Surface Finish Charts

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SURFACE FINISH CHARTS
Surface Finish Affects Performance The surface finish of process vessels, piping and related components can be a critical factor in their performance, maintenance costs, and service life. Until recently, specifying and measuring surface finish involved varying degrees of speculation. Today, it is more likely that this characteristic will be influenced by industry standards, which manufacturers and processors must satisfy. Increasingly stringent specifications are creating greater demand for improved surface finish on most metal components that are part of process equipment. In particular higher purity requirements for pharmaceutical and biotechnology products are dictating the characteristics of surfaces in contact with process fluids. Increasingly, process equipment components must meet requirements in the AS ! "io#processing equipment standard, AS !#"$!#%&&'.

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!D'Halogen Comparison

This standard provides specifications for the design, manufacture and acceptance of vessels, piping and related components for application in equipment used by the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and personal care product industries. It includes aspects related to sterility and cleanability, materials, dimensions and tolerances, surface finish, material (oining, and seals. eeting the surface finish requirements of this standard is rapidly becoming a universal necessity in the manufacture of other fluid process equipment. As a result, suppliers of equipment and components are often required to quantify the surface roughness of their finished products. Some additional standards and specifications that directly or indirectly affect surface finish requirements include) * * * * * * AS ! "+,.-#%&&% # Surface .oughness, /aviness, and 0ay IS1 +%23 and +%22 # 4eometrical $roduct Specifications 54$S6 7I8 IS1 -9&%, 7I8 +3,2 # :omparison of .oughness ;alues AS ! <-+.9, # Surface Te=ture Symbols AS ! "-,.> # $ipe ?lange ?ace .oughness 7I8 3&3' Standard for ?used#4lass Sight 4lasses in etal ?rames

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Such standards have come into play because process engineers reali@e that the surface finish of vessels, piping and related components can have profound effects on how well a fluid system performs. Typically, surface roughness is a critical parameter in the assessment of surface finish on fluid system components. This parameter can affect fluid flow resistance 5friction6, adsorptionAdesorption, the build#up of chemicals from a process fluid, corrosion formation, pressure drop, etc. Ultimately, surface finish can affect service life and maintenance costs. Surface Finish Measurements and Charts All manufactured components have some form of surface te=ture, which has elements of lay 5the machining or forming pattern6, surface roughness, and waviness. In addition, inherent material properties may contribute to surface porosity, inclusions, and residual elements. The parameters of te=ture are vertical amplitude variations, hori@ontal spacing variations, or some hybrid combination of these. Surface roughness is an e=pression of finely spaced vertical surface irregularities, as opposed to waviness, which is irregularities with spacing greater than surface roughness. 7epending on conventions in different countries, industries, applications, etc. the units used to e=press surface finish or roughness will vary. 0ikewise, various industry standards are used to specify the degree of roughness allowed or recommended in different applications. These standards include those published by A8SI, AS !, SA!, IS1, and other organi@ations. :ommonly used e=pressions of finish include) * Standard grit reference # refers to the grit of a surface finishing medium or method, which does not provide a consistent measure of roughness, since results depend on a partBs material, finishing method, lubricant used 5if any6, and applied work pressure. * N # 8ew IS1 54rade6 Scale numbers. These are used on manufacturing drawings that specify surface finish in terms of an IS1 standard. !ach roughness grade number can be correlated to a specific .a number that is e=pressed in microns. * Ra # .oughness average, most commonly e=pressed in micrometers 5microns6. This is the most universally recogni@ed and used international standard of roughness measurements. It is the arithmetic mean of the absolute departures of a roughness profile from the mean line of the measurement. .a may also be e=pressed in microinches. * CLA # :enter 0ine Average in micro#inches. This is a conversion using .a5Cm6 = 9'.93. * RMS # .oot ean Square in micro#meters or micro#inchesD i.e., the average of peaks and valleys of a materialBs surface profile as calculated from a number 5n6 of measurements 5=6 along the sampling length)

* Rp # a=imum profile peak height. * RSm # The mean spacing between profile peaks on the mean line, measured along the sampling length. * Rt # The total height of a roughness profile, typically e=pressed in microns, is the ma=imum peak#to#valley height along the assessment length.

