Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
Earthquake is defined as the shaking of Earth’s surface due to any reason which results in release of large amount of energy. The energy released during an earthquake is enormous. For example, the energy released during Bhuj earthquake was a out !"" times more than the energy released y the #$!% atom om dropped in &iroshima. 'ome ody said that (Earthquakes do not kill people ut it is the structures uilt y them that do so). The word Earthquake is self explaining * the Earth+quakes that mean the Earth shakes and we feel the ,i rations caused y these motions. Earthquakes are caused due to many reasons ut most commonly the term (Earthquake) is used when shaking of the earth’s surface is caused due to some distur ances occurring inside the earth. -i rations are produced when the earth is distur ed,. These ,i rations are set out in all directions from the place of their origin. .here,er these ,i rations tra,el, an earthquake is said to ha,e taken place. These ,i rations are most intense near their source. /s the distance increases these ecomes fee le and slowly die out. 0ore than #",""" earthquakes occur e,ery year. But most of them are not of great concern for 1i,il engineers, only a few of them, ha,ing high intensity, are a cause of major concern. 'ome earthquakes can e ,ery destructi,e and result in collapse of structures, thus resulting in hea,y loss of life and damage to the uildings. Thus it is necessary to study the earthquake in detail and take e,ery precautionary measure and protection, to minimi2e the loss of life and property. 'ince earthquakes are unpre,enta le and unpredicta le, so we should design the structures earthquake resistant which means that they should withstand earthquake forces without much damage thus loss of life and property is minimum. 'o the study of Earthquakes engineering is important for ci,il engineers to equip them with the asic knowledge of earthquake, its effect on structures and ,arious principles and techniques to followed while designing and constructing earthquake resistant structures.  STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH: The earthquake originates inside the earth therefore it is essential to study the structure of the interior of the earth. The interior of the earth is di,ided into the following 2ones+
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e

Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) #. 1rust 3. 0antle 4. 1ore

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1. Crust: The uppermost part is called crust. 5t is solid and extends up to 6"km inside the earth. 5t mainly consist of rocks like granite, asalt etc. 7ensity is 3.% to 4.". 2. Mantle: 5s di,ided into two parts+ outer and inner. The upper mental extends upto 66" km and inner mental upto 3$"" km. The density ,aries from 4.! to %.%.This part is in semisolid state and temperature inside the mantle is 4""""c. 3. Core: The innermost part of the earth is called as core. 5t is also di,ided in to two parts+8uter and 5nner. 5t is mantle liquid 2one. 5 9n the composition, it has :ickel and iron. The outer core extends upto %3"" km and inner core from %3""+64;" km. The density of core is ##." to #6." and temperature at inner core is 6""" "c. The oundary etween the crust and core is called as 08&8.

Fig.#.# 5nside the earth  CAUSES OF EARTHQUAKE: Earthquakes are preliminary caused due to two reasons< #. :atural distur ances
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) a= -olcanic causes = Tectonic causes 3. /rtificial distur ances

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1. Natural D stur!an"es: The natural distur ances which causes earthquakes are

following< a= #ol"an " "auses: -olcanic acti,ity keeps on taking place in se,eral parts of the world. -ery often, it produces sudden out urst or explosions. This impact is sometimes strong enough to produce ,i rations in the near y areas. >eople, li,ing in ?apan and 5taly, ha,e experience this type of earthquake frequently. These earthquake are not ,ery deep and of mild intensity. The damage caused due to this type of earthquake is confined within a few kilometers. /ll ,olcanic eruptions don’t produce earthquake.
= Te"ton " "auses: Tectonic causes are those which occur inside the earth. /n

earthquake is the ,iolent shaking of the Earth caused y a sudden mo,ement of rock eneath its surface. @ocks respond to stress Asquee2ed or pulled apart= near the EarthBs surface y reaking, and when rocks mo,e along either side of a fracture, it is called a fault. The land around a fault may shift hori2ontally, ,ertically, or a com ination of these motions The force that causes the stress within the rock is a result of mo,ement of giant sections of the EarthBs crust.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

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Fig.#.3 Types of faults

2. Art $ " al D stur!an"es: 'ometimes the surface of the earth ,i rates due to

manmade or artificial distur ance. These ,i rations are ,ery mild and affect the surrounding area only. The earthquakes of mild intensity are caused due to

these external man made agencies. 'ome of the artificial distur ances causing earthquakes are listed<      :uclear tests and explosions. 0ining lasts in the mining area. / massi,e landslide along hill slopes caused ecause of deforestation. Carge and deep exca,ations. -i ration induced due to hea,y machinery used in industries or mo,ement of hea,y ,ehicles. The ,i rations or shaking caused due to a o,e reasons is ,ery minor and limited to small areas only. /ll these causes occur o,er the earth’s surface so these are called as surface causes.

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1.2. EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON STRUCTURES
Earthquakes produce ,arious damaging effects to the areas they act upon. This includes damage to uildings and in worst cases the loss of human life. The effects of the rum ling produced y earthquakes usually lead to the destruction of structures such as uildings, ridges, and dams. They can also trigger landslides. /n example of how an earthquake can lead to e,en more destruction is the #$%$ earthquake near &e gen, 0ontana. 5t caused a land slide that killed se,eral people and locked the 0adison @i,er. 7ue to the fact that the 0adison @i,er was locked, a lake was created which later flooded the near y town of Ennis. Besides producing floods and destroying uildings, earthquakes that take place under the ocean can sometimes cause tsunamis, or tidal wa,es. Tsunamis are high and long walls of water which tra,el at a ,ery rapid rate. They are notorious for destroying entire populations and cities near coastlines. 5n #D$6 'anriku, ?apan, with a population of 3",""", suffered such a fate.

