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13 International Conference on AEROSPACE SCIENCES & AVIATION TECHNOLOGY, ASAT- 13, May 26 – 28, 2009, E-Mail: asat@mtc.edu.eg Military Technical College, Kobry Elkobbah, Cairo, Egypt Tel : +(202) 24025292 – 24036138, Fax: +(202) 22621908

th

**Computational Investigation of Base Drag Reduction for a Projectile at Different Flight Regimes
**

M. A. Suliman*, O. K. Mahmoud**, M. A. Al-Sanabawy**, O. E. Abdel-Hamid** Abstract: A computational investigation for the 155mm artillery shell was conducted for the purpose of reducing the base drag. Three case studies were conducted to investigate the properties of the flow field around the shell for the flight at different Mach numbers at zero angle of attack. The three cases were: a shell with boattail, a shell with base cavity and a shell with base bleed. Also, combinations of these three cases were investigated. The higher drag reduction was demonstrated when using a combination of the three effects. For this latter case it was possible to realize a drag coefficient reduction of ~60% at subsonic regime and ~20 30% .at transonic and supersonic regimes. Based on the present methodology, a design optimization for minimum drag can be applied on similar flying bodies. Keywords: Aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, base drag, projectile, boattail, base cavity, base bleed.

Introduction:

One of the most important aerodynamic performance characteristics for the projectile’s shell is the total drag. The total drag for projectiles can be divided into three components: (i) pressure drag (excluding the base), (ii) viscous (skin friction) drag, and (iii) base drag [1]. The base drag is a major contributor to the total drag, particularly at transonic speeds. Thus, the determination and minimization of base drag is essential in minimizing the total drag of projectiles. The breakdown of the total drag into various components is important in the preliminary design stage of a shell. This Information can aid the designer to find potential areas for drag reduction and achieve a desired increase in range and/or terminal velocity of projectiles since they are affected by the projectile drag. Within the field of artillery techniques there has been a continual striving to increase the range and precision of field guns. Increased range is achieved either by gun improvements, which even include modifications to propellant charges such that redesign of gun parts is required due to for example increased gas pressure in the barrel, or by improvements in the projectile performance. Improved projectile performance can be achieved in several different ways which to a certain extent can be combined in one and the same projectile. Base drag contributes generally to a relatively large part of the total drag and depends upon the fact that the base pressure due to the resulting wake flow in the base region is lower than the ambient air pressure.

*

**

Ph. D Student, Kararry University, Khartoum, Sudan, mutwkil@hotmail.com Egyptian Armed Forces, MTC. 1/13

Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 For axisymmetric aerodynamic bodies in supersonic flight. for example. 2. computational fluid dynamics simulation. Examples of these tools include. CFD++. The 155mm artillery shell is widely used in army applications. just ahead of the base. It is available in many different configurations. missiles. for example. (v) afterbody shape (boattail or flare angle. can be a sizeable fraction of total drag in the context of projectiles. or projectiles. Fluent. (ii) boundary layer momentum thickness ahead of the base. This capability is very important for determining aerodynamic coefficient data. In computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. [3] Factors Affecting Base Drag Base drag is influenced by a variety of flow and geometrical parameters. the flow field in the wake region has a considerable effect on the aerodynamic drag. and spark range testing. (iv) angle of attack. wind tunnel testing. the fundamental fluid dynamic equations are numerically solved for a specific configuration. The ability to compute the base region flow field for projectile configurations using Navier-Stokes computational techniques has been developed over the past few years. Method of Solution There are roughly four classes of techniques to predict aerodynamic forces and moments on a projectile in atmospheric flight: empirical methods. rockets. 1 155mm M2000 (left). Base drag. and in the absence of jet flow. the base drag component can be as high as 50% of the total drag for a missile with power off. forebody diameter. The geometric parameters of 155mm afterbody is illustrated in Fig. Fig. 2/13 . including the total aerodynamic drag [6]. With turbulent boundary layer ahead of the base. (iii) base diameter. arising from flow separation at the blunt base of a body. Even small changes in the flow behavior of the wake may affect the performance of the entire flight vehicle. the major factors include: (i) Mach number in the free stream.. and Overflow-D [5].g. for example. e. missiles and afterbodies of fighter aircraft. shown in Fig. afterbody length). 155mm M107 and 155mm M2000. The most sophisticated computer codes are capable of unsteady time accurate computations using the Navier-Stokes equations. Flight tests with common projectiles have shown that the base drag may account for up to 35% of the total drag [2]. and 155mm M107 (right). 1. and (vi) parameters characterizing the base drag reduction device. [4].

