ANALOG SYSTEM

LAB MANUAL

Second Edition

.

R. C. India Bagmane Tech Park CV Raman Nagar Bangalore 560093 India .ANALOG SYSTEM LAB MANUAL Second Edition Learning to Design Analog Systems using Analog System Lab Starter Kit Dr.P. Rao and Dr. K. Ravikumar Texas Instruments.K.

omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in the book. electronic. consequential. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered. M9W 1L1 First Edition: 2011 Second Edition: 2012 ISBN: 978-81-265-3742-6 www.wileyindia. Australia John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd. stored in a retrieval system. or transmitted in any form or by any means. As the book is intended for educational purpose. 111 River Street. There are no warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. USA Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH. Trademarks: All brand names and product names used in this book are trademarks. Wiley is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. mechanical. Wiley or its author cannot guarantee full agreement. The accuracy and completeness of the information provided herein and the opinions stated herein are not guaranteed or warranted to produce any particular results. Disclaimer: The contents of this book have been checked for accuracy. 42 McDougall Street. Neither Wiley India nor the author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages. Milton.Analog System Lab Manual Second Edition Learning to Design Analog Systems using Analog System Lab Starter Kit Copyright © 2012 by Texas Instruments All rights reserved. Pappellaee 3. or trade names of their respective holders. Queensland 4064. or other damages. photocopying. South Tower. including but not limited to special. incidental. and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. and the advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every individual. Etobicoke. Other Wiley Editorial Offices: John Wiley & Sons. Delhi . NJ 07030. registered trademarks. Inc. Ontario. Wiley and the author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book. 1 Fusionopolis Walk #07-01 Solaris. Canada. Hoboken. recording or scanning without the written permission of Texas Instruments Limits of Liability: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book. Germany John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd. Wiley or its author shall not be responsible for any errors. 22 Worcester Road. Singapore 138628 John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd. D-69469 Weinheim. No part of this book may be reproduced.com Printed at: Paras Printers. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely.

In the past decade.#1 . These companies look for system-level design skills in both analog and digital domains. analog system design is not emphasized in the conventional way of teaching analog. Our attempt is to help bridge this gap at an early stage in undergraduate coursework. We thank everyone for this warm reception. India has seen the emergence of a number of system design companies.page v . released in 2011. has been received with great enthusiasm by teachers and students. We believe that the ASLK can be adopted by both undergraduate and postgraduate students. We are happy to place in your hands the revised version of the Analog System Lab Manual. Manufacturing of electronic products has also received a significant boost. Unfortunately.14:55 . Analog electronics occupies a very special and significant place in modern-day systems.Foreword to the Second Edition The first version of this manual. The Analog System Lab Kit and the associated manual were created to help colleges in India in updating their curriculum for courses related to analog. v Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .

We suggest that a teacher assigns a mix of starred and the other exercises in the lab work.2012/8/14 . We are indebted to Sagar Juneja for his constant help in all aspects of ASLK promotion. close to 100 colleges in India have introduced it in their teaching curriculum. We are grateful to all the comments and feedback we have received from academia. we have provided the component values and typical simulation results in these exercises.#2 . We have added several additional exercises in almost all chapters. We are sure you will like the aesthetic improvements to the manual. Several teachers have told us that they have designed new experiments in the areas of communications and controls. we have introduced a few changes in this version of the manual. However. including the colored illustrations. Several companies used ASLK in their in-house training programs.Foreword to the Second Edition Since ASLK Starter kit was introduced. We thank Praveen Settigere of Wiley-India for his continued support. We have interacted with hundreds of Indian teachers in the faculty development programs on Analog System Design that were conducted in the last year. We are pleased to acknowledge the help from several persons in preparing this manual.page vi . To see the reaction from students. A pin diagram of the ASLK is included with the kit to facilitate the connections. vi Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Based on the feedback we received. We could not have expected a more positive response! Some students even surprised us by using ASLK for new experiments such as motor control and simulation of chaos in oscillators! We encourage students and teachers to explore such innovative applications of ASLK. These additional exercises are marked with a star. we made it mandatory for participants of TI India Analog Design Contest to carry out a challenging experiment on the ASLK. Joyan Gratian Sanctis of TI India has taken the excellent picture of the ASLK included in this manual. TI has a vast portfolio of analog ICs to select from. we emphasize the importance of the other exercises which involve design. Ms Meenakshi Sehrawat of Wiley-India has done a creditable job of editing. Several colleges have independently conducted such hands-on workshops for teachers as well as students. Please make use of TI’s "free samples" program to carry out additional experiments on ASLK.14:55 . We are encouraged by the acceptance of the kit as an educational tool that is easy to use. The starred exercises can be good starting points when one begins to use ASLK.

As always. We thank all our colleagues in TI India for their constant support and encouragement.R. we are eager to know your feedback! K. India Bagmane Tech Park CV Raman Nagar Bangalore 560093 India vii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .P.Foreword to the Second Edition We thank Cranes Software for their manufacturing and promotion of ASLK. Rao C.#3 . Ravikumar July 2012 Texas Instruments.2012/8/14 .K.14:55 .page vii .

page viii .#4 .14:55 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .

a system designer uses the analog ICs as building blocks.14:55 . characteristics and limitations.page ix . A designer must ix Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Our philosophy in designing this lab course has been to focus on system design rather than circuit design. In the real world. IC manufacturers such as Texas Instruments offer a large number of choices of integrated circuits keeping in mind the diverse requirements of system designers. The course can be adapted for an undergraduate or a postgraduate curriculum. The goal of the Analog System Lab is to provide students an exposure to the fascinating world of analog and mixed-signal signal processing. As part of the lab course. power and performance. We feel that many Analog Design classes in the colleges focus on the circuit design aspect.#5 .2012/8/14 . The focus of the system designer is to optimize system-level cost. the student will build analog systems using analog ICs and study their macro models.Foreword to the First Edition Although digital signal processing is the most common way to process signals. analog signal processing cannot be completely avoided since the real world is analog in nature. ignoring the issues encountered in system design.

The conventional way of starting with device physics and moving on to the design and analysis of analog circuits at the transistor-level needs rethinking. Mr Krishnamurthy Bhat of Basaveshwara x Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . namely. references to literature (mostly online and easy to access). VCO. TI Analog University Program) throughout this endeavor. simulation through SPICE. We have tried to emphasize this aspect in designing the experiments in this manual. and analysis of results. they hardly ever design or even use a common emitter amplifier or a Wien-bridge oscillator! There are 10 experiments in the Analog System Lab. With each experiment. function generators. which can be carried out either individually or by groups of two or three students. The emphasis is on learning by paper design. we provide brief theoretical background. Operational Amplifiers and Analog Multipliers. In the first phase of experiments. and the documents to be submitted at the end of the experiment.2012/8/14 . the specification of the design experiment. measurements to be taken. differentiators. we explain how larger analog systems such as integrators. There are many system design companies today looking for engineers who can design using analog ICs. A number of colleagues at Texas Instruments. Analog systems are part of every electronic system today and we believe they must be taught in the “building block” spirit that has worked well for digital design. DC-DC converters and regulators can be constructed using the basic building blocks.Foreword to the First Edition be aware of these diverse offerings of semiconductors and select the right IC for the right application. In the second phase. This manual is the result of almost a year’s effort.#6 . We have received support from a number of individuals when we were working on this manual. PLL. We acknowledge the encouragement and support from Syd Coppersmith (WW Manager. two basic analog building blocks are introduced. We believe that there is a need to make a significant change to the way analog design is taught in the engineering colleges today. hardware construction. Our sincere thanks are due to all of them. What is proposed is a two-tier approach to teaching analog design – start with analog systems and then move to circuits. filters. India have helped us and encouraged us at different stages of the development of the kit and the manual.page x . It is our pleasure to acknowledge their contribution. A teacher’s manual can be made available on request.

India Bagmane Tech Park CV Raman Nagar Bangalore 560093 India xi Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . helped in recording the video lectures that provide more information on these experiments. their feedback has been useful in improving the kit as well as the manual. India) spent several months with us. helping us realize the kit as a product.#7 . also an intern. then a student intern at TI India. Do write to us! K. We thank Mr. We intend to continue to develop more experiments and learning materials in the future. Karnataka.uniti. We thank the faculty members who attended the faculty development programs where initial drafts of this manual and the Analog System Lab Kit were used.R.S. 2010 Texas Instruments. Sagar has also read various drafts of this manual and provided helpful comments.Foreword to the First Edition Engineering College (Bagalkot. Ravikumar November. We thank Mr.page xi .2012/8/14 . Rao C.K.in). He was ably helped by Sagar Juneja. We are eager to know your critique of the kit as well as the manual. We hope you and your students will find the Analog Systems Lab Kit and the experiments in this manual rewarding. another student intern. helped us by drawing many of the diagrams in this manual. Pulkit Jain. Ashfaq Ibrahim of Cranes Software for their support.14:55 . Ullas Taneja.P. Kannan of YEE YES and Mr. we will share them on the TI India University Program website (www. E. Praveen Settigere of Wiley India for his interest in this project and for all the help he provided in publishing the manual.

page xii .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .14:55 .#8 .

2 Software 10 0.#9 .4.14:55 .page xiii .4.Contents 0 Introduction 1 0.1 Analog System Lab 1 0.4 Important Notes System Lab Kit ASLKv2010 Starter: An Overview 7 0.2 Organization of the Analog System Lab Course 3 0.1 6 0.1 Hardware 7 0.2012/8/14 .3 Lab Setup 6 0.5 Familiarizing with ASLKv2010 Starter Kit 11 0.3.6 Organization of the Manual 14 xiii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

1 Goal of the Experiment 15 1.8 2 Specifications Related Reading 28 Experiment 2 Regenerative Feedback System.#10 .3 Monostable Multivibrator (Timer) 32 2.1 15 Unity Gain Amplifier 1.6 Exercises 25 1.page xiv . Astable and Monostable Multivibrator 29 2.2.2 Astable Multivibrator 32 2.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 15 1.2.7 Other Related ICs 28 1.4 Measurements to be Taken 22 1.3 Specifications 34 2.5 What Should you Submit 24 1.1 Inverting Regenerative Comparator 29 2.5 What Should you Submit 35 2.6 Exercises 35 xiv Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .3 20 1.Contents 1 Experiment 1 Negative Feedback Amplifiers and Instrumentation Amplifier 15 1.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 29 2.4 Measurements to be Taken 34 2.2.2012/8/14 .2.14:55 .1 Goal of the Experiment 29 2.

4 Measurements to be Taken 39 3.7 5 Specifications Related ICs 52 Experiment 5 Self-tuned Filter 53 5.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 37 3.2.6 4 Specifications Exercise: Grounded Capacitor Topologies of Integrator and Differentiator 43 Experiment 4 Analog Filters 45 4.1 55 Multiplier as a Phase Detector xv Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#11 .2.4 Measurements to be Taken 48 4.2.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 45 4.1 Integrators 38 3.3 47 4.3 39 3.1 Goal of the Experiment 37 3.14:55 .1 Goal of the Experiment 53 5.1 Goal of the Experiment 45 4.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 53 5.1 47 Frequency Response of Filters 4.5 What Should you Submit 49 4.2012/8/14 .page xv .5 What Should you Submit 40 3.Contents 3 Experiment 3 Integrators and Differentiators 37 3.2.2 Differentiators 38 3.6 Exercises 50 4.

6 Exercises 61 5.3 60 5.2012/8/14 .3 68 6.4 Measurements to be Taken 68 6.1 Goal of the Experiment 65 6.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 71 • Phase Lock Loop 7.5 What Should you Submit 60 5.1 Goal of the Experiment 71 7.Contents 5.14:55 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation 65 • VCO • Function Generator • FM/FSK Generator 6.6 7 Specifications Exercises 69 Experiment 7 Phase Locked Loop 71 7.4 Measurements to be Taken 73 7.page xvi .5 What Should you Submit 74 7.5 What Should you Submit 68 6.3 Specifications 73 7.6 Exercises 75 xvi Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .4 Measurements to be Taken 60 5.7 6 Specification Related ICs 63 Experiment 6 Function Generator and Voltage-Controlled Oscillator 65 6.#12 .

5 What Should you Submit 81 8.3 81 8.1 Goal of the Experiment 85 9.3 Specification 86 9.Contents 8 Experiment 8 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)/Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 79 8.2012/8/14 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation 79 • Automatic Gain/Volume Control 8.3 Specifications 92 xvii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page xvii .14:55 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation 91 • Linear Regulator 10.6 9 Specification Exercises 82 Experiment 9 DC–DC Converter 85 9.1 Goal of the Experiment 79 8.#13 .4 Measurements to be Taken 81 8.5 Exercises 89 10 Experiment 10 Low Dropout (LDO)/Linear Regulator 91 10.1 Goal of the Experiment 91 10.4 What Should you Submit 86 9.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 85 • DC/DC Converter • Class-D Power Amplifier 9.

3 Description 98 A.2.4 DAC 7821: 12 Bit.4 A.Contents 10.5 What Should you Submit 94 10.3 Description 100 A.2 Applications 99 A.2 Applications 104 xviii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .3 MPY634: Wide-Bandwidth Analog Precision Multiplier Download Datasheet 100 100 A.2.3.1.1.1 Features 97 A.2 Applications 98 A.1.4.2 Applications 101 A. Parallel.3.4 A. Multiplying DAC Download Datasheet 102 TPS40200: Wide-Input.1 Features 100 A.2 99 A.4 Measurements to be Taken 10.4 A 94 Download Datasheet 98 A.2.#14 .3.1 Features 99 A.4.3.1 Features 102 A.2012/8/14 . Non-Synchronous Buck DC/DC Controller 102 A.1 TL082: JFET-Input Operational Amplifier 97 A.1.14:55 .6 Exercises 95 ICs used in ASLKv2010 Starter Kit 97 A.page xviii .2.3 Description 102 A.

5 Description Download Datasheet 105 105 A. Low IQ.1 110 B.5.2 D Introduction Limitations 115 System Lab Kit ASLKv2010 Starter Kit Connection Diagrams 117 Bibliography 125 Index 129 xix Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#15 .2 C Micromodels Macromodels 112 Activity: To Convert your PC/Laptop into an Oscilloscope 113 C.5 B TLV700xx: 200mA.1 113 C. Low Dropout Regulator for Portables Download Datasheet 107 Introduction to Macromodels 109 B.2 Applications 106 A.14:55 .4.2012/8/14 .5.3 104 A.5.5 A.4.Contents A.5.3 Description 106 A.4 TPS40200EVM-002 105 A.page xix .4 TLV70018EVM-503 Evaluation Module 107 A.5.4.1 Features 105 A.

14:55 .page xx .#16 .2012/8/14 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

single-output Op-Amp 16 1-2 A unity gain system 17 1-3 Magnitude response of a unity gain system 18 1-4 Time response of an amplifier for a step input of size Vp 19 1-5 (a) Non-inverting amplifier of gain 2.14:55 .#17 .2012/8/14 .page xxi . (b) inverting amplifier of gain 2 20 xxi Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .List of Figures 0-1 Signal chain in an electronic system 2 0-2 Dependence among experiments on the ASLKv2010 Starter 5 0-3 Picture of ASLKv2010 Starter kit 8 0-4 Pin diagram for ASLKv2010 Starter kit 9 0-5 External connections needed for using the analog multiplier 13 0-6 External connections needed for using the DAC 13 1-1 An ideal dual-input.

List of Figures 1-6 (a) Frequency response of negative feedback amplifiers. (b) two operational amplifiers 23 1-9 (a) An inverting amplifier with analog gain control 26 1-9 (b) Simulation of the circuit for Figure 1-9(a) when V3 = 1 V 27 1-10 Digitally controlled amplifier 27 2-1 Inverting Schmitt trigger and its hysteresis characteristic 30 2-2 Symbols for (a) inverting. and inverting amplifiers 22 1-8 Instrumentation amplifier configurations with (a) three. (b) time response of negative feedback amplifiers 21 1-7 Transfer characteristics of unity-gain. non-inverting.2012/8/14 . monostable multivibrator 33 2-6 Monostable multivibrator 34 3-1 Integrator 38 3-2 Differentiator 38 3-3 Frequency response of integrator and differentiator 41 3-4 Outputs of integrator and differentiator for (a) square-wave.page xxii . BSF 50 xxii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#18 .14:55 . (b) triangular-wave inputs 42 3-5 Circuits for Exercise 43 4-1 A second-order universal active filter 47 4-2 Simulation waveform for a universal active filter 48 4-3 Magnitude response of BPF. (b) non-inverting Schmitt trigger circuits 31 2-3 Non-inverting Schmitt trigger and its hysteresis characteristic 31 2-4 Astable multivibrator 32 2-5 Simulation results for (a) astable multivibrator.

Vo1 corresponds to BPF. (b) characteristics of the PLL 72 7-2 Sample output waveform for the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) for a square-wave input waveform 74 7-3 (a) Phase locked loop 76 xxiii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .#19 . (b) ∝ Vc Vc 56 5-3 (a) A self-tuned filter based on a voltage-controlled filter or voltage-controlled phase generator. Vc is the control voltage and Vi is the input voltage 58 5-5 (a) Simulation of the self-tuned filter shown in Figure 5-5(b) when VG1 = 0. Vo2 corresponds to BSF. (b) FSK generator 67 6-3 (a) Function generator 69 6-3 (b) Simulation of the function generator of Figure 6-3(a) 70 6-4 Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO) 70 7-1 (a) Phase Locked Loop (PLL) circuit.2012/8/14 . 61 5-5 (b) Self-tuned filter 62 6-1 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 66 6-2 Simulation outputs for (a) function generator. (b) a simple voltage-controlled phase generator that can become part of a self-tuned filter 57 5-4 Output of the self-tuned filter based on simulation. 1 V.List of Figures 4-4 (a) Third-order Butterworth filter 51 4-4 (b) Frequency response of the Butterworth filter 51 4-5 (a) Tow-Thomas biquad filter 52 4-5 (b) Frequency response of the filter 52 5-1 (a) Symbol of an analog multiplier. (b) multiplier as a phase detector 54 5-2 Voltage controlled filter with frequency (a) ∝ 1 .page xxiii .

