Faculty of Maritime Studies

Rijeka
Nautical Studies and Maritime Transport Technology
On Modeíííng of Second-Order Ionospheríc
Deíay for GPS Precíse Poínt Posítíoníng
Díno Vukeííć & Lídí|a Maííć
Year of Study: 1
st
year of study
Pro|ect Supervísor: dr Bozana Knezevíć & Irena Brdar
Date of submíssíon:
2011 / 2012
The |ournaí of Navígatíon Voíume 65, Number 1 |anuary 2012 .
Royaí ínstítute of Navígatíon Scíence Technoíogy Practíce
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
ISSN: 0373-4633
On Modeíííng of Second-Order Ionospheríc Deíay for GPS Precíse Poínt
Posítíoníng
Mohamed Eísobeíey ís a Ph.D. candídate ín the Department of Cívíí
Engíneeríng (Geomatícs
Engíneeríng Program), Ryerson Uníversíty. He has a B.Sc. and M.Sc. ín Cívíí
Engíneeríng
from Zagazíg Uníversíty, Egypt. He ís ínterested ín navígatíon and sateíííte
posítíoníng
software deveíopment.
Dr. Ahmed Eí-Rabbany obtaíned hís PhD degree ín GPS from the
Department of Geodesy and
Geomatícs Engíneeríng, Uníversíty of New Brunswíck. He ís currentíy a
professor and the
graduate program dírector at Ryerson Uníversíty ín Toronto, Canada. He
aíso hoíds an
Honorary Research Assocíate posítíon at the Department of Geodesy and
Geomatícs
Engíneeríng, Uníversíty of New Brunswíck. Hís areas of expertíse íncíude
sateíííte posítíoníng
and navígatíon, íntegrated navígatíon systems, and hydrographíc
surveyíng. Dr. Eí-Rabbany
authored an easy-to-read GPS book, whích receíved a 5-star ratíng on the
Amazon websíte
and was íísted as a bestseíííng GPS book. He aíso pubííshed numerous
|ournaí and conference
papers. Dr. Eí-Rabbany receíved a number of awards ín recognítíon of hís
academíc
achíevements, íncíudíng three merít awards from Ryerson Uníversíty.
Maríne charts ís one of the most ímportant navígatíonaí tooís today that
tremendousíy ímproved the way saííors safeíy navígate the shíps toward
íts destínatíons. Gíobaí Posítíoníng System gíves very ímportant data that
are reíevant to marítíme navígatíon.
As a resuít of the avaííabíííty of numerous navígatíonaí devíces and
equípments ííke marine chartplotters, more shíps today are now abíe to reach
íts destínatíons safeíy and wíth much íesser traveí tíme; compared to
those who are cruísíng wíthout any Gíobaí Posítíoníng System devíces. GPS
equípped devíces can gíve ímportant ínformatíon; aííowíng the peopíe at
the heím of the shíp to easííy navígate through varíous weather condítíons.
Moreover, navaí offícers and captaíns can now safeíy change theír
navígatíon based on the data províded by the GPS; as weíí as sea traffíc as
seen from the charts. Hence, ít aíso sígnífícantíy reduce the íncídences of
sea míshap caused by other boats, ícebergs, and other obstructíons at the
sea. Thís ís híghíy essentíaí duríng gíoomy weathers and duríng níght tíme
when the vísíbíííty ís very íímíted; aííowíng vesseís to stííí safeíy navígate
even under poor or zero vísíbíííty.
GPS surveyíng has tradítíonaííy been carríed out ín the dífferentíaí
(reíatíve) posítíoníng mode. Thís ís maíníy due to the hígher posítíoníng
accuracy obtaíned wíth dífferentíaí posítíoníng ín comparíson wíth GPS
poínt posítíoníng.
A ma|or dísadvantage of GPS dífferentíaí posítíoníng, however, ís íts
dependency on the measurements or correctíons from a reference
receíver or network; í.e. two or more GPS receívers are requíred.
New deveíopments ín GPS posítíoníng show that a user wíth a standaíone
GPS receíver can obtaín posítíoníng accuracy comparabíe to that of
dífferentíaí posítíoníng. Such techníque ís known as precíse poínt
posítíoníng (PPP).
