peng-
guna. Retensi terhadap pelanggan ek-
sisting. Penetrasi terhadap pelanggan
eksisting dalam kerangka meningkatkan
nilai transaksi penjualan.
Pengembangan algoritma Ant-
Miner yang dilakukan ini adalah melaku-
kan cara modifikasi fungsi heuristik un-
tuk menghasilkan kaidah klasifikasi pe-
ngguna web ini, yang diberi nama Ant-
WUM. Algoritma Ant-WUM merupakan
metode untuk tugas klasifikasi pengguna
web dalam web usage mining. Algorima
ini merupakan pengembangan dari algo-
ritma Ant-Miner yang berbasis pada Ant
Colony Optimization (ACO) (Parpinelli,
2002). Hingga kini, belum ada peneliti
yang memanfaatkan ACO dalam WUM
untuk tugas klasifikasi pengguna web
dan peneliti lain memanfaatkan ACO un-
tuk klusterisasi pengguna web dan kla-
sifikasi halaman web (Abrahaham, 2005;
Spiliopoulou, 2007; Holden,2007). Algo-
ritma Ant-WUM mempunyai fitur seba-gai
berikut:
Ekstraksi kaidah klasifikasi
bersumber dari data dengan atribut ka-
tegori, sehingga untuk atribut kontinyu
akan dilakukan diskritisasi. Fungsi heu-
ristik yang digunakan adalah prinsip ke-
dekatan yang dimplementasikan dalam
fungsi klusterisasi dalam WUM (Grear,
2006) dan pemanfaatan teori informasi
untuk mengukur kualitas suatu informasi
(Parpinelli, 2002).
Untuk menguji performansi algo-
ritma Ant-WUM, telah dilakukan perban-
dingan performansi kedua algoritma ter-
sebut mencakup aspek: Tingkat akurasi
(accuracy): kemampuan algoritma dalam
menghasilkan kaidah tingkat kesalahan
rendah. Efisiensi komputasi (computa-
tionnal efficiency): waktu yang dibutuh-
kan algoritma untuk melakukan proses ini
pembelajaran model klasifikasi pada data
training maupun data uji. Kemuda-han
memahami (interpretability): kaidah yang
dihasilkan dapat dipahami secara mudah
oleh pengguna dan dapat digunakan
untuk pengambilan keputusan.
Algoritma Ant-Miner merupakan
pengembangan dari algoritma Ant Colo-
ny Optimization (ACO), yang difungsikan
untuk tugas klasifikasi dalam data mi-
ning (Parpinelli, 2002). ACO merupakan
sistem berbasis agen yang mensimu-
lasikan perilaku natural sekelompok se-
mut, termasuk di dalamnya mekanisme
bekerjasama dan adaptasi. Dalam paper
(Dorigo, 1999) penggunaan sistem ini
merupakan metaheuristik baru untuk
memecahkan masalah optimasi kombi-
nasi yang kokoh dan serbaguna.
Pada dasarnya, disain algoritma
ACO terdiri dari spesifikasi sebagai be-
rikut (Bonabeu, 1999):
Representasi masalah, dimana
sekelompok semut akan membangun/
modifikasi solusi melalui pemanfaatan
aturan transisi probabilistik (probabilistic
transition rule) berdasarkan jumlah phe-
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

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romone dan local problem dependent
heuristik.
Sebuah metode untuk memba-
ngun solusi yang valid. Fungsi heuristik
terkait dengan masalah yang didefinisi-
kan (q) yang mengukur kualitas item-
item yang dapat ditambahkan dalam pili-
han solusi yang sedang dipilih. Kaidah
updating pheromone yang menspesifika-
sikan modifikasi nilai pheromone (t ).
Kaidah transisi probabilistik yang dida-
sarkan pada nilai fungsi heuristik (q) dan
nilai pheromone (t ) yang digunakan se-
cara berulang untuk membangun solusi.
Kaidah klasifikasi yang akan di-
pecahkan oleh Ant-Miner dapat dipre-
sentasikan dalam bentuk kaidah sebagai
berikut:

IF <term1 AND term2 AND ...........
> THEN <class>

Masing-masing term terdiri dari
tiga ba-gian (atribut, operator, nilai), di-
mana nilai ini adalah nilai yang dimiliki
oleh suatu atribut. Bagian operator ada-
lah operator penghubung “=”. Ant-miner
ini hanya mengakomodasi atribut kate-
gori (categorical attribute). Untuk atribut
yang bernilai kontinyu didiskritkan pada
tahap preprocessing.
Deskripsi umum algoritma Ant-
Miner dapat dideskripsikan dalam pseo-
do code berikut ini (Parpineli, 2002):
TrainingSet = {all training cases};
DiscoveredRuleList = [ ]; /* rule list is
initialized with an empty list */
WHILE
(TrainingSet >Max_uncovered_cases)
t = 1; /* ant index */
j = 1; /* convergence test index */
Initialize all trails with the same amount
of pheromone;
REPEAT
t
Ant starts with an empty rule and
incrementally constructs a classification
rule
t
R ; by adding one term at a time to
the current rule; Prune rule
t
R ;Update
the pheromone of all trails by increasing
pheromone in the trail followed by
t
Ant
(proportional to the quality of
t
R ) and
decreasing pheromone in the other trails
(simulating pheromone evaporation);
IF (
t
R is equal to
t
R –1) /*update con-
vergence test */
THEN j = j + 1;
ELSE j = 1;
END IF
t = t + 1;
UNTIL (i > No_of_ants) OR (j >
No_rules_converg)
Choose the best rule
best
R among all
rules
t
R constructed by all the ants;
Add rule
best
R to DiscoveredRuleList;
TrainingSet = TrainingSet - {set of cases
correctly covered by
best
R };
END WHILE