Fig.#.4 Effect 8f Earthquake  D re"t S%a& n' Ha(ar)s an) Hu*an+Ma)e Stru"tures 0ost earthquake+related deaths are caused y the collapse of structures and the construction practices play a tremendous role in the death toll of an earthquake. 5n
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southern 5taly in #$"$ more than #"",""" people perished in an earthquake that struck the region. /lmost half of the people li,ing in the region of 0essina were killed due to the easily collapsi le structures that dominated the ,illages of the region. / larger earthquake that struck 'an Francisco three years earlier had killed fewer people Aa out ;""= ecause uilding construction practices were different type Apredominantly wood=. 'ur,i,al rates in the 'an Francisco earthquake was a out $DE, that in the 0essina earthquake was etween 44E and !%E= Building practices can make all the difference in earthquakes, e,en a moderate rupture eneath a city with structures unprepared for shaking can produce tens of thousands of casualties. /lthough pro a ly the most important, direct shaking effects are not the only ha2ard associated with earthquakes, other effects such as landslides, liquefaction, and tsunamis ha,e also played important part in destruction produced y earthquakes.  Geologic Effects on Shaking .hen we discussed earthquake intensity we discussed some of the asic

factors that affect the amplitude and duration of shaking produced y an earthquake Aearthquake si2e, distance from fault, site and regional geology, etc.= and as you are aware, the shaking caused y seismic wa,es can cause damage uildings or cause uildings to collapse. The le,el of damage done to a structure depends on the amplitude and the duration of shaking. The amplitudes are largest close to large earthquakes and the duration generally increases with the si2e of the earthquake. @egional geology can affect the le,el and duration of shaking ut more important are local site conditions. /lthough the process can e complicated for strong shaking, generally shaking in soft sediments is larger and longer than when compared with the shaking experienced at a Fhard rockF site. Taller uildings also tend to shake longer than short uildings, which can make them relati,ely more suscepti le to damage. Fortunately many tall constructed to withstand strong winds and some precautions ha,e reduce their tendency to shake. /nd they can ,i rations.
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uildings are een taken to

e made resistant to earthquake

Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

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5n many regions of limited resources andGor old structures, the structures are not ,ery well suited to earthquake induced strains and collapse of ado e+style construction has caused thousands of deaths in the last decade. The worst possi le structure for earthquake regions is the unreinforced masonry .  ,an)sl )es Buildings arenBt the only thing to fail under the stresses of seismic wa,es. 8ften unsta le regions of hillsides or mountains fail. 5n addition to the o ,ious ha2ard posed y large landslides, e,en non lethal slides can cause pro lems when they lock highways they can e incon,enient or cause pro lems for emergency and rescue operations.

Fig. #.! Candslides 8ccasionally large landslides can e triggered y earthquakes. 5n #$;" an

earthquake off the coast of >eru produced a landslide than egan D" miles away from the earthquake. The slide was large Awitnesses estimated itBs height at a out 4" meters or #"" feet=, tra,eled at more than one+hundred miles per hour and plowed through part of one ,illage and annihilated another, killing more than #D,""" people. 5n some cases, when the surface is underlain y a saturated, sand rich layer of soil, prolonged shaking can cause the expulsion of fluid from the sand layer resulting in large Fsand lowsF that erupt through the o,erlying strata.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)  Tsuna* s

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/ sometimes dramatic y product of certain types of earthquakes are tsunamis. Tsunami is a ?apanese term that means Fhar or wa,eF. Tsunamis are frequently confused with tidal wa,es, ut they ha,e nothing to do with the tides, they are the result of a sudden ,ertical offset in the ocean floor caused y earthquakes, su marine landslides, and ,olcanic deformation. 5n #DD4 the ,olcanic eruption of Hrakatoa resulted in the collapse of a caldera that initiated a tsunami which killed 46,""" people on near y islands. 8n ?une 3%, #D$6 an earthquake off the ?apanese coast generated a tsunami that hit the shore with wa,e heights ranging from #" to #"" feet. /s the fishing fleets returned to shore following an o,ernight trip they found their ,illages destroyed and 33,""" people dead. 5n the last century more than %",""" people ha,e died as a result of tsunamis. The speed of this wa,e depends on the ocean depth and is typically a out as fast as a commercial passenger jet Aa out ".3 kmGs or ;#3 kmGhr=. This is relati,ely slow compared to seismic wa,es, so we are often alerted to the dangers of the tsunami y the shaking efore the wa,e arri,es. The trou le is that the time to react is not ,ery long in regions close to the earthquake that caused the tsunami. Tsunamis pose no threat in the deep ocean ecause they are only a meter or so high in deep water. But as the wa,e approaches the shore and the water shallows, all the energy that was distri uted throughout the ocean depth ecomes concentrated in the shallow water and the wa,e height increases. Typical heights for large tsunamis are on the order of #"s of meters and a few ha,e approached $" meters Aa out 4"" feet=. These wa,es are typically more de,astating to the coastal region than the shaking of the earthquake that caused the tsunami. E,en the more common tsunamis of a out #"+3" meters can Fwipe cleanF coastal communities. 7eadly tsunamis occur a out e,ery one to two years and they ha,e at times killed thousands of people. 5n #$$3+$4 three large tsunamis occurred< one in ?apan, 5ndonesia, and :icaragua. /ll struck at night and de,astated the local communities.
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)  F re