65 on cylindrical body and 70 on base). base bleed. 260 cells was distributed around the body (125 on nose. 3 has been used for the solution.000 cells structured mesh was constructed around the model using pressure far field boundary condition as shown in Fig. The solution accuracy depend on stopping iterations if there is no change in drag coefficient up to 5th digit within more than 500 iterations A computational fluid dynamic package which solves Navier-Stokes equations was used in this work. the pressure and velocity equations have been solved coupled and implicit using second order discretization. 3 Computational model of 155mm projectile 3/13 . Solution was done by using two dimensional axisymmetric pressure based solver with Splart Allmaras viscous model.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 Fig. 2 Geometric parameters of the projectile afterbody with boattail. A computational domain of about 50. Fig. with about 90 cells in the upstream and parallel direction of the model length direction and 130 cells in downstream. The wall Y+ values were maintained in the range of (30-60) for most cases. and base cavity.

Unfortunately. if it is possible. Once the application of the code is validated. 4/13 .126 respectively for a similar case fluent output is 0. combination of each pair.118 and 0. S.129 which is a good result. the application of the computational code Fluent should be checked against available theoretical or experimental data. Boattailing.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 In this study we start with a configuration of 155mm caliber shell with circular cylinder afterbody and solid flat base referred to as basic configuration. 2. and the difficulty in truly understanding what is being measured. Fig. This configuration is classified as a highly drag projectile. 4. Reference [14] published experimental and theoretical (using a computer program called SANDRAG for U. This is partially due to the difficulty in measuring turbulent quantities in compressible flow. and then the effect of the three together in one configuration. Base cavity and Base Bleed. 3.46 they are 0. 4). the computational optimization will be run in order to determine the optimum shape for minimizing overall drag. they are: 1. It is a 155mm M549 without boattail (see Fig. then we try to minimize its total drag through reducing the base drag by applying three methods of base drag reduction individually.a Stream lines over circular cylinder afterbody [11] Fig. 4. government) results of CD for a typical 155mm M549 at M=0. very few experimental results exist for flow field quantities especially in supersonic flow.b Stream lines over circular cylinder afterbody (basic configuration) In order to have confidence in the results.

and between 14 and 16 for subsonic flow (15 for M=0. 5. The optimum value of θ bt can be between 7.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 Boattailing The boattail is characterized by two parameters. concave) and that appreciable reduction in base drag can be obtained with boat tails of moderate angles and lengths up to about 1 or 1.5 and 10 ° for supersonic flow ( 9. 2.6). The boattail length will not be considered as a design variable since experiments have shown that body drag decreases approximately linearly with increasing the boattail length.a Streamlines over a boattailed afterbody [11] Fig. and the low pressure will increase.7) as shown in Fig.5 for M=1.b Streamlines over a boattailed afterbody As we increase the boattail angle θ bt the drag coefficient C D will be decreased until a certain optimum value after which C D will increase with θ bt . An optimum boattail configuration results from balancing the increase in wave drag with the reduction of base drag [9]. 6. The effect of boattailing is well covered in an earlier review which presents evidence that conical boattails are superior to other shapes (ogival. which is a good result compared with results of reference [15]. 5/13 .5 calibers [8]. Fig. 5. so the strong vortex will be replaced by a smaller and a weaker one. Using boattail is intended to reduce the vortex area behind the base. which are boattail length ( L bt ) and boattail angle ( bt ).. Fig. Fig. 5. [7].

CD M=0.6 Drag Coeff.a Effect of boattail angle on drag coefficient [15] 0. 6. 8.10 0. In order to do that.35 0. Base Bleed The artillery projectile range is increase by decreasing the aerodynamic drag via ejecting hot gas from the base of the projectile.40 0. especially in the first few seconds is very important in increasing the projectile total range. The ejected gaseous used to destroy the strong vortex adjacent to the base into more than one weak and small vortices Fig. However.25 0.7 Boattail angle (deg.30 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 M=1. some propellant and a burning chamber are needed attached to the base. For the injection mass flow rate. 6.) Fig. and by about 12% in the supersonic part. It defined as the bleed mass flow rate normalized by the product of the base area and the free stream mass flux [11]. the facility is called the base-bleed unit.b Effect of boattail angle on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile Figure 7 shows that using boattail will reduce the drag coefficient by about 55% in the subsonic and transonic parts. the first kilometers are the most important from the point of view of extended range [10]. the dimensionless injection parameter I is generally used. The out-bled mass flow is estimated to last only the first few kilometers of the flight. It must be known that the reduction of drag coefficient in the supersonic part. 6/13 .05 0.20 0.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 Fig.15 0.

00 0 0.10 0.5 1 1.40 DragCoef.5 2 2. 7 Effect of boattailing on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile at different fight regimes Fig.50 0.35 0. 8.30 0. 8.45 0.15 0.20 0. (M) θ bt 0 θbt 9. (CD) 0.5 Mach No.a Stream lines over afterbody with base bleed [11] Fig.5 3 3.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 0.b Stream lines over afterbody with base bleed (Fluent) 7/13 .25 0.5 bt 15 Fig.05 0.