Only connect ±10 V and ground connections 118 D-3 Op-Amp IC-1 (Dual Op-Amp with two amplifiers.page xxiv . (b) load regulation output. when input amplitude is 1 V 76 7-4 Block diagram of frequency optimizer 77 8-1 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)/Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 80 8-2 Input–output characteristics of AGC/AVC 80 8-3 Output of AGC circuit 82 8-4 (a) AGC circuit 83 8-4 (b) Simulation of the AGC circuit for output voltage = 2V peak 83 9-1 (a) DC–DC converter. 1A and 1B) connected in Type-1 configuration (Inverting) xxiv Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . (c) line regulation output 93 A-1 TL082 – JFET-input operational amplifier 98 A-2 MPY634 – Analog multiplier 99 A-3 DAC 7821 – Digital to analog converter 101 A-4 TPS40200 – DC/DC controller 103 A-5 TLV700XX – Low dropout regulators 106 C-1 Buffer circuit needed to interface an analog signal to oscilloscope 114 D-1 Floorplan of the ASLKv2010 Starter kit 118 D-2 Power connections in ASLKv2010 Starter kit.#20 119 . (b) waveforms from simulation 87 9-2 PWM and Class-D output waveforms 88 10-1 Low Dropout Regulator (LDO) 92 10-2 (a) A regulator system with startup.14:55 .2012/8/14 .List of Figures 7-3 (b) Simulation of the PLL at free-running frequency.

2012/8/14 . (b) External connections needed to use the multiplier MPY634 122 D-8 (a) PCB connections for the DAC on ASLKv2010 Starter.#21 . 2B is a spare) 120 D-5 Op-Amp IC-3 (Dual Op-Amp with two spare amplifiers.List of Figures D-4 Op-Amp IC-2 (Dual Op-Amp with two amplifiers. 2A can be connected in Type-1 configuration (Inverting. (b) external connections needed to use the DAC to make it four-quadrant 123 xxv Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page xxv . 3A and 3B) 120 D-6 Op-Amp IC-4 (Dual Op-Amp with amplifiers 4A and 4B.14:55 . 2 and 3 on ASLKv2010 Starter. 2A and 2B. Op-Amp 4A and 4B can be used in inverting or non-inverting configuration) 121 D-7 (a) PCB connections for analog multipliers 1.

#22 .14:55 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .page xxvi .

Q = 1 49 4-3 Frequency response of a BSF with F0 = 10 kHz. peak value of input 43 4-1 Transfer functions of active filters 46 4-2 Frequency response of a BPF with F0 = 1 kHz.t. input frequency 25 1-4 DC transfer characteristic 25 2-1 Plot of hysteresis w.page xxvii .t.r.t. regenerative feedback 35 3-1 Plot of magnitude and phase w.r.r.2012/8/14 .#23 .r. input frequency for the integrator 40 3-2 Plot of magnitude and phase w.t.List of Tables 1-1 Measurement of slew rate: Method 1 24 1-2 Measurement of slew rate: Method 2 25 1-3 Plot of magnitude and phase variation w.14:55 . Q = 10 49 xxvii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . input frequency for the differentiator 41 3-3 Variation of peak-to-peak value of output w.t.r.

14:55 .2012/8/14 .page xxviii .#24 111 .List of Tables 5-1 Variation of output amplitude with input frequency 60 6-1 Change in frequency as a function of control voltage 69 7-1 Output phase as a function of input frequency 75 7-2 Control voltage as a function of input frequency 75 8-1 Transfer characteristic of the AGC system 81 9-1 Variation of output voltage with control voltage in a DC–DC converter 88 9-2 Variation of duty cycle with control voltage in a DC–DC converter 89 10-1 Variation of load regulation with load current in an LDO 94 10-2 Variation of line regulation with input voltage in an LDO 95 10-3 Ripple rejection 95 B-1 Operational amplifiers available from Texas Instruments xxviii Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

(b) Analog Multipliers and (c) Analog Comparators. This analog signal is often weak and noisy.#25 . 2 Amplifiers are needed to strengthen the signal. 1 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . • 3 An analog-to-digital converter transforms the analog signal into a stream of 0s and 1s. Analog filtering may be necessary to remove noise from the signal. This “front end” processing improves the signalto-noise ratio.Chapter Zero Introduction 0. Consider a typical signal chain (Figure 0-1). • • 1 A sensor converts the real-world signal into an analog electrical signal. analog signal processing cannot be completely avoided since the real world is analog in nature.page 1 . Three of the most important building blocks used in this stage are (a) Operational Amplifiers.1 Analog System Lab Although digital signal processing is the most common form of processing signals.14:55 .2012/8/14 .

2012/8/14 . 6 The output of the DAC has to be amplified before the analog signal can drive an external actuator. or a microcontroller. • • • 5 Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) is necessary to convert the stream of 0s and 1s back into analog form. Since the source of power can be a battery. Microprocessors and microcontrollers may suffice in other applications. In modern-day VLSI chips. The Power Management block is responsible for these functions.page 2 . 7 A Power Management block is needed to provide power to the various blocks. power dissipation is a major consideration so that we can keep the power density under control. etc. 2 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . a microprocessor. power gating. The choice of the processor depends on how intensive the computation is. such as a DSP. A DSP may be necessary when real-time signal processing is needed and the computations are complex. It is evident that analog circuits play a crucial role in the implementation of an electronic system.Introduction Amplifier Temperature Pressure Position Speed Flow Humidity Sound Light Power management Amplifier Figure 0-1 A/D converter D/A converter Logic Embedded processing Communication Signal chain in an electronic system • 4 The digital data is processed by a CPU. it is important to ensure long battery life through techniques such as clock gating.#26 .

0.14:55 . We have tried to emphasize this aspect in designing the experiments in this manual. made by Texas Instruments. power. As part of the lab course. the student will build analog systems using analog ICs and study their macro models. 3 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . and performance. In the real world. we have assumed that there are about 12 lab sessions during a semester. We feel that many Analog Design classes in the colleges focus on the circuit design aspect. a system designer uses the analog ICs as building blocks.Introduction The goal of the Analog System Lab Course is to provide students an exposure to the fascinating world of analog and mixed-signal signal processing. • Wide-bandwidth. Our philosophy in designing this lab course has been to focus on system design rather can circuit design. characteristics and limitations. you must be aware of these diverse offerings of semiconductors and select the right IC for the right application.2012/8/14 .#27 . the student will be exposed to the operation of the basic building blocks of analog systems. Most of the experiments in the Analog System Lab Course are centered around the following two components: • The Op-Amp TL082.2 Organization of the Analog System Lab Course In designing the lab course. ignoring the issues encountered in system design. The focus of the system designer is to optimize system-level cost. a general-purpose JFET-input Operational Amplifier. precision Analog Multiplier MPY634 from Texas Instruments. We have designed 10 experiments that can be carried out either individually or by groups of two or three students. The course can be adapted for an undergraduate or a postgraduate curriculum. The experiments in Analog System Lab can be categorized as follows: • 1 Part I: In the first part. IC manufacturers such as Texas Instruments offer a large number of choices of integrated circuits keeping in mind the diverse requirements of system designers. As a student.page 3 .

(b) A PC can be used in place of an oscilloscope.2012/8/14 . demodulator and phase detector. In the Analog System Lab.Introduction Using these components. • We then introduce the analog comparator.#28 . instrumentation amplifiers and voltage regulators. Frequency Modulated Waveform Generators. We also suggest an experiment on the development of macromodels for an Op-Amp. the student will build gain stages. which is a voltage or current controlled amplifier. buffers. or Frequency Shift Key Generators in modems. we introduce integrators and differentiators that are essential for implementing filters that can band-limit a signal prior to the sampling process to avoid aliasing errors. 4 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . which is a mixed-mode device – its input is analog and output is digital. modulator. These experiments bring out several important issues. Voltage controlled phase generators and VCOs that use multiplier as a phase detector are built and their lock range and capture range estimated and verified. Automatic Gain Controllers. The function generator is capable of producing a triangular waveform and square waveform as outputs. fall time and delay time are important apart from input offset. with the following in mind: (a) Simple macromodels can be used for active devices in simulation. We have also included an experiment that can help the student use a PC as an oscilloscope. The analog multiplier. the rise time.page 4 . A function generator is also a mixed-mode system that uses an integrator and a regenerative comparator as building blocks. slew-rate and saturation limits of the operational amplifiers. the frequency range of all applications has been restricted to 1–10 kHz. finds applications in communication circuits in the form of mixer. switched-mode power supplies and Class-D power amplifiers. In a comparator. It is also useful in Pulse Width Modulation in DC-to-DC converters.14:55 . Self-tuned Filters and Frequency Locked Loop. 2 Part-II: The second part concentrates on building analog systems using the blocks mentioned in the previous point. We use the multiplier in building Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCO). such as measurement of gain-bandwidth product. First. Amplitude Stabilized Oscillators.

The sequence in which the experiments are carried out can be altered using this dependence graph. we believe you will have the following know-how about analog system design: • • 1 You will learn about the characteristics and specification of analog ICs used in electronic systems 2 You will learn how to develop a macromodel for an IC based on its terminal characteristics.2012/8/14 .Introduction Figure 0-2 shows the dependence among the experiments included in Analog System Lab.#29 . I/O characteristics.14:55 . At the end of Analog System Lab. frequency response. stability characteristics and sensitivity characteristics Exp-1 Negative feedback amplifiers and instrumentation amplifier Exp-2 Regenerative feedback systems – astable and monostable multivibrators Exp-3 Integrators and differentiators Exp-8 Automatic gain control Exp-4 Analog filters Exp-5 Self-tuned filter Exp-10 Low dropout regulator Exp-6 Function generator and voltage-controlled oscillator Exp-7 Phase locked loop (Frequency locked loop) Exp-9 DC-DC converter Class-D amplifier Figure 0-2 Dependence among experiments on the ASLKv2010 Starter 5 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 5 . DC-transfer characteristics. We believe that the students must carry out all the experiments.

2012/8/14 . 5 A computer with simulation software such as TINA [9] or PSPICE [32] and design software from Texas Instruments (FilterPro and SwitcherPro) installed on it. please note the following: • 1 When we do not explicitly mention the magnitude and frequency of the input waveform.1 Important Notes In all the experiments of Analog System Lab. 4 Function generators which can operate in the range on 1 to 10 MHz and capable of generating sine. square and triangular waves.Introduction • • 3 You will be able to make the right choice for an IC for a given application 4 You will be able to perform basic fault diagnosis of an electronic system 0. Refer to Section 0. 2 A low frequency operation oscilloscope which can operate in the frequency range of 1 to 10 MHz.page 6 . please use 0 to 1 V as the amplitude of the input and 1 kHz as the frequency. we also provide an experiment that helps you build a circuit to directly interface analog outputs to a PC (See Appendix C). Alternately.3 Lab Setup The setup for the Analog System Lab is very simple and requires the following: • • 1 ASLKv2010 Starter kit and the associated Lab Manual from Texas Instruments.#30 .14:55 . • • • 3 Dual power supply with the operating voltages of ±10 V. India – the lab kit comes with required connectors. 6 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .3.4 for an overview of the kit. Texas Instruments also offers an oscilloscope card which can be plugged into laptops so that the laptop can work as an oscilloscope (See [30]). 0.

3 • 4 • • Note to students: With every experiment. Pin diagram is shown in Figure 0-4) has been developed at Texas Instruments. India. 5 Precaution! Never connect any point from the board to the oscilloscope. place the second Op-Amp in unity-gain mode and ground the input.4 System Lab Kit ASLKv2010 Starter: An Overview 0.2012/8/14 .Introduction • • 2 Always use sinusoidal input when you plot the frequency response and use square wave-input when you plot the transient response. 0. instead.#31 . The lab hours must be utilized only for the hardware experiment and comparing the actual outputs with simulation results. We have shown four blank entries in every table to illustrate the type of data the student must collect. Instead.1 Hardware ASLKv2010 Starter kit (see Figure 0-3. the student must actually record many more data points. This kit is designed for undergraduate 7 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . do not leave the inputs and output of the other Op-Amp open. This means that the IC has two Op-Amp circuits.page 7 . If your experiment requires only one of the two Op-Amp circuits. The student must bring a copy of the simulation results from SPICE simulation to the class and show it to the instructor at the beginning of the class.4. Precaution! Please note that TL082 is a dual Op-Amp. use a probe that is connected to the oscilloscope to investigate different points on the board! 6 Advisory to Students and Instructors: We strongly advise that the student performs the simulation experiments outside the lab hours. we have included tables that can be used to record the experimental data that you collect during the experiment.14:55 .

2012/8/14 .14:55 .Figure 0-3 Picture of ASLKv2010 Starter kit Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#32 .page 8 .

Figure 0-4 Pin diagram for ASLKv2010 Starter kit Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 9 .14:55 .2012/8/14 .#33 .

the student has three options – to use the output from one of the potmeters to provide 5 V supply. This comprehensive user manual included with the kit gives complete insight of how to use ASLKv2010 Starter kit. such as TINA [9]. There is also a provision to include a 12-bit parallel-input multiplying digital-to-analog converter DAC7821. 10 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . to generate a 5 V supply (see the DC-DC converter experiment in this manual) or to use an external 5 V supply. Since the DAC requires 5 V supply. The kit has a provision to connect ±10 V DC power supplies.4. Refer to Appendix D for additional details of ASLKv2010 Starter kit.Introduction engineering students to perform analog lab experiments. A portion of ASLKv2010 Starter kit is left for general-purpose prototyping and can be used for carrying out mini-projects. 0. Multisim [15] or PSPICE [32].#34 . ASLKv2010 Starter kit comes with four general-purpose operational amplifiers (TL082) and three wide-bandwidth precision analog multipliers (MPY634) from Texas Instruments.2012/8/14 . The manual covers exercises of analog system design along with brief theory and simulation results obtained using simulation software. 2 FilterPro – a software program for designing analog filters. The kit comes with the necessary short and long connectors.2 Software The following softwares are necessary to carry out the experiments suggested in this manual: • • 1 A SPICE-based simulation software. The ±10 V supplies are connected internally to all the ICs that require ±10 V supplies. The main idea behind ASLKv2010 Starter kit is to provide a cost-efficient platform or test bed for students to realize almost any analog system using general-purpose ICs such as Op-Amps and analog multipliers. as well as connectors for power supplies.14:55 .page 10 . namely. Figure D-2 (Appendix D) shows the way power supply connections are made on ASLKv2010 Starter kit. Refer to Appendix A for the details of the integrated circuits that are included in ASLKv2010 Starter kit. the operational amplifiers and the multipliers.

Figure D-1 shows the overall floorplan of the ASLKv2010 Starter kit. Butterworth. Note that the ±10 V power and ground connections have to be connected to the power inlets at the side of the kit. At the time of writing this manual. FilterPro Version 3. Band Stop filters. 4 MDACBufferPro – a software for designing multiplying D/A converters. It supports the design of different types of filters. namely Bessel. High Pass filters.Introduction • • • • 3 SwitcherPro – a software program for designing switched-mode power supplies. Several SPICE-based simulation software [9. Gaussian and linear-phase filters.14:55 .5 Familiarizing with ASLKv2010 Starter Kit The Analog System Lab ASLKv2010 Starter kit is divided into many sections. Chebychev. Refer to the picture in Figure 0-5 when you read the following description. and Band Pass filters with up to 10 poles. as well as active components like transistors and analog integrated circuits. 0. The software can be used to design Low Pass filters.#35 . These are powerful and easy-touse simulators for electronic circuits. the power and ground are internally connected to the Op-Amps and analog multipliers.page 11 .0 is the latest. It allows the simulation of circuits with passive components such as resistors. (Appendix B explains what macromodels are.) We will assume that you are familiar with the concept of simulation. capacitors and inductors. 5 ADCPro – a software for designing A/D converters.2012/8/14 . If you wish to carry out an experiment using the DAC integrated 11 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 6 ClockPro – a software for synthesizing clock generators. Texas Instruments makes macromodels of integrated circuits available for the users of the simulation programs. FilterPro is a program for designing active filters. We have shown the power connections in ASLKv2010 Starter in Figure D-2. and are able to simulate a given circuit in TINA or PSPICE. 32] are available today to verify the behavior of circuits before they are implemented. The software can be downloaded from [10]. Please also refer to the floorplan of the chip shown in Figure D-1 (Appendix D).