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The fourth main earthquake ha2ard is fire. These fires can e started y roken gas lines and power lines, or tipped o,er wood or coal sto,es. They can e a serious pro lem, especially if the water lines that feed the fire hydrants are roken, too. For example, after the Ireat 'an Francisco Earthquake in #$"6, the city urned for three days. 0ost of the city was destroyed and 3%",""" people were left homeless. 0ost of the ha2ards to people come from man+made structures themsel,es and the shaking they recei,e from the earthquake. The real dangers to people are le,ee, getting uried under a landslide, or eing urned in a fire. eing crushed in a collapsing uilding, drowning in a flood caused y a roken dam or

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

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1.3. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE -UI,DIN. STRUCTURE 0asonry uildings are the most common type of traditional construction used for housing purpose all around the world. These are mostly seen in rural, ur an and hilly regions. This type of construction has ,ery low seismic resistance. The recent earthquakes ha,e shown that the collapse of these constructions is the main cause of destruction. &ence, it is necessary to increase the seismic resistance of these constructions. 5n most cases, the resistance can e impro,ed y following simple, inexpensi,e principles of good uilding construction. But already constructed in use uildings are of concern. Thus, retrofitting of such must for ci,il engineer.  Sa$et/ !e$ore t%e Eart%0ua&e
• •

uilding is so essential for

impro,ing their seismic resistance. Therefore, study of all these features ecomes a

The uilding should e constructed y taking all earthquake safety measures. Building should not ha,e any crack either in foundation or in structure, if any then it should e repaired with the consultation of ci,il engineer.

Coose o jects placed at a height or hea,y o jects should e affixed to the adjoining walls so that these o jects may not harm the persons li,ing in the rooms.

• •

>lace hea,y o jects or articles on the lower shel,es or on floors. &ea,y hanging o jects such as head light should not sleeping area and li,ing area. e kept in edroom,

'tore all reaka le o jects, flamma le products and pesticides in low closed ca inets with proper locks.

0ake sure that all the family mem ers know how to respond after earthquake and they should ha,e emergency telephone num er of police and fire Fighting stations.

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/ll family mem ers should ha,e knowledge a out the location of electric main switch and they should know how to turn off the electric main switch and gas connection to a,oid any further damage at the time of earthquake. First aid kit, torch, flash light, some food and water, radio with attery should e set aside for the emergency and each family mem er should know a out the

storage so that these items would e helpful after the earthquake.

 Eart%0ua&e res stant "onstru"t on
/n earthquake resistant construction should ha,e following properties for etter seismic performance<  7uctility<  7eforma ility.  Iood structural 1onfiguration.  Cateral 'trength.  7amagea ility.  Du"t l t/: 7uctility is the property of a material which ena les it to undergo large elongation efore reaking. The materials generally used for construction are masonry concrete and steel. 0asonry and concrete are rittle while steel is ductile. / good earthquake resistance uilding should ha,e enough ductility. This can e done y addition of ductile material such as wood in earthen construction and steel ars in masonry and concrete construction.  De$or*a! l t/1 7eforma ility refers to the a ility of the structure to undergo large deformations without collapse. .hile ductility is the inherent property of material, deforma ility pertains to the structure. The deforma ility of a structure can e increased y making regular, well proportional structure which is tied properly. Iood deforma ility of a structure is also necessarily to make it earthquake resistant. For example+ E,en when ductile material in present in the uilding components, such as

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) and tied together properly.  .oo) Stru"tural Con$ 'urat on:

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eams and walls, the uilding may fail if the components are not well proportioned

The si2e, shape and structural system of uilding should e such that inertia forces are transferred to the ground safely. /n important property of god structural configuration is its integral action. 5ntegral action means the structure acts as one unit and is a le to resist the earthquake forces in a etter and safer way.  ,ateral Stren't%: The earthquake results in large inertia forces. Thus, a good earthquake resistant uilding should ha,e enough lateral strength, so that, it can resist the inertia forces without collapse.  Da*a'ea! l t/: 7amagea ility refers to the a ility of a structure to undergo su stantial damage without partial or total collapse. This will result in sufficient warning to the people efore collapse, thus resulting in less loss of li,es. Iood damagea ility can e achie,ed y pro,iding se,eral supports to important structural components and a,oiding central columns or walls supporting large portions of uilding.

 TRADITIONA,,2 -UI,T MASONR2 CONSTRUCTION
0asonry constructions ha,e low earthquake resistance. -arious types of damage commonly seen in masonry uildings and their causes, some of the factors responsi le for low seismic resistance of masonry uilding are as follows<   Cack of integral action. Cack of strong and ductile connections etween walls, walls, and roof, and walls and foundation.      Cess strength for out of plane forces. Cow tensile and shear strength of masonry. &igh in+plane stiffness of wall. Cow ductility and deforma ility. &ea,y mass of the structure.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) /ll these weakness can masonry uildings. e o,ercome

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y following simple principles and

methods gi,en in ,arious codes for the earthquake resistant design and construction of

 T/3es o$ "onstru"t on
Types of construction usually adopted in uildings are of two types< #= Framed 1onstruction 3= Box Type 1onstruction.