Web mining merupakan aplikasi
teknik data mining untuk mengekstrak
pengetahuan (knowledge) dari data web
(Abraham, 2003). Ada dua pendekatan
yang digunakan untuk mendefinisiskan
web mining, yaitu pendekatan berbasis
proses (process-centric view) yang men-
definisikan web mining sebagai sekum-
pulan suatu aktivitas (sequence of tasks)
Yang kedua adalah pendekatan berba-
sis data (data-centric view) yang mende-
finisikan web mining sebagai terminologi
tipe data web yang digunakan untuk pro-
ses data mining. Dalam paper ini pende-
katan yang digunakan adalah pendeka-
tan kedua.
Web mining dapat dibagi dalam
tiga kategori berdasarkan jenis data yang
diekstrak, yaitu (Abraham, 2003): Web
content mining (WCM); merupakan pene-
muan informasi terhadap content web,
yang terdiri dari teks, gambar, audio, vi-
deo, metadata, dan hyperlinks.
Web structure mining (WSM);
merupa-kan penemuan model yang ber-
kaitan dengan struktur hubungan web
yang meliputi intrapage structure dan
inter-page structure. Web Usage Mining
(WUM) ini yang menjadi fokus paper
merupakan proses untuk mengaplika-
sikan teknik data mining dalam melaku-
kan penemuan pengetahuan berupa pola
penggunaan (usage pattern) dari web.
Adapun fungsi dari WUM adalah
sebagai berikut (Pramudiono, 2004): Per-
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sonalization; melakukan personali-sasi
website sesuai dengan keinginan user
yang didasarkan dari perilaku penggu-
naan web. System improvement; me-
ningkatkan performansi sebuah web se-
bagai tujuan untuk mendapatkan ke-
puasan bagi penggunaya. WUM menye-
diakan fasilitas kunci untuk memahami
perilkau trafik web, hal ini akan dijadikan
sebagai landasan membuat kebijakan
web chaching, transmisi jaringan, load
balancing, dan distribuís data.
Site modification; menyediakan
um-pan balik (feed back) dari perilaku
akses penguna terhadap statu web-site
kepada designer. Hal ini dimaksudkan
untuk membuat website yang adaptif de-
ngan pola perubahan struktur website
yang dinamis berdasarkan pola penggu-
naan. Busines Intelligence; menyedia-
kan informasi bagaimana para pelang-
gan memanfaatkan website sebagai in-
formasi yang fundamental bagi e-Com-
merce. Hal ini dijadikan sebagai proses
penemuan pengetahuan (knowledge dis-
covery process) sebagai marketing in-
telligence dari data web. Usage Cha-
racterization; menyediakan informasi ten-
tang perilaku interaksi user dengan web-
site ini, dalam konteks interaksi dengan
web content dan atributnya serta dengan
web browser. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk
meningkatkan performansi skalabilitas
dan kemampuan load balancing di server
web.

PEMBAHASAN
Dalam pembahasan dijelaskan
mengenai tahap preprocessing sebagai
tahap penyiapan data, algoritma Ant-
WUM, dan pengujian. WUM terdiri dari
proses utama sebagai berikut:
Proses preprocessing meliputi
proses konversi penggunaan (usage)
yang ada dalam web access log ke level
abstraksi data yang dibutuhkan dalam
pattern discovery. Pattern discovery ini
menggambarkan suatu metode algorit-
ma yang dibangun untuk melakukan
penemuan pola penggunaan web, hal ini
dengan menggunakan Ant-Miner. Pat-
tern analysis merupakan tahapan ter-
akhir dalam proses WUM, dimana dalam
proses ini dilakukan penyaringan (filter)
terhadap kaidah-kaidah atau pola yang
tidak relevan dari kumpulan data yang
ditemukan dalam tahapan pattern dis-
covery.
Pada tahap preprocessing, telah
dilakukan pengembangan suatu metode
yang dapat menyiapkan data untuk tu-
gas klasifikasi pengguna web dengan
menggunakan algoritma Ant-WUM. Ta-
hap preprocessing ini dapat dijelaskan
sebagai berikut:
Format web access log standar
seperti dalam format sebagai berikut:
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:21 +0700]
"GET /xampp/xampp.css HTTP/1.1"
200 4178
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:21 +0700]
"GET /xampp/img/xampp-logo.jpg
HTTP/1.1" 200 19738
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:21 +0700]
"GET /xampp/img/blank.gif
HTTP/1.1" 200 43
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:22 +0700]
"GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 200
30894
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:26 +0700]
"GET /xampp/lang.php?en
HTTP/1.1" 302 -
127.0.0.1 - - [11/J an/2009:13:32:26 +0700]
"GET /xampp/index.php HTTP/1.1"
200 604

Dilakukan parsing dan pember-
sihan data sebagai berikut: Halaman
URL harus tidak mengandung ekstensi
gambar (*.png, *.jpeg, *.gif, dll). Status
koneksi yang diambil hanya yang ber-
kode 200 (akses ke halaman web suk-
ses) dan 301 (melakukan transaksi login
atau logout.
Melakukan ekstraksi data ses-
sion tabel hasil parsing web access log
untuk mendapatkan atribut jumlah ak-
ses, jumlah login, dan rata-rata login da-
lam format data kontinyu. Melakukan dis-
kritisasi data kontinyu menjadi data ka-
tegori, sehingga mendukung untuk kebu-
tuhan algoritma Ant-WUM. Diskritisasi
dilakukan menggunakan aplikasi data
mining WEKA dengan metode MDL Fay-
yad dan Irani.
Ektraksi data dilakukan untuk
membuat tabel untuk mendapatkan in-
formasi: J umlah akses yang dilakukan
user dalam periode tertentu (A), yang
dihitung dari akumulasi ini penjumlahan
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Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

