CHAPTER 1 FUNCtIONS

Focus on Exam 1
2 1 (a) g(x) = 16 – x For g(x) to be defined, 16 – x2  0 (4 + x)(4 – x)  0

(b)

y y = x2 − 9

−3 x

O

3

x

−4

4

(c) The range is { y | y  0, y P }.
3 First, consider only g(x) = x – 2. The 1 2

Hence, the domain of g is {x | – 4  x  4, x P }.
y The graph of g(x) is actually part of a circle with the equation y 2 = 16 - x 2 ⇒ x 2 + y 2 = 42.

graph of g(x) is as shown below.
y y=− 1x+2 2 2 y = 16 - x
2

(b)

4

y= 1x−2 2 x

-4

O

4

x

O −2

4

(c) The range is { y | 0  y  4, y P 2 (a) f : x  x2 – 9 f (x) = x2 – 9 For f (x) to be defined, x2 – 9  0 (x + 3)(x – 3)  0

}.

1 x 2,  x 4. –  2 1 Next, consider only h(x) = x + 2 . The 2 graph of h(x) is as shown below.

Thus, g(x) =

5

1 –  x + 2,  x < 4, 2

y y=− 1x−2 2 2 −4 O

y= 1x+2 2

−3

3

x

Hence, the domain of f is {x | x  –3 or x  3, x P

x

}.

© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2013

2

ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition

Thus, h(x) =

5

1 –  x – 2,  x < – 4, 2 1   x + 2,  x  – 4. 2

The domain of f (x) is {x | x  }. The range of f (x) is { y | y  2, y P }. 1 (ii) g(x) = x–2
y

Therefore, • for x < – 4, 1 1 f (x) = –   x + 2 – –   x – 2 2 2

1

2
−1 2 O 2

y=

=4 1 1 • for – 4  x < 4, f (x) = – x + 2 – x + 2 2 2 = –x

1 x−2 x

1

2

• for x  4,

1 1 f (x) = x – 2 – x + 2 2 2

1

2

= – 4

The domain of g(x) is {x | x  , x ≠ 2}. The range of g(x) is { y | y  , y ≠ 0}. (b) g ° f  = g[  f (x)] = g[(x + 1)2 + 2] 1 = (x 1)2 2 – 2 + + 1 = (x 1)2 , x ≠ –1 + The domain of g ° f is {x | x  , x ≠ –1}.
y

Hence, f (x) = – x,   – 4  x < 4, – 4,  x  4. (a) The graph of f (x) is as shown below.
y y=4

5

4,   x < – 4,

4

y = −x 4 −4 O x

y = g f(x) = −1 O 1 (x + 1)2 x

−4

y = −4

5 (a) (i) f (x) = x – 2
y

(b)  Thel range of f (x) is {y | – 4  y  4, y P 4 (a) (i) f (x) = (x + 1)2 + 2

}.

y= x−2

O y y = (x + 1)2 + 2 3

2

x

(−1, 2)
O x

The domain of f (x) is {x | x  2, x P }. The range of f (x) is { y | y  0, y P }.

© Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T) 2013

Fully Worked Solution 3 (ii) g(x) = x2 – 3 y The domain of g is {x | x  }. (b) g ° f  exists because Rf # Dg. 2 (ii) g(x) = x+4 y 1 2 x x The domain of g(x) is {x | x  . Df  Rg –5  x2 – 5  5 0  x2  10 Hence. 6 (a) (i) f (x) = 25 – x2 y 5 y = 25 − x 2 −5 O 5 x −4 O The domain of f  is {x | –5  x  5. the required set of values of x is {x | x  – 5 or x  5 . x ≠ 2}. g ° f  = g[  f(x)] = g1  x – 2 2 = 1 x – 2 22 – 3 =x–5 (c) For f ° g  to be defined. y ≠ 0}. (b) f ° g = f  [g(x)] 2 = f   x 4 + 1 = 2 –2   x+4 x+4 = 2 – 2(x 4) + 1 2 1 2 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. the required set of values of x is {x | –  10  x  10 . The range of f is { y | y  . Rg # Df  . y P }. (ii) g (x) = x2 – 5 y O y = x2 − 5 −5 { The domain of f  is {x | x  . 7 (a) (i) f (x) = } } } y (c) For f ° g to be defined. The range of f  is { y | 0  y  5. The range of g(x) is { y | y  –3. x P }. x ≠ – 4}. Df Rg Df 1 x–2 x2 – 3  2 −1 2 O 2 x { x2 – 5  0 1x + 5 21x – 5 2  0 Hence. y P }. The range of g is { y | y  –5. (008974-T) 2013 . x y = x2 − 3 O −3 The domain of g(x) is {x | x  }. x P }. x P }. y P }. y ≠ 0}. Rg # Df  . Bhd. (b) f ° g does not exist because Rg # Df  . …j The range of g is { y | y  .

e.x≠ 1 .x x A\B means A – B or A ∩ B9. i. y ≠ 3}. the domain is x {x | x  . x +2 x+1 = x x+1 x + 2(x + 1) = x 3x + 2 = x 2 =3+ . {x | x  2. (008974-T) 2013 . i. Hence. Bhd. x ≠ –3}. x the domain is {x | x P . x P f ° g = fg(x) = f (2x – 1) 1 1 . x © Oxford Fajar Sdn. y P }.4 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition x + 4 . 2 6 y = f  –1(x) f (y) = x y –1 =x 2+ y–1 =x–2 y – 1 = (x – 2)2 y – 1 = x2 – 4x + 4 y = x2 – 4x + 5 –1 [ f   (x) = x2 – 4x + 5 The domain of f  –1 is the same as the range of f. the domain of g ° f is {x | x  .e. Thus. x  . (b) g ° f = g f (x) = g 1x x – 12 (d) h ≠ g ° f because the domain and the range of g ° f are not the same as the domain and the range of h. the domain of f ° g is {x | x  . x ≠ –1}. If x ≠ –1. x P }. x ≠ – 4. the range of g ° f also cannot take the value 3. x ≠ 0} and the range is { y | y P . the range of g ° f is { y | y  . Hence. i. based on the graph in (c). x ≠ 0. x ≠ 0}. the domain is x+1 2 3 y h(x) = 3 + 3 x 2 x – O . The range of f  –1 is the same as the domain of f. i. x –3 …k ≠ –6 – 2x Combining j and k. x ≠ –1. the range of g ° f cannot take the value 1. then g f (x) ≠ 3 + (–1) g f(x) ≠ 1. = 8 (a) For f : x a {x | x  x . Other than that.e. 2 . x 2 For g : x a + . 2 (c) For h : x → 3 + . 9 f : x a \{0}  g : x a 2x – 1. the domain of g ° f also has to follow the domain of f.x≠ = 2x – 1 2 The domain of f ° g is x | x  10 (a) Let 5 . y ≠ 3}.e. y ≠ 1.x≠0 x Other than x ≠ 0. y y = f −1(x) 5 4 3 2 1 O1 2 3 4 5 y = x y = f (x) The graph of y = f −1(x) is the reflection of the graph of y = f (x) in the straight line y = x. x ≠ –1}. (b)  The graphs of y = f (x) and y = f  –1(x) are as shown below. {y | y  1. 1 P .