 Fra*e) Constru"t on
This type of construction is suita le for multistoried uildings and industrial uildings. This may consist of< • Cight framing mem ers which must ha,e diagonal racing such as wooden frames or walls for lateral load resistance. 'teel multistoried industrial frames and tim er construction are of this type. • The rigid or semi+rigid jointed frames. These frames are of reinforced concrete or steel. The walls are also rigid and may e of reinforced concrete or of reinforced rickwork. uildings or

 -o4 T/3e Constru"t on
This type of construction consists of masonry, concrete or reinforced concrete. The walls support ,ertical loads and also act as shear walls for hori2ontal loads. /ll traditional masonry construction falls under this type. This is also called as load earing wall construction.  5re3ar n' Stru"tures $or S%a& n' The first step in preparing structures for shaking is to understand how uildings respond to ground motions+ this is the field of study for earthquake and structural engineers. .hen the ground shakes, uildings respond to the accelerations transmitted from the ground through the structureBs foundation. The inertia of the uilding Ait wants to stay at rest= can cause shearing of the structure which can concentrate
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stresses on the weak walls or joints in the structure resulting in failure or perhaps total collapse. The type of shaking and the frequency of shaking depend on the structure. Tall uildings tend to amplify the motions of longer period motions when compared with small uildings. Each structure has a resonance frequency that is characteristic of the uilding. >redicting the precise eha,ior of uildings is complicated, a rule of thum is that the period of resonance is a out equal to ".# times the num er of stories in the structure. Thus 0acelwane &all resonates at a out ".4 seconds period, and Iriesedeck at a out #.! seconds.

Fig #.% 7ifferent 0odes 8f 'haking

 .eneral 3r n" 3les $or eart%0ua&e res stant !u l) n's
The earthquake resistant of  , '%tness The earthquake force depends on mass of the structure. &ea,ier structure means large inertia force and collapse of these structures results in hea,ier damage and loss of li,es. Thus, a uilding should e as light as possi le, especially the roof and upper storeys.  -u l) n' "on$ 'urat on The eha,ior of a uilding during earthquake depends on its shape, si2e and geometry. / good elow< • S/**etr/: The uilding as a whole or its ,arious locks should e kept uilding configuration can result in less damage during uilding configuration are explained earthquakes. The ,arious components of uildings can e impro,ed y following simple principles are gi,en in the code and are explained elow<

symmetrical a out oth the axes. The asymmetrical uildings are su jected to
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twist or torsion during earthquakes. This twist makes different portions at the same floor le,el to mo,e hori2ontally y different amounts. This causes more damage. This damage can e minimi2ed y planning symmetrical uildings as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. #.; 'ymmetrical desira le plans. • S *3l " t/ an) re'ular t/: The uildings ha,e a simple rectangular plan. 5t is seen that simple shapes eha,e etter during earthquake than complex shapes like C, T, E, &, J and T etc. shown in Fig. 4. 5t seen that during earthquakes the uildings with re+entrant corners ha,e suffered great damage. These types of uildings can e roken into rectangular locks which are separated properly. Thus, separation of a large uilding into smaller locks can lead to symmetry and regularity as shown in Fig. !.

Fig. #.6 Cong or unsymmetrical undesira le plans. For pre,enting pounding or hammering etween locks, a separation of 4 to ! cm through the height a o,e plinth le,el is required. This separation section is just like an expansion joint or it may e filled with a weak material which can easily crush during earthquake shaking. • S *3le !u l) n' 6 t%out *u"% 3ro7e"t ons an) Sus3en)e) 5arts !e%a8e 6ell )ur n' eart%0ua&e: Cong cornices, ,ertical or hori2ontal projections, facia stones etc. should e a,oided and are dangerous during earthquakes. 5f these parts cannot
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) e a,oided, they should possi le. •

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e reinforced properly and tied firmly to the main

structure. 1eiling plaster should not e done and if done, it should e as thin as S (e o$ t%e !u l) n': 5n tall uildings, the hori2ontal mo,ements a o,e the floor during ground shaking are large. 5n short, ut ,ery long uildings the damaging effect of earthquake are more. Buildings one of their dimensions much larger or smaller than the other two does not perform well during earthquakes. Thus the uildings length should not e more than three time its width. 5f longer length are needed, two separate locks with separation should e pro,ided.

Fig.#.D Jse of separation section for impro,ing plans. • En"lose) Area: / small uilding with properly interconnected walls acts like a rigid ox and more earthquakes resistant. Therefore it is ad,isa le to ha,e separate small rooms than one long room.  Stren't% n 8ar ous D re"t ons The structure should ha,e adequate strength along oth the axes. The design should also e safe and take into account the re,ersi le nature of earthquake motion.  Sta! l t/ o$ slo3es &ill side slopes are lia le to slide during an earthquake. &ence uildings should not e constructed on them only sta le slopes should e chosen. 'imilarly uildings with unequal mem ers will also twist underground mo,ement and may result in damage and collapse.  Foun)at on The uilding should not e constructed on loose soils. These soils will compact and su sidies and result in unequal settlement of uilding and damage it. /lthough such soil can e compacted properly for small uildings. But for large
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) taken to firm stratum can e used.  Du"t l t/

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uildings this operation is costly. For large uildings, rigid raft foundation or piles

7uctility is the most desira le property for good earthquake performance. The rittle masonry can e strengthened y pro,iding steel reinforcing ars at critical sections which will also impro,e ductility of the structure.  F re res stan"e 5t is ,ery common to see fire after earthquake. 5t may e ecause of electrical short circuits, leaking of gas pipesGcylinders kerosene lamps and kitchen fires. The fire ha2ard is sometimes more serious than the earthquake damage. &ence, the uildings should e made fire resistant according to 5ndian 'tandards.