D-5 and D-6.page 12 . The Op-Amps are marked TYPE 1. Each of these ICs has two amplifiers.2012/8/14 .#36 . There are three TYPE 1 amplifiers. 12 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . the power supply and ground connections are internally provided and the user need not worry about these. 1A and 1B are the two Op-Amps in the Op-Amp IC 1. There are three potmeters included in the kit. It will also be helpful to refer to the power connections shown in Figure D-2. The output of the potmeter can be used to derive a voltage in the range of 0 to 10 V. 3 and 4 on ASLKv2010 Starter kit. • 1 There are four TL082 Op-Amp ICs labeled 1. With the help of connectors. etc. All the Op-Amps ICs operate on ±10 V. TYPE 2 or SPARE on the board. 2. Thus. There are three spare Op-Amps and two TYPE-2 amplifiers. either resistors or capacitors can be used in the feedback loop of the amplifier. each of which is connected across 10 V and ground.Introduction circuits on the board. which are labeled A and B. as shown in Figure D-2. The Op-Amps marked TYPE 1 can be connected in the inverting configuration (only). TYPE-2 amplifiers can be connected in inverting or non-inverting configurations.14:55 . D-4. The eight Op-Amps are categorized as shown in the following table: Op-Amp IC Op-Amp Label on Kit Type Purpose 1 TYPE 1-1 TYPE 1-2 TYPE 1-3 TYPE SPARE-1 TYPE SPARE-2 TYPE SPARE-3 TYPE 2-1 TYPE 2-2 TYPE-1 TYPE-1 TYPE-1 SPARE SPARE SPARE TYPE-2 TYPE-2 Inverting Configuration only Inverting Configuration only Inverting Configuration only Spare Spare Spare Inverting or Non-inverting Inverting or Non-inverting 2 3 4 1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B Refer to the floorplan of the kit and identify the Op-Amp ICs (Figure D-1). you must use an external 5 V supply and ground connection. this can be useful in generating a reference voltage or even in generating a 5 V power supply for the DAC. Please see connection diagrams shown in Figures D-3.

the external connections shown in Figure 0-5 are required.2012/8/14 . Both the DACs are DAC7821 from Texas Instruments. • 3 Two digital-to-analog converters (DAC). These are wide-bandwidth precision analog multipliers from Texas Instruments (MPY634). Pins U9P3 and U8P3 of DAC1 and DAC2 are to be grounded and U9P18 and 13 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#37 . In order to use the analog multiplier IC on the ASLKv2010 Starter kit. labeled DAC1 and DAC2 are provided in the kit.14:55 . Each multiplier is a 14-pin IC and operates on ±10 V supply. parallel-input multiplying DACs that can be used in place of analog multipliers in circuits like AGC/AVC.page 13 .Introduction Input 1 1 14 2 13 3 4 12 MPY-634 5 10 6 9 7 Input 2 Output 11 8 Figure 0-5 External connections needed for using the analog multiplier 10 k 10 k VDD VDD RFB DAC 7821 −15 V ≤Vin ≤ +15 V GND 5k Iout1 Iout2 C1 − TL082 + C2 − TL082 Vout + −10 V ≤Vout ≤ +10 V Figure 0-6 External connections needed for using the DAC • 2 Three analog multipliers are included in the kit. The power supply connections for the multipliers are provided internally. They are 12-bit. Ground and power supplies are provided internally to the DAC.

regulators and wave shaping. but in case external connection is required. For each of the experiments. it can be taken easily from Power Distribution Pins. using the potentiometers. 4 Concepts of gain.Introduction U8P18 of DAC1 and DAC2 are to be connected to +5 V.2012/8/14 . All the ICs on the board except DAC are internally connected to power supply. In addition. In order to use the DAC integrated circuit on the ASLKv2010 Starter kit.page 14 . 3 Ability to use the oscilloscope. bandwidth. variable voltage can be obtained if needed for any circuit or IC. filters. the external connections shown in Figure 0-6 are required. A warm-up exercise can be included. transfer function. the instructor introduces the ASLKv2010 Starter kit and ensure that all the students are familiar with a SPICEbased simulation program. Please refer to Appendix D for experimental configurations of ASLKv2010 Starter kit. FilterPro and SwitcherPro. The Analog System Lab can be conducted parallel to a theory course on Analog Design or as a separate lab that follows a theory course. we have clarified the goal of the experiment and provided the theoretical background. 2 Basic computer skills required to run the tools such as TINA. 0. The student should have the following skills to pursue Analog System Lab: • • • • 1 Basic understanding of electronic circuits. • 5 The top left portion of the kit is a general-purpose area which uses a proto-board.#38 .6 Organization of the Manual There are 10 experiments in this manual and the next 10 chapters are devoted to them. We recommend that in the first cycle of experiments.14:55 . where the students are asked to use such a simulation program. 14 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . PSPICE. • 4 The kit has a provision to connect ±10 V power supplies.

#39 . 1.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is two-fold. we will understand the application of negative feedback in designing amplifiers.14:55 .2012/8/14 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation 1.page 15 . real Op-Amps have finite numbers for these 15 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2. While an ideal Op-Amp is assumed to have infinite gain and infinite bandwidth. we will build an instrumentation amplifier. In the first part. non-inverting amplifiers and inverting amplifiers.Chapter One Experiment 1 Negative Feedback Amplifiers and Instrumentation Amplifier 1.1 Unity Gain Amplifier An Op-Amp [8] can be used in negative feedback mode to build unity-gain amplifiers. In the second part.

how do we measure these parameters? Since the frequency and transient response of an amplifier are affected by these parameters. A0 is the open-loop gain. Figure 1-1 shows a differential input.Experiment 1 parameters.14:55 . A0 is in the range of 103 to 106 and hence V1 ≈ V2 .1) (1. the input voltage is practically zero.2012/8/14 . This is the basic theory of Op-Amp in the negative feedback configuration.2) In the above equations. or a Current-Controlled Current Source (CCCS) with current gain tending toward ∞. Given an Op-Amp. Similarly. Vo = A0 · (V1 − V2 ) V1 − V2 = Vo A0 (1. for real amplifiers. respectively. the slew rate and saturation limits of an operational amplifier are equally important. You can obtain these response characteristics by applying sinusoidal and square wave input. An Op-Amp may be considered as a Voltage-Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) with the voltage gain tending toward ∞. We invite the reader to view the recorded lecture [18]. Therefore. single-ended-output Op-Amp which uses dual supply ±Vss for biasing. For finite output voltage.page 16 . so that the output offset voltage can be made zero when the input offset voltage is zero. we can measure the parameters if we have the frequency and transient response of the amplifier.#40 . −Vss V2 − Vo = A0 [ V1 − V 2 ] V1 + +Vss Figure 1-1 An ideal dual-input. it is important to understand some limitations of real Op-Amps. such as finite Gain-Bandwidth Product (GB). single-output Op-Amp 16 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

3) Vo → 1 as A0 → ∞ Vi (1.7) The term GB = A0 ωd1 . A= A0 (1 + s/ωd1 )(1 + s/ωd2 ) (1.14:55 . Please view the recorded lecture [19] to get to know more about frequency compensation. is one of the most important parameters in Op-Amp negative feedback circuits.6) 1 1+ 1/A0 + s/A0 · ωd1 + s/A0 · ωd2 + s 2 /A0 · ωd1 · ωd2 1 1+ s/GB + s/A0 · ωd2 + s 2 /GB · ωd2 (1. where ωd1 and ωd2 (ωd1 < ωd2 ) are known as the dominant poles of the operational amplifier.#41 .2012/8/14 . as shown in Equation 1.5) We can now write the transfer function T for a unity-gain amplifier as T = = = 1 1 + 1/A (1.Experiment 1 Vi + Vo − Figure 1-2 A unity gain system A unity feedback circuit is shown in Figure 1-2. This transfer function is typical in an Op-Amp that has internal frequency compensation.page 17 . known as the gain bandwidth product of the operational amplifier.4) In Op-Amps. 17 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . It is easy to see that A0 Vo = Vi (1 + A0 ) (1.5. closed loop gain A is frequency-dependent.

00 M .Experiment 1 The transfer function in Equation 1.00 100.00 Gain (dB) 0. ζ = 1/2Q is the Damping Factor.00 −20.14:55 . Figure 1-3 shows the frequency response (magnitude vs ω/ω0 ) of a unity gain amplifier.7 can be rewritten as T = 1 2 1 + s/ω0 Q + s 2 /ω0 where Q= 1 ωd2 /GB + (1/A) GB/ωd2 We can approximate Q as Q≈ 1 ωd2 /GB = GB ωd2 Also.2012/8/14 .00 k 1. 10.00 M Frequency (Hz) Figure 1-3 Magnitude response of a unity gain system 18 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#42 10.00 −10.00 −30. ω0 = GB · ωd2 Q is the Quality Factor.page 18 . and ω0 is the natural frequency of the second-order system.

Q is approximately equal to the total number of visible peaks in the step response (Figure 1-4) and the frequency of ringing is ω0 1 − 1/4Q 2 .#43 .00 500.2012/8/14 . at some value of Vp . the rate at which the output starts rising remains constant and no longer increases with Vp . 19 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . in other words.00 0.00 Voltage (V) 1. be determined by applying a square wave of amplitude Vp at certain high frequency (close to gain bandwidth product) and increasing the magnitude of the input. The slew rate can. Slew rate is known as the maximum rate at which the output of the Op-Amps is capable of rising. slew rate is the maximum value that dVo/dt can attain. In this experiment. and if Vp · GB < slew rate.Experiment 1 2.00 n 750.14:55 . then the output appears as shown in Figure 1-4 if Q > 1/2 or ζ < 1.00 μ Time (s) Figure 1-4 Time response of an amplifier for a step input of size Vp If we apply a step voltage of amplitude Vp to the unity gain amplifier. as we increase the amplitude Vp of the step input.00 n 500.00 m 0.page 19 .00 n 1. therefore.50 1.00 250. this rate is called slew rate.

Experiment 1 Vi + + Vo − Vo − 2R R R R Vi (a) (b) Figure 1-5 (a) Non-inverting amplifier of gain 2. Figure 1-7 shows the output of the three types of amplifiers for a square-wave input.#44 . 2 Vo2 is the frequency response of the non-inverting amplifier.3 Specifications Design the following amplifiers: (a) a unity gain amplifier. 20 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 20 . (b) inverting amplifier of gain 2 A non-inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 is shown in Figure 1-5(a). 3 Vo3 is the frequency response of the inverting amplifier. illustrating the limitations due to slew rate. Figure 1-6 illustrates the frequency response (magnitude and phase) of the three different negative feedback amplifier topologies. (b) a non-inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 [Figure 1-5(a)] and an inverting amplifier with the gain of 2 [Figure 1-5(b)].14:55 . • • • 1 Vo1 is the frequency response of the unity-gain amplifier.2012/8/14 . An inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 is shown in Figure 1-5(b). 1. The figure also shows the time-domain response of the amplifier.

0mV V o2 20.0 M Frequency (Hz) 10.0 M Frequency (Hz) Phase (deg) 200.0mV −20.0 10.Experiment 1 V o2 V o3 Gain (dB) 10.#45 .0 V o2 −200.0 200. (b) time response of negative feedback amplifiers 21 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .0 100.0 (b) Figure 1-6 (a) Frequency response of negative feedback amplifiers.0mV 0 100.14:55 .0 500.0 300.0 100.2012/8/14 .0 Time (ns) 400.0 M V o3 100.0mV V o1 Output 10.0 k 1.0 0 V o1 −10.0mV Vi 0 Vo 3 −10.0 M (a) 30.0 −20.0 V o1 0 −100.0 k 1.page 21 .

unity-gain.0 Unity gain Output voltage (V) 0 −5.0 10. 22 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 22 . inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. non-inverting. notice that A · ω = GB This illustrates the tradeoff between gain and bandwidth in a feedback amplifier. namely. namely.4 Measurements to be Taken • • 1 Time response: Apply a square wave of fixed magnitude and study the effect of slew rate on the three types of feedback amplifiers.2012/8/14 . inverting and non-inverting amplifiers.0 5.0 −5.0 0 Input voltage (V) 5.14:55 .0 −10.Experiment 1 Non-inv amp (gain = 3) 10. and inverting amplifiers 1. If we refer to the gain of the feedback amplifier as A and the bandwidth of the feedback amplifier as ω. from the frequency response.0 Inv amp (gain = 2) −10. 2 Frequency response: Obtain the gain bandwidth product of the three types of feedback amplifiers.0 Figure 1-7 Transfer characteristics of unity-gain. unity-gain.#46 .

(b) two operational amplifiers • 3 DC transfer characteristics: When we increase the gain of the feedback amplifier. the input range over which the output of the amplifier remains linear with respect to input voltage will begin to reduce.14:55 . this range is given by 2 · Vss /A.2012/8/14 . determine the input range of the amplifier where the output remains linear with respect to the input voltage.#47 .page 23 . 23 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . In fact.Experiment 1 R V1 + R − − Vo + R mR R R R − V2 + (a) V1 V2 + + − R Vo R − R mR R (b) Figure 1-8 Instrumentation amplifier configurations with (a) three. From the DC-transfer characteristic of Table 1-4.

Experiment 1 • 4 Determine the second pole of an Op-Amp and develop the macromodel for the given Op-Amp IC TL082. 6 DC transfer characteristics: Vary the DC input voltage and study its effect on the output voltage.) • • • 4 Apply a high-frequency square wave and increase the peak-to-peak amplitude of the input. the peak-to-peak amplitude of output starts falling.#48 . Compute the slew rate. Take the readings in Table 1-1 and compute the slew rate. 1. Take the readings in Table 1-2.14:55 . frequency response and DC transfer characteristics from the oscilloscope and compare them with your simulation results. Table 1-1 Measurement of slew rate: Method 1 S. Take your readings in Table 1-3. Take your readings in Table 1-4. 3 Apply a square wave of amplitude 1 V at the input. No. (Hint for calculating the slew rate: After the slew rate has been achieved.5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Submit the simulation results for time response. 2 Take the plots of time response. Change the input frequency and study the peak-to-peak amplitude of the output. 5 Frequency response: Apply sine wave input to the system and study the magnitude and phase response.2012/8/14 . See Appendix B for an introduction to the topic of analog macromodels.page 24 . frequency response and DC transfer characteristics. Input Frequency Peak-to-Peak Amplitude of Output (Vpp ) 1 2 3 4 24 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

No. 25 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . input frequency Input Frequency Magnitude Variation Phase Variation 1 2 3 4 Table 1-4 DC transfer characteristic S.14:55 .6 Exercises • 1 Design an instrumentation amplifier of a differential mode gain Ad of 3 using three Op-Amps. Input Voltage Peak-to-Peak Amplitude of Output (Vpp ) 1 2 3 4 Table 1-3 S.2012/8/14 .r. We invite the reader to view the recorded lecture [20]. Assume that the resistors have tolerance δ of 1% and determine the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of the setup using the following equation.Experiment 1 Table 1-2 Measurement of slew rate: Method 2 S.page 25 . No.#49 . DC Input Voltage DC Output Voltage 1 2 3 4 1. Refer to Figure 1-8(a) for the circuit diagram and determine the values of the resistors. Ad CMRR = 2·δ Estimate the bandwidth of the instrumentation amplifier. Plot of magnitude and phase variation w. No.t.

Estimate the bandwidth of the instrumentation amplifier.Experiment 1 • • 2 Design an instrumentation amplifier with a differential-mode gain Ad of 5 using two Op-Amps. Refer to Figure 1-8(b) for the circuit diagram and determine the values of the resistors. Repeat this experiment for V3 = 2 V and 5 V. Assume that the resistors have 1% tolerance and determine the CMRR of the setup.2012/8/14 .1/V. Show that the gain of the amplifier is 10/V3 .14:55 .page 26 . Remember that the multiplier has a scaling factor of 0. Measure the gain and bandwidth of the amplifier when V3 = 1 V. How is this amplifier topology better than that of Figure 1-5(a)? Can you think of an application for this amplifier? + + V2 12 V VG1 − + + + U1 TL082 VF1 V1 12 V U2 * U1 U2 100 k V3 1 V Figure 1-9(a) + An inverting amplifier with analog gain control 26 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . ∗ 3 Figure 1-9(a) shows an inverting amplifier whose gain is inversely proportional to the control voltage V3 .#50 .

.00 u 0.00 250. A0 ).00 500.00 0.14:55 . Vdd C1 − TL082 + R2 Vin R1 + TL082 − Figure 1-10 Vdd Iout 1 Iout 2 Rfb DAC7821 Vref GND Vout Digitally controlled amplifier 27 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Note that the input to the DAC is a 12-bit binary word (A11 .page 27 . .00 m Time (s) Figure 1-9(b) Simulation of the circuit for Figure 1-9(a) when V3 = 1 V ∗ 4 A digitally controlled (programmable) amplifier is shown in Figure 1-10.2012/8/14 . It is an • inverting amplifier whose gain (magnitude) G is given by Vout R2 = .00 u 1. Can you think of an application for such an amplifier? Compare the circuits of Figure 1-9(a) and Figure 1-10. .00 −10.00 u 750.#51 .00 −5.Experiment 1 10.00 Voltage (V) 5. . Vin R1 4096 11 A0 · 2 n 0 Determine the maximum and minimum limits of the gain G.

1. 28 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The book “OPAMPS For Everyone” by Carter and Mancini is also an excellent resource [8].8 Related Reading Datasheets of all these ICs are available at www.page 28 .com. etc.2012/8/14 . INA118 and INA128.14:55 . An excellent reference about operational amplifiers is the “Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications” by Carter and Brown [5]. OPA357. Additional ICs from Texas Instruments that can be used as general purpose Op-Amps are OPA703.7 Other Related ICs Specific ICs from Texas Instruments that can be used as instrumentation amplifiers are INA114.#52 . See [3].ti.Experiment 1 1.