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waktu akses per halaman dalam
kurun waktu tertentu, selama waktu ak-
ses per halaman lebih kecil daripada
waktu time out yang didefinisikan oleh
penguna (lihat Persamaan 1). Durasi
akses yang dilakukan pengguna dalam
periode tertentu (D), yang dihitung dari
penjumlahan sekuensial waktu akses
dalam rentang waktu yang didefiniskan
oleh user (lihat Persamaan 2). Rata-rata
waktu akses pengguna dalam periode
tertentu ( ), yang dihitung dari durasi ak-
ses dibagi dengan jumlah waktu akses
dalam rentang waktu yang didefinisikan
oleh user (lihat Persamaan 3). J umlah
waktu login yang dilakukan pengguna
dalam periode tertentu (L), yang dihitung
dari sekuensial akses halaman sampai
bertemu dengan halaman LOGIN dan
waktu akses halaman tidak sama de-
ngan waktu time out yang didefiniskan
oleh user (lihat Persamaan 4). Rata-rata
waktu login pengguna ( ), yang dihitung
dari total waktu login (persamaan (5))
dibagi dengan jumlah penguna melaku-
kan login dalam rentang waktu yang
didefinisikan oleh pengguna (lihat Persa-
maan 6).
Untuk melakukan ekstraksi data di
atas menggunakan formula sebagai be-
rikut:
out
t
p
t
n p
p
p
t t A < ¿
=
=
= ,
1
) ( ............ (1)
n
t A t A t A D ) (
2
) (
1
) ( + + = ........ (2)
¿
=
) (t A
D
D ......................... (3)
¿
=
=
= < =
n p
p
LOGIN
n
p
out
t
p
t
p
t t L
1
" " , , ) ( .. (4)
n
t L t L t L TotL ) (
2
) (
1
) ( + + = ..... (5)
¿
=
) (t L
TotL
L . …..………... (6)
dimana
=menunjukkan waktu akses per
halaman
=menunjukkan waktu time out seba-
gai acuan waktu toleransi ma-
sing-masing halaman web
p = menunjukkan halaman web.

Membangun relasi tabel webac-
ceeslog tersebut dengan tabel transaksi
dan profil pengguna sebagaimana di-
gambarkan pada Gambar 1 dapat dije-
laskan sebagai berikut: Tabel webaces-
slog akan digunakan sebagai masukan
dalam algoritma Ant-WUM untuk meng-
hasilkan kaidah klasifikasi pengguna web
dalam kategori pengguna dengan akses
frekuensi tinggi atau rendah.



Gambar 1. Hubungan Antar Data WUM

Dari Gambar 1 dapat dijelaskan
sebagai berikut: Tabel webacesslog a-
kan digunakan sebagai masukan dalam
algoritma Ant-WUM untuk menghasilkan
kaidah klasifikasi pengguna web dalam
kategori pengguna dengan akses fre-
kuensi tinggi atau rendah. Dalam hal ini
atribut yang akan digunakan sebagai
kandidat term adalah jumlah akses, du-
rasi akses, rata-rata akses, jumlah byte
dan atribut kelompok akses sebagai ke-
las prediktor. Data pengguna yang dire-
presentasikan dalam IP address di tabel
ini, merupakan daftar pengguna web
yang belum melakukan transaksi pem-
belian dalam web e-commerce. Sedang-
kan IP address yang dipakai oleh peng-
guna web yang melakukan transaksi lo-
gin dan atau pembelian akan dimasukan
dalam tabel webusage.
Tabel webusage sebagai tabel
yang dbentuk dari relasi webaccesslog,
profil pengguna, dan transaksi akan di-
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Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

6

gunakan sebagai masukan dalam algo-
ritma Ant-Miner untuk menghasilkan kai-
dah klasifikasi pengguna web dalam ka-
tegori pengguna potensial, retensi mau-
pun baru. Atribut yang akan digunakan
sebagai calon term dalam kaidah kla-
sifikasi adalah jumlah akses, rata-rata
akses, jumlah login, rata-rata login, jum-
lah byte, jumlah transaksi, rata-rata tran-
saksi, nominal transaksi, dan kelompok
pelanggan sebagai kelas prediktor.
Data IP address pengguna web da-
lam tabel webusage merupakan bagian
dari data IP address dalam tabel web-
accesslog. Hubungan antara keduanya
dapat dijelaskan dalam persamaan 7 se-
bagai berikut:
¿
=
e ¿
=
n
i
u
I
n
i
a
I
1 1
.................. (7)
dimana:
i =menunjukkan urutan data IP address
=menunjukkan daftar IP address da-
lam tabel webusage
=menunjukkan daftar IP address da-
lam tabel webaccesslog.
Algoritma Ant-WUM merupakan
pengembangan algoritma Ant-Miner dari
sisi fungsi heuristik. Dalam pembahasan
ini akan dijelaskan secara utuh menge-
nai hal tahapan-tahapan algoritma Ant-
WUM yang mengadopsi algoritma Ant-
Miner. Algoritma ini menggunakan pen-
dekatan sekuensial untuk menemukan
sejumlah kaidah klasifikasi untuk meling-
kupi data latih (training data). Iterasi pa-
da pengulangan REPEAT-UNTIL pada
pseudo code algoritma Ant-Miner terdiri
dari tiga tahapan, yaitu pembuatan kai-
dah, rule pruning (pembuangan kaidah
yang tidak sesuai) dan updating phero-
mone.
Pertama,
t
Ant dimulai dengan
kaidah kosong, yaitu kaidah yang yang
tidak mempunyai term pada antece-
dentnya dan menambahkan satu term
pada kaidah yang sedang dibangun.
Kesamaannya, pilihan sebuah term yang
akan ditambahkan pada kaidah yang
berjalan terkait dengan pilihan penunju-
kan jalur yang akan dikembangkan. Pili-
han term yang akan ditambahkan pada
kaidah yang berjalan tergantung pada
fungsi heuristik ) (q dan nilai pheromo-
ne ) (t .
t
Ant akan selalu menambah se-
buah term pada kaidah yang sedang
berjalan dan akan berhenti sampai ber-
temu dengan kedua kriteria berikut ini:
Beberapa term yang ditambah-
kan dalam kaidah yang menga-kibatkan
kaidah tersebut melingkupi kasus lebih
kecil daripada nilai threshold yang dide-
finisikan user pada Min_cases _ per_
rule (jumlah minimum dari kasus yang
harus dilingkupi per kaidah).
Semua atribut sudah digunakan
oleh agen semut (ant), sehingga sudah
tidak ada atribut yang akan ditam-bahkan
dalam antecedent. Dalam hal ini berlaku
aturan bahwa masing-masing atribut
hanya digunakan satu kali dalam satu
kaidah, hal ini untuk menghindari kaidah
yang tidak valid, seperti “IF (Sex=male)
AND (Sex=Female…”
Kedua, kaidah
t
R