 S3e" al Constru"t on Features
 Roo$ an) $loors Flat roof or floor should not e made of tiles or ricks supported on steel, tim er or reinforced concrete joist. There ricks or tiles can e loosened and may fall during earthquake. For pitched roofs, corrugated iron or as estos sheets should e used in place of tiles or other loose roofing units. /ll roofing material should e tied properly to the supporting mem ers. &ea,y roofing material should e a,oided.  Sta r "ases • • Carge stair hall should e separated from the rest of the uilding. The interconnection of the stair with the adjacent floors should e pro,ided y sliding joints at the stairs to pre,ent the racing effect on the floors.  Se3arat on o$ a)7o n stru"tures 'eparation of adjoining structure is required for pre,enting pounding or hammering. 0inimum gap width for adjoining structures is gi,en in ta le< Ta le #.#'howing Iap .idth for /djoining 'tructures Sr. No. .a3 6 )t%9Store/ n ** $or T/3e o$ "onstru"t on Des 'n Se s* " "oe$$ " ent : ;.12

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) # 3 4 Box, system or frames with shear walls 0oment resistant reinforced concrete frame 0oment resistant steel frame

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#%." 3"." 4"."

1.<. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT FEATURE OF MASONR2
-arious code pro,isions of 5'< !436< #$$4 regarding material selection, design and construction of earthquake resistant uildings are as follows<  Masonr/ un t  For earthquake resistant uildings, well urnt ricks and solid concrete locks ha,ing crushing strength not less than 4.% 0>a should e used. The higher strength units may e used for taller uildings. The strength of masonry units required depends on the num er of storeys and thickness of walls.  'quared stone masonry, stone lock masonry as per 5'< #%$;< #$$3 may also e used.  *ortars  'ince tensile and shear strength are important for earthquake resistance, use of mud or ,ery weak mortar is not suita le. / mortar mix of cement< 'and A#< 6= y ,olume at least should e used.  .here steel reinforcing ars are pro,ided in masonry, the ars shall ha,e proper co,er in cement< sand mortar Anot less than #<4= and the minimum clear co,er is #" mm. in cement concrete of grade 0#%, minimum clear co,er is #% mm or ar diameter whiche,er is more.  =alls  O3en n's n 6alls

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) small in si2e and centrally located.

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 /s openings in the walls reduce their lateral load resistance so they should e  8penings in any storey should ha,e their top at the same le,el so that continuous and could e pro,ided o,er them.5f openings are not pro,ided according to standard, they should e strengthened y reinforced concrete lining with high strength deformed ars of D mm diameter.  5f window or ,entilator is to e projected out, the projection should e in reinforced masonry or concrete and tied together properly.  Jse of arches o,er the openings should e a,oided. 5f arches are pro,ided then steel ties should e pro,ided.

Fig.#.$ 'trengthening 0asonry /round 8penings.

 Se s* " stren't%en n' arran'e*ents
/ll masonry uildings should e strengthened in hori2ontal as well as ,ertical direction for impro,ing the earthquake resistance. The strengthening arrangements are ,ery important and explained elow< #= &ori2ontal reinforcement. 3= -ertical reinforcement.  Hor (ontal Re n$or"e*ent The hori2ontal reinforcing of walls is required for imparting them hori2ontal ending strength against inertia force. 5t also helps in tying the walls together. 5n
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

the exterior walls hori2ontal reinforcement helps in pre,enting shrinkage and temperature cracks. The following arrangements of hori2ontal reinforcement are necessary for earthquake resistant uildings. a= Hor (ontal -an)s or R n' -ea*s. The most important seismic. 'trengthening arrangement for uildings is through reinforced concrete ands. / and is ands are reinforced concrete or reinforced rick runner pro,ided in the walls to tie them together and to impart hori2ontal ca,es le,el and also top of ga les. = Do6el !ars. 7owels are pro,ided in category 7 K E of uildings. 'teel dowel ars are pro,ided at corners and T junctions of walls at the sill le,el of windows to a length of $"" mm. These ars must laid in #< 4 cement sand mortar with a minimum co,er of #" mm ending strength to them.These pro,ided continuous through the entire load earing walls at plinth, lintel, roof

Fig.#.#" 7owel Bar  #ert "al Re n$or"e*ent -ertical reinforcement is also pro,ided in walls to impro,e the seismic resistance of uildings. -arious points to e considered for ,ertical reinforcement are follows< #= -ertical steel at corners and junctions of walls which are up to 4!" mm A# L rick= thick shall e pro,ided. 3= For walls thicker than 4!" mm area of ars can e increased proportionately. The amount of ,ertical steel depends upon num er of storeys and category of uilding. :o ,ertical steel is pro,ided in category a uilding. 4= The ,ertical reinforcement should e properly em edded in the plinth masonry and roof sla or roof and.
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) ands in all storeys.