2.14:55 .1 Inverting Regenerative Comparator In the earlier experiment. 29 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . we had discussed the use of only negative feedback. The goal of this experiment is to understand the basics of hysteresis and the need of hysteresis in switching circuits.Chapter Two Experiment 2 Regenerative Feedback System.2012/8/14 .page 29 . pulse width modulators and Class-D amplifiers. Let us now introduce the case of regenerative positive feedback as shown in the Figure 2-1.2 Brief Theory and Motivation 2. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator 2. 2.#53 .1 Goal of the Experiment This experiment illustrates the use of positive regenerative feedback used in all ON–OFF control systems such as temperature controllers.

the circuit behaves as an amplifier and the output voltage has a linear relation to the input voltage.0 10.0 R2 R1 Voltage (V) −bVss 0 bVss −5.#54 .3.2012/8/14 .3) There are three cases to be considered. +Vss and −Vss . the gain is very sensitive to variations in |A0 β| 2 Case 2 – |A0 · β| = 1: In this case. This configuration is useful in interface circuits. the amplifier becomes unstable and its output saturates.0 −5. namely.page 30 .0 −10. • • • 1 Case 1 – |A0 · β| < 1: In this case.0 0 Input voltage (V) 5. 30 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . 3 Case 3 – |A0 · β| >> 1: The output voltage is no longer related linearly to input voltage. The relation between the input voltage Vi and output voltage Vo is given by Equation 2. where β = R R1 .0 −10.2) (2. However.0 Figure 2-1 Inverting Schmitt trigger and its hysteresis characteristic The reader will benefit by listening to the recorded lecture at [22].1) (2. where the output voltage behaves in a “digital” way and shows two stable states.0 5. +R 1 Vo = −A0 (Vi − βVo ) 1 1 − A0 β 1 β = 1 1− A0 β Vo /Vi = −A0 2 (2.Experiment 2 Vi − Vo + 10.

0 Vo −10. The non-inverting Schmitt trigger circuit is shown in Figure 2-3. See Figure 2-1. This kind of comparator is required when driving a MOSFET as a switch in ON–OFF controllers.0 −5. the circuit can change state only when the input becomes −βVss . Thus there is a hysteresis of ±βVss on either side of origin and there is a total hysteresis of 2 · β · Vss .0 Vi Voltage (V) R2 R1 + − 0 −R1 R 2Vss R1 R 2Vss −5.page 31 .0 0 Input voltage (V) 5. (b) non-inverting Schmitt trigger circuits 10.0 −10. Now when the input is decreased. As the input is increased. Vi Vo Vi Vo Figure 2-2 Symbols for (a) inverting. and when the input reaches β · Vss . pulse width modulators and Class-D audio power amplifiers.#55 .0 Figure 2-3 Non-inverting Schmitt trigger and its hysteresis characteristic 31 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . for which the symbol is shown in Figure 2-2(b). the output saturates at +Vss . the device enters into the regenerative feedback mode and the output changes from +Vss to −Vss .2012/8/14 . the output remains constant at +Vss .Experiment 2 When the input is a large negative value.0 10. The symbol for this invertingtype Schmitt trigger is shown in Figure 2-2(a). One can similarly construct a non-inverting Schmitt trigger.14:55 .0 5. SMPS (Switched Mode Power Supply).

namely. square and the triangular waveforms. are generated using the astable multivibrator.#56 . the circuit switches to the R − C Vo + R2 R1 Figure 2-4 Astable multivibrator 32 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The time period of the square waveform generated by the multivibrator is given by 1+β 1−β T = 2 · RC · ln (2.4) βVss refers to the peak amplitude of the triangular waveform.Experiment 2 2. The trigger waveform is applied to the monostable multivibrator at the positive terminal.page 32 . which produces the outputs Vo3 and Vo4 at the output.14:55 .2. as shown in Figure 2-5.2 Astable Multivibrator An astable multivibrator is shown in Figure 2-4. 2. We refer to β as the regenerative feedback factor. The first two waveforms Vo1 and Vo2 shown in Figure 2-5.3 Monostable Multivibrator (Timer) The circuit diagram for a monostable multivibrator is shown in Figure 2-6.2.2012/8/14 . at this time. The monostable remains in the “ON” state until it is triggered.

00 m Time (s) 27. τ = RC ln 1+β β (2.00 m 10.00 m 22.50 m 25.5) After triggering the monostable at time t . The equation for τ is shown below.00 Vo2 −6.0 Time (ms) 190.6) 33 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .00 20. The formula for τ is given below.0 V Vo4 −5.Experiment 2 20.50 m 30.0 V 150. τ = RC ln 1 1−β (2.0 V 1.14:55 .0 180. the next trigger pulse must be applied after t + τ .00 6.0 200.0 Figure 2-5 Simulation results for (a) astable multivibrator.0 160.0 170. (b) monostable multivibrator “OFF” state for a period equal to τ .#57 .0 V Vo3 −10.page 33 .00 Vo1 −20.2012/8/14 .

Enter the reading of the delay in the rightmost column of the Table 2-1.Experiment 2 R − C + R2 Neg. Observe the delay between the input and the output waveforms at the zero-crossover point. 34 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 . trigger R1 Figure 2-6 Monostable multivibrator 2. Apply the triangular waveform with the peak voltage of 10 V at a given frequency and observe the output waveform.14:55 .page 34 .3 Specifications Design a regenerative feedback circuit with a hysteresis of ±1 V. Vary either R1 or R2 in order to vary β. Estimate the hysteresis and see how it can be controlled by varying the regenerative feedback factor. Refer to Figure 2-3 for the circuit diagram.4 Measurements to be Taken Obtain the DC transfer characteristics of the system.#58 . As you vary the hysteresis. the delay must also vary in direct proportion to the hysteresis. 2.

Is the hysteresis directly proportional to regenerative feedback factor β? 2. • • • 1 Submit the DC transfer characteristics obtained using simulation.#59 . No.t. 2 Take the plot of DC transfer characteristics from the oscilloscope and compare it with simulation result.5.6 Exercises • • 1 Design an astable multivibrator using charging and discharging of capacitor C through resistance R between input and output of the Schmitt trigger. 3 Vary the regenerative feedback and observe the variation in the hysteresis. regenerative feedback Regenerative Feedback Factor β Hysteresis (Width) Delay 1 2 3 4 2. Assume that frequency f = 1/T = 1 kHz.14:55 .r. 35 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . See Figure 2-4.5 What Should you Submit Use Table 2-1 to note down your readings.2012/8/14 .Experiment 2 Table 2-1 S. Plot of hysteresis w.page 35 . 2 Design a monostable multivibrator (Timer) for τ = 10 ms and estimate RC using Equation 2.

Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .#60 .2012/8/14 .page 36 .

#61 . This experiment is to understand the advantage of using integrators instead of differentiators as building blocks. 37 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 37 .14:55 . Filters are essential blocks in analog signal processing to improve signal to noise ratio. An Op-Amp can be used to construct an integrator or a differentiator.Chapter Three Experiment 3 Integrators and Differentiators 3.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of the experiment is to understand the advantages and disadvantages of using integrators or differentiators as building blocks in building N th order filters. 3.2012/8/14 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation Integrators and differentiators can be used as building blocks for filters. Differentiators are rejected because of their good response to noise.

a high valued resistance across C must be added in order to bring the Op-Amp to the active region where it can act as an integrator.page 38 .14:55 .1 Integrators An integrator circuit that uses an Op-Amp is shown in Figure 3-1. 3. Assuming A = GB/s. R − Vi C + Vo Figure 3-2 Differentiator 38 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#62 .Experiment 3 C Vi − R Vo + Figure 3-1 Integrator 3.2.2 Differentiators A differentiator circuit that uses an Op-Amp is shown in Figure 3-2.2.2012/8/14 . To make it work. the transfer function of the integrator is given by Vo =− Vi 1 sCR s 1 + 1+ GB · RC GB The output goes to saturation in practice.

page 39 . 39 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 3.2012/8/14 . assuming that A = GB/s.14:55 . 3.4 Measurements to be Taken • • 1 Time response: Apply a step input and a square-wave input to the integrator and study the output response.3 Specifications Fix the RC time constant of the integrator or differentiator so that the phase shift and magnitude variation of the ideal block remains unaffected by the active device parameters.2) The output of the differentiator remains at input offset (approximately 0). However.1) (3. any sudden disturbance at the input causes it to go to ringing at natural frequency ω0 .Experiment 3 Again. the transfer function of the differentiator is given by Vo = Vi = −sRC s RC + s2 · 1+ GB GB −sRC s s2 1+ + 2 ω0 Q ω0 (3. Apply a triangular and square-wave input to the differentiator and study the output response.#63 . 2 Frequency response: Apply the sine-wave input and study the phase error and magnitude error for integrator and differentiator.

r. the plot shows a phase lag proportional to ω/GB. Prepare a table of the form Table 3-1. Vary the peak amplitude of the square wave and obtain the peak-to-peak value Vpp of the output. Figure 3-3 shows the typical frequency response for integrators and differentiators. In Figure 3-4(a). The next two plots VF1 and VF2 are the phase responses of the integrator and differentiator.2012/8/14 . For an integrator. the phase will change rapidly at natural frequency in direct proportion to Quality Factor. 2 Take the plots of transient response on an oscilloscope and compare them with simulation results.Experiment 3 3. Vpp is directly proportional to Vp and is given by Vpp = Vp T /2RC. are the magnitude responses of the integrator and differentiator. Figure 3-4 shows sample output waveforms obtained through simulation.5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Simulate the integrator and differentiator using a simulator software and obtain the transient response. For the differentiator. VF1 and VF2 . The first two plots. 3 Frequency response: Apply a sine wave to the integrator (similarly to the differentiator) and vary the input frequency to obtain phase and magnitude errors. where T = 1/f .#64 .t. The magnitude peaks at natural frequency and is directly proportional to the Quality Factor. Plot of magnitude and phase w. • 4 Time response: Apply a square-wave input of amplitude Vp to the integrator. the triangular waveform is the output of the integrator and the ringing waveform is Table 3-1 S. No. the input waveform is a square wave. input frequency for the integrator Input Frequency Magnitude Phase 1 2 3 4 5 40 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . respectively. The magnitude decreases with increasing frequency. respectively.14:55 .page 40 . f being the input frequency.

00 90.Experiment 3 −10.00 0 5k 10 k Frequency (Hz) 15 k 20 k Figure 3-3 Frequency response of integrator and differentiator Table 3-2 Plot of magnitude and phase w.00 VF1 88.00 0.00 VF2 −300.00 80. We leave it as an exercise for the student to figure out which are the outputs of the integrator and differentiator in Figure 3-4(b).#65 . input frequency for the differentiator S.page 41 . No.00 VF1 −40.r. Input Frequency Magnitude Phase 1 2 3 4 5 the output of the differentiator.2012/8/14 .14:55 . 41 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .00 VF2 10.t.

5 0 −2.14:55 .0 2.0 (a) 5.5 0 −2.page 42 .5 −5.2012/8/14 .0 0 1.0 Time (ms) 4.0 Output (V) 2. (b) triangular-wave inputs 42 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .0 Output (V) 2.0 3.#66 .0 0 1.0 Time (ms) (b) Figure 3-4 Outputs of integrator and differentiator for (a) square-wave.5 −5.0 2.Experiment 3 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 3.

2012/8/14 .14:55 . peak value of input S.t.page 43 . Peak Value of Input Vp Peak-to-Peak Value of Output 1 2 3 4 3.#67 . No. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these circuits when compared to their conventional counterparts? R Vi R R + C Vo − + R Vo − R R R R C Vi Deboo’s integrator (a) (b) Figure 3-5 Circuits for Exercise 43 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .6 Exercise: Grounded Capacitor Topologies of Integrator and Differentiator Determine the function of the circuits shown in Figure 3-5.Experiment 3 Table 3-3 Variation of peak-to-peak value of output w.r.

2012/8/14 .14:55 .#68 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 44 .

When N is odd.2 Brief Theory and Motivation Second-order filters (or biquard filters) are important since they are the building blocks in the construction of N th -order filters.page 45 .Chapter Four Experiment 4 Analog Filters 4. and Band Stop filters. and study their frequency characteristics (phase and magnitude). When N 45 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . namely.#69 . the N th -order filter can be realized using (N − 1)/2 second-order filters and one first-order filter. Band Pass.1 Goal of the Experiment To understand the working of four types of second-order filters. Low Pass.2012/8/14 . for N > 2. 4. High Pass.

and BSF (Band Stop Filter). where ω0 = 1/RC and H0 is the low frequency gain of the transfer function. Figure 4-5(b) shows a second-order universal filter Table 4-1 Transfer functions of active filters Low Pass Filter High Pass Filter Band Pass Filter Band Stop Filter Vo3 = Vi Vo1 = Vi Vo2 = Vi Vo4 = Vi +H0 1+ s2 s + 2 ω0 Q ω0 H0 · 1+ s2 ωo2 s2 s + 2 ω0 Q ω0 −H0 · 1+ s s2 + 2 ω0 Q ω0 − 1+ 1+ s ω0 s2 2 ω0 · H0 s s2 + 2 ω0 Q ω0 46 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The transfer functions for the different filter types are shown in Table 4-1. BPF (Band Pass Filter). Please listen to the recorded lecture at [21] for a detailed explanation of active filters.#70 . we will describe a universal active filter that provides all four filter functionalities.Experiment 4 is even.page 46 . Second-order filter can be used to construct four different types of filters.2012/8/14 .14:55 . The filter names are often abbreviated as LPF (Low Pass Filter). HPF (High Pass Filter). In this experiment. we need N/2 second-order filters.

For the BPF. For the BPF.2012/8/14 . assume F0 = 10 kHz and Q = 10. HPF. This is demonstrated in the next experiment. The phase sensitivity δφ/δω is maximum at ω = ω0 and is given by −2Q/ω0 . This information about phase variation can be used to tune the filter to a desired frequency ω0 .Experiment 4 C C BPF LPF − + R + R R QR + − − R R HPF R − R /H 0 + Vi BSF Figure 4-1 A second-order universal active filter realized using two integrators.1 Frequency Response of Filters The magnitude response of two of the filters. Note that there are different outputs of the circuit that realize LPF. assume F0 = 1 kHz and Q = 1. the magnitude response peaks at ω = ω0 and is given by H0 Q.2.page 47 . are shown in Figure 4-3.14:55 . 4. The BSF shows a null magnitude response at ω = ω0 . 4. 47 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#71 . BPF and BSF functions. BPF and BSF. For the BSF.3 Specifications Design a Band Pass and a Band Stop filter.

A sample output is shown in Figure 4-2.0 ms .page 48 .0 mV 80.0 mV 10.0 mV 10.0 ms 90.2012/8/14 . • Band Pass output will output the fundamental frequency of the square wave multiplied by the gain at the center frequency. π · H0 · Q 200.0 mV Vi 10.0 ms Time Figure 4-2 Simulation waveform for a universal active filter 48 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The amplitude at this frequency 4 · Vp is given by . where Vp is the peak amplitude of the input square wave.0 ms 95.0 ms 85.0 mV Vo 4 10.0 mV V o2 200.#72 100.14:55 .4 Measurements to be Taken • 1 Steady-state response: Apply a square-wave input (try f = 1 kHz and f = 10 kHz) to both BPF and BSF circuits and observe the outputs.Experiment 4 4.

Experiment 4 • The BSF output will carry all the harmonics of the square wave. 4. 2 Take the plots of the steady-state response and frequency response from the oscilloscope for both the filters and compare the results with simulation results. No. The nature of graphs should be as shown in Figure 4-3. • 2 Frequency response: Apply a sine-wave input and obtain the magnitude and the phase response. Input frequency Phase Magnitude Band Stop Phase Magnitude 1 2 3 4 Table 4-3 Frequency response of a BSF with F0 = 10 kHz. Input frequency Phase Magnitude Band Stop Phase Magnitude 1 2 3 4 49 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#73 . This illustrates the application of BSF as a distortion analyzer.14:55 . Q = 10 Band Pass S.page 49 . No. 3 Frequency response: Apply a sine-wave input and vary its input frequency to obtain the phase and magnitude error. other than the fundamental frequency. Use Tables 4-2 and 4-3 to note your readings. Q = 1 Band Pass S. Table 4-2 Frequency response of a BPF with F0 = 1 kHz.2012/8/14 .5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Simulate the circuits in using a simulator software and obtain the steady-state response and frequency response for both the filters.

one first-order filter. Determine its bandwidth. synthesize a waveform v(t ) = sin (100π t ) + 0. It realizes a transfer function. 1 sin (200π t ) Volts and use it as the input to the filter.0 Vo2 20.6 Exercises • 1 Higher-order filters are normally designed by cascading second-order filters and. 1 + 2(sCR)1 1 + 2(sCR)2 + (sCR)3 with C = 1 µF and R = 1 k.0 0 −10.page 50 .0 100 125 150 Frequency (Hz) 175 200 Figure 4-3 Magnitude response of BPF. if needed.Experiment 4 30.0 −40. In order to test this circuit. What output did you obtain? ∗ 3 A third-order Butterworth filter is designed as shown.14:55 . • • 2 Design a notch filter (Band Stop filter) to eliminate the 50 Hz power line frequency.#74 . Design a third-order Butterworth Low Pass Filter using FilterPro and obtain the frequency response as well as the transient response of the filter. BSF 4. The specifications are: bandwidth of the filter ω0 = 2 · π · 104 rad/s and H0 = 10.0 Vo4 −20.0 Gain (dB) 10.2012/8/14 .0 −30. The desired transfer function is realized using cascading of a second-order filter with Q of 1 and a first-order filter. 50 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

00 −20.Experiment 4 C1 1u C3 1 u R4 1 k 9 J1 + U TL082 1 V1 10 + VF1 + 9 − 9 J1 U2 TL082 9 + + 9 R9 1 k J1 U3 TL082 J2 9 9 − + 9 9 − R10 1 k J2 + 9 + + 9 9 R3 1 k 9 9 − 9 9 J2 R2 1 k 9 V2 10 J2 9 R1 1 k C2 1 u 9 + 9 VF2 J1 U5 TL082 R6 1 k + R7 1 k 9 − + 9 J2 9 + 9 R5 1 k 9 R8 1 k J1 U4 TL082 VG1 Figure 4-4(a) Third-order Butterworth filter 10.#75 .page 51 .14:55 .00 −10.2012/8/14 .00 Gain (dB) 0.00 10 Figure 4-4(b) 100 Frequency (Hz) 1k Frequency response of the Butterworth filter 51 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

00 Phase (deg) −30. R5 10 kOhm C2 100 nF C1 100 nF VF1 J2 2 − 1 8 VG1 3 J1 U1 TL082 + + + 2 − J1 U2 TL082 3 + J2 + 1 J1 8 + + + R3 1 kOhm 1 8 3 R6 1 kOhm 4 R2 1 kOhm 4 R1 1 kOhm 2 − J2 4 + V2 5 V R4 1 kOhm VF2 V1 5 V U3 TL082 Figure 4-5(a) Tow-Thomas biquad filter 30. and [13].00 −15.7 Related Circuits The circuit described in Figure 4-5(b) is a universal active filter circuit.00 100 Figure 4-5(b) 1k Frequency (Hz) 10k Frequency response of the filter 4. Datasheet of UAF42 is available from www. [12].2012/8/14 .00 −200.00 0.page 52 .00 0. Obtain its frequency response VF1 /VG1 and VF2 /VG2 . Also refer to the application notes [7]. 52 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . a specialized IC called UAF42 from Texas Instruments provides the functionality of the universal active filter. It is designed for • a pole Q of 10 and pole frequency of 10 krad/sec.00 −300. While this circuit can be built with Op-Amps.#76 .com.ti.Experiment 4 ∗ 4 The filter of Figure 4-5(a) is known as Tow-Thomas Biquad Filter.14:55 .00 −100.00 Gain (dB) 15. We encourage you to use this circuit and understand its function.

