Smart grid

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Public infrastructure

Assets and facilities

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Critical infrastructure

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Electricity Energy

Hazardous waste

Hospitals Levees



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Ports Mass transit

Public housing

State schools Public spaces

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Sewage Solid waste


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Utilities Water supply

Wastewater Concepts

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Asset management

Appropriation Lindahl tax


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Fixed cost

Engineering contracts

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Externality Government debt

Life cycle assessment

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Property tax

Public-private partnership

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Public capital Public finance

Public good

Public sector Renovation

Replacement (upgrade)

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Spillover effect

Supply chain


Issues and ideas

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Air traffic control

Brownfield Carbon footprint

Containerization Congestion pricing

       Ethanol fuel Fuel tax Groundwater High-speed rail Hybrid vehicles Land-use planning Mobile data terminal                Pork barrel Rapid bus transit Recycling Renewables Reverse osmosis Smart grid Smart growth Stormwater Urban sprawl Traffic congestion Transit-oriented development Vehicle efficiency Waste-to-energy Weatherization Wireless technology Fields of study  Architecture .

1 Historical development of the electricity grid 1. subch. 152. Roll-out of smart grid technology also implies a fundamental re-engineering of the electricity services industry. in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency.S.4 Early technological innovations 2 Features of the smart grid . economics.      Civil Electrical Mechanical engineering Public economics Public policy Urban planning Examples[show] Infrastructure portal    V T E A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information.[1] Smart grid policy is organized in Europe as Smart Grid European Technology Platform. [2]Policy in the United States is described in 42 U.2 Modernization opportunities 1. [3] Contents [hide]  1 Background o o o o  1. such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers. reliability. and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.3 Origin of the term "smart grid" 1. IX § 17381.C. ch. although typical usage of the term is focused on the technical infrastructure.

1 Power Theft / Power Loss 8 Deployments and attempted deployments o 8.3 Smart meters 3.2 Smart grid modelling 5 Economics o o 5.1 Major programs 4.1 OpenADR Implementations  8.1 Market outlook 5.1 Reliability 2.3 Efficiency   o o 2.5 Advanced components 3. sell the rest 3 Technology o o o o o o o o  3.2 Flexibility in network topology 2.1 Integrated communications 3.1 US and UK savings estimates and concerns 6 Oppositions and concerns o  6.2 Platform for advanced services 2.2 Sensing and measurement 3.4 Sustainability 2.3 Provision megabits.5.1 Load adjustment 2.5 Market-enabling     China .2 Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing General economics developments   5.8 Smart power generation 4 Research o o  4.3. control power with kilobits.7 Improved interfaces and decision support 3.4 Phasor measurement units 3.1 Demand response support 2.o o o 2.5.1 Security 7 Other challenges to adoption o  7.6 Advanced control 3.

1.[4] At that time. and reduce the number of turbines that needed to be turned off overnight. the electricity grid reached the overwhelming majority of the population of developed countries.and oil-fired power stations in the 1 GW (1000 MW) to 3 GW scale are still found to be cost-effective. On the other side. standards and user groups 10 See also 11 References 12 External links Background[edit source | editbeta] Historical development of the electricity grid[edit source | editbeta] The first alternating current power grid system was installed in 1886 . By the late 1960s. with thousands of 'central' generation power stations delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area.      8. the electric grids of developed countries had become very large. and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. the grid was conceived as a centralized unidirectional[5] system of electric power transmission. thereby improving the utilisation and profitability of the . as well as dual-tariff arrangements where night-time power was charged at a lower rate than daytime power. gas. and demand-driven control. Nuclear power plants were sited for availability of cooling water. with only outlying regional areas remaining 'off-grid'. India and Brazil are pioneer on smart grid in developing world.[6] Metering of electricity consumption was necessary on a per-user basis in order to allow appropriate billing according to the (highly variable) level of consumption of different users. By the 1960s. Some countries like China. Because of limited data collection and processing capability during the period of growth of the grid. Finally. The motivation for dual-tariff arrangements was the lower night-time demand.1. fixed-tariff arrangements were commonly put in place. The topology of the 1960s grid was a result of the strong economies of scale of the current generation technology: large coal-. mature and highly interconnected. Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves (either the mines or wells themselves. due to efficiency-boosting features that can be cost effectively added only when the stations become very large. road or port supply lines).3 United States 9 Guidelines. or else close to rail. fossil fuel-fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population centres once electricity distribution networks permitted it. in recent years there have been some efforts for application of smart grid in developing countries. electricity distribution.2 United Kingdom 8. Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging grid. Dual tariffs made possible the use of low-cost night-time electrical power in applications such as the maintaining of 'heat banks' which served to 'smooth out' the daily demand. In the 20th century power grids originated as local grids that grew over time.