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!= The ,ertical reinforcement should e pass through the lintel ands and floor le,el %= -ertical reinforcement for window and door openings should start from foundation of floor and upto lintel and.  Eart%0ua&e Res stan"e Features o$ Stone Masonr/. Cow strength stone masonry uildings are weak against earthquakes and should e a,oided in high seismic 2one. The ,arious features for impro,ing the earthquake resistance of stone masonry uildings are explained elow<  .eneral "onstru"t on as3e"ts • • • • The wall thickness should not exceed !%" mm, prefera ly 4%" mm. The height of storey should not e greater than 4." m. 5n general, the stone masonry uildings should not e taller than 3 storeys when uilt in cement mortar and # storey when uilt in lime or mud mortar. The unsupported length of wall etween cross walls should e limited to % m. For longer walls, cross supports, called uttresses should e at spacing not more than ! m.  Mortar • • 1lay mud mortar should e a,oided. 1ement+sand mortar #< 6 Aor richer= and lime sand mortar #< 4 Aor richer= should e used for uilding construction.  =all Constru"t on • • The masonry walls should e uilt in lifts not more than 6"" mm. T%rou'% Stones: 5nner and outer faces of the wall should e onded with (through stones) Ao,er full thickness of wall=. Through stones should e used in e,ery 6"" mm lift at not more than #.3 m apart hori2ontally. • • 5f full length (through stones) is not a,aila le then and stones in pairs, Aeach a out M of wall thickness= should e pro,ided. 5n place of (through stones) steel ars of D to #" mm diameter in ' shape or a hook may e used with a co,er of 3% mm from each face.
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) • • wood used should e well preser,ed.

ME – (Construction

.ooden ars of 4D mm x 4D mm may e used in place of through stones. The

Jse of long stones should also e made at corners and junctions of wall to reak the ,ertical joint and for onding perpendicular walls.

 O3en n' n 6alls These are same as in case of masonry uildings.  STREN.THENIN. EARTHQUAKES  -u l) n's 6 t% Floors Rest n' on Fra* n' Floors simply resting on framing resulting in complete structural failure during an earthquake. This is ,ery common, e,en when a proper concrete frame has een used. The floor may e tim er joists resting on the walls or cross eamsN or resting in joist hangars which ha,e a nail or equi,alent holding them in place. E,en in reasona le quality flooring, precast concrete planks may e resting on earing surfaces on walls or eams. 8r 'teel joists may e simply hooked onto supports on walls or framing with nominal pins. The result is o ,ious< any slight shaking and the floor falls down. Further, any floor elow would not e a le to resist the weight of a falling floorN and ,ery often the floors gi,e sta ility to the framing. ?ust look at a ,ideo of the .orld Trade Towers to see how well this works out. The solution to some of these pro lems is to tie adjacent floors together ,ery firmly so that they cannot separate either side of the supports. 5n a proper frame, these joists are olted with full moment resisting connections through the main supporting eamsN it is not possi le to do this in retrospect, ut joining adjacent joists o,er the supports with sturdy olted steel plates will help< as will reaking out the holes in precast hollow+core concrete plans for a distance of say !""mm either side of the support, and well grouting in deformed re+ ars across the gap. .here the joists are supported on outside eams, then similar measure must e adopted to make it impossi le for them to fall off. OF E>ISTIN. -UI,DIN. TO RESIST

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

5n almost all uildings, e,en those designed for earthquake resistance, the shear within the column to eam connections is greater than the shear resistance. This can lead to catastrophic failure.  E4"ess 8e -u l) n' =e '%t? Co*3ro* s n' Stru"tural Stren't% /dditional weight added to uildings leading to structural weakness and ele,ated suscepti ility to earthquake damage or collapse. This is ,ery common, particularly in poor areas of poor countries in earthquake 2ones. >eru and &aiti spring to mind. / uilding may ha,e een perfectly well uilt for one or perhaps 3 floors. 5ncreases in family si2e with no increase in family udget leads to another floor eing jerry uilt on top, usually as descri ed in paragraph # or 3. / new roof is put on, usually as descri ed in paragraph 4. Further increases of more floors can follow. 5f the uilding does not fail under the continued upwards expansion, it will certainly fail under a slight tremorN e,en taking down the perhaps well uilt original uilding elow. The est solution here is to enforce remo,al of stories which make the uilding dangerous, though the strengthening of paragraph # and 4, at e,ery floor, might help. 5n addition, many such uildings ha,e alconies, or ha,e had alconies olted onN and then the alconies ha,e een ricked in to create further rooms. But the extra weight is in the wrong place. The higher weight is in the uilding, the more it shakes the uilding a out in an earthquake. 7iscipline is needed to remo,e additional weight. 5f there are lock work and concrete roofs, they should e replace with lightweight steel and insulation and sheeting, which may weigh ten times less.  - ' A3ertures Re)u" n' -u l) n' Stren't% Big apertures at the lowest floor le,el compromising the structural integrity of the uilding particularly during an earthquake. -ery often, the ground floor le,el has ig apertures in the walls< garage doors, showroom windows, ig entrances, internal walls cut away to make impressi,e lo ies. 8ften the wall panels that are remo,ed constitute the earthquake sway racing of the uilding. 8ften, incon,enient cross racing in the new cut apertures is simply cut off, or sometimes replaced with ineffecti,e racing systems. 8ften, the ground floor is the highest floor in the whole uilding, ut the columns are a similar construction in e,ery floor. 8ften the columns
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management) likely to resistance,