ini yang diba-
ngun oleh
t
Ant dilakukan pembabatan
(pruning) untuk memindahkan term-term
yang tidak relevan. Term-term yang ti-
dak relevan kemungkinan terjadi pada
metode variasi stokastik pada prosedur
pemilihan term dan atau pada fungsi
heuristik yang hanya mengijinkan peng-
gunaan satu atribut pada satu term.
Ketiga, jumlah pheromone pada
masing-masing jalur diupdate, penamba-
han nilai pheromone pada jalur diikuti
t
Ant (mengikuti kualitas
t
R ) penurunan
nilai pheromone pada jalur lain (men-
simulasikan penguapan pheromone) ini.
Kemudian agen semut yang lain mulai
membangun kaidah menggunakan jum-
lah pheromone yang baru untuk menga-
rahkan pencariannya.
Proses ini akan dilakukan seca-
ra berulang sampai dengan bertemu de-
ngan salah satu dari kedua kondisi be-
rikut ini: (1). J umlah kaidah yang diba-
ngun sama dengan atau lebih besar da-
ripada nilai threshold pengguna No_ of_-
ants.(2)
t
Ant eksisting telah membangun
sebuah kaidah yang sama dengan kai-
dah yang telah dibangun ant No_ru-les_
converg–1, dimana No_rules_ con-verg
merepresentasikan jumlah kaidah yang
digunakan untuk menguji konver gensi
sekumpulan agen semut.
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

7

Ketika pengulangan REPEAT-
UNTIL selesai, kaidah terbaik di antara
kaidah-kaidah yang terbangun oleh se-
mua agen semut akan ditambahkan da-
lam daftar kaidah penemuan dan sistem
akan memulai pengulangan baru de-
ngan WHILE dengan melakukan inisiali-
sasi ulang semua jalur dengan jumlah
pheromone yang sama.
Tahap pertama ini pengulangan
REPEAT-UNTIL dalam algoritma Ant-
Miner adalah sebuah agen semut eksist-
ing secara iterasi menambahkan se-buah
term pada kaidah yang sedang diba-
ngun. J ika
ij
term merupakan sebuah kon-
disi kaidah dalam bentuk dima-
na merupakan atribut ke-I dan me-
rupakan nilai ke=j pada domain . Pro-
babilitas
ij
term

akan dipilih dan ditam-
bahkan dalam kaidah dengan Persa-
maan 7 sebagai berikut:
¿ ¿
= =
· ·
·
= P
a
i
b
j
ij ij i
ij ij
ij
i
t x
t
1 1
)) ( (
) (
t q
t q
…….. (8)
dimana:
= nilai fungsi heuristik untuk
yang dihasilkan oleh persamaan (14).
Semakin besar nilai maka semakin
relevan untuk klasifikasi semakin
besar probabilitasnya untuk dipilih.
= jumlah pheromone yang diasosiakan
dengan pada iterasi t berkores-
pondensi dengan jumlah pheromone ek-
sisting yang tersedia pada posisi jalur i,j
yang diikuti oleh agen semut eksisting. a
= jumlah atribut.
Masing-masing dapat di-
tambahkan dalam kaidah eksisting ber-
dasarkan hasil komputasi nilai meng-
gunakan fungsi heuristik untuk melaku-
kan estimasi kualitas term ini dan me-
ningkatkan tingkat akurasi prediksi kai-
dah. Fungsi heuristik yang digunakan
berbasis teori informasi (Cover, 1991).
Nilai untuk mengandung se-
buah ukuran entropi (jumlah informasi)
diasosiasikan dengan term tersebut. Nilai
entropi untuk masing-masing da-
lam format adalah sebagai beri-
kut: =bernilai 1 jika atribut belum di-
gunakan oleh agen semut eksisting, dan
bernilai 0 jika sebaliknya. =jumlah nilai
dalam domain atribut ke-i.
( ) ¿
=
= · = ÷ = =
k
w
ij
V
i
A w P
ij
V
i
A w P
ij
V
i
A W H
1
) (
2
log ) ( ) (