and so the need for more sophisticated control systems became apparent. andbrownouts. resulted in high costs to the electricity companies. resulting in poor power quality including blackouts. growing concern over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets. Finally. especially at peak times. Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally. [7] Origin of the term "smart grid"[edit source | editbeta] The term smart grid has been in use since at least 2003. opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become apparent. and business process transformation. electricity demand patterns were established: domestic heating and airconditioning led to daily peaks in demand that were met by an array of 'peaking power generators' that would only be turned on for short periods each day. lighting. some functional. Electric utilities now find themselves making three classes of transformations: improvement of infrastructure. [citation needed] There are many smart grid definitions. necessary to capitalize on the investments in smart . some technological. The relatively low utilisation of these peaking generators (commonly. which were passed on in the form of increased tariffs. Through the 1970s to the 1990s. to facilitate the connection of sources to the otherwise highly controllable grid. addition of the digital layer. heating. when it appeared in the article "Reliability demands will drive automation investments" by Michael T. A common element to most definitions is the application of digital processing and communications to the power grid. could not keep up with this demand.[8] The term had been used previously and may date as far back as 1998. significantly. gas turbines were used due to their relatively lower capital cost and faster start-up times). which is the essence of the smart grid. supply of electricity. In some areas. Increasingly. with power being both generated and consumed right at the limits of the grid. power cuts. communication. electricity was depended on for industry. called into question the imperative for large. centralised power stations. Dominant forms such as wind power and solar powerare highly variable. In parallel. and some benefits-oriented. growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy. and entertainment. and integration of the new grid information flows into utility processes and systems is one of the key issues in the design of smart grids. Power from photovoltaic cells (and to a lesser extent wind turbines) has also. called the strong grid in China. growing demand led to increasing numbers of power stations. Modernization opportunities[edit source | editbeta] Since the early 21st century.generation and transmission facilities. Various capabilities result from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids. Towards the end of the 20th century. making data flow and information management central to the smart grid. Burr. The rapidly falling costs point to a major change from the centralised grid topology to one that is highly distributed. and consumers demanded ever higher levels of reliability. together with the necessary redundancy in the electricity grid. The metering capabilities of the 1960s grid meant technological limitations on the degree to which price signals could be propagated through the system.

especially substation and distribution automation. This will ensure more reliable supply of electricity. whose meters could store how electricity was used at different times of the day. . refrigerators and heaters adjusted their duty cycle to avoid activation during times the grid was suffering a peak condition. Reliability[edit source | editbeta] The smart grid will make use of technologies that improve fault detection and allow self-healing of the network without the intervention of technicians. and monitoring. Nevertheless. Texas (since 2003). and reduced vulnerability to natural disasters or attack. See Deployments and attempted deployments below. Features of the smart grid[edit source | editbeta] The smart grid represents the full suite of current and proposed responses to the challenges of electricity supply. Much of the modernization work that has been going on in electric grid modernization. Colorado (2008). In the 1980s. one possible categorisation is given the mesh network of Austin.[11] Other countries are rapidly integrating this technology — China will have a comprehensive national WAMS system when its current 5-year economic plan is complete in 2012[12] The earliest deployments of smart grids include the Italian system Telegestore (2005). Early technological innovations[edit source | editbeta] Smart grid technologies have emerged from earlier attempts at using electronic control. Early forms of such Demand side management technologies were dynamic demand aware devices that passively sensed the load on the grid by monitoring changes in the power supply frequency. metering. The culmination of this work was the first operational Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) in 2000. Beginning in 2000. Italy's Telegestore Project was the first to network large numbers (27 million) of homes using such smart meters connected via low bandwidth power line communication. is now included in the general concept of the smart grid. or wireless technologies such as mesh networking that is advocated as providing more reliable connections to disparate devices in the home as well as supporting metering of other utilities such as gas and water[citation needed]. Because of the diverse range of factors there are numerous competing taxonomies and no agreement on a universal definition. and the smart grid in Boulder.[9] Smart meters add continuous communications so that monitoring can be done in real time. and evolved into the Advanced Metering Infrastructure of the 1990s.Automatic meter reading was used for monitoring loads from large customers. Monitoring and synchronization of wide area networks were revolutionized in the early 1990s when the Bonneville Power Administrationexpanded its smart grid research with prototype sensors that are capable of very rapid analysis of anomalies in electricity quality over very large geographic areas. Devices such as industrial and domestic air conditioners.[10] Recent projects use Broadband over Power Line (BPL)communications. and can be used as a gateway to demand response-aware devices and "smart sockets" in the home. but additional capabilities are evolving as well.