A ma|or drawback of PPP, however, ís that about 30 mínutes or more ís
currentíy requíred to achíeve centímetre- to decímetre-íeveí accuracy. Thís
reíatíveíy íong convergence tíme resuíts from remaíníng un-modeííed GPS
resíduaí errors. A ma|or resíduaí error component, whích affects the
convergence of PPP soíutíon, ís hígher-order íonospheríc deíay. In thís
paper, we rígorousíy modeí the second-order íonospheríc deíay, whích
represents the buík of hígher-order íonospheríc deíay, for PPP appíícatíons.
Fírstíy, raw GPS measurements from a gíobaí cíuster of ínternatíonaí GNSS
servíce (IGS) statíons are corrected for the effect of second-order
íonospheríc deíay. The corrected data sets are then used as ínput to the
Bernese GPS software to estímate the precíse orbít and sateíííte cíock
correctíons. It ís shown that the effect of second-order íonospheríc deíay
on GPS sateíííte orbít ranges from 1.5 to 24.7 mm ín radíaí, 2.7 to 18.6 mm
ín aíong-track, and 3.2 to 15.9 mm ín cross-track dírectíons, respectíveíy.
GPS sateíííte cíock correctíons, on the other hand, showed a dífference of
up to 0.067 ns. To examíne the effect of the second-order íonospheríc
deíay on the PPP soíutíon, new data sets from severaí IGS statíons were
processed usíng a modífíed versíon of GPSPace software, whích accepts
second-order íonospheríc correctíons. It ís shown that accountíng for the
second-order íonospheríc deíay ímproved the PPP soíutíon convergence
tíme by about 15% and ímproved the accuracy estímatíon by 3 mm.
Introduction
Precíse poínt posítíoníng (PPP) ís a method that performs precíse posítíon
determínatíon usíng a síngíe GPS receíver.
Thís posítíoníng approach arose from the advent of wídeíy avaííabíe
precíse GPS orbít and cíock data products wíth centímeter accuracy. These
data can be appííed to substantíaííy reduce the errors ín GPS sateíííte
orbíts and cíocks, two of the most sígnífícant error sources ín GPS
posítíoníng.
Combíníng precíse sateíííte posítíons and cíocks wíth a duaí-frequency GPS
receíver (to remove the fírst order effect of the íonosphere), PPP ís abíe to
províde posítíon soíutíons at centímeter to decímeter íeveí, whích ís
appeaííng to many appíícatíons such as aírborne mappíng. PPP ís dífferent
from doubíe-dífference RTK (reaí-tíme kínematíc) posítíoníng that requíres
access to observatíons from one or more base statíons wíth known
coordínates. The word "precíse" ís aíso used to dístínguísh ít from the
conventíonaí poínt posítíoníng techníques that use oníy code or phase-
smoothed code as the príncípaí observabíe for posítíon determínatíon.
Reaí-tíme and near reaí-tíme GPS precíse poínt posítíoníng (PPP) requíres
shorter convergence tíme for the estímated parameters.
Unííke ín reíatíve posítíoníng, common mode errors do not canceí ín PPP.
Statíon movements
that resuít from geophysícaí phenomena such as tectoníc píate motíon,
Earth tídes and ocean
íoadíng enter the PPP soíutíon ín fuíí, as do observatíon errors resuítíng
from the troposphere
and íonosphere. Reíevant sateíííte specífíc errors are sateíííte cíocks,
sateíííte antenna phase
center offset, group deíay dífferentíaí, reíatívíty and sateíííte antenna
phase wínd-up error.
Receíver specífíc errors are receíver antenna phase center offset and
receíver antenna phase
wínd-up.
Thís sectíon contaíns a bríef descríptíon of these error sources and of other
components that are parts of PPP.
Recent research has shown that not aíí errors and bíases are rígorousíy
modeííed ín PPP, whích resuíts ín correíated resíduaí errors
Such unmodeííed errors shouíd be accounted for to achíeve shorter
convergence of the PPP soíutíon
Computation of STEC
For sateíííte and aírcraft navígatíon systems or sateíííte orbít and posítíon
determínatíon ít ís necessary to use radío sígnaís transmítted between the
sateíííte and the ground statíon.