(9)
dimana:
W adalah kelas atribut (atribut yang
domainnya ini terdiri dari sekumpulan
kelas yang diprediksi). k adalah jumlah
kelas adalah probabilitas
empirik untuk observasi kondisi kelas w
yang sesuai dengan
Semakin besar untuk peningka-
tan nilai maka semakin
seragam dapat didistribusikan ke kelas-
kelas semakin kecil peluang agen se-
mut eksisting menambah terse-
but ke dalam kaidah yang sedang diba-
ngun. Hal ini memungkinkan untuk dila-
kukan normalisasi nilai fungsi heuristik
untuk memfasilitasi penggunaanya pada
Persamaan 1. Untuk mengimplementasi-
kan normalisasi ini, maka perlu dibatasi
bahwa nilai berkisar pada
rentang nilai ,
dimana k adalah jumlah kelas. Norma-
Dari Persamaan 9 dan 10 di a-
tas dapat dijelaskan dengan ilustrasi pe-
nerapan persamaan tersebut dalam con-
toh data latih PLAY, sebagai berikut:
Untuk menghitung nilai informasi term
“outlook=sunny” untuk kelas PLAY ber-
dasarkan persamaan (9) dan (10), ada-
lah sebagai berikut: P(Play|outlook =sun-
ny= 2/14 = 0.143,P(Don’t Play|out look
=sunny) = 3/14 = 0.214 dan H(W, out
look =sunny)=-0.143. log(0.143)-0.214.
log(0.214)=0.877
123 , 0 8777 , 0 1
) . (
2
log
= ÷ =
= ÷ = sunny outlook W H k q
….. (10)


Fungsi heuristik dalam algoritma
Ant-WUM ini didasarkan pada fungsi ke-
dekatan (closeness principal) yang digu-
nakan oleh (Grear, 2006) untuk mela-
kukan klustering profil pengguna web
dalam WUM. Fungsi ini adalah untuk
mengukur jarak antara waktu yang di-
gunakan oleh pengguna eksisting dalam
mengakses halaman web dengan waktu
akses yang telah ada dalam kelompok
kluster. Adapun persamaan yang digu-
nakan adalah:
….. (11)
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

8

Dimana, t1 menunjukkan jumlah waktu
yang digunakan oleh pengguna web ek-
sisting dalam mengakses sekumpulan
halaman web, dan t2 merupakan jumlah
waktu dalam masing-masing kluster.

Tabel 1. Tabel Play Untuk Penghitungan
Heuristik Informasi

Outlook Temp Humi
dity
Windy Play
Sunny 85 85 False Don’t
Play
Sunny 80 90 True Don’t
Play
Over-
cast
83 78 False Play
Rain 70 96 False Play
Rain 60 80 False Play
Over-
cast
64 65 True Play
Sunny 72 95 False Don’t
Play
Sunny 69 70 False Play
Rain 75 70 True Play
Sunny 75 70 True Play
Over-
cast
72 90 True Play
Over-
cast
81 75 False Play
Rain 71 80 True Don’t
Play

Waktu akses web adalah aku-
mulasi waktu akses masing-masing ha-
laman web yang bersifat sekuensial se-
bagaimana dalam Persamaan 1 Peng-
gunaan fungsi heuristik ini untuk menye-
lesaikan permasalahan klasifikasi peng-
guna web dalam WUM, dikarenakan be-
berapa atribut data WUM sebagaimana
dijelaskan dalam bagian preprocessing
adalah sama dengan yang digunakan
oleh (Grear, 2006) yaitu waktu session
masing-masing halaman yang diakses
oleh pengguna web. Perbedaannya ada-
lah dalam penyiapan data untuk fungsi
klasifikasi pengguna web dilakukan aku-
mulasi jumlah waktu untuk masing-ma-
sing pengguna yang bersifat unik, se-
dangkan dalam (Grear, 2006) waktu se-
ssion digunakan untuk masing-masing
pengguna web dalam satu siklus akses
web, tanpa memperhatikan eksistensi
pengguna web, jadi satu pengguna web
mempunyai beberapa total waktu ses-
sion yang berbeda.
Implementasi Persamaan 11 un-
tuk fungsi heuristik dalam algoritma Ant-
WUM dapat diformulasikan dalam persa-
maan sebagai berikut:
… (12)
dimana:
D merupakan jarak nilai heuristi H1 ke
H2, kemudian H1 merupakan nilai heu-
ristik dalam format , seba-
gaimana Persamaan 9. H2 merupakan
suatu nilai heuristik dalam for-
mat .
Nilai heuristic H2 ini diperoleh
dari nilai informasi term yang berbeda
dengan pada kelas yang sama.
Adapun persamaan untuk mengitung H2
adalah:
( )
¿
=
= · = ÷
= =
k
w
Nij i Nij i
Nij i
V A w P V A w P
V A W H
1
2
2
) ( log ) (
) (
…. 13)
dimana:
W, k dan P adalah sama dengan des-
kripsi Persamaan 9. merupakan nilai
atribut selain untuk kelas yang sama
Hasil penghitungan menunjukan
perbandingan jarak yang dilakukan nor-
malisasi dengan Persamaan 14 sebagai
berikut:
( )
) 1 2 cos( 1
) ( log
) ( log
1 1
1 2 1
1 2
H H
V A W H k x
V A W H k
a
i
b
j
ij
ij
ij
i
÷ ÷
= ÷ ·
= ÷
=
¿ ¿
= =
q

……………………………..
(14)