A smart grid aims to manage these situations. which eventually may fail also. charging to/from the batteries of electric cars. or another larger customer. Efficiency[edit source | editbeta] Numerous contributions to overall improvement of the efficiency of energy infrastructure is anticipated from the deployment of smart grid technology. A smart grid may warn all individual television sets. some spare generators are put on a dissipative standby mode[citation needed]. for example turning off air conditioners during short-term spikes in electricity price. Examples would be a utility reducing the usage of a group of electric vehicle charging stations or . the failure rate can only be reduced at the cost of more standby generators. later connectivity was guaranteed via multiple routes. the old grid also featured multiple routes. and greater utilisation of generators. average power consumption. in particular including demand-side management.Although multiple routes are touted as a feature of the smart grid. A technique to prevent this is load shedding by rolling blackout or voltage reduction (brownout). allowing for distributed generation such as from photovoltaic panels on building roofs. it could fail. communications and metering technologies inform smart devices in the home and business when energy demand is high and track how much electricity is used and when it is used. Initial power lines in the grid were built using a radial model. Seepower outage. In the traditional grid. Load adjustment[edit source | editbeta] The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time. It also gives utility companies the ability to reduce consumption by communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system overloads. referred to as a network structure. and other sources. to respond to a rapid increase in power consumption. to reach a certain failure rate. The overall effect is less redundancy in transmission and distribution lines. to reduce the load temporarily[13](to allow time to start up a larger generator) or continuously (in the case of limited resources). slow varying. causing a domino effect.[citation needed] Flexibility in network topology[edit source | editbeta] Next-generation transmission and distribution infrastructure will be better able to handle possible bidirection energy flows. However. wind turbines. Imagine the increment of the load if a popular television program starts and millions of televisions will draw current instantly. Although the total load is the sum of many individual choices of the clients. faster than the start-up time of a large generator. the load reduction by even a small portion of the clients may eliminate the problem. but also the use of fuel cells. the reverse flow can raise safety and reliability issues. this created a new problem: if the current flow or related effects across the network exceed the limits of any particular network element. pumped hydroelectric power. Classic grids were designed for one-way flow of electricity. but if a local sub-network generates more power than it is consuming. Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing[edit source | editbeta] To reduce demand during the high cost peak usage periods. Traditionally. Using mathematical prediction algorithms it is possible to predict how many standby generators need to be used. the overall load is not a stable. and the current would be shunted to other network elements. In a smart grid. leading to lower power prices.

present significant challenges to power engineers who need to ensure stable power levels through varying the output of the more controllable generators such as gas turbines and hydroelectric generators. heat banks. and energy consumption that is sensitive to the time-varying limitations of the supply. such as due to cloudy or gusty weather. At the domestic level. and heat pumps) will be well placed to 'play' the market and seek to minimise energy cost by adapting demand to the lower-cost energy support periods. and decreased during low demand periods. It is thought that consumers and businesses will tend to consume less during high demand periods if it is possible for consumers and consumer devices to be aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods. When businesses and consumers see a direct economic benefit of using energy at off-peak times. as the load curve will level itself through a combination of "invisible hand" free-market capitalism and central control of a large number of devices by power management services that pay consumers a portion of the peak power saved by turning their devices off. Smart grid technology is a necessary condition for very large amounts of renewable electricity on the grid for this reason. even without the addition of energy storage. Rapid fluctuations in distributed generation. Demand response support[edit source | editbeta] . and permits both the suppliers and the consumers to be more flexible and sophisticated in their operational strategies. Only the critical loads will need to pay the peak energy prices. Current network infrastructure is not built to allow for many distributed feed-in points. This could mean making trade-offs such as cycling on/off air conditioners or running dishes at 9 pm instead of 5 pm. prices of electricity are increased during high demand periods. and consumers will be able to be more strategic in when they use energy. Generators with greater flexibility will be able to sell energy strategically for maximum profit. Sustainability[edit source | editbeta] The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar powerand wind power.shifting temperature set points of air conditioners in a city. the transmission-level infrastructure cannot accommodate it. The overall effect is a signal that awards energy efficiency. appliances with a degree of energy storage or thermal mass (such as refrigerators. whereas inflexible generators such as base-load steam turbines and wind turbines will receive a varying tariff based on the level of demand and the status of the other generators currently operating. [13] To motivate them to cut back use and perform what is called peak curtailment or peak leveling. See Time of day metering and demand response. This is an extension of the dual-tariff energy pricing mentioned above. Market-enabling[edit source | editbeta] The smart grid allows for systematic communication between suppliers (their energy price) and consumers (their willingness-to-pay). and typically even if some feed-in is allowed at the local (distribution) level. According to proponents of smart grid plans. [who?] this will reduce the amount of spinning reserve that electric utilities have to keep on stand-by. the theory is that they will include energy cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction decisions and hence become more energy efficient.