14:55 . the analog multiplier. the output phase w.page 53 .r.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is to learn the concept of tuning a filter.#77 . The reader 53 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The idea is to adjust the RC time constants of the filter so that given in-phase response of a Low Pass filter. input is exactly 90◦ at the incoming frequency. 5.Chapter Five Experiment 5 Self-tuned Filter 5. we need to introduce one more building block.2012/8/14 . Such self-tuned filters are used to lock on to the fundamental frequency and harmonics of the input.t. This principle is utilized in distortion analyzers and spectrum analyzers.2 Brief Theory and Motivation In order to design self-tuned filters and other analog systems in subsequent experiments.

we have used the MPY634 analog multiplier from Texas Instruments. Vo = Voffset + Kx × Vx + Ky × Vy + Ko × Vx × Vy + ξ V1 X Vo = (5. we will use Vr = 10 V. Figure 5-1 shows the symbol of an analog multiplier.page 54 .2012/8/14 .0 V +500.Experiment 5 will benefit from viewing the recorded lecture at [23].14:55 .1) V1V2 Vr V2 (a) +1.0 V 0 1.0 mV −1.#78 .0 (b) Figure 5-1 (a) Symbol of an analog multiplier. We also show the output of the multiplier when two sinusoidal waveforms are multiplied.0 2. (b) multiplier as a phase detector 54 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .0 mV Output V2 V1 Vo 0 −500.0 Time (ms) 3. be used as a measure of the phase difference. In our experiments.0 4. therefore. In the ASLKv2010 Starter kit. note that the output of the multiplier depends on the phase difference between the two inputs and can.

for precision amplifiers. which can be part of a self-tuned filter. In the simpler circuit. In Experiment 4.2012/8/14 .1 Multiplier as a Phase Detector In the circuit of Figure 5-1. where Vr is the parameter defined above. Hence. We define Vr = 1 Ko For a precision multiplier. Kx and Ky are called feedthrough components and Ko is called the normalizing component. if we replace the integrator with a multiplier followed by integrator. A simpler version of the voltage-controlled phase generator.2. You may use this simpler circuit which uses only two Op-Amps. assume that Vx = Vp sin (ωt ) (5. note that the circuit of Figure 5-3(a) uses four Op-Amps. you can study the variation of the phase in direct proportion to Vref for a given sine-wave input frequency. See Figure 5-3(a). The output of the self-tuned filter for a square-wave input.4) 55 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2) Vy = Vp sin (ωt + φ) (5. 5. is shown in Figure 5-3(b). Vr ≤ Vx and Vy ≤ Vr . then the circuit becomes a Voltage-Controlled Filter (or a Voltage-Controlled Phase Generator) shown in Figure 5-2. including the control voltage waveform.14:55 .#79 . The figure brings out the aspect of automatic control and self-tuning. Vo = Vx × Vy /Vr .page 55 . This forms the basic circuit for self tuned filter.3) Then the output of the multiplier is Vo = Vp Vp 2Vr · [ cos φ − cos (ωt + φ)] (5. is shown in Figure 5-4.Experiment 5 where ξ is a non-linear term in Vx and Vy .

2012/8/14 .14:55 .#80 . (b) ∝ Vc Vc 56 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 56 .Experiment 5 VC X C R − BPF X + R C R LPF − − + R HPF + R R − QR Vi BSF + R/H 0 (a) VC X X C R − BPF + C R − + R QR − Vi R/H 0 R LPF − R HPF + R BSF + (b) Figure 5-2 Voltage controlled filter with frequency (a) ∝ 1 .

#81 .Experiment 5 VC Vref R Vi HPF/LPF Vo1(BPF) R Vo2 (BSF) C − X VCP/ VCF + Vi (a) X X Vref C C R C R R R − Vp sin(wt) + − + − X R Vc + − + (b) Figure 5-3 (a) A self-tuned filter based on a voltage-controlled filter or voltage-controlled phase generator.2012/8/14 .page 57 .14:55 . (b) a simple voltage-controlled phase generator that can become part of a self-tuned filter 57 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

0 mV Vo2 −200. 58 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .6) .page 58 . Vo2 corresponds to BSF.0 mV 100.0 mV 20. Vc is the control voltage and Vi is the input voltage After passing through the LPF.0 mV Vi −100. Vav = Kpd = Vp Vp 2Vr cos φ dVav dφ Kpd is called the phase detector sensitivity and is measured in Volts/radians.0 mV 400.0 ms 40.14:55 .0 ms 30.2012/8/14 .5) (5. the high frequency component gets filtered out and only the average value of output Vav remains.#82 (5.Experiment 5 2.0 ms Time Figure 5-4 Output of the self-tuned filter based on simulation.0 V Vo1 −2. Vo1 corresponds to BPF.0 V 200.0 ms 50.0 mV Vc 200.

dVc For varying input frequency the output phase will always lock to the input phase with phase difference between the two if Vav = 0. Now.#83 . dω0 −Vr = 2 = ω0 /Vc dVc Vc · RC The sensitivity of VCF is dφ radians/sec/Volts.2012/8/14 .Experiment 5 For φ = 90o . Vav becomes 0. ω0 of the VCF is given by ω0 = Vr Vc · RC Therefore. 90◦ 59 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . dVc dφ dφ dω0 = · dVc dω0 dVc If we consider the low-pass output.page 59 . then Vo = Vi +H0 1+ s s2 + 2 ω0 Q ω0 ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ φ = tan−1 ⎢ ⎣ ωr ω0 Q 1− ωr ω0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 2⎦ dφ 2Q = dω0 ω0 Hence.14:55 . This information is used to tune the voltage-controlled filter (VCF) automatically. sensitivity of VCF (KVCF ) is equal to dφ = −2Q/Vc .

Experiment 5 Table 5-1 Variation of output amplitude with input frequency S.3 Specification Assuming that the input frequency is 1 kHz.2012/8/14 . 3 Measure the output amplitude of the fundamental (Band Pass output) at varying input frequency at fixed input amplitude.#84 . Input Voltage = Input Frequency Output Amplitude 1 2 3 4 5. 5. 2 Take the plots of transient response from oscilloscope and compare them with simulation results. 5.page 60 . 60 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . design a high-Q BPF whose center frequency gets tuned to 1 kHz.4 Measurements to be Taken Apply a square-wave input and observe the amplitude of the Band Pass output for fundamental and its harmonics. No. Output amplitude should remain constant for varying input frequency within the lock range of the system.5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Simulate the circuits and obtain the transient response of the system.

00 −1.00 337.6 Exercises • • • 1 Determine the lock range of the self-tuned filter you designed. Determine its lock range. ∗ 3 A self-tuned filter is shown in Figure 5-5(b). 2 Repeat the experiment above with other periodic input waveforms such as the triangular waveform.00 m Time (s) Figure 5-5(a) Simulation of the self-tuned filter shown in Figure 5-5(b) when VG1 = 0. The lock range is defined as the range of input frequencies where the amplitude of the output voltage remains constant at H0 × Q × Vp .00 m 341.1 V magnitude. 2.00 m 339.00 −2. Estimate the output at VF1 and the control voltage VF3 for a square wave input VG1 of 0.2012/8/14 .00 m 343. 2 V. Repeat for VG1 = 0.00 Output 1.14:55 .00 0.#85 .Experiment 5 5. 1 V 61 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 61 .

2012/8/14 .page 62 .#86 9 VF3 .2 k U1 * U2 VF1 VG1 R8 1 k 9 R6 10 k 9 − 9 J1 + J1 U4 TL082 + J2 R7 1 k − + J2 9 9 R9 2.14:55 .2 k VF2 U2 TL082 + 9 C1 100 n + − + J1 U3 TL082 9 9 R3 1 k J2 R4 1 k 9 9 R2 1 k 9 9 9 U 1 * U2 U6 100 k 9 + − J1 J2 + U7 TL082 9 R10 1 k C3 1 u 9 9 C2 100 n + 9 9 Figure 5-5(b) Self-tuned filter Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .V2 12 + V1 12 J1 + J2 9 + − U1 TL082 9 R5 1 k J2 + J1 9 9 U5 100 k 9 R1 2.

page 63 .com for application notes. 63 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .Experiment 5 5.#87 .7 Related ICs Texas Instruments also manufactures the following related ICs – Voltage-controlled amplifiers (e.g.g.2012/8/14 .ti.14:55 . VCA820) and multiplying DAC (e. DAC7821) that can be used in place of analog multiplier. Refer to www.

2012/8/14 .page 64 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#88 .14:55 .

2 Brief Theory and Motivation The function generator circuit consists of a feedback loop.#89 .page 65 . Recall that the Schmitt trigger is a two-bit A/D converter (at ±Vss levels). We will also convert a function generator to a Voltage-Controlled Oscillator which is a versatile building block that finds numerous applications. If the integrator in a function generator is replaced by a combination of a 65 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .14:55 . 6.Chapter Six Experiment 6 Function Generator and Voltage-Controlled Oscillator 6. which includes a Schmitt trigger and an integrator.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is to design and build a function generator capable of generating a square wave and a triangular wave of a known frequency f .

it finds use in the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) which we will study in Chapter 7. The frequency of oscillation of the VCO becomes f = Vc · R2 4 · RC · Vr · R1 KVCO . As a VCO.14:55 . 66 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . In this role. The output of the VCO is shown in Figure 6-2. the VCO is also called “mod of modem”. is an important parameter and is given by KVCO = df R2 f = = Hz/Volts dVc 4RC · Vr R1 Vc (6. The function generator produces a square wave at the Schmitt trigger output and a triangular wave at the integrator output with the frequency of oscillation equal to f = (1/4RC) · (R2 /R1 ). You will benefit from listening to the recorded video lectures from [28].#90 .Experiment 6 R2 10 k R1 + 1k + Vo1 − 1k X Vo2 − R Vc 1 mF C Figure 6-1 Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) multiplier and an integrator.1) VCO is an important analog circuit and finds many applications. the sensitivity of the VCO. The VCO can also be used as a reference oscillator for a Class-D amplifier and the Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS).page 66 . It is used in the generation of FSK/FM waveforms and constitutes the “modulator” part of the MODEM. The function generator circuit can be converted as a linear VCO by using the multiplier integrator combination as shown in Figure 6-1.2012/8/14 . we get a Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) as shown in Figure 6-1.

0 0 20.5 80.0 0 −5.0 77.0 Vo1 Vc 5. (b) FSK generator 67 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .0 Time (ms) (a) Vo1 10.#91 .5 75.14:55 .page 67 .Experiment 6 10.0 −10.0 40.0 (b) Figure 6-2 Simulation outputs for (a) function generator.0 70.0 5.0 72.0 80.0 Output (V) Output (V) Vo2 Vc Vo2 0 −5.0 −10.0 Time (ms) 60.

the frequency of oscillation should be f = 1 × (R2 /R1 ) 4RC Convert the function generator into a VCO.14:55 . Measure the sensitivity of the VCO. 6.page 68 . 2 Build the function generator in ASLKv2010 Starter kit and observe the waveforms generated by the circuit on an oscilloscope. 68 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Measure the sensitivity (KVCO ) of the VCO. 3 Vary the control voltage of the VCO and see its effect on the frequency of the output waveform.#92 .4 Measurements to be Taken Determine the frequency of oscillations of square and triangular waves.2012/8/14 . defined df as . Compare the results with simulation results. Use Table 6-1 to note your readings and compute the sensitivity. Theoretically.5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Simulate the circuits and obtain the print-out of the waveforms generated by the function generator. dVc 6.Experiment 6 6.3 Specifications Design a function generator to generate both square and triangular waveforms for a frequency of 1 kHz.

Transform this circuit into a VCO using an analog multiplier.Experiment 6 Table 6-1 Change in frequency as a function of control voltage S.6 Exercises • • • 1 Design a function generator that can generate square wave and triangular wave outputs of 10 kHz frequency. determine the frequency of oscillation.#93 . ∗ 3 For the function generator of Figure 6-3(a) which uses Deboo’s integrator and an inverting Schmitt trigger. 2 Apply 1 V. 1 kHz square wave over 2 V DC and observe the FSK for a VCO designed for 10 kHz frequency.2012/8/14 . R3 1 k + V2 12 J2 2 3 + 1 + 8 + VF1 1 J1 U1 TL082 + V1 12 R6 1 k C1 1u − 4 VF2 − + 8 2 3 R1 1 k J2 4 R2 1 k J1 U2 TL082 R5 1 k R4 1 k Figure 6-3(a) Function generator 69 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 69 .14:55 . No. Control Voltage (Vc ) Change in Frequency 1 2 3 4 6.

00 m 17. (b) Design a digitally controlled Band Pass filter with Q = 10 using the same integrator with multiplying DAC.2012/8/14 .00 m 15.00 m 13. The frequency of oscillation is given by 11 1 f = 4RC A0 2 n R1 0 1+ .00 −10.page 70 .00 0.00 m Time (s) ∗4 • Figure 6-3(b) Simulation of the function generator of Figure 6-3(a) (a) A digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) is shown in Figure 6-4. Determine the maximum and minimum frequency of oscillation in the linear range.Experiment 6 20.14:55 . V dd C1u C1 − TL082 + R1k − TL082 + − TL082 + R1 Vdd Iout 1 Rfb DAC7821 Iout 2 Vref GND Vout R2 Figure 6-4 Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO) 70 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .00 −20.00 11.#94 .00 Output 10. R2 4096 R = 1 k and C = 1 µF. R1 = R2 = 1 k.

page 71 . If we need stable clocks of much larger frequency. The PLL is mainly used for generating stable.14:55 . 7. we can use the clock waveform from the crystal source as a reference clock and additional analog circuits to multiply the frequency of the reference clock.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is to make you aware of the functionality of the Phase Locked Loop. Such a circuit is called 71 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#95 . high-frequency clocks in the 100 MHz – GHz range.Chapter Seven Experiment 7 Phase Locked Loop 7.2 Brief Theory and Motivation Crystals can be used to generate stable clocks in the range of a few hundreds of kilohertz to a few megahertz. commonly referred to as PLL.2012/8/14 .

we obtain a PLL. The PLL uses the same concept that was introduced earlier in this lab. self-tuned filter (Experiment 5). voltage-controlled filter with a VCO.1) A0 Vref R C X VCO R Vo1 Vi (a) 1/K vco Voltage VCQ 0 π WoQ w Lock range (b) Figure 7-1 (a) Phase Locked Loop (PLL) circuit.page 72 .#96 . The sensitivity of the PLL is given by KVCO : KVCO = Vc dω dVc (7.Experiment 7 a Phase Locked Loop. The reader will benefit from viewing the recorded lecture at [24].2012/8/14 . (b) characteristics of the PLL 72 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . This is shown in Figure 7-1. namely.14:55 . If we replace the voltage-controlled phase generator.

As the frequency of input signal is changed.59 kHz. This was explained in Chapter 5.Experiment 7 Here. As a result. the system oscillates at the freerunning frequency of the VCO.#97 .59 kHz when the free-running frequency is 1. ω = Vc /4Vr · RC is the frequency of oscillation of the VCO. given by ω0Q with corresponding control voltage of VCQ . the lock range is given by Lock Range = Kpd × π × A0 × KVCO 2 (7. If Kpd denotes the sensitivity of the phase detector.14:55 . If an input voltage Vi with the frequency same as ω0Q is applied. the PLL will continue to run at the free-running frequency and the phase difference between the two signals V0 and Vi gets adjusted to 90◦ since Vc is 0. Therefore. there the phase difference between the input and output signals shifts away from 90◦ . KVCO = dω 1 = = ω/Vc dVc 4Vr · RC When no input voltage is applied to the system. 7. 7. so as to lock the frequency of the output to the input frequency. The range of input frequencies for which the output frequency gets locked to the input frequency is called the lock range of the system.2) on either side of ω0Q . 2 Measure the change in the phase of the output signal as input frequency is varied within the lock range. 73 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . the control voltage will change correspondingly.3 Specifications Design a PLL to get locked to frequency of 1.4 Measurements to be Taken • • 1 Measure the lock range of the system.2012/8/14 .page 73 .