Variabel pada normalisasi mem-
punyai arti yang sama pada Persamaan
10 dan 12. Hasil normalisasi ini yang
menjadi nilai input dalam Persamaan 8.
Ilustrasi fungsi heuristik prinsip
kedekatan algoritma Ant-WUM ini dapat
dijelaskan contoh berikut. Untuk meng-
hitung nilai jarak informasi term “out-
look= sunny” untuk kelas PLAY berda-
sarkan prinsip kedekatan adalah seba-
gai berikut: P(Play|outlook=sunny) =2/14
=0.143. P(Don’t Play|out look =sunny)
=3/14 =0.214 dan H1(W,outlook =sun-
ny)=0.143.log(0.143)-0.214.log(0.214) =
0.877 P(Play|out look=NOTsunny)=7/14
=0.5 P(Don’t Play|outlook=NOT sunny)
=1/14 =0.071. H2(W,outlook =NOTsun-
ny)=- 0.5. log (0.5) - 0.071. log(0.071)=
0.232. D (H1,H2) = 1 – cos (0.232–
0.877) =0.200.
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

9

613 , 0 200 , 0 / 123 , 0 )
1 2
(
cos 1 /( ) (
2
log
= =
÷ = ÷ =
H H
sunny
outlook
W H k q

Proses selanjutnya adalah rule
pruning. Tujuan utama dari rule pruning
adalah menghilangkan term-term yang
tidak relevan yang akan dimasukkan da-
lam kaidah. Fungsi dari rule pruning
adalah untuk meningkatkan kemampuan
prediksi kaidah dan tingkat kemudahan
kaidah sehingga mudah dipahami oleh
pengguna. Prosedur rule pruning diekse-
kusi ketika agen semut eksisting selesai
membangun kaidah. Prosedur ini dilaku-
kan secara berulang sampai mendapat-
kan kualitas suatu kaidah yang didasar-
kan pada Persamaan 11.
Setelah melakukan rule pruning,
maka dilakukan proses updating phero-
mone. Sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam
algoritma Ant-Miner ini, bahwa semua
akan diinisialisasi dengan jumlah
pheromone yang sama sehingga pada
saat agen semut pertama melakukan
pencarian, semua jalur mempunyai nilai
pheromone yang sama. Inisialisasi jum-
lah pheromone yang disimpan dalam
masing-masing jalur adalah berbanding
proporsional dengan jumlah nilai semua
atribut, dan didefinisikan dalam Persa-
maan 15 berikut ini:

¿
=
= =
a
i
i
b
t
ij
1
1
) 0 ( t …………
(15)
Dimana a adalah jumlah atribut dan
adalah jumlah yang dimiliki atribut .
Nilai dalam persamaan ini dinor-
malisasi untuk digunakan dalam Persa-
maan 7 yaitu kombinasi antara nilai ini
dengan nilai fungsi heuristik. Ketika se-
buah agen semut membangun kaidah-
nya dan kaidah itu di-pruning, maka jum-
lah pheromone dalam semua jalur harus
diupdate. Updating pheromone dilaku-
kan dengan dua hal, yaitu: Pertama,
penambahan J umlah pheromone yang
diasosiasikan dengan masing-masing
dalam kaidah yang ditemukan
oleh agen semut (setelah proses pru-
ning) akan ditambahkan sehingga seca-
ra proporsional dapat menambah kuali-
tas kaidah. Kualitas suatu kaidah dinota-
sikan dengan Q, yang dihitungan de-
ngan formula Q = sensitifity * specifity
(Parpinelli, 2002) yang didefinisikan de-
ngan persamaan sebagai berikut:
TN FP
TN
FN TP
TP
Q
+
·
+
= ……
(16)

dimana:
TP(True Positive), merupakan jumlah
kasus yang dilingkupi oleh kaidah yang
mempunyai kasus yang telah diprediksi
oleh kaidah tersebut.
FP(False Positive), merupakan jum-lah
kasus yang dilingkupi oleh kaidah yang
mempunyai kelas yang berbeda dengan
yang diprediksi oleh kaidah.
FN (False Negative), merupakan jum-lah
kasus yang tidak dilingkupi oleh kaidah
tetapi mempunyai kelas yang diprediksi
oleh kaidah
TN(True Negative), merupakan jum-lah
kelas yang tidak dilingkupi oleh kaidah
dan tidak mempunyai kelas yang
diprediksi oleh kaidah tersebut
Nilai Q berada dalam rentang
nilai , dimana semakin besar
nilai Q maka semakin besar kualitas
sebuah kaidah. Updating pheromone
untuk se-buah dilakukan dengan
Persa-maan 17 sebagai berikut:
R j i Q t t t
ij ij ij
e ¬ · + = + , , ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( t t t
…. (17)


Dimana R merupakan himpunan
term yang terbentuk dalam kaidah yang
dibangun oleh agen semut pada pengu-
langan t. Pengurangan J umlah Phero-
mone yang diasosiasikan dengan ma-
sing-masing yang tidak ada da-
lam kaidah dikurangi. Pengurangan jum-
lah pheromone untuk term yang tidak
dipakai dilakukan dengan melakukan
normalisasi nilai masing-masing phero-
mone dengan melakukan penjum-
lahan semua . Pada waktu nor-
malisasi, jumlah pheromone term yang
tidak dipakai dan akan dihitung dengan
membagi nilai eksisting ini dengan total
penjumlahan pheromone semua term.
Pengujian ini dilakukan dengan
skenario seperti Gambar 2: Sedangkan
data yang digunakan dalam pengujian ini
adalah data repository UCI (University of
California at Irvine) yang dapat diakses di
http://www. ics.uci.edu/~mlearn/MLRe-
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

10

pository. html, data e-commerce. Seting
parameter algoritma Ant-WUM dan Ant-
Miner untuk melakukan pengujian ini
adalah sebagai berikut:



Gambar 2. Diagram Skenario Pengujian

Tabel 2. Setting Parameter Algoritma

Folds 10
Number of Ants 5
Min-cases Per Rule 5
Max-uncovered cases 10
Rules of convergence 10
Number of Iterations 100

Tabel 3. Nama data UCI dan data WUM
untuk pengujian

Nama Data
J umlah
Atribut J umlah Data
Breast Cancer 10 286
Diabetes 9 768
Lymph 19 148
Breast W 10 699
Hepatitis 20 155
WUM 9 498

Hasil pengujian terhadap data
UCI dan WUM dapat digambarkan seba-
gai berikut: Tabel 4. Tingkat Akurasi yang
dihasilkan dari Ant-Miner dan Ant-WUM
Pada Data Test UCI & WUM.
Adapun contoh kaidah klasifikasi
pengguna web yang terbangun adalah
sebagai berikut:
IF durasiakses ='\(120.1-126.8]

THEN
'Potensial'.
IF jmlakses='\(11.3-12.2]
THEN 'Poten-
sial'; IF jmlakses = '\(9.5-10.4]
THEN
'Poten-sial';IF J K ='F' THEN 'NP'
IF J K ='M' THEN 'NP'
Default rule: NP

Pada Tabel 4 menunjukkan bah-
wa algoritma Ant-WUM menghasil-kan
kaidah dengan tingkat akurasi yang lebih
tinggi pada empat data uji coba,

Tabel 4 Hasil rata-rata tingkat akurasi
pengujian Ant- WUM


Nama
Data
Average Predictive Accuracy
(%)
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 74.15 +2.28 76.15 +2.72
Diabetes 68.23 +1.93 67.98 +1.76
Lymph 72.46 + 5.34 73.69 +3
Breast W 91.84 +0.88 92.12 +1.4
Hepatitis 83.82 +2.24 78.48 +3.38
WUM-
Potensial 88.72 +1.32 88.78 +1.74

Yaitu pada data Breast Cancer,
Lymph, Breast-W dan data WUM. Se-
dangkan pada data Hepatitis dan Dia-
betes, algoritma Ant-Miner menghasil-
kan tingkat akurasi yang lebih tinggi di-
bandingkan algoritma Ant-WUM.

Tabel 5. Rata-rata J umlah Kaidah yang
dihasilkan Ant-Miner &Ant-WUM pada
data Test UCI & WUM

Nama
Data
Average Number of Rules
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 6.4 +0.16 6.3 +0.21
Diabetes 9.2 +0.25 8.5 +0.37
Lymph 5.9 +0.31 6.8 +0.2
Breast W 12.4 +0.31 12.1 +0.23
Hepatitis 5.1 +0.18 5.6 +0.16
WUM-
Potensial
6 +0 6 +0

Sedangkan pada Tabel 5 dan
Tabel 6 menunjukkan bahwa algoritma
Ant-WUM menghasilkan kaidah yang le-
bih sederhana pada data Breast Cancer,
Diabetes, dan Breast-W, sedangkan pa-
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

11

da data WUM kedua algoritma ini meng-
hasilkan kaidah yang sama dari sisi sim-
plifikasi.

Tabel 6. Rata-rata J umlah Term per Kai-
dah yang Dihasilkan Ant-Miner & Ant-
WUM pada Data Test UCI & WUM

Nama
Data
Average Number of Terms
Per Rule
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 9.2 +0.44 9.4 +0.56
Diabetes 8.5 +0.27 7.8 +0.39
Lymph 9.9 +0.75 11.8 +0.9
Breast W 12.4 +0.4 12.2 +0.51
Hepatitis 9.1 +0.5 9.7 +0.4
WUM-
Potensial 5 +0 5 +0

Algoritma Ant-Miner menghasil-
kan kaidah yang lebih sederhana pada
data Lymph dan Hepatitis.

KESIMPULAN
Dari hasil uji coba menunjukkan,
bahwa algoritma Ant-WUM yang meng-
gunakan fungsi kedekatan dan peman-
faatan teori informasi untuk menentukan
nilai masing-masing heuristik yang dihi-
tung jaraknya, menghasilkan tingkat per-
formansi yang cukup kompetitif dengan
algoritma Ant-Miner. Fungsi kedekatan
sebagai heuristik WUM merupakan me-
tode untuk menyelesaikan masalah kla-
sifikasi pengguna web dalam WUM. He-
uristik ini juga digunakan dalam fungsi
klusterisasi WUM. Yang membedakan
keduanya adalah dari sisi variable yang
dihitung nilai jaraknya.
Pada algoritma Ant-WUM ini,
teori informasi masih digunakan untuk
mengukur nilai informasi antar dua nilai
heuristik. Dengan memadukan peman-
faatan fungsi kedekatan dan teori infor-
masi dalam algoritma Ant-WUM telah
menghasilkan kaidah klasifikasi yang
mempunyai tingkat akurasi dan tingkat
simplifikasi yang lebih tinggi pada enam
data uji coba di atas.
Saran, dalam rangka pengem-
bangan riset ini di masa mendatang, di-
usulkan pengembangan dalam dua hal,
yaitu:
Pemanfaatan Ant-WUM untuk
menghasilkan kaidah dari atribut kon-
tinyu secara langsung, sehingga tidak
perlu didiskritkan pada tahap prepro-
cessing.
Pemanfaatan fungsi heuristik ini
berbasis dengan prinsip kedekatan
menggunakan fungsi selain teori infor-
masi dalam menghitung nilai antar dua
vatiable (H1 dan H2). Uji coba ini di-
harapkan dapat menghasilkan kaidah
klasifikasi dengan tingkat akurasi yang
lebih tinggi