Many smart grid bandwidth upgrades are paid for by over-provisioning to also support consumer services. the last 10% of generating capacity may be required as little as 1% of the time. [14] Currently. Eliminating the fraction of demand that occurs in these spikes eliminates the cost of adding reserve generators. While the AC power control standards suggest powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among smart grid and home devices. and subsidizing the communications with energy-related services or subsidizing the energy-related services. and distributed computing technology will improve the efficiency.[18][19] are data integrators rather than vendors of equipment. with communications. security. coordinating demand to flatten spikes. such as higher rates during peak hours. preventing any possible reaction by either supplying or demanding devices. In general information flows one way.Demand response support allows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time. Technology[edit source | editbeta] . transmission lines. with some early smart meter architectures allowing actually as long as 24 hours delay in receiving the data. from the users and the loads they control back to the utilities. The total amount of power demand by the users can have a very wide probability distributionwhich requires spare generating plants in standby mode to respond to the rapidly changing power usage. and brownouts and outages can be costly to consumers. Internet and TV services. the bits may not reach the home via Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless. uncontrolled blackout). substations and major energy users. rolling blackout. This one-way flow of information is expensive. such as Silver Spring Networks[17] or Google. such as in generating plants. It also opens up the potential for entirely new services or improvements on existing ones. The utilities attempt to meet the demand and succeed or fail to varying degrees (brownout. like Cisco. advanced sensors. it has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to cooperate. power grid systems have varying degrees of communication within control systems for their high value assets. control power with kilobits. etc. use of robust two-way communications. This is particularly true where governments run both sets of services as a public monopoly. such as fire monitoring and alarms that can shut off power. Because power and communications companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe. make phone calls to emergency services. Latency of the data flow is a major concern.[16] Others. Some. Provision megabits. see opportunity in providing devices to consumers very similar to those they have long been providing to industry. reliability and safety of power delivery and use. and allows users to cut their energy bills by telling low priority devices to use energy only when it is cheapest. sell the rest[edit source | editbeta] The amount of data required to perform monitoring and switching your appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching even remote homes to support voice. [15] Platform for advanced services[edit source | editbeta] As with other industries. cuts wear and tear and extends the life of equipment.

and security.The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations. wireless mesh networks and other technologies. Research suggests that with large numbers of PMUs and the ability to compare voltage phase angles at key points on the grid. Areas for improvement include: substation automation. power-line carrier communications. Smart meters are similar toAdvanced Metering Infrastructure meters and provide a communication path extending from generation plants to electrical outlets (smart socket) and other smart grid-enabled devices. In general. automated systems may be able to revolutionize the management of power systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid. energy management systems. Smart meters[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Smart meter A smart grid replaces analog mechanical meters with digital meters that record usage in real time. energy theft prevention. data is being collected via modem rather than direct network connection. monitoring equipment health.[22] . allowing measurement of voltage phase angle differences across wide distances. By customer option. demand response. Integrated communications will allow for real-time control. it was realized that the clock pulses from global positioning system (GPS) satellites could provide very precise time signals to devices in the field. smart grid technology can be grouped into five key areas:[20] Integrated communications[edit source | editbeta] Some communications are up to date. such devices can shut down during times of peak demand. [21] Sensing and measurement[edit source | editbeta] Core duties are evaluating congestion and grid stability. but are not uniform because they have been developed in an incremental fashion and not fully integrated. In most cases. supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). backscatter radio technology. Technologies include: advanced microprocessor meters (smart meter) and meter reading equipment. wide-area monitoring systems. electromagnetic signature measurement/analysis. information and data exchange to optimize system reliability. dynamic line rating (typically based on online readings by Distributed temperature sensing combined with Real time thermal rating (RTTR) systems). In the 1980s. and fiber-optics. and control strategies support. advanced switches and cables. distribution automation. Phasors are representations of the magnitude and phase of alternating voltage at a point in the network.[citation needed] Phasor measurement units[edit source | editbeta] Main article: Phasor measurement unit High speed sensors called PMUs distributed throughout a transmission network can be used to monitor the state of the electric system. asset utilization. timeof-use and real-time pricing tools. and Digital protective relays. dynamic fashion.

). The load balancing task has become much more challenging as increasingly intermittent and variable generators such as wind turbines and solar cells are added to the grid. high voltage direct current. storage. fault tolerance. Technologies within these broad R&D categories include: flexible alternating current transmission system devices. Many in the power systems engineering community believe that the Northeast blackout of 2003 could have been contained to a much smaller area if a wide area phasor measurement network had been in place. Short-term deviations in the balance lead to frequency variations and a prolonged mismatch results in blackouts. and diagnostics components are changing fundamental abilities and characteristics of grids.[26] Matching supply and demand. These technologies rely on and contribute to each of the other four key areas. high temperature superconducting cable. Fujian power grid in China created a wide area protection system that is rapidly able to accurately calculate a control strategy and execute it.[citation needed] Advanced control[edit source | editbeta] Power system automation enables rapid diagnosis of and precise solutions to specific grid disruptions or outages. making them suitable for base load and peaking power generation. Smart power generation[edit source | editbeta] Smart power generation is a concept of matching electricity production with demand using multiple identical generators which can start. software systems that provide multiple options when systems operator actions are required.[13] is essential for a stable and reliable supply of electricity. independently of the others. Using artificial intelligence programming techniques.Estonia (Kiisa Power Plant). called load balancing. first and second generation superconducting wire. distributed energy generation and storage devices. power electronics. stop and operate efficiently at chosen load. and simulators for operational training and ―what -if‖ analysis. demand response. analytical tools (software algorithms and high-speed computers). Their purpose is to "provide dynamic generation capacity to meet sudden . Operators of power transmission systems are charged with the balancing task.A wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is a network of PMUS that can provide real-time monitoring on a regional and national scale. and operational applications (SCADA. Technologies include visualization techniques that reduce large quantities of data into easily understood visual formats. and ―intelligent‖ appliances. forcing other producers to adapt their output much more frequently than has been required in the past.[24] The Voltage Stability Monitoring & Control (VSMC) software uses a sensitivity-based successive linear programming method to reliably determine the optimal control solution. substation automation. First two dynamic grid stability power plants utilizing the concept has been ordered by Elering and will be built by Wärtsilä in Kiisa.[25] Improved interfaces and decision support[edit source | editbeta] Information systems that reduce complexity so that operators and managers have tools to effectively and efficiently operate a grid with an increasing number of variables.[23] Advanced components[edit source | editbeta] Innovations in superconductivity. etc. Three technology categories for advanced control methods are: distributed intelligent agents (control systems). composite conductors. matching the power output of all the generators to the load of their electrical grid.