62).Fully Worked Solution 5 The point of intersection of the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f  –1(x) is the same as the point of intersection of the curve y = f  –1(x) = x2 – 4x + 5 and the straight line y = x. x P . 2(–1) – r = 0 r = –2  p(x) = –x3 + 2x2 + x – 2 –x2 + 1 x – 2 2 –x3 + 2x2 + x – 2 –x3 + 2x2 x–2 x–2 0  p(x) = (x – 2)(–x2 + 1) = (x – 2)(1 + x)(1 – x) Hence.e. –1 and 1.62  y = x = 3. y = x2 – 4x + 5 …j y = x …k x2 – 4x + 5 = x x2 – 5x + 5 = 0 –(–5) ± (–5)2 – 4(1)(5) x= 2(1) 5± 5 x= 2 x = 1. p(–1) = –12 q(–1)3 – r(–1)2 – 1 – 2 = 0 –q – r = 3 …k j – k: 2q – r = 0 – –q – r = 3 3q = –3 q = –1 From j.38 or 3. y y = f (x) = x 2 − 3x O 3 . then it is also divisible by (x – 2) and (x + 3).62. (b)  In order for f –1 to exist. p(2) = 0 q(2)3 – r(2)2 + 2 – 2 = 0 8q – 4r = 0 2q – r = 0 …j p(x) has a remainder of –12 when it is divided by (x + 1). 3.62 Hence.62 x = 1. (008974-T) 2013 . the required point of intersection is (3. the zeroes of p(x) are 2. 4(4) + k = –17 ⇒ k = –33 14 Since (x + 2) is a factor of p(x). q(2) = 0 m(2)3 – 5(2)2 + k(2) + 54 = 0 8m + 2k = –34 4m + k = –17 …j q(–3) = 0 m(–3)3 – 5(–3)2 + k(–3) + 54 = 0 –27m – 3k = –9 9m + k = 3 …k k – j: 5m = 20 ⇒ m = 4 From j. x | x  –2 . 13 Since q(x) is divisible by x2 + x – 6 = (x –2)(x + 3). Bhd. 11 (a)  The graph of y = f (x) = x2 – 3x is as shown below. the domain of f must be restricted to only 1 x | x  1 .38 is not accepted  x = 3. −2 1 (11 2 4) x 12 Since (x – 2) is a factor of p(x) = qx3 – rx2 + x – 2. i. x P . then p(–2) = 0 (–2)3 + 4(–2)2 –h(–2) + k = 0 2h + k = –8 k = –2h – 8 …j f  –1 does not exist because f is not a oneto-one function. 2 Let y = f  –1(x) f (y) = x 2 y – 3y = x y2 – 3y – x = 0 –(–3) + (–3)2 – 4(1)(–x) y= 2(1) 3 + 9 + 4x y= 2 9 + 4x 3 [ f   –1(x) = + 2 –1 The domain of f   is the same as the 1 range of f. 4 5 6 5 6 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.

(008974-T) 2013 . p(3) = 60 34 + a(3)3 – 7(3)2 – 4a(3) + b = 60 81 + 27a – 63 – 12a + b = 60 15a + b = 42 … k 1 2 1 2 When p(x) is divided by (x + 2).e. x2 – 4 = 0  or  x – 1 = 0  or  x2 + x + 2 = 0 x = ± 2. Since (x – 1) and (x + 1) are factors of p(x). p(x) = x2n – (8 + 2)x2 + 8 + 1 = x2n – 10x2 + 9 Since (x – 3) is a factor. the remainder when p(x) is divided by 2x2 + 3x – 2 is ax + b = x + 1. then p(3) = 0 32n – 10(3)2 + 9 = 0 32n = 81 32n = 34 2n = 4 n=2 Hence. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. then (x – 1)(x + 1) = x2 – 1 is a factor of p(x). (b) When m = 8. (x + 1) is a factor of p(x). 3h2 – 2h – 8 = 0 (3h + 4)(h – 2) = 0 4 h = – or 2 3 16 When h = – 4 . where a and b are constants. 17 (a) x2 – 1 = (x – 1)(x + 1) p(1) = 12n – (m + 2)(1)2 + m + 1 =1–m–2+m+1=0 Thus.  p(x) = (x2 – 4)(x – 1)(x2 + x + 2) When p(x) = 0. p(x) = x 4 – 10x2 + 9 = (x2 – 9) (x2 – 1) = (x + 3)(x – 3)(x + 1) (x – 1) 18 (a) p(x) = x4 + ax3 – 7x2 – 4ax + b Since (x + 3) is a factor of p(x). the remainder is 60. 16 x3 + x – 2 x – 4 2 x5 – 3x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8 x5 – 4x3 x3 – 2x2 – 4x + 8 x3 – 4x 2 – 2x +8 – 2x2 +8 0 2 The remainder is 0. p(h) = h3 3 2 2 h + 4h – h + k = h3 3h2 + k = 0 …k Substituting j into k.6 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition When p(x) is divided by (x – h). b = 1 Hence. a = 1. p(–3) = 0. 2 1 1 1 3 a+b= p 2 = (0) + 2 q(x) + 2 2 2 a + 2b = 3 …j 1 2  p(x) = (x2 – 4)(x3 + x – 2) Let q(x) = x3 + x – 2. p(x) = (2x – 1)(x + 2) q(x) + (ax + b) When p(x) is divided by (2x – 1). k = –2 – 4 – 8 = – 3 3 3 When h = 2. Bhd. x = 1. Therefore. No real solutions because  b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4(1)(2) = –7 (< 0) The roots of p(x) = 0 are ±2 and 1. q(x) = 13 + 1 – 2 = 0  (x – 1) is a factor of q(x). p(–1) = (–1)2n – (m + 2)(–1)2 + m + 1 =1–m–2+m+1=0 Thus. Since the remainder is 0. the remainder is an expression in the form ax + b. the remainder is h3. If x = 1. (x2 – 4) is a factor of p(x). the remainder is –1. (x – 1) is a factor of p(x). k = –2(2) – 8 = –12 15 When a polynomial p(x) of degree n  2 is divided by 2x2 + 3x – 2 = (2x – 1)(x + 2). p(–2) = [2 × (–2) – 1](0) q(x) + (–2a + b) = –1 –2a + b = –1 …k Solving j and k. (–3)4 + a(–3)3 – 7(–3)2 – 4a(–3) + b = 0 81 – 27a – 63 + 12a + b = 0 –15a + b = –18  … j When p(x) is divided by (x – 3). i. the 3 remainder is .