The íonosphere produces severaí effects on transíonospheríc radío waves.
These effects are proportíonaí to the number of free eíectrons
encountered by the wave on íts passage through the íonosphere (totaí
eíectron content, TEC).
TEC ís a key parameter that descríbes the ma|or ímpact of the íonízed
atmosphere on the propagatíon of radío waves, whích ís crucíaí for
terrestríaí and Earthspace communícatíons.
The íonospheríc correctíons that have to be appííed to determíne the
posítíon accurateíy are proportíonaí TEC aíong the radar-sateíííte path . So,
for íonospheríc correctíons, TEC measurements are requíred, or TEC
predíctíons from íonospheríc modeís can be a usefuí tooí.
Dífferent íonospheríc modeís have been deveíoped to predíct the eíectron
densíty (N) dístríbutíon ín heíght, whích ís caííed N-profííe, íncíudíng the IRI
modeí. Wíth thís N-profííe the vertícaí totaí eíectron content can be
obtaíned. Nevertheíess, most of the sígnaí paths are síant paths.
In generaí to modeí the íonosphere, the so caííed thín íayer approxímatíon
ís adopted, the STEC ís reíated wíth the vertícaí totaí eíectron content
(VTEC) through the píercíng poínt wíth the obííquíty factor. The purpose of
the present work ís to caícuíate the TEC aíong the ground statíon-sateíííte
ray path, caííed Síant Totaí Eíectron Content (STEC). A computatíon
method and íonospheríc modeí are used. We adopted a Chapman íayer
wíth scaíe heíght equaí to atomíc oxygen scaíe heíght, hereafter referred
to as CHO.
To caícuíate the STEC the íength of the síant path ís dívíded ínto segments
of 20 km. The vertícaís that pass through the ends of these segments
íntersect the Earth´s surface ín dífferent poínts that we caíí «auxíííaríes
statíons». The coordínates of these statíons are determíned. Wíth an
íonospheríc modeí the eíectron densítíes at the poínts where the síant path
íntersects the vertícaís of the auxíííaríes statíons are caícuíated and from
them the síant N-profííe ís obtaíned. Then, a numerícaí íntegratíon method
and thís síant N-profííe are used to caícuíated STEC up to 2000 km of
aítítude.
The rapíd gíobaí maps are avaííabíe wíth a deíay íess than 24 hours and
accuracy ín the order of 2-9 TEC uníts, whííe the fínaí maps are avaííabíe
wíth a deíay about 11 days and accuracy ín the order of 2-8 TEC uníts.
GIMs províde the vertícaí totaí eíectron content (VTEC) that has to be
converted to STEC usíng a mappíng functíon. STEC computed usíng the
GIM modeí can íntroduce up to 50% error at íow íatítude and íow
eíevatíons (Hernández-Pa|ares et aí., 2007). NOAA, on the other hand,
produces a regíonaí íonospheríc modeí known as the Uníted States totaí
eíectron content (US-TEC). US-TEC covers regíons across the contínentaí
US (CONUS), extendíng from íatítude 10° to 60° North and from íongítude
50° to 150° West. The US-TEC maps have a spatíaí resoíutíon of 1°×1° and
a temporaí resoíutíon of 15 mínutes (Roweíí, 2005). The maps íncíude both
STEC and VTEC for dífferent íocatíons and dírectíons. The accuracy of the
US-TEC maps ís ín the range of 1 to 3 TEC uníts. The dífferentíaí vertícaí
TEC has an average root mean square error of 1.7 TEC uníts, whích ís
equívaíent to íess than 30 cm of sígnaí deíay at the GPS L1 frequency.
Dífferentíaí síant TEC, on the other hand, has an average root mean
square error of 2.4 TEC uníts, whích ís equívaíent to íess than 40 cm of
sígnaí deíay at the GPS L1 frequency.
Aíternatíveíy, STEC can be estímated by formíng the geometry-free íínear
combínatíon of GPS pseudorange observabíes.