electrical system developed by the electric utility industry. electrical grid. Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) is a collaborative effort between the U. such as advanced metering. and disseminates technical information.S." They are scheduled to be ready during 2013 and 2014.S. which builds upon Grid 2030 and the National Electricity Delivery Technologies Roadmap and is aligned with other programs such as GridWise and GridWorks. equipment manufacturers. cooperative efforts. simulation and analysis tools. tools. IntelliGrid is a vision of the future electric delivery system. universities. the National Energy Technology Laboratory(NETL). distribution. interest groups. and their total output will be 250 MW. [32] GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) was formed by the U. Several utilities have applied IntelliGrid architecture including Southern California Edison. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the nation’s electric power system. federal and state government agencies. identify the . Salt River Project. works to integrate technologies.and unexpected drops in the electricity supply. information technology providers. and procuring IT-based systems. It covers generation. Department of Energy (DOE). smart technologies. The Roadmap outlines the key issues and challenges for modernizing the grid and suggests paths that government and industry can take to build America’s future electric delivery system.S. [28] IntelliGrid architecture provides methodology. modern power grid. utilities. consumers. systems. MGI supports demonstrations of key systems and technologies that serve as the foundation for an integrated. Working with theGridWise Alliance. The IntelliGrid Consortium is a public/private partnership that integrates and optimizes global research efforts. and other grid stakeholders to develop a common. specifying. the program invests in communications architecture and standards. and meetings with policy makers at federal and state levels.[31] GridWise – A DOE OE program focused on developing information technology to modernize the U. test beds and demonstration projects. and new regulatory. The GWAC provides industry guidance and tools to articulate the goal of interoperability across the electric system. distribution automation. and technology. researchers. electrical grid. transmission. and TXU Electric Delivery. and national laboratories.S. storage.[30] The National Electric Delivery Technologies Roadmap is the implementation document for the Grid 2030 vision. The GW AC members are a balanced and respected team representing the many constituencies of the electricity supply chain and users. [29] Grid 2030 – Grid 2030 is a joint vision statement for the U. institutional.S. and end-use. national vision to modernize the U. funds technology R&D. providing a forum for idea exchanges. DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) sponsors the initiative. and demand response.[27] Research[edit source | editbeta] Major programs[edit source | editbeta] IntelliGrid – Created by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). and recommendations for standards and technologies for utility use in planning. The GridWise Alliance is a consortium of public and private electricity sector stakeholders. and market frameworks. Long Island Power Authority. The architecture also provides a living laboratory for assessing devices.

patterns of consumption. Neural networks . The model has also been used to describe the synchronization patterns in the blinking of fireflies. substations and protective systems.1defines necessary guidelines and principles. high-speed computer analysis can predict blown fuses and correct for them. different types of power generators. Random fuse networks In percolation theory. For instance.concepts and architectures needed to make interoperability possible. Here is a selection of the types of analyses that have appeared in recent years. The power grid has been described in this context as well. The program’s focus includes coordinating efforts on high temperature superconducting systems. In one study. GridWorks – A DOE OE program focused on improving the reliability of the electric system through modernizing key grid components such as cables and conductors. Non-uniform oscillators also help to model different technologies.[37] Bio-systems Power grids have been related to complex biological systems in many other contexts. and so on. They are generally studied within the framework of complex systems. and power electronics. or to maintain phase synchronization (also known as phase locking). power grids were compared to thedolphin social network. microphysics of clouds. The analysis can therefore be used to smooth out potential problems in the network. random fuse networks have been studied. transmission reliability technologies. ecology. The GridWise Architecture Council Interoperability Context Setting Framework. electric distribution technologies. In a recent brainstorming session. devices. and GridWise systems. [37][38] The goal is to keep the system in balance.[35][36] Kuramoto oscillators The Kuramoto model is a well-studied system. and develop actionable steps to facilitate the inter operation of the systems. glassy dynamics. V 1. or analyze patterns that might lead to a power outage. The intercommunications that enable them to survive are highly complex.[39] These creatures streamline or intensify communication in case of an unusual situation. and too strong in others.[40] It is difficult for humans to predict the long term patterns in complex networks. and institutions that encompass the nation’s electric system. energy storage devices. The current density might be too low in some areas. Evans in their study introduced the concept of a substation based smart protection and hybrid Inspection Unit. so fuse or diode networks are used instead. [33] Smart grid modelling[edit source | editbeta] Many different concepts have been used to model intelligent power grids. Protection systems that verify and supervise themselves Pelqim Spahiu and Ian R. and many others. human cognition. information theory.[34] the power grid was considered within the context of optimal control.

