SUBMITTED TO : Ms. Priyanka Pandey

SUBMITTED BY : Vivek Yadav XII A Roll No. : 33


and were used to discover the electrical activity of the heart and brain. Sensitive galvanometers were used to detect signals from long submarine cables. other very sensitive types used a tiny mirror and a beam of light to provide mechanical . Galvanometers were the first instruments used to detect and measure electric currents. Some galvanometers used a solid pointer on a scale to show measurements. It is an analog electromechanical actuator that produces a rotary deflection of some type of pointer in response to electric current flowing through its coil in a magnetic field.INTRODUCTION TO GALVANOMETER A galvanometer is a type of sensitive ammeter: an instrument for detecting electric current.

amplification of tiny signals. and servomechanism . galvanometers were developed into compact. e!panded to include uses of the same mechanism in recording. sensitive portable instruments that were essential to the development galvanometer of electrotechnology. that permanently A type of recorded he term has measurements was the chart recorder. e"uipment. positioning. Initially a laboratory instrument relying on the Earth's own magnetic field to provide restoring force for the pointer. rugged.

he coil is attached to a thin pointer that traverses a calibrated scale. A tiny torsion spring pulls the coil and pointer to the (ero position. his field acts against the permanent magnet.OPERATION he most familiar use is as an analog measuring instrument. It is used to measure the direct current #flow of electric charge$ through an electric circuit. 'hen a direct current #%)$ flows through the coil. and moves the pointer. he coil twists. he %'Arsonval&'eston form used today is constructed with a small pivoting coil of wire in the field of a permanent magnet. the coil generates a magnetic field. often called an ammeter. pushing against the spring. he hand points at a .

A meter can .. for instance. Such meters are often calibrated to read some other "uantity that can be converted to a current of that magnitude. he use of current dividers. )areful design of the pole pieces ensures that the magnetic field is uniform. millivolts at full current$. A useful meter generally contains provision for damping the mechanical resonance of the moving coil and pointer. he basic sensitivity of a meter might be. microamperes full scale #with a voltage drop of. say. often called shunts. so that the pointer settles "uic*ly to its position without oscillation.scale indicating the electric current. allows a meter to be calibrated to measure larger currents. -. +. so that the angular deflection of the pointer is proportional to the current.

ustable resistor.usted to produce full scale deflection. A meter can be configured to read other voltages by putting it in a voltage divider circuit. A meter can be used to read resistance by placing it in series with a *nown voltage #a battery$ and an ad. In a preparatory step. his is generally done by placing a resistor in series with the meter coil. . 'hen an un*nown resistor is placed in series in the circuit the current will be less than full scale and an appropriately calibrated scale can display the value of the previously un*nown resistor.be calibrated as a %) voltmeter if the resistance of the coil is *nown by calculating the voltage re"uired to generate a full scale current. the circuit is completed and the resistor ad.

./ecause the pointer of the meter is usually a small distance above the scale of the meter. paralla! error can occur when the operator attempts to read the scale line that 0lines up0 with the pointer. he accuracy of the reading from a mirrored scale is improved by positioning one's head while reading the scale so that the pointer and the reflection of the pointer are aligned1 at this point. some meters include a mirror along the mar*ings of the principal scale. the operator's eye must be directly above the pointer and any paralla! error has been minimi(ed. o counter this.

MODERN USES 2ost modern uses for the galvanometer mechanism are in positioning and control systems.3citation needed4 Galvanometer mechanisms are divided into moving magnet and moving coil galvanometers1 in addition. .

for material processing with high5power lasers. )losed5loop mirror galvanometers are also used in stereolithography.3citation needed4 6or e!ample. in laser 8.they are divided into closed5loop and open5loop 5 or resonant 5 types. 2irror galvanometer systems are used as beam positioning or beam steering elements in laser scanning systems. in laser sintering. *7( with appropriate servo technology. in laser beam welding. he newest galvanometers designed for beam steering applications can have fre"uency responses over +. mirror galvanometer are typically high power galvanometer mechanisms used with closed loop servo control systems. in laser engraving. . in laser displays.

and thus access times. heir non5 lubricated bearings are especially of interest in applications that re"uire a high vacuum. Almost all of these galvanometers are of the moving magnet type. and in space systems. or resonant mirror galvanometers.and in imaging applications such as 9ptical )oherence omography #9) $ retinal scanning.3 9pen loop. in military applications. in some imaging applications. hese are all of the moving coil type. in order to *eep mass. as low as possible. in some printing machines.3 A galvanometer mechanism is used for the head positioning servos in hard dis* drives and )% and %8% players. are mainly used in laser5based barcode scanners. .