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03/09/2013

6 /' Typically. Table .F :0A is used throughout this table to calculate .+& &..92 &.2 +. i.+ %. >& %> -%.9 >2 +.asp# 03/09/2013 . for e=ample. for values of . improve corrosion resistance to increase life.> 32 .a values for various metal finishing methods. PR!"UCTS TECHNICAL "ATA "ESI#N T!!LS PU$LICATI!NS RE UEST INF! REP L!CAT!R %H& L'(' STAR A$!UT US Ta)*e +' :onversion chart for equivalent e=pressions of roughness.+2 &.> -.-in'. http://www..2& &. In the case of metallic components. the motivation to reduce surface roughness could be to reduce flow resistance and pressure drop. improve sealing.%& -.-in'.> .-m. Ta)*e /' Typical range of .3 can be acceptable. 9%. A factor of -. In sight glasses. &.% &.& 9.& 2.. ?or e=ample. .%Cm. reduce build#up of process chemicals on the metal surface.> 99 %-3. :0A 5microinches6 E .+ Rt .e.9 +.. S.' -. %&& -&& >& %> -9 '.& -.935inchesAmeter6 1ther conversions use factors that have been establish as generally acceptable over time.6 E :0A5Cin.9% -. a range of factor values from -. S5Cin.+ %. >.a surface roughness values in various metal forming operations. ########### ########### 8> ########### ########### ########### 8+ 89 8% 8Ra .. S5Cin. %&&& -&&& >&& %>& -%> 3..3.. In the case of fluid system components.%Cm. the conversion factor increases. &. -3 -+ -& 2.2& -.to -.a5Cm6 = 9'.-in'.9& &.9 / !D'Halogen Comparison %%& ########### %+& 9%& +&& ########### >&& ########### ########### Notes0 +' A factor of -. additional finishing processes may be used to reduce the degree of roughness to fit a specific application. the conversion factor for . reaching -% at &. Manufacturing Processes $rimary manufacturing processes establish the initial surface characteristics of components and their roughness values.-.-& &.ljstar. the surface roughness of both the glass and the metal mounting ring are critical for achieving a good seal in the installation.& .> &.9 -. Table % lists typical .Surface Finish Charts Página 2 de 3 ost e=pressions of roughness can be converted from one form to another.%& &.&%> Ra . As surface roughness decreases from 9.is U!TE C!NTACT US probably use most often.6 = -.& -. In the case of . This is reflected in the table above. %%&& --&& >>& %3> -93.%9 &.+.2 %.9& 9.& ########### 2& ########### -%& ->& ########### -2& IS! No' 8-% 8-8-& 8' 82 ########### 83 ########### ########### 8.-m.% -.lists conversions for some commonly used roughness e=pressions and values.t 5Cm6 is +. %&&& -&&& >&& %>& -%> 3..&> &. -> -% ' 2 + % CLA .&%>Cm.a from >&Cm to 9. #rit No' ########### ########### ########### ..9 >% +% 9% 9& -' -> -% ' 2 + % RMS .c !/design/surface"charts.&. etc.9 >% +% 9% 9& -' -.2 &.

piping and related components. The inherent benefits of electropolishing subsequent to mechanical polishing include) * * * * * * * . mechanical polishing involves the application of physical force on abrasive media to remove surface irregularities. the time and cost involved usually makes this impractical. inclusion and other anomalies of a metal surface are dissolved more quickly than valleys as a result of the greater concentration of current over the protuberances. These fall into two categories) mechanical polishing and electropolishing.arious types of polishing operations are commonly used to reduce the surface roughness of metals used in fluid vessels. /hile itBs theoretically possible to achieve low roughness values with certain mechanical polishing techniques. As the name implies. resulting in irregularities as small as &.educed surface areaAchemical reactivity for less absorption and adsorption 0ess contamination and build#up of process chemicals on a surface Superior surfaces for cleaning and sterili@ation !limination of locali@ed corrosive cells 5galvanic differences6 remaining after mechanical polishing * . which means numerous surface scratches and other irregularities remain.emoval of surface occlusions .orgAwikiASurfaceHfinish .O.asp# 03/09/2013 .esultant passivated surfaces enhance corrosion resistance * Ligh luster reflective appearance * .emoval of inclusions and entrapped contaminants such as lubricants and grit particles :leaner surface of the IJKwet contactIJ areas . mechanical polishing is used when moderate roughness values are acceptable. These can cause many of the problems mentioned earlier on this page. It prevents or reduces most of the problems associated with rougher metal surfaces. !lectropolishing is an electrolytic process 5the reverse of plating6 combining electric current and chemicals to remove metal.Surface Finish Charts Página 3 de 3 U!TE C!NTACT US PR!"UCTS TECHNICAL "ATA "ESI#N T!!LS PU$LICATI!NS RE UEST INF! REP L!CAT!R %H& L'(' STAR A$!UT US !D'Halogen Comparison Source0 %i1ipedia0Ghttp)AAen.c !/design/surface"charts.GStarGIncorporated +2 Recommend this on Google http://www.ljstar.&+ micro #inch6. The peaks of burr.wikipedia.&.educed surface friction Site MapGMGTerms 2 ConditionsGMGUser AgreementGMGPri3ac4 Po*ic4 N %&-9G0. This electrochemical action produces a smoothing and rounding of the surface profile. folds. 4enerally.micrometer 5&.