TDMA. and other factors can be modelled as a mathematical game. [23] US and UK savings estimates and concerns[edit source | editbeta] One United States Department of Energy study calculated that internal modernization of US grids with smart grid capabilities would save between 46 and 117 billion dollars over the next 20 years. which is an active area of research. Given the success of the smart grids in the U. supply. Here the goal is to develop a winning strategy. modern wireless network research often considers the problem of network congestion.8 billion. smart grid features could expand energy efficiency beyond the grid into the home by coordinating low priority home devices such as water heaters so that their use of power takes advantage of the most desirable energy sources.Neural networks have been considered for power grid management as well. wind variability.[46][47] This goes back to the ideas of Shannon. and many other researchers who studied communication networks. the world market is expected to grow at a faster rate. pricing. and move the grid beyond central control to a collaborative network..4 billion – by 2014. the focus of transportation costs will be increased. depending on their different tariff methods.S.4 billion by 2014.[48] and many algorithms are being proposed to minimize it. Markov processes have been used to model and study this type of system. The references are too numerous to list. [45] Maximum entropy All of these methods are. in one way or another. including game theory. Continuing along similar lines today. communicate information on operating status and needs. Smart grids can also coordinate the production of power from large numbers of small power producers such as .[41][42][43][44] Markov processes As wind power continues to gain popularity. [51] As well as these industrial modernization benefits. collect information on prices and grid conditions. maximum entropy methods. the US smart grid industry was valued at about $21. demand. surging from $69.3 billion in 2009 to $171. network small-scale distributed energy generation and storage devices. Economics[edit source | editbeta] Market outlook[edit source | editbeta] In 2009. Reduction of maintenance and replacements costs will stimulate more advanced control. With the segments set to benefit the most will be smart metering hardware sellers and makers of software used to transmit and organize the massive amount of data collected by meters. Off-line storage. it will exceed at least $42. A smart grid precisely limits electrical power down to the residential level. [49] innovative combinations of FDMA.[50] General economics developments[edit source | editbeta] As customers can choose their electricity suppliers. it becomes a necessary ingredient in realistic power grid studies. and others.

enabling grid connection of distributed generation power (with photovoltaic arrays.g. smart grid is an aggregate term for a set of related technologies on which a specification is generally agreed. Although there are specific and proven smart grid technologies in use. and eliminating or containing failures such as widespread power grid cascading failures. small wind turbines. Where opposition to smart meters is encountered.owners of rooftop solar panels — an arrangement that would otherwise prove problematic for power systems operators at local utilities. Another concern is that the cost of telecommunications to fully support smart grids may be prohibitive. e. but it would not support economic bargaining or quantification of contributions. an estimated 27-38% of consumers are worse off as a result[citation needed]. variable rates) remove clarity and accountability. In the UK. or even combined heat power generators in buildings). A less expensive communication mechanism is proposed[citation needed] using a form of "dynamic demand management" where devices shave peaks by shifting their loads in reaction to grid frequency. remote disconnect. incorporating grid energy storage for distributed generation load balancing.[52] Oppositions and concerns[edit source | editbeta] Most opposition and concerns have centered on smart meters and the items (such as remote control. One important question is whether consumers will act in response to market signals. Some of the benefits of such a modernized electricity network include the ability to reduce power consumption at the consumer side during peak hours. use of usage data by law enforcement social concerns over "fair" availability of electricity concern that complex rate systems (e. Specific points of opposition or concern include:    consumer concerns over privacy. rather than a name for a specific technology. they are often marketed as "smart grid" which connects smart grid to smart meters in the eyes of opponents. The increased efficiency and reliability of the smart grid is expected to save consumers money and help reduce CO2 emissions. Grid frequency could be used to communicate load information without the need of an additional telecommunication network. Where consumers switch. called demand side management. although different suppliers offer different prices. allowing the supplier to take advantage of the customer     concern over remotely-controllable "kill switch" incorporated into most smart meters social concerns over Enron style abuses of information leverage concerns over giving the government mechanisms to control the use of all power using activities concerns over RF emissions from smart meters . almost half have stayed with their existing supplier. and variable rate pricing) enabled by them. where consumers have had a choice of supply company from which to purchase electricity since 1998.g. micro hydro.