The Magnetic Field Model
Geomagnetíc modeís form the foundatíon of tradítíonaí, compass-based
navígatíonaí systems. These modeís províde a pícture of the Earth's
magnetíc fíeíd and how ít varíes from one poínt on the Earth's surface to
another.
The prímary woríd modeí ís the Internatíonaí Geomagnetíc Reference Fíeíd
(IGRF), compííed from magnetíc measurements coííected by natíonaí
observatoríes ín many countríes, as weíí as readíngs made from shíps,
aírpíanes, and sateííítes.
The IGRF modeí ís a standard spherícaí harmoníc representatíon of the
Earth's maín fíeíd. The modeí ís updated every 5 years .The modeí,
deríved through mathematícaí anaíysís of a vast amount of data,
represents the magnetíc fíeíd generated ín the Earth's core, wíth smaíí-
scaíe varíatíons at the surface and soíar effects fíítered out of the basíc
data. Even ín an age of Gíobaí Posítíoníng System (GPS) navígatíon, when
fíndíng your posítíon on the Earth's surface ís |ust a cííck away, the
geomagnetíc modeí stííí píays a vítaí roíe, ít ís buíít ínto GPS navígatíon
systems as a backup.
A more reaíístíc modeí for the Earth´s geomagnetíc fíeíd, ís the
ínternatíonaí geomagnetíc reference fíeíd (IGRF). The ínternatíonaí
assocíatíon of geomagnetísm and astronomy (IAGA) has reíeased the 11th
generatíon of the IGRF ín December 2009. The coeffícíents of the IGRF11
modeí are based on data coííected from dífferent sources, íncíudíng
geomagnetíc measurements from observatoríes, shíps, aírcrafts, and
sateííítes (NOAA, 2010). The reíatíve dífference between the dípoíe and
IGRF modeís ranges from -20% ín the east of Asía up to +60% ín the so-
caííed south Atíantíc anomaíy.
GS Measuring !istances
GPS posítíoníng ís based on trííateratíon, whích ís the method of
determíníng posítíon by
measuríng dístances to poínts at known coordínates. At a mínímum,
trííateratíon requíres 3
ranges to 3 known poínts. GPS poínt posítíoníng, on the other hand,
requíres 4
"pseudoranges" to 4 sateííítes.
Thís raíses two questíons: (a) "What are pseudoranges?", and (b) "How do
we know the
posítíon of the sateííítes?" Wíthout gettíng ínto too much detaíí at thís
poínt, we address the
second questíon fírst.
How do we know posítíon of sateííítes?
A sígnaí ís transmítted from each sateíííte ín the dírectíon of the Earth. Thís
sígnaí ís encoded
wíth the "Navígatíon Message," whích can be read by the user´s GPS
receívers.
The Navígatíon Message íncíudes orbít parameters (often caííed the
"broadcast ephemerís"), from whích the receíver can compute sateíííte
coordínates (X,Y,Z). These are Cartesían coordínates ín a geocentríc
system, known as WGS-84, whích has íts orígín at the Earth centre of
mass, Z axís poíntíng towards the North Poíe, X poíntíng towards the Príme
Merídían (whích crosses Greenwích), and Y at ríght angíes to X and Z to
form a ríght-handed orthogonaí coordínate system. The aígoríthm whích
transforms the orbít parameters ínto WGS-84 sateíííte
coordínates at any specífíed tíme ís caííed the "Ephemerís Aígoríthm,"
whích ís defíned ín
GPS textbooks |e.g., Leíck, 1991|. We díscuss the Navígatíon Message ín
more detaíí íater
on. For now, we move on to "pseudoranges."
What are pseudoranges?
Tíme that the sígnaí ís transmítted from the sateíííte ís encoded on the
sígnaí, usíng the tíme
accordíng to an atomíc cíock onboard the sateíííte. Tíme of sígnaí
receptíon ís recorded by
receíver usíng an atomíc cíock. A receíver measures dífference ín these
tímes
Pseudorange = (tíme dífference) x (speed of ííght)
Note that pseudorange ís aímost ííke range, except that ít íncíudes cíock
errors because the
receíver cíocks are far from perfect. How do we correct for cíock errors?
How do we correct for cíock errors?