then p(2) = 0 4 3 2 6(2) – a(2) – b(2) + 28(2) + 12 = 0 96 – 8a – 4b + 56 + 12 = 0 –8a – 4b = –164 2a + b = 41 …k j + k : 4a = 28 a=7 From j. Bhd. 2b = 24 b = 12 From j. p (x) = (x + 3)(x – 1)(x2 – 4) = (x + 3)(x – 1)(x + 2)(x – 2) 12y4 – 8y3 – 7y2 + 2y + 1 = 0 12 1 1 1 1 1x 2 – 81x 2 – 71x 2 + 21x 2+ 1 = 0 4 3 2 1 2(–1)3 + 4(–1)2 + (–1) – k = 0 2 1 –2 + 4 – – k = 0 2 3 –k=0 2 3 k= 2 1 3 (b) p(x) = 2x 3 + 4x 2 +  x – 2 2 3 2 1 3 x + 1 2  2x 3 + 4x 2 +  x – 2 2 –(2x 3 + 2x 2) 2x 2 + 2x – 1 2x 2 +  x 2 –(2x 2 + 2x) 3 3 –  x – 2 2 3 3 – –  x – 2 2 1 2 2 2 0 Hence. then p(–1) = 0 20 (a) Since (x + 2) is a factor. p(x) = (x + 1) 2x 2 + 2x – 1 4x = (x + 1)1 = 3 2 2 + 4x – 3 2 1 (x + 1)(2x + 3)(2x – 1) 2 12 – 8x – 7x2 + 2x3 + x4 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 1)(x + 2)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3. 1. –2 or 2 y= 1 1 1 y = –  . 1. then p(–2) = 0 6(–2)4 – a(–2)3 – b(–2)2 + 28(–2) + 12 = 0 96 + 8a – 4b – 56 + 12 = 0 8a – 4b = –52 2a – b = –13 …j Since (x – 2) is a factor. –2 or 2 Letting y = 1 x 1 –3.Fully Worked Solution 7 j + k. 2(7) – b = –13 b = 27 p(x) = (x + 2)(x – 2)g(x) © Oxford Fajar Sdn. (x – 1) is another factor of p(x). –15a + 12 = –18 a=2 [ p(x) = x4 + 2x3 – 7x2 – 8x + 12 (b) x3 – x2 – 4x + 4 x + 3 2 x4 + 2x3 – 7x2 – 8x + 12 –(x4 + 3x3) –x3 – 7x2 –(–x3 – 3x2) – 4x2 – 8x –(– 4x2 – 12x) 4x + 12 –(4x + 12) 0 3 2 Let f (x) = x – x – 4x + 4 f  (1) = 13 – 12 – 4(1) + 4 = 0 Therefore. 1. x2 – 4 x – 1 2 x3 – x2 – 4x + 4 –(x3 – x2) – 4x + 4 –(– 4x + 4) 0 Hence. –  or 3 2 2 1 19 (a) p(x) = 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 +  x – k 2 Since (x + 1) is a factor of p(x). (008974-T) 2013 .

1). Bhd. p(–1) = 0. 1) O x Hence. 6 = 3A ⇒ A = 2 Letting x = 0. 10] is as shown below. 65) (6. p(–1) = 0 (–1)3 + m(–1)2 + 15(–1) + k = 0 –1 + m – 15 + k = 0 m + k = 16 …j Since the remainders when p(x) is divided by (x + 2) is (– 4). (008974-T) 2013 5 (10. 3 = A + C(–1) © Oxford Fajar Sdn. y = q(10) = 10 2 – 12(10) + 37 = 17 The graph of y = q(x) for x  [–2. 21 4x2 – x + 3 4x2 – x + 3 = 3 x –1 (x – 1)(x2 + x + 1) ≡ Bx + C A + x2 x 1 + + x–1 2 2 4x – x + 3 ≡ A(x + x + 1) + (Bx + C)(x – 1) Letting x = 1. When x = –2. 7 = 10A + C 7 = 10(1) + C C = –3 Letting x = 1. 8 = A + (–B + C)(–2) 8 = 2 + (–B – 1)(–2) 8 = 2 + 2B + 2 2B = 4 B=2 2x – 1 2 4x2 – x + 3  + 2 = x +x+1 x–1 x3 – 1 22 Since the remainders when p(x) is divided by (x + 1) is 0. 6 = 6A ⇒ A = 1 Letting x = 0. (x + 1) is a factor of p(x). p(–2) = – 4. x2 + 5x + 10 x + 12 x3 + 6x2 + 15x + 10 x3 + x2 5x2 + 15x 5x2 + 5x 10x + 10 10x + 10 0 2  p(x) = (x + 1)(x + 5x + 10) x+7 x+7 = (x + 1)(x2 + 5x + 10) p(x) Bx + C A ≡ + 2 x + 5x + 10 x+1 x + 7 ≡ A(x2 + 5x + 10) + (Bx + C)(x + 1) Letting x = –1. 17) . the corresponding range for x  [–2. p(–2) = – 4 3 2 (–2) + m(–2) + 15(–2) + k = – 4 –8 + 4m – 30 + k = – 4 4m + k = 34 …k k – j: 3m = 18 ⇒ m = 6 From j: 6 + k = 16 ⇒ k = 10  p(x) = x3 + 6x2 + 15x + 10 Since the remainders when p(x) is divided by (x + 1) is 0. 8 = 16A + 2B + 2C 8 = 16(1) + 2B + 2(–3) p(x) = (x + 2)(x – 2)(6x2 – 7x – 3) = (x + 2)(x – 2)(2x – 3)(3x + 1) (b) p(x) = (x + 2)(x – 2)(2x – 3)(3x + 1) = (2x – 3)[(x + 2)(x – 2)(3x + 1)] = (2x – 3)[(x2 – 4)(3x + 1)] = (2x – 3)(3x3 + x2 – 12x – 4) = (2x – 3)(3x3 – 41 + 37 + x2 – 12x) q(x) q(x) = x2 – 12x + 37 = x2 – 12x + (–6)2 – (–6)2 + 37 = (x – 6)2 + 1 The minimum point is (6. 10] is [1. y = q(–2) = (–2)2 – 12(–2) + 37 = 65 When x = 10. y (–2.8 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition 6x2 – 7x – 3 x2 – 4 2 6x4 – 7x3 – 27x2 + 28x + 12 (–) 6x4 – 24x2 –7x3 – 3x2   + 28x + 12 (–) –7x3 + 28x –3x2 (–) –3x2 + 12 + 12 0 3=2–C C = –1 Letting x = –1. 65].