5 10.#98 . The slow-varying waveform in thick line is the control voltage.Experiment 7 Vi V o1 10.page 74 .0 Figure 7-2 Sample output waveform for the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) for a square-wave input waveform • 3 Vary the input frequency and obtain the change in the control voltage and plot the output.5 What Should you Submit • • 1 Simulate the system and predict the output waveforms of the PLL.14:55 . the square wave of ±8 V is the output waveform. A sample output characteristic of the PLL is shown in Figure 7-2. 2 Build the PLL system using ASLKv2010 Starter kit and take the plots of the output waveform on the oscilloscope.0 Vc Output (V) 5.0 8.5 9. In the diagram. Compare the simulation results with 74 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .0 Time (ms) 9. 7.0 8.0 0 −5.0 −10.2012/8/14 . the square wave of ±10 V is the input waveform.

14:55 . Use Table 7-2 to record your readings.#99 . 7. Repeat the experiment when the input amplitude is 1 V. Input Frequency Output Phase 1 2 3 4 Table 7-2 S.2012/8/14 .5 V. determine the free-running frequency. No. What do you see as the control voltage waveform then? • • 3 Measure the change in the phase of the output signal as input frequency is varied within the lock range. 4 Vary the input frequency and obtain the change in the control voltage. Observe what happens to the output frequency when the system is not locked. No. 75 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .6 Exercises ∗ 1 For the PLL/FLL shown in Figure 7-3(a).Experiment 7 Table 7-1 Output phase as a function of input frequency S.page 75 . • Determine the lock ranges when the input is a square-wave of amplitude 0. Control voltage as a function of input frequency Input Frequency Control Voltage 1 2 3 4 the actual waveforms.

Experiment 7 R2 10 k J1 U1 100 k R1 1 k VF2 C1 1u + U1 * U2 VG1 1 V square wave J2 C2 100 n J1 U1 * U2 U4 TL082 VF1 9 − + 9 9 + 9 + + R3 1 k 9 9 R4 1 k 9 − U2 100 k 9 J2 9 J2 V2 10 + 9 J1 J1 U3 TL082 + V3 10 R5 2. when input amplitude is 1 V 76 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .00 m Time (s) Figure 7-3(b) Simulation of the PLL at free-running frequency.00 m 12.2 k Figure 7-3(a) Phase locked loop 10.00 Output 5.#100 .14:55 .00 −10.00 −5.00 0.50 m 20.50 m 15.00 10.page 76 .00 m 17.

#101 .2012/8/14 . N × 100 kHz 100 kHz (Crystal oscillator) LPF Amplifier VCO Divided by N counter 100 kHz Figure 7-4 Block diagram of frequency optimizer 77 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 77 .Experiment 7 • 2 Design a frequency synthesizer to generate a waveform of 1 MHz frequency from a 100 kHz crystal as shown in Figure 7-4.14:55 .

#102 .page 78 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .2012/8/14 .

since the amplitude of the input keeps varying.2012/8/14 .Chapter Eight Experiment 8 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)/Automatic Volume Control (AVC) 8. Another useful reference is the application note on Automatic Level Controller for Speech Signals using PID Controllers [2]. 8.14:55 .1 Goal of the Experiment In the front-end electronics of a system.page 79 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation The reader will benefit from the recorded lectures at [27]. This experiment demonstrates one such system.#103 . Such a system can be designed using feedback. we may require that the gain of the amplifier is adjustable. 79 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

Figure 8-1 shows an AGC system. Since we may wish to maintain the output voltage of the amplifier at a constant level. This is possible when the input signal has a narrow bandwidth and the control system is called Automatic Gain Control (AGC).page 80 . To adapt to wide variations in the magnitude of the input.2012/8/14 .#104 . As shown in Figure 8-2.Experiment 8 Vo X X + R Vc − Vref R Vi C Figure 8-1 Automatic Gain Control (AGC)/Automatic Volume Control (AVC) In the signal chain of an electronic system. the output of the sensor can vary depending on the strength of the input. we can design the amplifier such that its gain can be adjusted dynamically. the output value of the system remains √ √ constant at 2Vr Vref beyond input voltage Vpi = 2Vr Vref . The typical I/O characteristic of AGC/AVC system is shown in Figure 8-2. we also use the term Automatic Volume Control (AVC).14:55 . Vpo 2 Vr Vref Vpi Vi Figure 8-2 Input–output characteristics of AGC/AVC 80 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

Assume that the input comes from a function generator. Table 8-1 Transfer characteristic of the AGC system S. 2 Build the AGC system of Figure 8-1 using ASLKv2010 Starter kit. Note the output of the AGC system from the oscilloscope and compare the output with simulation result.4 Measurements to be Taken Transfer Characteristics: Plot the input versus output characteristics for the AGC/AVC.14:55 .#105 . 8.2012/8/14 .5 What Should you Submit • • • 1 Simulate the system of Figure 8-1 and plot the output of the AGC system.page 81 . We have included sample output waveform for the AGC system in Figure 8-3. Does the output remain constant as the magnitude of the input is increased? Beyond what value of the input voltage does the gain begin to stabilize? Use Table 8-1 to record your readings. Take sufficient number of readings. use a sine-wave input of a single frequency. No.Experiment 8 8. Input Voltage Output Voltage Control Voltage 1 2 3 4 81 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 3 Plot the output as a function of input voltage.3 Specification Design an AGC/AVC system to maintain a peak amplitude of sine-wave output at 2 V. 8.

0 4. ∗ 2 The AGC/AVC circuit of Figure 8-4(a) is designed for V = 0.0 4. Repeat for VG1 = 1 V.0 Vc Output (V) 2. and 8 V.0 Time (ms) Figure 8-3 Output of AGC circuit 8.0 –8. 4 V. The lock range is defined as the range of input values for which output voltage remains constant. 82 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 82 .0 –4. 1 V.Experiment 8 8. 2 V.0 Vi 6. 2 V.0 6. Determine the 1 peak amplitude of the output VF3 and control voltage VF2 when the input VG1 = 0.6 Exercises • • 1 Determine the lock range for the AGC that was built as part of the experiment.0 –6.0 0 Vo –2.0 0 2.14:55 .#106 .2012/8/14 .

00 6.00 −2.00 m 117.00 m 112.00 0.00 −4.00 −8.#107 .00 m Time (s) Figure 8-4(b) Simulation of the AGC circuit for output voltage = 2 V peak 83 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .00 4.page 83 .14:55 .50 m 120.2012/8/14 .00 −6.00 Output 2.Experiment 8 9 + + 9 + C1 1 u U2 100 k VF3 R1 1 k U1 * U2 VG1 R2 1 k J2 − + + 9 9 9 U1 * U2 9 + U1 100 k V3 12 J2 U4 TL082 V1 200 m VF1 + J1 9 − 9 J2 9 9 J1 + V2 12 U3 TL082 VF2 Figure 8-4(a) AGC circuit 8.50 m 115.00 110.

14:55 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .#108 .page 84 .

We also aim to study the characteristics of a DC–DC converter integrated circuit.#109 . etc. we select the wide-input nonsynchronous buck DC–DC converter TPS40200 from Texas Instruments. 85 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . audio amplifier (Class-D Power Amplifier).2012/8/14 .14:55 . Design Considerations for Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers [17]. Also refer to the application note. Our aim is to design a DC–DC converter with high efficiency using a general purpose Op-Amp for a variety of applications like Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). and to study its characteristics. 9.page 85 .2 Brief Theory and Motivation The reader will benefit from viewing the recorded lecture at [26].Chapter Nine Experiment 9 DC–DC Converter 9.1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is to design a DC–DC converter using a general-purpose Op-Amp and a comparator.

If we connect a lossless Low Pass filter (LC filter) at the output of the comparator. for an output voltage of 5 V. 86 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 9. Vss in the system is the unregulated input. as shown in Figure 9-1.#110 . it is possible to get a stable DC voltage Vav given by Vav = −Vref · Vss /Vp (9. The triangular output of the function generator with peak amplitude Vp and frequency f is fed as an input to a comparator. is a basic building block in a DC–DC converter. We can also insert a PMOS switch in between the comparator and the LC filter to achieve Class-D operation. The duty cycle is directly proportional to reference voltage Vref . Vo is the converted output.page 86 . The output of the comparator is a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) waveform whose duty cycle is given by τ 1 = (1 − Vref /Vp ) T 2 where T = 1/f is the time period of the triangular waveform.Experiment 9 The function generator.4 What Should you Submit • 1 Simulate the system and plot the output waveforms of the comparator and the Low Pass filter output as shown in Figure 9-1.1) We thus get a converter with high conversion efficiency. We have included a DC–DC converter and typical simulation results in Figure 9-2. 9. which we studied in Chapter 6.2012/8/14 . whose second input comes from a reference voltage Vref .3 Specification Design a DC–DC converter using a switching frequency of 10 kHz and 100 kHz using an available reference voltage.14:55 .

0 V 8.page 87 .0 10.5 12.0 V Vc –1.5 11.0 V V o1 1.0 V 7.0 11.0 V Vi 2.0 Time (ms) (b) Figure 9-1 (a) DC–DC converter.0 V 1. (b) waveforms from simulation 87 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#111 .Experiment 9 Vss + Vo1 Triangular waveform Vo2 L − generator S RL C −Vss Vc (a) 9.0 V V o2 3.14:55 .0 V 10.2012/8/14 .

No. 4 Plot the duty cycle τ/T as a function of control voltage Vc .0 10.0 Figure 9-2 PWM and Class-D output waveforms • • • 2 Build the DC–DC converter using ASLKv2010 Starter kit and observe the waveforms mentioned above. Is the plot linear? Determine the peak-to-peak ripple at the output of the LPF.0 V o2 5. 3 Plot the average output voltage Vav as a function of control voltage Vc and obtain the plot.#112 . Use a table similar to Table 9-2 to take your readings. Use a table similar to Table 9-1 to take your readings. Is the plot linear? Table 9-1 Variation of output voltage with control voltage in a DC–DC converter S. Control Voltage Controlled Voltage 1 2 3 4 88 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 88 .0 3.25 10.0 Output (V) 7.0 10.5 Time (ms) 10. Compare with simulation results.2012/8/14 .Experiment 9 V o1 Vi 9.0 1.14:55 .75 11.

Show the block diagram.14:55 . No.5 Exercises • • 1 Explain how a PMOS switch can be used to achieve Class-D operation for the DC–DC converter system we studied.page 89 .#113 . Variation of duty cycle with control voltage in a DC–DC converter Control Voltage Duty Cycle τ /T 1 2 3 4 9. You may need a diode in your system – why? 2 Perform the same experiment with the specialized IC for DC–DC converter from Texas Instrument TPS40200 and compare the characteristics of both the systems. 89 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .Experiment 9 Table 9-2 S.

14:55 .page 90 .2012/8/14 .#114 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

1 Goal of the Experiment The goal of this experiment is to design a Low Dropout/Linear regulator using a general purpose Op-Amp and study its characteristics.2 Brief Theory and Motivation Please view the recorded lectures at [25] for a detailed description of voltage regulators. the 91 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#115 .2012/8/14 . Our aim is to design a linear voltage regulator with high efficiency.page 91 .Chapter Ten Experiment 10 Low Dropout (LDO)/Linear Regulator 10. is available for the purpose and study their characteristics. used in low noise. 10. called TLV700xx. high efficiency applications.14:55 . In the case of the DC–DC converter studied in the previous experiment. We will also see that an integrated circuit family of regulators.

page 92 . is high. An LDO system is shown in Figure 10-1. The regulated output voltage is given by Vo = Vref 1 + R2 R1 10. The efficiency of the LDO. It uses a PMOS current amplifier along with an Op-Amp so that power dissipation in Op-Amp and PMOS combination is minimal. 92 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#116 (10. DC–DC converter of the previous chapter is not suitable for low noise applications.1) . As a result. An LDO is better suited in such cases. defined as the ratio of the output voltage to input voltage.14:55 .Experiment 10 VUN RS Vref − PMOS Transistor + Vo R2 R R1 Figure 10-1 Low Dropout Regulator (LDO) switching activity exemplified by the PWM waveform is a source of noise.2012/8/14 .3 Specifications Generate a 3 V output when input voltage is varying from 4 V to 5 V.

#117 .05 500.0 Input voltage (V) 20.page 93 .0 700.0 900. (c) line regulation output 93 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .05 14.0 800. (b) load regulation output.0 Input resistance (ohms) 1.0 600.14:55 .0 k Voltage (V) (b) 12.0 16.2012/8/14 .0 (c) Figure 10-2 (a) A regulator system with startup.0 18.Experiment 10 VUN R2 R1 − Vo + Vref Ra Rb Voltage (V) (a) 12.

after this point. the output will fall as the load current increases.2012/8/14 . No. the output voltage will rise as the input voltage is increased.#118 . the output voltage remains constant.Experiment 10 Table 10-1 Variation of load regulation with load current in an LDO S.14:55 .page 94 . 3 Obtain the Line Regulation: Vary the input voltage and plot the output voltage as a function of the input voltage. 10.5 What Should you Submit • • 1 Simulate the systems and compute the output characteristics. After that. 2 Take the plots of output characteristics. Until the input reaches a certain value. 2 Obtain the Ripple Rejection: Apply the input ripple voltage and see the output ripple voltage. the output ripple voltage will rise.4 Measurements to be Taken • • • 1 Obtain the Load Regulation: Vary the load such that load current varies and obtain the output voltage. see the point till where output voltage remains constant. transfer characteristics and ripple rejection from the oscilloscope and compare them with simulation results. • 4 Calculate the Output Impedance. 94 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . transfer characteristics and ripple rejection. Load Current Output Voltage 1 2 3 4 10. with the input ripple voltage.

#119 . Input Voltage Output Voltage 1 2 3 4 Table 10-3 Ripple rejection S. 95 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .2012/8/14 .14:55 .Experiment 10 Table 10-2 Variation of line regulation with input voltage in an LDO S. No. No.page 95 . Ripple Input Voltage Ripple Output Voltage 1 2 3 4 10.6 Exercises • 1 Perform the same experiment with the specialized IC for LDO from Texas Instrument TLV700xx family and compare the characteristics of both the systems.

2012/8/14 .#120 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .page 96 .

1. . 3 Input bias and offset currents.APPENDIX A ICs used in ASLKv2010 Starter Kit Texas Instruments Analog ICs used in ASLKv2010 Starter kit A.2012/8/14 .page 97 . 97 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .1 TL082: JFET-Input Operational Amplifier A. 7 Latch-up-free operation.003% Typ. 4 Output short-circuit protection. JFET-input stage.#121 .1 Features • • • • • • • 1 Low power consumption. 2 Wide common-mode and differential voltage ranges. . . 6 High input impedance: . 0. . 5 Low total harmonic distortion: .14:55 .

2012/8/14 . The C-suffix devices are characterized for operation from 0◦ C to 70◦ C. .pdf 98 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . . Offset adjustment and external compensation options are available within the TL08x family. A.4 Download Datasheet http://focus.1. A.3 Description The TL08x JFET-input operational amplifier family is designed to offer a wider selection than any previously developed operational amplifier family.1.page 98 .ti. 13 V/µs Typ. Each of these JFET-input operational amplifiers incorporates well-matched.1.com/lit/ds/symlink/tl082.14:55 . The devices feature high slew rates.#122 . 9 Common-mode input voltage range includes VCC+ . The I-suffix devices are characterized for operation from −40◦ C to 85◦ C.Appendix A Output A Inverting input A Non-inverting input A V− Figure A-1 1 8 2 7 V+ Output B 3 4 − A + + B − 6 5 Inverting input B Non-inverting input B TL082 – JFET-input operational amplifier • • • • 8 High slew rate: . and low offset voltage temperature coefficient. low input bias and offset currents. high-voltage JFET and bipolar transistors in a monolithic integrated circuit.2 Applications 1 Instrumentation Amplifiers 2 Filters A. The Q-suffix devices are characterized for operation from −40◦ C to 125◦ C.

4 Video signal processing. X1 + VS Voltage reference and bias SF 1 + Y1 2 6 − VOUT = A Z1 7 11 10 − (Z1 − Z2) + − VOUT A − + 0.1 Features • • • • • • • • 1 Wide-bandwidth: 10 MHz Typ 2 0. 3 Voltage-controlled amplifiers.2.page 99 .#123 . 5 Voltage-controlled filters and oscillators.2012/8/14 .5% max four-quadrant accuracy 3 Internal wide-bandwidth Op-Amp A. 2 Modulation and demodulation.2 Applications 1 Precision analog signal processing.2.2 MPY634: Wide-Bandwidth Analog Precision Multiplier A.14:55 .Appendix A A.75 Atten 14 +VS 2 13 NC NC 3 12 Output 4 11 Z1 Input NC 5 10 Z2 Input Y1 Input 6 9 NC Y2 Input 7 8 –VS Scale Factor + V-I Z2 SF Multiplier core V-I Y2 (X1 − X2) (Y1 − Y2) 1 X2 Input Transfer function V-I X2 X1 Input −VS Precision output 0p-Amp − Figure A-2 12 MPY634 – Analog multiplier 99 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

square-rooter and other functions. The wide bandwidth of this new design allows signal processing at IF. high accuracy.4 MSPS.2012/8/14 .5 V supply operation.3 DAC 7821: 12 Bit. often eliminating all external trimming.ti.4 Download Datasheet http://focus.1 to 10 using external feedback resistors. Multiplying DAC A.5 V to 5. 6 Low glitch energy: 5 nVs.3 Description The MPY634 is a wide bandwidth. 4 10 MHz multiplying bandwidth. The differential Z input allows user-selected scale factors from 0. squarer. RF and video frequencies. balanced modulation and demodulation with excellent carrier rejection. It is capable of performing frequency mixing.#124 .Appendix A A. A.2.2. Its accurately laser-trimmed multiplier characteristics make it easy to use in a wide variety of applications with a minimum of external parts. Parallel.page 100 . divider. Y and Z inputs allow configuration as a multiplier. An accurate internal voltage reference provides precise setting of the scale factor.com/lit/ds/symlink/mpy634. 2 Fast parallel interface: 17 ns write cycle. Its differential X.pdf A.1 Features • • • • • • 1 2. 5 10 V input.14:55 . while maintaining high accuracy. The internal output amplifier of the MPY634 reduces design complexity compared to other high frequency multipliers and balanced modulator systems.3. 100 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . four-quadrant analog multiplier. 3 Update rate of 20.