02 0.5° .05 0 0.02 I 0.0118 for M=0.4 0. CD M=1.7 and m =0.01 0.15 0.a Effect of mass flow rate on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile (basic configuration) 0. I= 0.6 when there is no boattail.3 0.015 0.7 and m = 0.25 M=1.005 0.035 0.01 0. Also this values will be m = 0.35 0. I =0.20 0. 9.15 0 0.2 0.6 M=0.015 0.0459 kg/s.6 0.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 • m I= ρ ∞ U ∞ A base (1) where: m is propellant mass flow rate. 2. and A base is the base area Fig.025 0.5 8/13 .04 M=0. I=0.0107 for boattail angle θ bt = 9.03 Fig. ρ ∞ and U ∞ are the free stream density and velocity respectively.0136 for M = 0.30 Drag Coeff.b Effect of mass flow rate on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile with boattail angle = 9.005 0.03 0. Results shows that this optimum values are m = 0.35 0.073 kg/s.095 kg/s. Figure 9 shows that as we increase the mass flow rate of bleeded gaseous drag coefficient will decrease until a certain optimum value of I which is different for subsonic and supersonic regimes.025 0. I=0.09 kg/s.0073 for M = 1.25 0.7 Fig. 0.7 0.10 0. 9.

these include. Results shows that the effect of non ventilated base cavity in the drag coefficient is very small compared with boattail and base bleed. and its sensitivity to the free stream velocity . 16. 10 Effect of base bleed with m 0. 0.037 kg s on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile (basic configuration) in different flight regimes Base cavity Several techniques are available for affecting an increase in base pressure by changes in base geometry in the context of two-dimensional subsonic base flows. The effect of mass flow rate on drag coefficient at different flight regimes is shown in Figs.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 Figure 10 shows the effect of base bleed of m = 0.5 3 3. It is very difficult to determine the optimum cavity shape since it is affected by two variables (H & t). and that is may be referred to increasing in viscose drag.35 0.20 0. and M=0. 9/13 . It shows that there is a reduction of about 13% in drag coefficient in both of the subsonic and the supersonic parts.8 and M=1.05 0. base cavities with and without ventilation and trailing edge serrations. base cavity and base bleed are shown in Fig.037 kg/s with different Mach numbers.5 1 base bleed off Drag Coeff. Figure 11 shows the case of no boattail for t/D=0. Figure 12 illustrates the effect of cavity lip thickness (t) for a constant cavity depth (H) (H/D=0. 15. Morel demonstrated the potential benefits of cavities in axisymmetric base flows at low speeds [2].03) after which CD decrease with increasing of H.40 0. it is clear that drag coefficient decrease linearly as the cavity depth (H) increase until an optimum value (H/D~0. One must be careful in analyzing bodies with base cavities because of potential for significant contributions to the pitch-plane aerodynamics due to these regions. (CD) base bleed on 1. 13 and 14 while the stream lines on after body with boattail.5 2 Mach No.00 0 0. The reduction in drag coefficient by using a combination of boattail.02) for M=0. Base cavity is defined by two geometric parameters which are cavity depth (H) and cavity lip (t).25 0. Limited experimental evidence indicates that the base cavity will produce a stabilizing effect and will cause predictions which ignore this effect to be conservative [13].10 0. base cavity and base bleed at different flight regime is well demonstrated in Fig. 2.7.075. it is clear that effect of lip thickness is very small compared with that of the depth. It is known from several investigations that a base cavity can increase the base pressure and thus decrease the base drag in axisymmetric flow [12]. for example. (M) 2.5 Fig. Fig.50 0.45 0. wake splitter plates.15 0.6. it is in the range of about (1-2%) .30 0.

251 0.25 0.07 5 0. 12 Effect of lip thickness on drag coefficient for a boattail angle and cavity depth H/D=0.247 0.250 0.15 0.00 0.6 = .20 0.35 0.25 0.015 0. 13 Effect of mass flow rate on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile with ° boattail angle θ bt = 9.02 0. 11 Effect of base cavity depth on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile without boattail at M =0. ° 0.7 Fig.248 0.30 Drag Coef.025 M=0.2 10/13 .10 0.20 0.244 0.10 0.30 Cavity depth (H/D) 0.05 0.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 0. (CD) M=1.243 0. (CD) t/D=0.7 Fig.01 I 0.249 Drag Coeff.15 0.02 0.35 0.005 0.00 0 0.245 0.40 Fig.5 and a cavity of H/D = 0.246 0.05 0.02 and t/D = 0.

Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 0. (M) 2. 15 Stream lines on after body with boattail.5° and a cavity of H/D=0.0 3.05 0.085 kg s 1. 14 Effect of mass flow rate on drag coefficient for a 155mm projectile with boattail angle θbt =9. (CD) m0 0.0 m 0.5 Fig. base cavity and base bleed 11/13 .02 and t/D=0.20 0.5 2.0 Mach No.25 0.0 0.40 0.35 Drag Coeff.00 0.5 3.037 kg s m 0.5 1.15 0.45 0.30 0.2 at different flight regimes Fig.10 0.

S. P.30 0. Do.5 2 Mach No. (M) 2. Prog Aerospace Sci. [3]. 383-420. (1986) [4].. base cavity and base bleed at different flight regime Conclusion Fluent software was used to estimate the best base configuration that would minimize the total drag of a 155mm artillery shell. AIAA 104.00 0 0. tactical missile aerodynamics".5 3 3.15 0. 79-129. 32. [2]. boattail with base bleed.. " Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Mechanisms for Drag Reduction in Supersonic Base-Flows".037 kg/s) demonstrated a reduction in the drag coefficient of the order of ~50% at subsonic and transonic regimes..05 0. and by less than 9. 16 Reduction in drag coefficient by using a combination of boattail.5 degrees minimizes the drag coefficient by about 50 % in both subsonic and transonic regimes. Jubaraj Sohu. Krieger. S. Dominic A. For this latter case it was possible to realize a drag coefficient reduction of ~60% at subsonic regime and ~20 .40 0. While. Vol. by using a boattail with angle 15 degrees it was possible to minimize the total drag by 55 % in the case of subsonic regime. June 1986.20 0.at transonic and supersonic regimes. Prog.35 0. and by about 12% in supersonic regime. 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit 9-12 January 2006. References [1]. The higher drag reduction was demonstrated when using a combination of the three effects. and Vukelich. (CD) Final Configuration 1. boattail with base cavity and a combination of the three. It was found that having a boattail with angle 9. T. Viswanath. F.5 1 Started configuration Drag coeff. six modified configurations were studied These are: boattail only. In addition to the basic configuration. "Flow Management Techniques for Base and Afterbody Drag Reduction". Astronautics Aeronautics.5 degrees in transonic and supersonic regimes. 1996.45 0. 12/13 ..Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 0. and ~10%at supersonic regime.30% . R. Using base bleed alone (with mass flow rate ~0.25 0. "Drag Predictions for Projectiles at Transonic and Supersonic Speeds". J. base blade only. Richard D. and Hermann F. base cavity only.50 0. Jayahar S.5 Fig. R.10 0. The case of using base cavity alone has shown the smallest reduction in the drag coefficient (~1 – 2%). R. "Tactical missile drag..

Joseph Kokes. [9]. Wolfe.. T. [13]. Yang and Y. Freeman "Aft-Body Drag Reduction by Combined BoatTailing and Base Blowing at M=3". N. P. Herve Bournot. AIAA Journal 1976. 24 No. Eric Daniel. "A Simplified Base-Bleed Unit for Artillery Projectiles". Oberkampf. 13/13 . 26. "Generating an Aerodynamic Model for Projectile Flight Simulation Using Unsteady. Spain 16-20 April 2007. pp.Paper: ASAT-13-FM-05 [5]. [15] R. "Three-Dimensional Flow Calculations for a Projectile with Standard and Dome Bases". No. NO. No. Oh. [6]. Masoud Mirzaei Sina Araibi. [11]. L. Jubaraj Sahu and Charles J. "Navier Stokes predictions of missile aerodynamics" AGARD June 1994 [14] W. 46 (E) pp 2005. Siltavuori. "Drag Prediction for Projectile and Finned Bodies in Incompressible Flow" Journal of Spacecraft and Rocket Vol. 487-507. ANZIAM J. Korkegi and L. Time Accurate Computational Fluid Dynamic Results". 4. M. Design of Aerodynamically Stabilized Free Rockets MIL-HDBK-762(MI) 17 July 1990 [10]. AIAA Journal. 1 JanuaryFebruary 1987. "Base Cavity at Angles of Incidence". Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets Vol. "Drag optimization for axisymmetric afterbodies with jet plume using computational fluid dynamics". Paul Weinacht and Jubaraj Sahu. January-February 1994. Vol. Cummings. [8]. 1995. 1. Turbulent Flow Computation and Drag Optimization for Axisymmetric Afterbodies" Computers & Fluids Vol. and Jubaraj Sahu. [7]. ARL-CR-577 September 2006. [12]. and W. H. T. Mauri Tanner. "Improvements of the base bleed effect using reactive particles". Mark Costello. "Supersonic. M. 24. 3 1987. 23RD International Symposium on Ballistics Tarragona. and Roxan Cayzac. H. International Journal of Thermal Sciences 45 (2006) 1052– 1065 January 2006. Sailaranta1 and A. 31. R H.

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