in order that x(x – 2)2  0. 24 3x – 5 x–3 x 3x – 5 –x+30 x 3x – 5 – x2 + 3x 0 x –x2 + 6x – 5 0 x x2 – 6x + 5 0 x (x – 1)(x – 5) 0 x The required set of values of x is {x | x < 0 or 1  x  5}.Fully Worked Solution 9  x+7 –x – 3 1 + = (x + 1)(x2 + 5x + 10) x + 1 x2 + 5x + 10 x+3 1 – = 2 x + 1 x + 5x + 10 2B = –2 B = –1 − − − − − + − + + + + + x−5ജ 0 x−1ജ 0 x > 0 x − 0 + 1 − 5 + 23 –16  x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16  0 When     –16  x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16. inequality. the required set of values of x is {x | 0  x  4}. we let f (x) = x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16. 25 x–3<4 x |x| <4 |x – 3| |x| < 4|x – 3| x2 < 16(x – 3)2 x2 < 16x2 – 96x + 144 0 < 15x2 – 96x + 144 0 < 5x2 – 32x + 48 0 < (x – 4)(5x – 12) − − + 12 5 + − 4 + + 5x − 12 ജ 0 x−4ജ 0 x + − Hence. We write ‘<’ and not ‘’ because x ≠ 0. x | x < 5 5 6 Alternative method x – 4 < <4 x–3 For the left-end For the right-end inequality. then x  0 … j When x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16  0. the required set of values of x is 12 or x > 4 . Bhd. x2 + 4 x – 42 x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16 x3 – 4x2 4x – 16 4x – 16 0 x3 – 4x2 + 4x – 16  0    (x – 4)(x2 + 4)  0 Since x2 + 4 > 0. in order that (x – 4)(x2 + 4)  0. (008974-T) 2013 . f (4) = 43 – 4(4)2 + 4(4) – 16 = 0 Thus. (x – 4) is a factor of f (x). then x – 4  0 ⇒ x  4 …k Combining j and k. x3 – 4x2 + 4x  0 x(x2 – 4x + 4)  0 x (x – 2)2  0 Since (x – 2)2  0. x x – 4 < <4 x–3 x–3 x x –4<0 4 0 x–3 + > x–3 x + 4(x – 3) x – 3 > 0 x – 4(x – 3) <0 x–3 –3x + 12 x–3 <0 3(–x + 4) x–3 <0 x + 4x – 12 > 0 x–3 5x – 12 0 x–3 > © Oxford Fajar Sdn.

then p(3) = 0 2(3)3 + h(3)2 + k(3) + 36 = 0 9h + 3k = –90 3h + k = –30 …j p(x) = (x + 2) f (x) – 30 means that the remainder when p(x) is divided by (x + 2) is –30. 1      x + 2 = x+1 x2 + 3x + 2 = 1 x2 + 3x + 1 = 0 –3 ± 32 – 4(1)(1)           x = 2(1) –3 ± 5          x = 2 The x-coordinate of point A is –3 + 5 .         x = 2 Based on the graphs. x | x < 5 12 5 3 4 y = −x − 1 1 −1 O −1 1 y=x−1 y= x +1 A 3 x 5 6 1 is 26 The graphs of y = |x + 2| and y = x+1 as shown below. p(–2) = –30 2(–2)3 + h(–2)2 + k(–2) + 36 = –30 4h – 2k = –50 2h – k = –25 …k y = x + 2 …j 1 …k y= x+1 Substituting j into k. Hence. x–1= x+1 (x – 1)2 = x + 1 x2 – 2x + 1 = x + 1 x2 – 3x = 0 x(x – 3) = 0 Thus. x+1 27 y The required set of values of x is 12 or x > 4 . Bhd. y y=x+2 y = −x − 2 A −2 −1 O 2 y= 1 x+1 x To determine the x-coordinate of point A. the solution set of x 1 is for which |x + 2| > x+1 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. The part of the x-axis where the graph of y = x + 1 is above the graph of y = |x| – 1 is –1  x  3. the required set of values of x is {x | –1  x  3}. solve         y = x – 1 …j         y = x + 1 …k Substituting j into k. 2 6 + − − + − x< 12 or x > 3 …j  x < 3 or x > 4 …k 5 Combining j and k: x < 3 or x > 4 x < 12 or x > 3 5 x This is the set of values of x where the graph of y = | x + 2| is above the graph of 1 y= .10 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition − − 12 5 − + 3 + + x−3Ͼ0 5x − 12 Ͼ 0 x + + − 3 + + 4 − + −x + 4 Ͼ 0 x−3Ͻ0 x x < –1 or x > 5 –3 + 5 . (008974-T) 2013 . 28 p(x) = 2x3 + hx2 + kx + 36 Since (x – 3) is a factor. the x-coordinate of point A is x = 3.