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or walls go down to Bpinned asesB. /nd any failure of the ground to first floor is e disastrous, and is certainly the worst place to suffer a failureN and uildings need to e inspected to ensure that such weaknesses are e,erything is conspiring to make this floor also the weakest. To implement earthquake reinforced, with the re+introduction of racing. This may est e a four sided square frame of steel or properly reinforced concrete, with fully rigid joints at each corner, ,ertically in the aperture to gi,e ack sway resistance on e,ery wall face with large holes. 5n all pro a ility the columns from ground floor to first floor also need reinforcing, y clamping steel sections on to them, or strapping round anti ursting concrete around them.  Co*3ro* se) -u l) n' Foun)at ons The foundations of earthquake resistant uildings require special considerations to allow for ground mo,ement. Frequently the foundations of traditional uildings are often designed as BpinnedB, ut, ecause the ottom of e,ery wall or column ears down onto the foundations, the ases do pro,ide a it of fixity in the static condition. This gi,es some additional strength to the walls or columns, in the static condition. But in earthquake conditions, the ground is not static< it mo,es up and down, side to side, and can change slope. 5f you can imagine a ase of a wall or column rotating out of the hori2ontal, you can see it putting a end into the wall or column. This means that the apparent fixity at the ase is now not gi,ing extra strength ut, on the contrary, is contri uting to early failure. /lso, in earthquakes, the ground can crack and expand or ruck up within the dimensions of a uilding, and this would put enormous forces into the structure. For this reason, foundations of uildings in earthquake areas should always ha,e a grillage of reinforced concrete or steel, going oth ways under all load supporting mem ers. 'uch foundations should ha,e full strength connections to the columns, and should e strong enough to gi,e positional and rotational restraint to all the columns. 5t is not possi le to make proposed in this list will help any uilding, and its occupants, sur,i,e. uildings Bearthquake proofB, to the extent that they will resist any earthquakeN ut the remedies

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

 Re n$or"e*ent $or 6ea& stru"tures to res st eart%0ua&es 5t is not possi le to make e,ery uilding resist e,ery earthquakeN ut it is quick and easy and economical to make any square or rectangular room much more resistant. 'pecial 0oment resisting frames offer the est protection. @E57 steel moment resisting reinforcement is a solution. For # room, the kit consists of ! lower corners joined y four floor eams, ! corner posts, ! upper corner pieces and ! ceiling eams. The pieces are assem led and joined with light welds or olts to keep them in position. 5n the e,ent of an earthquake, the rectangular ox of framing will gi,e side+ sway resistance in all directions. 5n larger rooms further T+shaped jointing pieces may e needed  -u l) n's 6 t% no Stru"tural Fra* n' Earthquake damage caused y the uilding ha,ing no structural framing where the upper floors and roof are simply uilt on to masonry walls. This is difficult, ecause some sort of framing is ,italN once these walls shake a it, the entire strength is lost and the uilding will collapse or pancake during an earthquake. The solution here can only e to strengthen each room with a #3+mem er cu ic frame Aon ! sides round the floor, up the ! corners of the walls, and around the ! sides of the roof=. 'uch frames would ha,e to ha,e su stantial moment resistance all three ways in all D corners. /nd e,ery room would need the treatment, especially on the lower floors. The frames should e tied in to walls, ceilings or roofs, floors as well as possi le, with through olts, or chemical anchors etc. 'uch frames should e in steel or in properly designed reinforced concrete. 5t would perhaps e cheaper to demolish and re uild properly.  -u l) n's %a8 n' Sus3e"t Stru"tural Fra* n' The uildings ha,e structural framing which is suspect, leading to poor earthquake resistance. Oou only ha,e to look at pictures from any earthquake to see concrete framing which has failed< not enough steel main reinforcement, leading to ending failure< not enough stirrups, leading to ursting failure, not enough cement in the
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

concrete, leading to crum ling under loadN and of course under+si2ed mem ers. 5t is common for people to uild hollow lock walls, and lea,e some ,ertical gaps filled with a it of concrete with a few re arsN and at e,ery floor, a course of locks is left out and a similar si2ed concrete eam replaces it. Jnless a structural engineer is quite certain that the concrete and re ars are sufficiently si2ed and well enough uilt, especially at the joints.

1.@. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESI.N TECHNIQUES
 Intro)u"t on The con,entional approach to earthquake resistant design of uildings depends upon pro,iding the uilding with strength, stiffness and inelastic deformation capacity which are great enough to withstand a gi,en le,el of earthquake*generated force. This is generally accomplished through the selection of an appropriate structural conFiguration and the careful detailing of structural mem ers, such as eams and columns, and the connections etween them.

Fig.#.## Base 5solation

5n contrast, we can say that the asic approach underlying more ad,anced techniques for earthquake resistance is not to strengthen the uilding, ut to reduce the earthquake*generated forces acting upon it. /mong the most important ad,anced techniques of earthquake resistant design and construction are ase isolation and energy dissipation de,ices.  -ase Isolat on
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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

5t is easiest to see this principle at work y referring directly to the most widely used of these ad,anced techniques, which is known as ase isolation. / ase isolated structure is supported y a series of earing pads which are placed etween the ru uilding and the er uildingBs foundation. / ,ariety of different types of ase isolation earing pads ha,e now een de,eloped. For our example, weBll discuss lead* earings. These are among the frequently*used types of er earing is made from layers of ru ase isolation earings. / lead*ru er sandwiched together

with layers of steel. 5n the middle of the earing is a solid lead Fplug.F 8n top and ottom, the earing is fitted with steel plates which are used to attach the earing to the uilding and foundation. The earing is ,ery stiff and strong in the ,ertical direction, ut flexi le in the hori2ontal direction.  Eart% .enerate) $or"es To get a asic idea of how ase isolation works, first examine Fig. This shows an earthquake acting on oth a ase isolated uilding and a con,entional, fixed* ase, and uilding. /s a result of an earthquake, the ground eneath each uilding egins to mo,e. Each uilding responds with mo,ement which tends toward the right. .e say that the uilding undergoes displacement towards the right. The uildingBs displacement in the direction opposite the ground motion is actually due to inertia. The inertial forces acting on a earthquake. 5t is important to know that the inertial forces which the uilding undergoes are proportional to the uildingBs acceleration during ground motion. 5t is also important to reali2e that uildings donBt actually shift in only one direction. Because of the complex nature of earthquake ground motion, the uilding actually tends to ,i rate ack and forth in ,arying directions. uilding are the most important of all those generated during an