11 Four-quadrant multiplication.2012/8/14 .3.14:55 .2 Applications • • • • 1 Portable battery-powered instruments. 3 Analog processing. A. 13 Read back function.#125 . 2 Waveform generators. 12 Power-on reset with brownout detection. 4 Programmable amplifiers and attenuators. 10 1LSB INL. 9 12-Bit monotonic. 8 20-lead TSSOP packages. 101 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .Appendix A VDD I OUT1 1 IOUT2 2 19 VREF VREF 20 RFB 3 Power-on reset 18 VDO DB11 (MSB) 4 R DAC7821 12-Bit R-2R DAC RFB I OUT1 17 R /W GND I OUT2 DAC register DB10 5 DB9 6 DB8 7 14 DB1 DB7 8 13 DB2 DB6 9 12 DB3 DB5 10 11 DB4 16 CS DAC7821 Input latch 15 DBO (LSB) CS R/W Control logic Parallel bus GND DB0 DB11 Figure A-3 DAC 7821 – Digital to analog converter • • • • • • • • 7 Extended temperature range: −40◦ C to +125◦ C.page 101 . 14 Industry-standard pin configuration.

6 Programmable filters and oscillators.pdf A. This DAC operates with a fast parallel interface.Appendix A • • • • 5 Digitally controlled calibration.4 Download Datasheet http://focus. the internal register and latches are filled with zeroes and the DAC outputs are at zero scale. On power-up. The DAC7821offers excellent 4-quadrant multiplication characteristics. Data read back allows the user to read the contents of the DAC register via the DB pins. with a large signal multiplying and width of 10 MHz.3.4.ti.4 TPS40200: Wide-Input.page 102 .1 Features • • 1 Input voltage range 4. The DAC7821 is available in a 20-lead TSSOP package. 2 Output voltage (700 mV to 90% Vin ).#126 . 7 Composite video. Non-Synchronous Buck DC/DC Controller A.5V power supply.3. 8 Ultrasound. This device operates from a single 2.14:55 .5V to 5.2012/8/14 . making it suitable for batterypowered and many other applications. A. A. An integrated feedback resistor (RFB ) provides temperature tracking and full-scale voltage output when combined with an external current-to-voltage precision amplifier. The applied external reference input voltage (Vref ) determines the full-scale output current.5 to 52 V.3 Description The DAC7821 is a CMOS 12-bit current output digital-to-analog converter (DAC).com/lit/ds/symlink/dac7821. 102 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

page 103 .2012/8/14 .14:55 . 5 Under-voltage lockout.#127 . 103 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .Appendix A TPS40200 COMP 3 FB 4 E/A and SS reference SS 2 Soft-start and overcurrent Enable E/A ISNS 7 − + 700 mV 8 VDD GDRV voltage swing limited to (Vin−8V) PWM Logic Driver 6 GDRV OSC RC 1 5 GND UVLO (a) Vin R5 C3 C1 TPS40200 1 RC VDD 8 RSENSE C4 2 SS R3 ISNS 7 C5 3 COMP GDRV 6 4 FB R4 Q1 L1 GND 5 D1 R1 VOUT C2 R2 C6 (b) Figure A-4 TPS40200 – DC/DC controller • • • 3 200 mA internal P-Channel FET driver. 4 Voltage feed-forward compensation.

2 Distributed power systems. 12 Small 8-pin SOIC (D) and QFN (DRB) packages. A. The circuit operates with voltage-mode feedback and has feed-forward input-voltage compensation that responds instantly to input voltage change.2 Applications • • • • • 1 Industrial control. 11 External synchronization.4.Appendix A • • • • • • • 6 Programmable fixed frequency (35–500 kHz) operation. 5 Telecom. 4 Scanners. 3 DSL/Cable modems. 7 Programmable short circuit protection. 10 700 mV 1% reference voltage.14:55 . A. 8 Hiccup overcurrent fault recovery. The integral 700 mV reference is trimmed to 2%. providing the means to accurately control low voltages.page 104 .4. This feature extends the flexibility of the device. The TPS40200 is available in an 8-pin SOIC.3 Description The TPS40200 is a flexible non-synchronous controller with a built in 200 mA driver for P-channel FETs. and supports many of the features of more complex controllers.2012/8/14 .#128 . The circuit operates with inputs up to 52 V with a power-saving feature that turns off driver current once the external FET has been fully turned on. 9 Programmable closed loop soft start. allowing it to operate with an input voltage up to 52 V without dissipating excessive power. 104 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

125 to 2.2012/8/14 .8 V.5 A. The part operates at a 200 kHz clock frequency as determined by an external resistor and capacitor.1 Features • • • • • 1 Very low dropout: 2 43 mV at IOUT = 50 mA.Appendix A A.8 V.#129 . TPS40200EVM-002 is designed to operate with an 18 to 36 V input and to produce a regulated 3. 3 85 mV at IOUT = 100 mA. VOUT = 2. VOUT = 2.3 V output with a load current from 0.com/lit/ds/symlink/tps40200.4. This EVM can be modified to support output voltages from 0.pdf A.5 Download Datasheet http://focus.14:55 . The ASLKv2010 Starter kit sacrifices some layout density to provide ample test points for module evaluation. Low Dropout Regulator for Portables A.4. 105 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .7 V to 5 V and above by changing a single feedback resistor.5. A table is included in the User Guide that lists specific 1% resistors for some common output voltages. 4 175 mV at IOUT = 200 mA.5 TLV700xx: 200mA. The TPS40200EVM-002 demonstrates using the TPS40200 in a typical buck converter application.3 V output voltage that delivers up to 2. The EVM operates from a single supply and uses a single P-channel power FET and Schottky Diode to produce a low cost buck converter. VOUT = 2.35 V.ti. Low IQ. 5 2% accuracy.page 105 .4 TPS40200EVM-002 The TPS40200EVM-002 evaluation module (EVM) uses the TPS40200 non-synchronous buck controller to provide a resistor selected 3. A.5 A from a 24 V input bus.

1 µF .8 V. PDAs 3 MP3 players 4 ZigBeeTM Networks 5 BluetoothTM Devices 6 Li-Ion operated handheld products 7 WLAN and other PC add-on cards A. 9 Stable with effective capacitance of 0.Appendix A IN Vin OUT Cin IN 1 2 5 N/C 3 TLV700xx 6 EN GND COUT V 1 µF OUT Ceramic 4 N/C OUT Figure A-5 On Off EN GND TLV700XX – Low dropout regulators • • • • • • • • • • • • • 6 Low IQ: 31 µA.5. 7 Available in fixed-output voltages from 0. 11 Available in 1.5 mm × 1. A.3 Description The TLV700xx/TLV701xx series of low-dropout (LDO) linear regulators from Texas Instruments are low quiescent current devices with excellent line and load 106 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .2 Applications 1 Wireless handsets 2 Smart phones.#130 .5 mm SON-6.5. and SC-70 packages.2012/8/14 . 10 Thermal shutdown and overcurrent protection. 8 High PSRR: 68 dB at 1 kHz.page 106 .7 V to 4. SOT23-5.

pdf 107 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . These LDOs are designed for power-sensitive applications. All device versions have thermal shutdown and current limit for safety.1 µF. which is a Low Dropout Regulator (200mA.page 107 .com/lit/ds/symlink/tlv70012. A precision bandgap and error amplifier provides overall 2% accuracy.4 TLV70018EVM-503 Evaluation Module The evaluation module TLV70018EVM-503 facilitates evaluation of the IC TLV70018 from Texas Instruments. low IQ LDO regulator in the DCK (2.#131 .Appendix A transient performance. This feature enables the use of cost-effective capacitors that have higher bias voltages and temperature derating.1mm SC70-5) package. A. very high power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR).2012/8/14 . these devices are stable with an effective output capacitance of only 0.0 x 2. Low output noise.5.14:55 .5. Furthermore. and low dropout voltage make this series of devices ideal for most battery-operated handheld equipment.ti.5 Download Datasheet http://focus. A.

14:55 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 108 .2012/8/14 .#132 .

Ohm’s law can be used to model the resistor if we intend to use the resistor in a DC circuit. But if the resistor is used in a high frequency application. . and so on.page 109 .14:55 . the simulator requires a mathematical representation of each of these building blocks in order to predict the system performance. 109 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Before a system is actually built using real components. Similarly. we may have to think about the parasitic inductances and capacitances associated with the resistor. This example illustrates that there is no single model for an electronic component. . .#133 .2012/8/14 .APPENDIX B Introduction to Macromodels Simulation models are very useful in the design phase of an electronic system. If the system consists of several building blocks B1 . B2 . Depending on the application and the accuracy desired. the voltage and current may not have a strict linear relation due to the dependence of the resistivity on temperature of operation. it is necessary to perform a “software breadboarding” exercise through simulation to verify the functionality of the system and to measure its performance. skin effect. . Let us consider a very simple example of a passive component such as a resistor. Bn . we may have to use simpler or more complex mathematical models.

A macromodel is a way to address the problem of space-time complexity mentioned above. The MOS transistor. There are many different models available today for the MOS transistor. If we wish to analyze the speed of operation of the circuit or the power dissipation in the circuit. the width and length of the channel. a straight-forward way to analyze the performance of the Op-Amp is to come up with the micromodel of the Op-Amp where each transistor is simply replaced with its corresponding simulation model. The level-1 model captures the dependence of the drain-to-source current on the gate-to-source and drain-to-source voltages. and steady-state analysis. which have more than 50 parameters.Appendix B We will use another example to illustrate the above point. the memory requirement will be higher and the convergence of the simulation can take longer. and the dependence of the threshold voltage on the source-to-bulk voltage. which is the building block of most integrated circuits today. transient analysis. Simulators such as SPICE require the user to specify the model for the transistor. depending on the desired accuracy. If the same transistor is used in an analog circuit. In today’s electronic systems. VCO. is introduced at the beginning of a course on VLSI design. and so on. the model that we use in the analysis would depend on the accuracy which we want in the analysis. In a digital circuit. and the gate oxide thickness. It also considers non-idealities such as channel length modulation in the saturation region. voltage regulators. We may perform different kinds of analysis for an analog circuit – DC analysis. More complex models for the transistor are available. we will need to model the parasitics associated with the transistors.#134 . The goal 110 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 . This model is sufficient if we are only interested in understanding the functionality of the circuit. Micromodels will lead to accurate simulation. data converters. the transistor may be simply modeled as an ideal switch that can be turned on or off by controlling the gate voltage.2012/8/14 . PLL. the mobility of the majority carrier. but will prove computationally intensive. we make use of analog circuits such as operational amplifiers. B.page 110 . As the number of nodes in the circuit increases.1 Micromodels If you have built an operational amplifier using transistors.

Vs( min ) . . Texas Instruments offers a large number of operational amplifiers that a system designer can choose from. 111 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 111 .14:55 .2012/8/14 . the Gain Bandwidth Product of the amplifier. Bn have been implemented. However. there are close to 2000 types of operational amplifiers available! These are categorized into 17 different bins to make the selection simpler. See http://tinyurl. The system-level cost and performance depend on the way the building blocks B1 . B2 . you must look at the characteristics of a standard linear amplifier – these include the number of operational amplifiers in a single package. the CMRR. . As you will see. but also to optimize the cost and performance of the system. if B1 is an Op-Amp. . you will notice that 240 varieties are available in the category of Standard Linear amplifiers! How does a system designer select from this large collection? To understand this.Appendix B Table B-1 Operational amplifiers available from Texas Instruments Characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number of Varieties Standard Linear Amplifier Fully Differential Amplifier Voltage Feedback Current Feedback Rail to Rail JFET/CMOS DSL/Power Line Precision Amplifier Low Power High Speed Amplifier (≥ 50 MHz) Low Input Bias Current/FET Input Low Noise Wide Bandwidth Low Offset Voltage High Voltage High Output Current LCD Gamma Buffer 240 28 68 47 14 23 19 641 144 182 38 69 175 121 4 54 22 of the system designer is not only to get a functionally correct design.com/ti-std-linear.#135 . and so on. Refer to Table B-1. we may have several choices of operational amplifiers. The website allows you to specify these parameters and narrow your choices. . For example. Vs( max ) .

based on the level of accuracy desired and the computational complexity that one can afford.com/ti-macromodels – these files have a . we may still have to evaluate several system configurations. For example. output characteristics. A number of macromodels can be derived. The idea is to replace the actual circuit by something that is simpler. Simulation of a complete system becomes much more simple when we use macromodels for the blocks. but is nearly equivalent in terms of input characteristics. A stepwise refinement procedure may be adopted and more accurate models can be used for selected components when the results are not satisfactory. You can download the models for TI analog ICs from http: //tinyurl. B. As you can guess.14:55 . and feedforward characteristics. Performing simulations using micromodels will be a painstaking and non-productive way of selecting system configurations. and there are m choices for each component.tsm extension. A recommended design methodology is to start with a simple macromodel for the system components and simulate the system. 112 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . If one has n components in the system.page 112 .2012/8/14 . Even if we are able to narrow the choices through some other considerations. Manufacturers of semiconductors provide macromodels for their products to help system designers in the process of system configuration selection. the gain-bandwidth product of an operational amplifier B1 will influence a system-level parameter such as the noise immunity or stability. there is no single macromodel for an IC.Appendix B But how does one specify the parameters for the components? The overall system performance will depend on the way the parameters for the individual components have been selected.#136 . there are m · n possible system configurations.2 Macromodels A macromodel is a mathematical convenience that helps reduce simulation complexity.

if necessary. solutions are available to students for converting a PC into an oscilloscope [31]. Since most students have access to a PC or laptop today. redesign the circuit.page 113 .14:55 .APPENDIX C Activity: To Convert your PC/Laptop into an Oscilloscope C. We believe this will reduce the dependence of the student 113 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . we have designed the Analog System Lab such that a PC-based oscilloscope solution can be used along with ASLKv2010 Starter kit.#137 . an oscilloscope is required to display waveforms at different points in the circuit under construction in order to verify circuit operation and.1 Introduction In any analog lab.2012/8/14 . High-end oscilloscopes are needed for measurements and characterization in labs. they also require software that provides the graphical user interface to convert a PC display into an oscilloscope. These solutions require some additional hardware to route the analog signals to the PC for observation. Today.

The Zelscope software. the typical voltage should be about 1 V AC.page 114 . 2nd ed. One of the solutions for a “PC oscilloscope” is Zelscope [36] which works on personal computers running MS/Windows XP.14:55 . is capable of using the digitized signal to display waveforms as well as the frequency spectrum of the analog signal. In this chapter. Two copies of such a circuit are needed to implement a dual-channel oscilloscope. which requires about 1 MB space. 1996 Buffer circuit needed to interface an analog signal to oscilloscope 114 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The components on the ASLKv2010 Starter kit can be used to build the interface circuit needed to convert the PC into an oscilloscope. W.01 μF R2 47k 1/2W D1 1N914 + R1 1M Zin = 1 M ⏐Vin⏐ < 150 V C3 C2 20 pF 100 pF 1/2 IC1 TL082 D2 1N914 R3 4. and Hill.Appendix C on a full-fledged lab.7k D3 1N914 −12 V ⏐Vout⏐ < 12 V − R4 3k R5 27 k RCA R6 100 k S1 Two identical circuits required for two channels All resistors are 1/4 W.2012/8/14 . The hardware requirements for the PC are modest (300+ MHz clock. hence it is essential to protect the sound card from over voltages. we will review a solution for a PC-based oscilloscope. AC coupling.#138 . At the “line in” jack of the sound card. It uses the sound card in the PC for converting the analog signals into digital form.. P. The buffer amplifier circuit is shown in Figure C-1 and has been borrowed from [35]. 64+ MB memory). 1 M impedance 150 V input protection x1 / x10 amplifier Output trimmer +12 V C1 BNC . A buffer amplifier circuit is required to protect the sound card from over voltages. 1989 Figure C-1 The art of Electronics Oscilloscope probe to sound card line in buffer by Tim Witham July 20. 5% unless noted otherwise All capacitors are ceramic discs Adapted from a circuit in: Horowitz.

Appendix C C.2 Limitations • • • 1 Not possible to display DC voltages (as the input capacitor of sound card blocks DC) 2 Low frequency range (10 Hz–20 kHz) 3 Measurement is not very accurate 115 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .page 115 .14:55 .#139 .2012/8/14 .

page 116 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .2012/8/14 .#140 .