x 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 y= y = −x + 2 2         –5p     = – 45          p     = 9 From j: 9 – 2q = –23 ⇒ q = 16  p(x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 16x + 6 To determine the x-coordinates of the points of intersection of the graphs of 1 y = | x – 2| and y = . 2 1 . p(–3) = –15 2(–3)3 + p(–3)2 + q(–3) + 6 = –15 9p – 3q = 33 3p – q = 11 …k          p – 2q = –23 …j         –6p – 2q = 22 …k × 2 5 6 30 Sketch the graphs of y = | x – 2| and y = y 1 x y=x−2 P Q O y= 1 x 1 2 1+ 2 x 1 . then p(x) < 0 only if 1 2x + 1 < 0 ⇒ x < – . then 1 p –  = 0 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 –  + p –  + q –  + 6 = 0 2 2 2 1 1 1 –   +   p –   q + 6 = 0 4 4 2 – 1 + p – 2q + 24 = 0 p – 2q = –23 …j When p(x) is divided by (x + 3). 2x2 – 5x – 12 x – 32 2x3 – 11x2 + 3x + 36 2x3 – 6x2 –5x2 + 3x –5x2 + 15x –12x + 36 –12x + 36 0 Therefore. p(x) = 2x3 – 11x2 + 3x + 36. the remainder is –15. p(x) = (x – 3)(2x2 – 5x – 12) = (x – 3)(2x + 3)(x – 4) x2 + 4x + 6 2x + 12 2x3 + 9x2 + 16x + 6 2x3 + x2 8x2 + 16x 8x2 + 4x 12x + 6 12x + 6 0 Let q(x) = x2 + 4x + 6 4 2 4 2 – +6 = x2 + 4x + 2 2 [Shown] = (x + 2)2 + 2 [> 0] 12 12 p(x) = (2x + 1)(x2 + 4x + 6) Since x2 + 4x + 6 is positive for all real values of x. is 5x | – 2 29 p(x) = 2x3 + px2 + qx + 6 Since (2x + 1) is a factor of p(x). the solution set is x | x < – 2 −3 2 3 4 x The sets of values of x such that p(x)  0 3  x  3 or x  46. Hence. Case 1 (for point P) 1 y = …j x y = –x + 2 …k © Oxford Fajar Sdn. solve the following x simultaneous equations. Bhd.Fully Worked Solution 11 j + k: 5h = –55 ⇒ h = –11 From j: 3(–11) + k = –30 k=3 Therefore. (008974-T) 2013 .

x–1 y= 4 – . (008974-T) 2013 . {x | 0 < x < 1 or 1 < x < 3}. x–1 5  1 2 As y → ± `. x © Oxford Fajar Sdn. x = 3 The solution set for which 3 >3– *x 4 x – 1* 31 y =  4 x – 1) 4 . x This is the range of values of x where the graph of y = | x – 2| is below 1 the graph of y = . Bhd. that is. the solution set for the inequality | x – 2| < 1 is {x | 0 < x < 1 + 2 . y → 3. x = 0 (the y-axis) is the asymptote. x → 0. Thus. 4 y= …j x–1 3 y = 3 – …k x 4 3 =3– x x–1 4 3x – 3 = x x–1 (3x – 3)(x – 1) = 4x 3x2 – 6x + 3 – 4x = 0 3x2 – 10x + 3 = 0 (3x – 1)(x – 3) = 0 1 x = or 3 3 1 x = is not accepted. 3 Thus. y → 0. x ≠ 1}. [x=1+ 2 Hence. y y= 3 x 4 4 x−1 y=3− y=− 4 x−1 3 A y=3− 3 x O 1 3 x The x-coordinate of point A is obtained by solving the following equations simultaneously.12 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition Substituting j into k: 1 –x + 2 x = 1 = –x2 + 2x 2 x – 2x + 1 = 0 (x – 1)2 = 0 x=1 Case 2 (for point Q) 1 y = x … j y = x – 2 …l Substituting j into l: 1 x–2 x = 1 = x2 – 2x x2 – 2x – 1 = 0 – (–2) ± (–2)2 – 4(1)(–1) x= 2(1) 2± 8 2 ± 2  2 = 2 2 =1± 2 = x = 1 – 2 is not accepted because x must be positive. 3 y=3– x is given by the part of the graph where the 4 is above the curve curve y = * x – 1* 3 y = 3 – . As x → ± `. x > 1. x – 1 → 0 x→1 Thus. x = 1 is the asymptote. y = 3 is the asymptote. As x → ± `. Thus. x < 1. x As y → ± `.

by ln 1 x – 1 2 2 1 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. {y | y  –1. y y y = f (x) = ln (x + 1) x −1 O 33 y = e −x 2 1 y = 2e − x x y = −e −x − 1 −1 O −2 y = −e −x 34 (a) y y = |ln x | O 1 x (b) y = ln (−x) y f –1 exists because f is a one-to-one and an onto function. i. i. = 1 + 2e   x–1 =1+2 2 =x Since it is known that f f –1(x) = x.Fully Worked Solution 13 32 x 1 > x+1 x+1 − + − x−1у0 x 1 + + – >0 − x+1Ͼ0 x+1 x+1 x − −1 1 x–1 + + > 0 x+1 Hence.e. y P }. {x | x P }. (b)  Let y = f –1(x) f (y) = x ln (y + 1) = x y + 1 = ex y = ex – 1 –1 f  (x) = ex – 1  The domain of f –1 is the same as the range of f. the required set of values of x is {x | x < –1 or x > 1}.e. The range of g ° f –1 is { y | y > 0. {x | x P }. i. y P }.  The range of f –1 is the same as the domain of f. Bhd. (c) g ° f –1 = g[  f –1(x)] = g(ex – 1) = ex – 1 + 1 = e 2  The domain of g ° f –1 is the same as the domain of f –1. y y = e2 1 1 y = ln x x   x 1 −1 O 1 (c) y x −1 O x O x y = −ln (−x) 36 (a) f ° g = f [g(x)] x–1 = f ln 2 3 1 24 2 35 (a)  The graph of y = f (x) = ln (x + 1) is as shown below. (008974-T) 2013 .e.