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THEN
'Poten-sial';IF J K ='F' THEN 'NP'
IF J K ='M' THEN 'NP'
Default rule: NP

Pada Tabel 4 menunjukkan bah-
wa algoritma Ant-WUM menghasil-kan
kaidah dengan tingkat akurasi yang lebih
tinggi pada empat data uji coba,

Tabel 4 Hasil rata-rata tingkat akurasi
pengujian Ant- WUM


Nama
Data
Average Predictive Accuracy
(%)
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 74.15 +2.28 76.15 +2.72
Diabetes 68.23 +1.93 67.98 +1.76
Lymph 72.46 + 5.34 73.69 +3
Breast W 91.84 +0.88 92.12 +1.4
Hepatitis 83.82 +2.24 78.48 +3.38
WUM-
Potensial 88.72 +1.32 88.78 +1.74

Yaitu pada data Breast Cancer,
Lymph, Breast-W dan data WUM. Se-
dangkan pada data Hepatitis dan Dia-
betes, algoritma Ant-Miner menghasil-
kan tingkat akurasi yang lebih tinggi di-
bandingkan algoritma Ant-WUM.

Tabel 5. Rata-rata J umlah Kaidah yang
dihasilkan Ant-Miner &Ant-WUM pada
data Test UCI & WUM

Nama
Data
Average Number of Rules
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 6.4 +0.16 6.3 +0.21
Diabetes 9.2 +0.25 8.5 +0.37
Lymph 5.9 +0.31 6.8 +0.2
Breast W 12.4 +0.31 12.1 +0.23
Hepatitis 5.1 +0.18 5.6 +0.16
WUM-
Potensial
6 +0 6 +0

Sedangkan pada Tabel 5 dan
Tabel 6 menunjukkan bahwa algoritma
Ant-WUM menghasilkan kaidah yang le-
bih sederhana pada data Breast Cancer,
Diabetes, dan Breast-W, sedangkan pa-
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI TECHNOSCIENTIA ISSN: 1979-8415
Vol. 2 No. 1 Agustus 2009

11

da data WUM kedua algoritma ini meng-
hasilkan kaidah yang sama dari sisi sim-
plifikasi.

Tabel 6. Rata-rata J umlah Term per Kai-
dah yang Dihasilkan Ant-Miner & Ant-
WUM pada Data Test UCI & WUM

Nama
Data
Average Number of Terms
Per Rule
Ant-Miner Ant-WUM
Breast
Cancer 9.2 +0.44 9.4 +0.56
Diabetes 8.5 +0.27 7.8 +0.39
Lymph 9.9 +0.75 11.8 +0.9
Breast W 12.4 +0.4 12.2 +0.51
Hepatitis 9.1 +0.5 9.7 +0.4
WUM-
Potensial 5 +0 5 +0

Algoritma Ant-Miner menghasil-
kan kaidah yang lebih sederhana pada
data Lymph dan Hepatitis.

KESIMPULAN
Dari hasil uji coba menunjukkan,
bahwa algoritma Ant-WUM yang meng-
gunakan fungsi kedekatan dan peman-
faatan teori informasi untuk menentukan
nilai masing-masing heuristik yang dihi-
tung jaraknya, menghasilkan tingkat per-
formansi yang cukup kompetitif dengan
algoritma Ant-Miner. Fungsi kedekatan
sebagai heuristik WUM merupakan me-
tode untuk menyelesaikan masalah kla-
sifikasi pengguna web dalam WUM. He-
uristik ini juga digunakan dalam fungsi
klusterisasi WUM. Yang membedakan
keduanya adalah dari sisi variable yang
dihitung nilai jaraknya.
Pada algoritma Ant-WUM ini,
teori informasi masih digunakan untuk
mengukur nilai informasi antar dua nilai
heuristik. Dengan memadukan peman-
faatan fungsi kedekatan dan teori infor-
masi dalam algoritma Ant-WUM telah
menghasilkan kaidah klasifikasi yang
mempunyai tingkat akurasi dan tingkat
simplifikasi yang lebih tinggi pada enam
data uji coba di atas.
Saran, dalam rangka pengem-
bangan riset ini di masa mendatang, di-
usulkan pengembangan dalam dua hal,
yaitu:
Pemanfaatan Ant-WUM untuk
menghasilkan kaidah dari atribut kon-
tinyu secara langsung, sehingga tidak
perlu didiskritkan pada tahap prepro-
cessing.
Pemanfaatan fungsi heuristik ini
berbasis dengan prinsip kedekatan
menggunakan fungsi selain teori infor-
masi dalam menghitung nilai antar dua
vatiable (H1 dan H2). Uji coba ini di-
harapkan dapat menghasilkan kaidah
klasifikasi dengan tingkat akurasi yang
lebih tinggi

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Abdurrahman, et al, 2006, Pemodelan
Data Webhouse sebagai Tahap
Preprocessing Web Usage Mi-
ning untuk Business Intelligence,
Konferensi Nasional Sistem In-
formasi, Universitas Pasundan –
Bandung.
Abdurrahman, 2004, Pemodelan Custo-
mer Churn Management Berba-
sis CRM Studi Kasus PT. Tele-
komunikasi Indonesia, Tbk, Te-
sis Magister Teknik Informatika,
ITB.
Abraham, A., 2003, Business Intelligen-
ce From Web Usage Mining,
J ournal of Information & Know-
ledge Management, Vol. 2, No.
4, p. 375-390.
Abraham, A., et al, 2005, Web Usage
Mining Using Artificial Ant Colo-
ny Clustering and Linear Genetic
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Cover, T.M., et al, 1991, Elements of In-
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