Designed to allow real-time contact between utilities and meters in customers' homes and businesses. This is undoubtedly a massive boon for energy providers. protocols and software so that they cannot inter-operate with other systems in order to tie its customers to the vendor.S. but unanticipated applications that will arise in the future.Security[edit source | editbeta] With the advent of cybercrime there is also concern on the security of the infrastructure. Some components. or hope to provide similar services. could be used to attack a smart grid network. Concerns chiefly center around the communications technology at the heart of the smart grid. reading a meter. meter reading). Electricity theft is a concern in the U. primarily that involving communications technologies. [12] Most utilities find it difficult to justify installing a communications infrastructure for a single application (e. where the smart meters being deployed use the RF technology of Fastrak transponders to communicate with the electricity transmission network. This means that each utility will take a different path to creating their smart grid and that different utilities will create smart grids at different adoption rates.[12] Power Theft / Power Loss[edit source | editbeta] . there are also concerns that computermalware like Stuxnet.g. the communications infrastructure will not only support near-term applications. electric grid before on numerous occasions. power suppliers don't. monitoring power quality. enabling demand response. Ideally. remote connection and disconnection of customers. One of the key capabilities of this connectivity is the ability to remotely switch off power supplies. require complex integration in the grid's control system. [53] Cybercriminals have infiltrated the U. which targeted SCADA systems which are widely used in industry. like the power system stabilizers (PSS)[clarification needed] installed on generators are very expensive. People with knowledge of electronics can devise interference devices to cause the smart meter to report lower than actual usage. Regulatory or legislative actions can also drive utilities to implement pieces of a smart grid puzzle.[citation needed] Other challenges to adoption[edit source | editbeta] Before a utility installs an advanced metering system. but are only effective if other suppliers on the network have them. are needed only during emergencies. or any type of smart system. Each utility has a unique set of business. regulatory. Because of this.S. and legislative drivers that guide its investments.[54] Aside from computer infiltration. a utility must typically identify several applications that will use the same communications infrastructure – for example. but also raises some significant security issues. the same technology can be employed to make it appear that the energy the consumer is using is being used by another customer. Similarly.[citation needed] Some features of smart grids draw opposition from industries that currently are. Providers of SCADA control systems for grids have intentionally designed proprietary hardware. increasing their bill. etc. there is a risk that these capabilities could be exploited for criminal[citation needed] or even terrorist actions[citation needed]. enabling utilities to quickly and easily cease or modify supplies to customers who default on payment. it must make a business case for the investment. An example is competition with cable and DSL Internet providers from broadband over powerline internet access. Without any incentive to install them.

000 businesses.p. current Smart Grid technology used by utility companies does not actually detect power theft or equipment failure. Some HAN designers favor decoupling control functions from the meter.000 devices real-time (smart meters. Texas has been working on building its smart grid since 2003. InovGrid is an innovative project in Évora. It currently manages 200. smart thermostats. improve service quality. example of a smart grid is the Italian system installed by Enel S.Contrary to its name. when its utility first replaced 1/3 of its manual meters with smart meters that communicate via a wireless mesh network. of Italy. In the US. and increase the penetration of renewable energies and electric vehicles. and expects to be supporting 500. Both systems use the smart meter as a gateway to the home automation network (HAN) that controls smart sockets and devices. The initiative won the "Best AMR Initiative in North America" award from the Utility Planning Network. The worldwide power loss including theft is estimated at approximately two-hundred billion dollars annually . deploying a standards-compliant communications infrastructure from Trilliant. Canada is in the midst of a large-scale Smart Grid initiative. By the end of 2010.3 million customers in the province of Ontario. promote energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.000 devices real-time in 2009 servicing 1 million consumers and 43. out of concern of future mismatches with new standards and technologies available from the fast moving business segment of home electronic devices.[60] Évora. resulting in faster recovery of "otherwise lost" revenue and lower costs for normal paying customers. Portugal that aims to equip the electricity grid with information and devices to automate grid management. Texas. Completed in 2005. and sensors across its service area). Colorado completed the first phase of its smart grid project in August 2008. and delivers annual savings of 500 million euro at a project cost of 2. [55] Deployments and attempted deployments[edit source | editbeta] Enel.[58] The City of Mannheim in Germany is using realtime Broadband Powerline (BPL) communications in its Model City Mannheim "MoMa" project[59] Adelaide in Australia also plans to implement a localised green Smart Grid electricity network in the Tonsely Park redvelopment. in Ontario.[10] Austin. It will be possible to . As detailed in the Huffington post. have been used by utilities across North America since 2010. and developed their own system software. [56] Boulder. the Telegestore project was highly unusual in the utility world because the company designed and manufactured their own meters. The earliest. the system will serve 1.A. [57] Hydro One. acted as their own system integrator. the city of Austin. power theft/loss detection systems produced by companies such as Awesense. They also assist utility companies in identifying problems. reduce operating costs. The Telegestore project is widely regarded as the first commercial scale use of smart grid technology to the home.1 billion euro. These systems pin point locations and estimate losses. and still largest.