When u = –3.e. 4 When y = 2. i. 7 –  7 When y = –  . (c) The graphs of y = f (x) and y = f –1(x) are as shown below. {x | x > 1. When h = – 1 2 40 1 2 2 logc x – 3 logx c = 5 logc c 2 logc x – 3 =5 logc x 1 2 2 logc x – 3 1 log x 2 = 5 c 1 38 8x + 6(8–x) = 5 6 8x + x = 5 8 Let logc x = u 1 2u – 3 =5 u 2u2 – 3 = 5u 2 2u – 5u – 3 = 0 (2u + 1)(u – 3) = 0 1 2 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. x = 2 4 = 0. i. y 8x = u 6 u+ =5 u u2 + 6 = 5u 2 u – 5u + 6 = 0 (u – 2)(u – 3) = 0 u = 2 or u=3 8x = 2 8x = 3 23x = 21 x lg 8 = lg 3 lg 3 3x = 1 x= lg 8 1 x = x = 0.528 3 y 3 −1 O 1 3 = x y = f (x) = 1 + 2e x x 39 log2 x – logx 8 + 2log2h + h logx 4 = 0 log2 4 log2 8 log2 x – + h + h log x = 0 log2 x 2 log2 22 log2 23 h h  y– =0 y y + +  1 2 1 2 y = f −1(x) = ln x − 1 2 ( ) y– 3 2 +h+h =0 y y y2 – 3 + hy + 2h = 0 1 2 y2 + hy + 2h – 3 = 0 [Shown] 37   x –  2 x 1 1 –  2 + 2x–1 = 15 –  2 + 2 1x 2 = 15 –  12 1 Let x 2=u u + 2u2 = 15 2 2u + u – 15 = 0 (2u – 5)(u + 3) = 0 5 u= or u = –3 2 5 When u = . x = 22 = 4.14 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition comparison f –1(x) = g(x) = ln  x–1 . x P }.e. {y | y   }. Bhd. y –  y + 2 –  – 3 = 0 4 4 4 4y 2 – y – 14 = 0 (4y + 7)(y – 2) = 0 y = – 7 or 2 4 Given y = log2 x.297. 2 1 1 –  –  5 x 2 = –3 x2= 2 [Not possible because 5 2 –1 1 x = –  2 x 2 > 0 for all real 1 25 values of x.] x = 4 4 x= 25 1 2 1 1 . The range of f –1 is the same as the domain of f. 2  Let (b)  The domain of f –1 is the same as the range of f. then x = 2y. (008974-T) 2013 .

p < x < 2p 0. -sin x. 0 < x < p –sin x – sin x. the graph of y = f (x) = |sin x| – sin x for 0 < x < 2p is as shown below. log2 a 2 2 = log2 a 1 loga 2 2 = loga 2 = loga 22 = loga 4 1 4a – 2 For 0 < a < . 0 < x < p –2 sin x. x = is not accepted 2 3 because when it is substituted into the given equation. y y = sin x 1 y = −sin x In the non-modulus form. ␲ р x р 2␲. p < x < 2p (b)  Hence. (008974-T) 2013 . 0 ജ x Ͻ ␲. y = |sin x| is f (x) = sin x. O ␲ 2 ␲ 3 ␲ 2 2␲ x The graph of y = sin x for 0 < x < 2p is as shown below.Fully Worked Solution 15 1 u=3 u = –     or 2 1 logc x = – logc x = 3 2 1 1 –  x = c3 x=c 2= c 41 loga loga loga x 1a 2 = 3 log 2 – log (x – 2a) x 1a 2 = log 2 – log (x – 2a) x 1a 2 + log (x – 2a) = log 8 x log 31 2(x – 2a)4 = log 8 a 2 a a 2 a 3 a 2 a a a 2 a = = 12a ± (12a – 12)2 18 12a ± (12a – 12) 18 24a – 12 12 or = 18 18 4a – 2 2 or = 3 3 x  (x – 2a) = 8 a2 x(x – 2a) = 8a2 2 x – 2ax – 8a2 = 0 (x + 2a)(x – 4a) = 0 x = –2a or 4a x = –2a (is not accepted) [ x = 4a 42 Simplify 2 first. y 1 loga (3x – 4a) + loga 3x = 2 log2 a + loga (1 – 2a) loga (3x – 4a) + loga 3x = loga 4 + loga (1 – 2a) loga 3x(3x – 4a) = loga 4(l – 2a) 3x(3x – 4a) = 4(1 – 2a) 2 9x – 12ax + 8a – 4 = 0 x= = –(–12a) ± (–12a)2 – 4(9)(8a – 4) 2(9) 12a ± 144a – 288a + 144 18 2 O ␲ 2 ␲ 3 ␲ 2 2␲ x –1 Hence. the function f (x) = |sin x| – sin x in the non-modulus form is: f (x) = f(x) = { { sin x – sin x. © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 2 [ x = 3 43 (a)  The graph of y = |sin x| is as shown below. it produces loga (–ve) which is undefined. Bhd.

y P }. Hence. there are two intersection points between the horizontal line and the graph of y = f (x) = |sin x| – sin x. f (x) is not a one-to-one function. y 2 Two intersection points = = RHS = (1 + cos q)(1 – cos q) sin q (1 – cos q) 1 + cos q sin q tan q + sin q sin q tan q sin q sin q cos q + sin q  = y = f(x ) O ␲ 2 ␲ 3 ␲ 2 2␲ x 1 cos q 2 sin q 44 (a) LHS = cos4 q + sin2 q 2 2 = 1cos q2 + sin2 q 2 2 = 11 – sin q2 + sin2 q 2 = 1 – 2 sin q + sin4 q + sin2 q = sin4 q + 1 – sin2 q = sin4 q + cos2 q = RHS [ cos4 q + sin2 q  sin4 q + cos2 q [Proven] (b) LHS = sin (q + a) + cos (q – a) = sin q cos a + cos q sin a + cos  q cos a + sin q sin a sin q + sin q cos q sin2 q sin q (1 + cos q) = sin2 q = = 1 + cos q sin q = LHS [ tan q + sin q sin q tan q [Proven]  sin q tan q tan q – sin q 46 LHS = tan (P + Q) – tan P sin (P + Q) sin P = cos (P Q) – cos P + = cos P sin (P + Q) – sin P cos (P + Q) = sin q cos a + cos q cos a + sin  q sin a + cos q sin a = cos a(sin q + cos q) + sin a(sin  q + cos q) = (sin q + cos q)(cos a + sin a) = RHS [ sin (q + a) + cos(q – a)  (sin q + cos q)(cos a + sin a) [Proven] cos P cos (P + Q) cos P (sin P cos Q + cos P sin Q) – sin P (cos P cos Q – sin P sin Q) = cos P cos (P + Q) cos P sin P cos Q + cos2 P sin Q – sin P cos P cos Q + sin2 P sin Q = cos P cos (P + Q) 2 cos P sin Q + sin2 P sin Q = cos P cos (P + Q) © Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd.16 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition y 2 y = f(x ) 45 LHS = sin q tan q tan q – sin q sin q  = x 1 cos q 2 sin q O sin q – sin q cos q ␲ 2 ␲ 3 ␲ 2 2␲ sin2 q = sin q – sin q cos q 1 – cos2 q = sin q (1 – cos q) The range of f (x) is { y | 0 < y < 2. (c)  By using the horizontal-line test. (008974-T) 2013 .