2012/8/14 .#141 .page 117 . Note that the ±10 V power and ground connections have to be connected to the power inlets at the side of the kit. as shown in Figure D-2. Each of the 117 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . There are three potmeters included in the kit. Begin by understanding the power and ground connections to the kit. the power and ground is internally connected to the OPAMPs and analog multipliers.14:55 . Note that ±10 V and ground connections must be fed to the kit from the inlets at the left-hand side.APPENDIX D System Lab Kit ASLKv2010 Starter Kit Connection Diagrams Figure D-1 shows the overall floorplan of the ASLKv2010 Starter kit. each of which is connected across 10 V and ground. The student must become familiar with the general floorplan of the kit. The output of the potmeter can be used to derive a voltage in the range 0 to 10 V. This automatically powers the operational amplifiers and the analog multipliers. If you wish to carry out an experiment using the DAC integrated circuits on the board. this can be useful in generating a reference voltage or even in generating a 5 V power supply for the DAC. We have shown the power connections in ASLKv2010 Starter in Figure D-2. you must use an extern 5 V supply and ground connection.

Appendix D Figure D-1 Floorplan of the ASLKv2010 Starter kit +5V MPY634 MPY634 MPY634 Multiplier-1 Multiplier-2 Multiplier-3 7821– DAC-2 DIODE-2 +10V GND −10V 7821– DAC-1 DIODE-1 General-purpose prototype board MOSFET POTMETERS TL082 Dual OPAMP IC-1 (1A = TYPE-1. 4B = TYPE-2) Figure D-2 Power connections in ASLKv2010 Starter kit. 2B = TYPE-1) TL082 Dual OPAMP IC-3 (3A = SPARE. Only connect ±10 V and ground connections 118 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 1B = TYPE-1) TL082 Dual OPAMP IC-2 (2A = SPARE.14:55 .2012/8/14 . 3B = SPARE) TL082 Dual OPAMP IC-4 (4A = TYPE-2.page 118 .#142 .

1 μF C 3p R4p 4.2 k 0. The output of a potmeter can be used as a DC reference voltage or even as power supply for the DAC. .page 119 .7 k 1 μF C 4p R 5p 10 k + 5 + U1P7 1B 6 Figure D-3 − Op-Amp IC-1 (Dual Op-Amp with two amplifiers.01 μF C 1p R 2p 1k 0.14:55 . 1A and 1B) connected in Type-1 configuration (Inverting) potmeters receives +10 V supply and ground connection.1 μF C 2p R 3p U1P 3 2. Figure D-3 shows the connections for Op-Amp IC-1.2 k 0. . The inverting terminal of Op-Amp 1-A is connected to resistors through Berg pin connections R1p. which has two Op-Amps connected in Type-1 (inverting) configuration. R5p and 119 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . R2p. .01 μF C 5p U1P 2 − U1P1 1A R1p 1k 0.#143 .1 μF C 6p R6p 1k 0.1 μF C 7p R 7p 1k 0.2012/8/14 . .7 k R 8p 1 μF C 8p 2.Appendix D U1P6 R10p 10 k R 9p 4.

Appendix D U 2P2 − U2P1 2A R11p 1k 0. C4p.7 k 1 μF C 12p R15p U 2P3 10 k + U 2P5 + U 2P7 2B U2P6 − Figure D-4 Op-Amp IC-2 (Dual Op-Amp with two amplifiers. 2A can be connected in Type-1 configuration (Inverting. 2B is a spare) U 3P2 − U 3P1 3A U 3P3 + U 3P5 + U 3P7 3B U 3P6 − Figure D-5 Op-Amp IC-3 (Dual Op-Amp with two spare amplifiers.page 120 . C3p.14:55 .2012/8/14 . The Op-Amp 1-B is connected to resistors through Berg pin connections R6p. 2A and 2B. .1 μF C 11p R14p 4.#144 . . 3A and 3B) to capacitors through the Berg pin connections C1p. . R7p.01 μF C 9p R12p 1k 0. Note that each Berg connection has three pins and the user can use any one of them for making an electrical connection. . R10p and to capacitors through Berg pin connections 120 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . C2p.1 μF C 10p R13p 2.2 k 0.

1 μF C 23p 0. 121 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . The Berg pin connection U1P1 can be used to connect the output of Op-Amp 1-A.2 k 0. Similarly.2 k R 31p 1k 0.1 μF C 19p 0.2012/8/14 .01 μF C 22p R 16p 1k 0.2 k R 20p 1k U4P5 R 24p R 25p R 26p 1 μF 1k 10 k 2.01 μF C16p R 17p 4.1 μF C 21p C 24p 0.Appendix D U4P6 1 μF C 20p R 27p 1k R 28p 4. C6p.#145 . connnection U1P7 can be used to connect the output of Op-Amp 1-B.2 k 0.01 μF C 25p U4P2 − U4P1 4A U4P3 + R 21p + U4P7 4B R 22p 1k 10 k 0. C7p.14:55 . C8p.7 k R 18p 10 k R 19p 2.1 μF C 18p − R 23p Figure D-6 2.page 121 .7 k R 29p 10 k R 30p 2. Op-Amp 4A and 4B can be used in inverting or non-inverting configuration) C5p.1 μF C15p 1 μF 1 μF C14p C 17p Op-Amp IC-4 (Dual Op-Amp with amplifiers 4A and 4B.

2012/8/14 .page 122 . 2 and 3 on ASLKv2010 Starter. (b) External connections needed to use the multiplier MPY634 122 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#146 .Appendix D U5P14 U5P12 U5P11 U5P10 U5P8 U5P14 MPY634 U5P12 U5P11 U5P10 U5P8 U5P14 MPY634 U5P1 U5P2 U5P4 U5P6 U5P7 U5P12 U5P11 U5P10 U5P8 MPY634 U7P1 U7P2 U7P4 U7P6 U7P7 U6P1 U6P2 U6P4 U6P6 U6P7 (a) 1 14 2 Input 1 13 12 3 4 MPY– 634 11 5 10 6 9 7 Input 2 Output 8 (b) Figure D-7 (a) PCB connections for analog multipliers 1.14:55 .

14:55 . (b) external connections needed to use the DAC to make it four-quadrant 123 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#147 .Appendix D U9P19 U9P18 U9P17 U9P16 U9P15 U9P14 U9P13 U9P12 U9P20 U8P19 U8P18 U8P17 U8P16 U8P15 U8P14 U8P13 U8P12 U8P20 U9P11 U8P11 7821–DAC–1 7821–DAC–1 U9P10 U9P1 U9P2 U9P3 U9P4 U9P5 U9P6 U9P7 U9P8 U8P10 U8P1 U9P9 U8P2 U8P3 U8P4 U8P5 U8P6 U8P7 U8P8 U8P9 (a) 10 k 10 k VDD −15 V ≤Vin ≤ +15 V VDD RFB I OUT1 DAC7821 I OUT2 GND 5k C1 − TL082 + C2 − TL082 + −10 V ≤V VOUT OUT ≤ +10 V (b) Figure D-8 (a) PCB connections for the DAC on ASLKv2010 Starter.page 123 .2012/8/14 .

#148 .page 124 .14:55 .2012/8/14 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .

com/lit/an/sloa093/sloa093. Available from http://focus. Automatic Level Controller for Speech Signals Using PID Controllers.com/lit/an/ sboa092a/sboa092a.com/docs/toolsw/folders/print/adcpro. Brown.14:55 .ti. Available from www. OPAMPS For Everyone. Burr Brown Products from Texas Instruments.#149 . Archibald. Carter. Free. Filter Design in Thirty Seconds. Available from http://focus.html [2] F.2012/8/14 . Texas Instruments Application Report. Available from http://tinyurl. Op Amp and Comparators – Don’t Confuse Them! Texas Instruments Application Report. Elsevier Science Publishers. 2009. Handbook Of Operational Amplifier Applications.ti.pdf [8] B.ti. Application Notes from Texas Instruments. 2001.pdf [3] High-Performance Analog. Downloadable from http://focus.ti.ti.com/lit/ds/sbfs017a/ sbfs017a.pdf [5] B. 125 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Carter.com/ lit/wp/spraaj4/spraaj4.com/carter-opamp-comp [7] B.pdf [6] B.page 125 . Application Report from Texas Instruments. Available from http://focus. Mancini.com/analog [4] Wide Bandwidth Precision Analog Multiplier MPY634. Available from http://focus.ti. Carter and T. 2001. Carter and R.Bibliography [1] ADCPro (TM) – Analog to Digital Conversion Evaluation Software.

ni. Molina. 2000.org/wiki/Phaselocked\_loop [17] R. 2010.R. http://focus. Palmer.com [10] FilterPro (TM) – Active Filter Design Application.com/multisim [16] Phase-locked loop.ti. Design Considerations for Class-D Audio Amplifiers. Application Note from Texas Instruments. http://tinyurl.com/ww/en/techdays/2010/index.K. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. Rao. Active Filter Synthesis Made Easy With FilterPro V3. Rao. Available from http://tinyurl. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. From Printed Circuit Boards to Systems-on-a-chip.pdf [18] K. DESIGN A 60Hz Notch Filter with the UAF42. www. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II.R. [15] National Instruments. Instrumentation Amplifier. Application note from Burr-Brown (Texas Instruments). Available from http://focus.com/filterpro-download [11] Thomas Kuehl and Faisal Ali.0. Time-Continuous Active Filter.com/lit/an/sloa031/ sloa031.com/lit/an/ sbfa005/sbfa005.Bibliography [9] DesignSoft.ti. Number 2.pdf [13] J. Moschytz. Rao. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II.2012/8/14 .R. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. USA. Available from http://focus.com/krkrao-nptel-lec17 [20] K. Rao. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II.pdf [14] George S. Vol 10. Digitally Programmable. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II.K.K.ti.R.com/ krkrao-nptel-lec7 and http://tinyurl.R.com/krkrao-nptel-lec12 [22] K.wikipedia. Active Filters. Wikipedia entry.#150 . Frequency Compensation in Negative Feedback. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. Molina.page 126 . com/krkrao-nptel-lec16 and http://tinyurl.K.ti. http://tinyurl.tina.com/ krkrao-nptel-lec9 126 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . TINA – the complete analog lab. http://tinyurl. Available from http://www. IEEE Circuits and Systems magazine.shtml [12] J. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II. http://tinyurl.14:55 . Free software. 2000. Tutorial presented in TI Technology Days 2010 (May). www. Op-Amp in Negative Feedback. http://tinyurl.K.com/ krkrao-nptel-lec11 [21] K. Rao. Positive Feedback (Regenerative). Application note from BurrBrown (Texas Instruments).com/krkrao-nptel-lec8 [19] K. http://en.com/lit/an/ sbfa012/sbfa012.

http://tinyurl.pdf [30] Oscilloscope Solutions from Texas Instruments – Available from http://focus. http://tinyurl.R. http://tinyurl. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. and http://tinyurl.com/krkrao-nptel-27. http://tinyurl. Texas Instruments.R. http://tinyurl. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL.com/krkrao-nptel-26. Analog ICs.com/krkrao-nptel-35. Rao.com/krkrao-vco-1. Macromodels for TI analog ICs are downloadable from http://tinyurl.com/krkrao-nptel-36 [28] K.com/docs/toolsw/folders/print/switcherpro. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II. [27] K.trickswindows. Available from http://www.com 127 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . Recorded lecture available through NPTEL.14:55 . Rao. Voltage Controlled Oscillator. http://tinyurl. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II. http:// tinyurl. Available from http://focus. Recorded lectures available from http://tinyurl.#151 .org/wiki/PSpice [33] SwitcherPro (TM) – Switching Power Supply Design Tool. Rao.Bibliography [23] K. Phase Locked Loop.com/krkrao-nptel-28 [26] K. Analog ICs.2012/8/14 .com/krkrao-nptel-33.ti.page 127 .K. Voltage Regulators.ti. http://en.zelscope.ti. Active Filter Design Techniques.R.K.com/krkrao-nptel-ic-lec26.com/lit/ml/sloa088/sloa088.html [34] Texas Instruments Analog eLAB – SPICE Model Resources.com/krkrao-nptel-28.K. Analog ICs.com/krkrao-nptel-34. http://tinyurl. Recorded lecture available through NPTEL. Self-Tuned Filter. http://tinyurl.com/krkrao-nptel-ic-lec23 [24] K.K.com/krkrao-nptel-ic-lec27 [25] K. http://tinyurl. Converters.com/krkrao-vco-2 [29] Thomas Kugesstadt. com/docs/solution/folders/print/437.com/krkrao-nptel-ic-lec24. http://focus. com [32] PSpice. Available from www.com/ti-macromodels [35] How to use PC as Oscilloscope.R.wikipedia.html [31] PC Based Test and Instrumentation.pctestinstruments.R. Electronics for Analog Signal Processing – Part II.K. http://tinyurl. http://tinyurl. Rao. http://tinyurl. Rao. AGC/AVC. Available from www.com [36] Zelscope: Oscilloscope and Spectrum Analyzer.com/krkrao-nptel-ic-lec25.K. Rao.R.

page 128 .#152 .2012/8/14 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .14:55 .

79. 114 Butterworth Filter. 79 Band Pass Filter. 46. 71 DAC. 91. 88 Clock Generator. 25 Communication Circuits. 86. 50 CCCS. 102 Distortion Analyzer. 63. 29. 38 ωd1 . 105 Buck Converter. 101 Damping Factor. 73 Q.14:55 . 58. 13.Index Kpd . 4 Control Voltage. 70 Band Stop Filter. 11. 50 FM. 79 AVC. 66 Frequency Compensation. 35 Differentiator.#153 . 25 Buck Controller. 4 Analog Multiplier. 80 Analog Comparator. 59 KVCO . 73 KVCF . 17 ωd2 . 6 TINA-TI. 39 Digital-to-Analog Converter. 4 Feedback. 65 AGC. 110 DC-DC Converter. 11 CMRR. 33 Automatic Level Controller. 105 Buffer Amplifier. 49 Dominant Pole. 65 DAC7821. 4. 10. 4 Differential Equation. 85. 16 Class-D. 4. 81 Crystal. 99 Astable Multivibrator. 17 129 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 73. 18. 18 DC Analysis. 6. 66. 9 A/D Converter. 46 Bandwidth. 17 Fall Time. 6. 87. 85. 92 Delay Time.2012/8/14 . 4. 50 SwitcherPro. 17 ζ .page 129 . 18 FilterPro. 58. 12. 49 Filter Design. 16 Filter. 4 Demodulator.

86 LDO. 110 Mixed-mode. 4. 65. 46 Hysteresis. 27. 50 Step Response. 66 Modulator. 58 Phase Response.Index Frequency Response. 58. 51 PID Controller. 16 GB. 24. 59. 4. 43 Harmonics. 101 Oscillation. 2 Signal Processing.#154 . 66 Second Order System. 33 MPY634. 20 SMPS. 53. 16 Gain-Bandwidth Product. 105 Ringing. 30 LC Filter. 66. 40 Standard Linear Amplifiers. 6. 34 Regulator. 27 Operational Amplifier. 2 Signal to Noise Ratio. 53 Macromodel. 31 OPA3xx. 51. 71 PLL. 24. 66. 16 Schmitt Trigger. 18. 111 Low Pass Filter. 85 Prototyping. 78 FSK. 37 Simulation. 37 Non-inverting Amplifier. 97. 20 Non-inverting Schmitt Trigger. 81. Open-Loop. 82. 11 SPICE. 73 Signal Chain. 60. 11. 50. 53 Time Response. 112 Slew-Rate. 72. 26 Inverting Schmitt Trigger. 73. 22 Gain Stage. 4. 50 Frequency Synthesizer.14:55 . 95 Rise Time. 94.2012/8/14 . 29. 39 130 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 11. 46. 26 Integrator. 18 Second-order Filter. 39. 16 Noise. 4. 4 Saturation Limit. 51. 18 Switching Circuit. 24. 65. 27. 66. 66 Oscilloscope. 66 Function Generator. 110. 93 Lock Range. 66 Inverting Amplifier. 4. 4 Mixer. 29 Time Constant. 91 Line Regulation. 110 Square Wave. 49. Closed-Loop. 16 Gain. 40 Reference Voltage. 4 Gain. 53 Gain Bandwidth Product. 79 Low Noise. 85 Spare. 50. 66. 73 Sensitivity. 27 OPA7xx. 4 Monostable Multivibrator. 4 MODEM. 45. 18 Negative Feedback. 50 Micromodel. 111 Steady-state Analysis. 9 PWM. 46. 93 Load Regulation. 68. 46. 86 Regenerative Feedback. 27 Instrumentation Amplifier. 19. 112 Magnitude Response.page 130 . 86 Quality Factor. 48. 19. 72. 46 Self-Tuned Filter. 49. 18. 32. 82 Low Dropout Regulator. 60 High-pass Filter. 13. 16 Grounded Capacitor. 29 INA1xx. 113 Output Characteristic. 107 Power Amplifier. 8 PSPICE. 92. 110 Steady-state Response. 55 Natural Frequency. 4. 73 Power Supply. 99 Multiplier. 4 Sampling. 55. 73 Oscillator. 18 Ripple Rejection. 81 Fundamental Frequency. 4. 94 Phase Detector.

73. 81. 18 Transient Analysis. 98 TLV70018. 16 131 Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” . 6 TL082. 67 UAF42. 62. 32 TINA. 94 Transfer Function. 16 Voltage Gain. 66.14:55 . 105 Transfer Characteristic. 52 Unity Gain Amplifier. 35. 57. 59 VCO. 16 Universal Active Filter. 110 Triangular Wave. 68 VCVS. 24. 52 VCA820. 95 TPS40200. 20 Unity Gain.2012/8/14 . 63 VCF. 25.page 131 . 4.Index Timer.#155 . 104 TPS40200EVM. 107 TLV700xx. 16 Voltage Controlled Voltage Source.

2012/8/14 .14:55 .Texas Lab Manual: “tlm” .#156 .page 132 .