of China using the OpenADR demand response standard. dirtiest power plants. and General Electric intend to work together to develop standards for China’s smart grid rollout. One of the first attempted deployments of "smart grid" technologies in the United States was rejected in 2009 by electricity regulators in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.. The State Grid Corp. China[edit source | editbeta] The smart grid market in China is estimated to be $22. allowing suppliers and energy services companies to use this technological platform to offer consumers information and added-value energy products and services..[65] OpenADR Implementations[edit source | editbeta] Certain deployments utilize the OpenADR standard for load shedding and demand reduction during higher demand periods. stated "If used properly. Northeast Utilities' Western Massachusetts Electric Co. west of London."[64] In the Netherlands a large scale project (>5000 connections. a US state.control and manage the state of the entire electricity distribution grid at any given instant. services and business cases. Honeywell is developing a demand response pilot and feasibility study for China with the State Grid Corp. the Chinese Academy of Science.[68] . It’s a tool. [64] This plan was rejected by regulators as it "eroded important protections forlow-income customers against shutoffs".[64] According to the Boston Globe. the Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) said it would connect up to 30 commercial and industrial buildings in Thames Valley. to a demand response program.4 billion by 2015.3 billion with a projected growth to $61.[64] A spokesman for an environmental group supportive of smart grid plans and Western Massachusetts' Electric's aforementioned "smart grid" plan.[61][62] In the so-called E-Energy projects several German utilities are creating first nucleolus in six independent model regions. the plan "unfairly targeted low-income customers and circumvented Massachusetts laws meant to help struggling consumers keep the lights on". England. This project to install an intelligent energy grid places Portugal and EDP at the cutting edge of technological innovation and service provision in Europe. where peak use in commercial buildings was reduced by 45 percent. which would allow us to shut down some of the oldest. smart grid technology has a lot of potential for reducing peak demand.[64] According to an article in the Boston Globe. subsidiary actually attempted to create a "smart grid" program using public subsidies that would switch low income customers from post-pay to pre-pay billing (using "smart cards") in addition to special hiked "premium" rates for electricity used above a predetermined amount. A technology competition identified this model regions to carry out research and development activities with the main objective to create an "Internet of Energy"[63] Massachusetts. [66][67] United Kingdom[edit source | editbeta] The OpenADR standard was demonstrated in Bracknell.. in particular. >20 partners) was initiated to demonstrate integrated smart grids technologies. As a result of the pilot.

HECO will give customers incentives for reducing power consumption within 10 minutes of a notice.[71] Hawaiian Electric Co. MultiSpeak has created a specification that supports distribution functionality of the smart grid.United States[edit source | editbeta] In 2009. while using IP technology as a common management platform. the group has also spun out a 2030.2 represents an extension of the work aimed at utility storage systems for transmission and distribution networks. [72] Guidelines. There is a growing trend towards the use of TCP/IP technology as a common communication platform for smart meter applications.[69][70] The Department of Energy awarded an $11. The UCA International User Group discusses and supports real world experience of the standards used in smart grids.4 million grant to Honeywell to implement the program using the OpenADR standard.118.[75][76] . standards and user groups[edit source | editbeta] Part of the IEEE Smart Grid Initiative. The IEEE P2030 group expects to deliver early 2011 an overarching set of guidelines on smart grid interfaces. so that utilities can deploy multiple communication systems. the US Department of Energy awarded an $11 million grant to Southern California Edison and Honeywell for a demand response program that automatically turns down energy use during peak hours for participating industrial customers. A utility task group within LonMark International deals with smart grid related issues. [74] It is typically used to send information and signals to cause electrical power-using devices to be turned off during periods of higher demand. OpenADR is an open-source smart grid communications standard used for demand response applications. (HECO) is implementing a two-year pilot project to test the ability of an ADR program to respond to the intermittence of wind power. These standards include IEC61850 which is an architecture for substation automation. The CIM provides for common semantics to be used for turning data into information. IEC TC57 has created a family of international standards that can be used as part of the smart grid. The IEEE has created a standard to support synchrophasors – C37. Hawaii has a goal to obtain 70 percent of its power from renewable sources by 2030. and IEC 61970/61968 – the Common Information Model (CIM).[73] IEEE 2030. MultiSpeak has a robust set of integration definitions that supports nearly all of the software interfaces necessary for a distribution utility or for the distribution portion of a vertically integrated utility.1 effort drafting guidelines for integrating electric vehicles into the smart grid. MultiSpeak integration is defined using extensible markup language (XML) and web services. The new guidelines will cover areas including batteries and supercapacitors as well as flywheels.

and the first standards have already been selected for inclusion in NIST’s Smart Grid catalog. significant disruption could occur when patent holders seek to collect unanticipated rents from large segments of the market. some commentators have suggested that the benefits that could be realized from Smart Grid standardization could be threatened by a growing number of patents that cover Smart Grid architecture and technologies. NIST is charged with overseeing the identification and selection of hundreds of standards that will be required to implement the Smart Grid in the U.[81] If patents that cover standardized Smart Grid elements are not revealed until technology is broadly distributed throughout the network (―locked -in‖). [80] is standard for high-speed communications over power lines.[77][78] NIST has included ITU-T G. and End-Use Applications and Loads". phone lines and coaxial as one of the "Standards Identified for Implementation" for the Smart Grid "for which it believed there was strong stakeholder consensus". See also[edit source | editbeta] Energy portal Sustainable development portal              Charging station Grid friendly Home automation Large-scale energy storage List of energy storage projects Net metering Open smart grid protocol Pickens plan Power line communication Smart grids by country Smart meter SuperSmart Grid Super grid . Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). Its starting point is the California OpenADR standard. These standards will be referred by NIST to theFederal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).[79] G.IEEE P2030 is an IEEE project developing a "Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS). OASIS EnergyInterop' – is an OASIS technical committee developing XML standards for energy interoperation. This work has begun.

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