5° = cosec 2(22. (008974-T) 2013 . (a) tan A + tan B + tan C sin A sin B sin C + = + cos A cos B cos C sin A cos B cos C + sin B cos A cos C + sin C cos A cos B = cos A cos B cos C cos C (sin A cos B + sin B cos A) + sin C cos A cos B = cos A cos B cos C = cos C [sin (A + B)] + sin C cos A cos B cos A cos B cos C 3  1 1 1 2 A–C–B 2 A+B–C = 2 sin B 2 cos 2 A – (B + C) cos 2 180° – C – C = 2 sin B 2 cos 2 A – (180° – A) cos 2 180° – 2C = 2 sin B 2 cos 2 2A – 180° cos 2 = 4 sin B [cos (90° – C) cos (A – 90°)] = 4 sin B [sin C sin A] [Shown] = 4 sin A sin B sin C cos 1 1 1 1 24 3 3 2 24 2 24 3 1 2 24 © Oxford Fajar Sdn.Fully Worked Solution 17 sin Q (cos2 P + sin2 P) cos P cos (P + Q) sin Q ? (l) = cos P cos (P + Q) sin Q = cos P cos (P + Q) = RHS [ tan (P + Q) – tan P sin Q   cos P cos (P + Q) = 47 LHS = csc 2q – cot 2q 1 cos 2q – = sin 2q sin 2q 1 – cos 2q = sin 2q 1 – (1 – 2 sin2 q) = sin 2q 2 sin2 q = 2 sin q cos q sin q = cos q = tan q = RHS [ csc 2q – cot 2q  tan q = = = [Proven] cos C [sin (180° – C)] + sin C cos A cos B cos A cos B cos C cos C sin C + sin C cos A cos B cos A cos B cos C sin C (cos C + cos A cos B) cos A cos B cos C sin C {cos [180° – (A + B)] + cos A cos B} cos A cos B cos C sin C {– cos (A + B) + cos A cos B} cos A cos B cos C = = sin C (sin A sin B – cos A cos B + cos A cos B) = cos A cos B cos C sin A sin B sin C = cos A cos B cos C [Shown] = tan A tan B tan C (b) sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C = sin 2A + sin 2C + sin 2B 2A – 2C 2A + 2C cos = 2 sin + sin 2B 2 2 = 2 sin (A + C ) cos (A – C ) + sin 2B = 2 sin (180° – B) cos (A – C ) + sin 2B = 2 sin B cos (A – C) + sin 2B = 2 sin B cos (A – C ) + 2 sin B cos B = 2 sin B [cos (A – C ) + cos B] A–C+B = 2 sin B 2 cos 2 [Proven]  1 2  1 2 tan 22. then A + B + C = 180°. B and C are angles of a triangle.5°) – cot 2(22. Bhd.5°) 1 1 – = tan 45° sin 45° 1 1 – = 1 1 2 = 2 – 1[Shown] 48 Since A.

18 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition 49 (a) LHS = 2 sin A + p p cos A + 4 4 p = sin 2 A + 4 p = sin 2A + 2 p p = sin 2A cos 2 + cos 2A sin 2 = (sin 2A)(0) + (cos 2A)(1) = cos 2A = RHS p p cos A + cos 2A [ 2 sin A + 4 4 . p 6 6 6 6 1 5 13 17 x = p. 138. x = 0°. (008974-T) 2013 . 360° [ x = 0°.6°. 360° © Oxford Fajar Sdn. p. 1 4 When cos x = 0. 90°. Basic  =  6 1 5 13 17 4x = p. p. x = 90°. – .6°. 221.4°. 4 x = 138. p 24 24 24 24 50 cos 3x = cos2 x 4 cos x – 3 cos x = cos2 x 4 cos3 x – cos2 x – 3 cos x = 0 cos x (4 cos2 x – cos x – 3) = 0 cos x (4 cos x + 3)(cos x – 1) = 0 3 cos x = 0. 221. p. 270° 3 When cos x = – 3 .4° When cos x = 1. there are no real roots because b2 – 4ac = (–5)2 – 4(4)(2) = –7 (< 0) [ q = 270° 4 sin2 q – 5 sin q + 2 sin q + 1 2 4 sin3 q – sin2 q – 3 sin q + 2 4 sin3 q + 4 sin2 q –5 sin2 q – 3 sin q –5 sin2 q – 5 sin q 2 sin q + 2 2 sin q + 2 0 52 tan x + cot x = 8 cos 2x (3 sin q – 4 sin3 q) + sin2 q – 2 = 0  +  + p p (b) LHS = 2 cos B + cos B – 4 4 p p = cos B + 4 + B – 4 + p p cos B + – B – 4 4 p = cos 2B + cos 2 = cos 2B + 0 = cos 2B = RHS p p cos B – . Bhd. then p 0 < 4x < 4p. [Proven] 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 51 sin 3q + sin2 q = 2 sin 3q = 3 sin q – 4 sin3 q 4 sin3 q – sin2 q – 3 sin q + 2 = 0 (sin q + 1)(4 sin2 q – 5 sin q + 2) = 0 sin q + 1 = 0 or 4 sin2 q – 5 sin q + 2 = 0 When sin q + 1 = 0          sin q = –1             q = 270° For 4 sin2 q – 5 sin q + 2 = 0. 270°. p. cos 2B [ 2 cos B + 4 4 [Proven] 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 24  +  + sin x cos x 8 cos 2x cos x + sin x = sin2 x + cos2 x = 8 cos 2x sin x cos x 1 = 8 cos 2x sin x cos x 2 = 8 cos 2x 2 sin x cos x 2 = 8 cos 2x sin 2x 1 = 4 sin 2x cos 2x 1 = 2(2 sin 2x cos 2x) 1 = 2 sin 4x 1 sin 4x = 2 If 0 < x < p.