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

Fig. #.#3 0o,ement 7ue To Earth Ienerated Forces 5n addition to displacing toward the right, the un*isolated uilding is also shown to e changing its shape* from a rectangle to a parallelogram. .e say that the uilding is deforming. The primary cause of earthquake damage to uildings is the deformation which the uilding undergoes as a result of the inertial forces acting upon it. The different types of damage which uildings can suffer are quite ,aried and depend upon a large num er of complicated factors. But to take one simple example, one can easily imagine what happens to two pieces of wood joined at a right angle y a few nails, when the ,ery hea,y uilding containing them suddenly starts to mo,e ,ery quickly P the nails pull out and the connection fails.  Res3onse o$ -ase Isolate) -u l) n' By contrast, e,en though it too is displacing, the ase*isolated uilding retains its original, rectangular shape. 5t is the lead*ru er earings supporting the uilding that are deformed. The ase*isolated uilding itself escapes the deformation and damage Pwhich implies that the inertial forces acting on the ase*isolated uilding ha,e een reduced. Experiments and o ser,ations of ase*isolated uildings in earthquakes ha,e een shown to reduce uilding accelerations to as little as #G! of the acceleration of compara le fixed* ase uildings, which each uilding undergoes as a percentage of gra,ity. /s we noted a o,e, inertial forces increase, and decrease, proportionally as acceleration increases or decreases.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)

ME – (Construction

/cceleration is decreased ecause the ase isolation system lengthens a uildingBs period of ,i ration, the time it takes for the uilding to rock ack and forth and then ack again. /nd in general, structures with longer periods of ,i ration tend to reduce acceleration, while those with shorter periods tend to increase or amplify acceleration. Finally, since they are highly elastic, the ru experiences the same deformation as the ru does so.  S3%er "al Sl ) n' Isolat on S/ste*s /s we said earlier, lead*ru er earings are just one of a num er of different er isolation earings donBt suffer any

damage. But what a out that lead plug in the middle of our example earingQ 5t er. &owe,er, it also generates heat as it

types of ase isolation earings which ha,e now een de,eloped. 'pherical 'liding 5solation 'ystems are another type of ase isolation. The uilding is supported y earing pads that ha,e a cur,ed surface and low friction.

Fig. #.#4 'pherical 'liding 5solation 'ystem 7uring an earthquake, the uilding is free to slide on the earings. 'ince the earings ha,e a cur,ed surface, the uilding slides oth hori2ontally and ,ertically. The force needed to mo,e the uilding upwards limits the hori2ontal or lateral forces which would otherwise cause uilding deformations. /lso, y adjusting the radius of the earingBs cur,ed surface, this property can e used to design earings that also lengthen the uildingBs period of ,i ration.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)  Ener'/ D ss 3at on De8 "es

ME – (Construction

The second of the major new techniques for impro,ing the earthquake resistance of uildings also relies upon damping and energy dissipation, ut it greatly extends the damping and energy dissipation pro,ided y lead*ru er earings.

The uilding will dissipate energy either y undergoing large scale mo,ement or sustaining increased internal strains in elements such as the uildingBs columns and eams. Both of these e,entually result in ,arying degrees of damage. 'o, y equipping a uilding with additional de,ices which ha,e high damping capacity, we can greatly decrease the seismic energy entering the uilding, and thus decrease uilding damage. /ccordingly, a wide range of energy dissipation de,ices ha,e een de,eloped and are now eing installed in real uildings. Energy dissipation de,ices are also often called damping de,ices. The large num er of damping de,ices that ha,e de,eloped can e grouped into three road categories<
• •

een

Friction 7ampers* these utili2e frictional forces to dissipate energy 0etallic 7ampers* utili2e the deformation of metal elements within the damper

• •

-isco elastic 7ampers* utili2e the controlled shearing of solids -iscous 7ampers* utili2ed the forced mo,ement Aorificing= of fluids within the damper

 Flu ) # s"ous Da*3ers 8nce again, to try to illustrate some of the general principles of damping de,ices, weBll look more closely at one particular type of damping de,ice, the Fluid -iscous 7amper, which is one ,ariety of ,iscous damper that has een widely utili2ed and has pro,en to e ,ery effecti,e in a wide range of applications.

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Earthquake Resisting Building Construction Technology & Management)  Da*3 n' De8 "es an) -ra" n' S/ste*s

ME – (Construction

7amping de,ices are usually installed as part of racing systems. Figure % shows one type of damper* race arrangement, with one end attached to a column and one end attached to a floor eam. >rimarily, this arrangement pro,ides the column with additional support.

Fig.#.#! 7amping 7e,ices 0ost earthquake ground motion is in a hori2ontal directionN so, it is a uildingBs columns which normally undergo the most displacement relati,e to the motion of the ground. Figure #.#! also shows the damping de,ice installed as part of the racing system and gi,es some idea of its action.

S.S. .B.C.!.E. & T." B#$S%&%'. (age +)