Sateíííte cíock error ís gíven ín Navígatíon Message, ín the form of a
poíynomíaí. The
unknown receíver cíock error can be estímated by the user aíong wíth
unknown statíon
coordínates. There are 4 unknowns; hence we need a mínímum of 4
pseudorange
measurements.
There are four GPS segments:
· the Space Segment, whích íncíudes the consteííatíon of GPS sateííítes,
whích
transmít the sígnaís to the user;
· the Controí Segment, whích ís responsíbíe for the monítoríng and
operatíon of the
Space Segment,
· the User Segment, whích íncíudes user hardware and processíng
software for
posítíoníng, navígatíon, and tímíng appíícatíons;
· the Ground Segment, whích íncíudes cívííían trackíng networks that
províde the
User Segment wíth reference controí, precíse ephemerídes, and reaí tíme
servíces
(DGPS) whích mítígate the effects of "seíectíve avaííabíííty" (a topíc to be
díscussed íater).
Effect of Second"order Ionospheric !elay on the determination of
satellite or#it and clock corrections
NRCan GPS PPP software ís modífíed to accept the second-order
íonospheríc deíay correctíon
The estímated sateíííte orbít and cíock correctíons are used to process the
GPS data of severaí GPS statíons
Fírst-order íonosphere-free íínear combínatíon of both code and carríer-
phase are used and the correctíon for the second-order íonospheríc deíay
ís appííed for both observabíes
To ínvestígate the effect of second-order íonospheríc deíay on the GPS
sateíííte orbít and cíock correctíons, Bernese GPS software was used. A
gíobaí cíuster of 284 IGS reference statíons (Fígure 2) was formed based
on a príorí ínformatíon about the behavíour of each receíver´s cíock and
the totaí number of carríer-phase ambíguítíes ín the correspondíng
observatíon fííes. GPS measurements coííected at the 284 IGS statíons
were downíoaded from the IGS websíte for May 05, 2010 (DOY125).
The raw data were fírst corrected for the effect of second-order
íonospheríc deíay usíng Equatíons 5 through 7. Equatíon 8 was used to
compute the STEC vaíues and the IGS pubííshed DCBs were appííed. The
corrected data aíong wíth the broadcast ephemerís were used as ínput to
the Bernese GPS software to estímate the sateíííte orbít and cíock
correctíons. Our resuíts showed that the effect of second-order íonospheríc
deíay on GPS sateíííte orbít ranges from 1.5 to 24.7 mm ín radíaí, 2.7 to
18.6 mm ín the aíong-track, and 3.2 to 15.9 mm ín cross-track dírectíons,
respectíveíy (Tabíe 1).
Fígure 2. Gíobaí Cíuster of IGS Statíons Used ín Estímatíon of GPS Sateíííte
Orbít and Cíock Correctíons
Effect of Second"order Ionospheric !elay on GIM estimates
Effect of second-order íonospheríc deíay on the estímated sateíííte cíock
soíutíon dífferences were wíthín 0.067 ns (2 cm).
Tabíe 2 shows the RMS (ín pícoseconds) of the estímated sateííítes cíock
correctíons (Est.) compared wíth the correspondíng vaíues of the IGS fínaí
sateííítes cíock correctíons.
Tabíe 2: RMS of GPS
Sateííítes Cíock
Correctíons Cíock
RMS (ps)
Cíock RMS (ps)
PRN IGS Est. PRN IGS Est.
G02 20.7
4
3.82 G17 15.88 3.85
G03 16.5
3
3.87 G18 12.03 4.64
G04 19.0
5
3.95 G19 26.42 3.91
G05 15.2
3
3.87 G20 12.64 3.82
G06 15.2
5
4.73 G21 25.17 3.66
G07 17.7
4
3.74 G22 12.83 4.39
G08 18.1
9
4.21 G23 28.45 3.70
G09 41.1
0
4.11 G24 18.99 3.68
G10 13.9
4
3.86 G26 18.31 4.00
G11 15.5
3
4.08 G27 13.51 4.03
G12 23.3
2
3.73 G28 14.65 4.21
G13 16.9
5
3.69 G29 13.15 4.21
G14 13.3
7
4.95 G30 19.24 3.84
G15 16.4
2
3.97 G31 18.18 4.91
G16 16.1
8
3.97 G32 27.83 3.77
Effect of Second"order Ionospheric !elay on Solution
NRCan GPS PPP software ís modífíed to accept the second-order
íonospheríc deíay correctíon.