x = 0 or p When sin2 x = 2. 180° 1 1 2 5 [ x = 0. 3 5  A + cos  A 2 2 54 LHS = 3 A sin  A sin 2 + 2 3 1 5 1 2 cos 2  A + 2 A cos 2 2 = 1 3 1 1  A +  A cos 2 sin 2 2 2 2 cos 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 12  A – 2 A2 1  A –  A2 13 2 2 5 3 1 2 cos 2A cos  A 2 = 1 2 sin A cos  A 2 cos 2A = sin A cos2 A – sin2 A = sin A cos2 A sin2 A – = sin A sin A cos A cos A – sin A = sin A = cot A cos A – sin A = RHS 5 3 cos  A + cos  A 2 2 [ . p. 60°. cot A cos A – sin A 3 1 sin  A + sin  A [Proven] 2 2 56 sin x – sin 3x + sin 5x = 0 sin 5x + sin x – sin 3x = 0 5x + x 5x – x cos sin 3x = 0 2 sin 2 2 2 sin 3x cos 2x – sin 3x = 0 sin 3x (2 cos 2x – 1) = 0 1 sin 3x = or cos 2x = 2 When sin 3x = 0 3x = 0°. (008974-T) 2013 . p. p. p. 150° [ x = 0°. 120° 150°. 180°. 180° 1 When cos 2x = 2 2x = 60°. 120°. 30°. 360°. 300° x = 30°. sin x = ± 2 [sin x = ± 2 is not possible because it is out of the range of –1 < sin x < 1]. x = 0 or p. Hence. p 2 3 3 6 rad.Fully Worked Solution 19 53 sin3 x sec x = 2 tan x 1 sin2 x sin x  2 tan x cos x = sin2 x tan x = 2 tan x 2 sin x tan x – 2 tan x = 0 tan x (sin2 x – 2) = 0 tan x = 0 or sin2 x = 2 1 2 cos 2A – 2 cos 4A + cos 6A 55 LHS = cos 2A 2 cos 4A cos 6A + + cos 6A + cos 2A – 2 cos 4A = cos 6A cos 2A 2 cos 4A + + 6A + 2A 6A – 2A 2 cos cos 2 2 – 2 cos 4A = 6A – 2A 6A + 2A 2 cos cos 2 2 2 cos 4 A + 2 cos 4A cos 2A – 2 cos 4A = 2 cos 4A cos 2A 2 cos 4A + 2 cos 4A (cos 2A – 1) = 2 cos 4A (cos 2A + 1) cos 2A – 1 = cos 2A 1 + 1 – 2 sin2 A – 1 = 2 cos2 A – 1 1 + – 2 sin2 A = 2 cos2 A – sin2 A = cos2 A = – tan2 A = RHS cos 2A – 2 cos 4A + cos 6A [  – tan2 A cos 2A + 2 cos 4A + cos 6A [Proven] 1 2 1 2 When tan x = 0. 60°. Bhd. 540° x = 0°. x° = x × 180 p © Oxford Fajar Sdn.

(008974-T) 2013 . 165.56°) = 73 sin (q – 20.52° q = 35.1°] The maximum value of 8 sin q – 3 cos q is 73 . r cos a = 8 …j r sin a = 3 …k Squaring and adding j and k: r 2 (cos2 a + sin2 a) = 82 + 32 r 2(1) = 73 r = 73 3 k r sin a : r cos a = 8 j 3 tan a = 8 a = tan–1 182 3 = 20.48°.20 ACE AHEAD Mathematics (T) First Term Updated Edition 57 1+t 2 First quadrant. 168. tan 4 2 = p q= 4 Third quadrant.6°) [Correct to the nearest 0. 73 8 sin q – 3 cos q = 4 73 sin (q – 20. 5 or q = p 4 58 8 sin q – 3 cos q = r sin (q – a) = r (sin q cos a – cos q sin a) = r sin q cos a – r cos q sin a By comparison.56° = 14.1° [Correct to the nearest 0.56° [ 8 sin q – 3 cos q = 73 sin (q – 20.0°.1°] 1 2  + 2 csc q – cot q = sec q – tan q q p q – tan = tan 4 2 2 1 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 2t q p q q p q – or = p + – = 4 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 q 1 − t2 (a) LHS = csc q – cot q 1 + t2 1 – t2 – = 2t 2t 1 + t2 – 1 + t2 = 2t 2t2 = 2t =t q = tan 2 = RHS q [ csc q – cot q . tan 2 (b) LHS = sec q – tan q 1 + t2 2t = 1 – t2 – 1 – t2 1 t 2 – 2t = + 1 – t2 t 2 – 2t + 1 = 1 – t2 (t – 1)2 = (1 + t)(1 – t ) (1 – t)2 = (1 + t)(1 – t ) 1–t 1+t p q tan – tan 4 2 = p q 1 + tan tan 4 2 p q = tan 4 – 2 = RHS p–q [ sec q – tan q . Bhd. The minimum value of 8 sin q – 3 cos q is –  73 .56°) = 4 q – 20.56°) = 73 4 1 sin (q – 20.

9°) cos 2x = 2 cos2x – 1 2 cos2 x = 1 + cos 2x 12 2 2 cos2 x = 2 + 2 cos 2x 2 2 cos2 x  1 + 2 becomes 2 + 2 cos 2x  1 + 2 1 cos 2x  2 1 when cos 2x = 2 p p 2x = . 8 8 p 7p .87°.0° 60 y [ Solution set is {x | 0  x  1 y = cos 2x y= 1 2 π 8 π 4 π 2 3π 7π 4 8 π x O –1 © Oxford Fajar Sdn. 2p – 4 4 p 7p x= .87° = 36. x p} 8 8   4 sin q – 3 cos q = 3 5 sin (q – 36.87°) = 5 q – 36.87° 4 [ 4 sin q – 3 cos q = 5 sin (q – 36.87°) = 3 3 sin (q – 36.13° q = 73. 180.7°. r sin (q – a) r = 42 + (–3)2 = 5 3 a = tan–1 = 36.Fully Worked Solution 21 59 Let 4 sin q – 3 cos q . (008974-T) 2013 . 143. Bhd.