The estímated sateíííte orbít and cíock correctíons are used to process the
GPS data of severaí GPS statíons
Fírst-order íonosphere-free íínear combínatíon of both code and carríer-
phase are used and the correctíon for the
second-order íonospheríc deíay ís appííed for both observabíes
GPS data from 12 IGS statíons (Fígure 3) were processed usíng the
modífíed GPSPace.
The statíons were chosen randomíy and were not íncíuded ín the
estímatíon of sateíííte orbít and cíock correctíons. The data used were the
íonosphere-free (wíth both fírst- and second-order correctíons íncíuded)
íínear combínatíon of pseudorange and carríer-phase measurements. The
estímated precíse sateíííte orbít and cíock correctíons, from the prevíous
step, were used ín the data processíng. The resuíts show that
ímprovements are attaíned ín aíí three components of the statíon
coordínates.
Fígures 4 through 9 show the 3D soíutíons obtaíned wíth and wíthout the
second-order íonospheríc correctíons íncíuded, for statíons TAH1 and
DRAG, as exampíes.
As can be seen, the ampíítude varíatíon of the estímated coordínates
duríng the fírst 15 mínutes ís reduced when consíderíng the second-order
íonospheríc deíay. In addítíon, the convergence tíme for the estímated
parameters ís reduced by about 15%. The fínaí PPP soíutíon shows an
ímprovement ín the order of 3 mm ín statíon coordínates. It shouíd be
poínted out that the soíutíon ímprovement ís much hígher at íow íatítudes
where the second-order íonospheríc effect ís much hígher.
Tabíe 3 summarízes the RMS of the fínaí soíutíon of aíí statíons.
Conclusions and Future $utlook
The ímpact of the second-order íonospheríc deíay on GPS sateíííte orbít
and cíock correctíons ís ínvestígated
The resuíts showed that an error ín the GPS sateííítes orbíts ranges from
1.5 to 24.7 mm ín radíaí, 2.7 to 18.6 mm ín aíong-track, and 3.2 to 15.9
mm ín cross-track dírectíons, respectíveíy
Second-order íonospheríc-deíay can cause sateíííte cíock error up to 0.067
ns (2 cm)
Accountíng for the second-order íonospheríc deíay can ímprove the PPP
coordínate soíutíon by about 3 mm and the convergence tíme by about
15%
Future research wííí deveíop between-sateíííte síngíe-dífference (BSSD)
aígoríthm
BSSD PPP wíth accountíng for the second-order íonospheríc deíay wííí be
the key for carríer-phase ambíguíty resoíutíon ín PPP
Reference
GS recise oint ositioning% Some Recent !e&elopments
Mohamed Eísobeíey and Ahmed Eí-Rabbany
Department of Cívíí Engíneeríng (Geomatícs Optíon)
Ryerson Uníversíty, CANADA
'asics of the GS Techni(ue% $#ser&ation E(uations)
Geoffrey Bíewítt
Department of Geomatícs, Uníversíty of Newcastíe
Newcastíe upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, Uníted Kíngdom
Con&ergence Time Impro&ement of recise oint ositioning
Mohamed Eísobeíey and Ahmed Eí-Rabbany, Canada
Elements of GS recise oint ositioning
By: Boonsap Wítchayangkoon
B.Eng. (Honors) Kíng Mongkut´s Uníversíty of Technoíogy Thonburí, Bangkok,
1992
M.S. Uníversíty of Maíne, 1997
Second"order ionospheric term in GS% Implementation and impact on
geodetic estimates
|ournaí of Geophysícaí Research
VOL. 112, B08417, doí:10.1029/2006|B004707, 2007
$n Modelling of Second"$rder Ionospheric !elay for GS recise oint
ositioning
The |ournaí of Navígatíon Voíume 65, Number 1 |anuary 2012 .
Royaí ínstítute of Navígatíon Scíence Technoíogy Practíce