2013 LECTURE 11 - The union as a Force of Change in Domestic Politics, Europeanization European Studies and Europeanization • For much of its history, European Studies focused primarily on the forces which caused integration and the structures created in Brussels. • Increased focus on analyzing the consequences of integration at a domestic level: Europeanization • Europeanization: 'domestic change caused by integration'. Europeanization • Europeanization or EU-ization? • In the 1990s the prevailing idea was that because the EU was standard, the result would be standard leading to each member state eventually transforming into exactly the same type of political system, we would all come to be identical. • Europeanization is distinct from integration: integration is a process with an aim. Europeanization is what happens as a consequence of that process. Norway for example, can trade within countries in the EU even though, the country itself in not a EU member state. Because the EU is distinct from the member states, the idea in the past was that all the countries would have the same type of political system. Yet now, we can come to realize that the EU laws are adopted in different ways. Europeanization: 3 principal question. To understand Europeanization we must understand: 1. what stimulates change? 2. what changes? 3. why is change differentiated? Interest groups in Malta, have been directly effected by the EU, you can directly ask for EU funds, thus allowing you to create greater expertise. Whychangehappens? • The principal stimulus for change is the EU's policy output and the degree of fit between what the EU wants and the domestic set-up. • Policy fit and institutional fit - in addition to have to comply with EU policy a country must also participate in EU politics which necessities further changes • The application of fit however best applies to what is termed positive integration. Customs changed with the entry of people, and merchandise, unless it is believed to be of national threat and that to those people around them. Thus, now there is free movement in comparison to the past. However, if there are various types of merchandise, coming from countries such as Iraq one has the right to check it. The EU's stimulus for change

The Mediating Factors (which inform how countries change) • Various factors impact how countries change and each country will have a different combination of these factors at play: • Factors include institutional traditions • Executive leadership • The administration reform capacity of the institution • Timing • Legitimizing policy discourse • Norm Entrepreneurs • Cooperative informal institutions Key determinants include veto players. such as not allowing government to give subsidies) Facilitated coordination Krill and Lehmkuhl 1. (One can of the structures are efficient by looking at the political structure of the EU. For example: Greece. The policy spectrum is radically effected by EU policy. The EU invests on regulating). Negative integration 3. Prior to us joining in the EU.negative integration ( telling the MS what they cannot allow. facilitating formal institutions. However.BulmerandRadaelli Negotiation Governance . Once you form part of the EU. Framing integration (the EU is not consistent with the law it creates.positive integration ( who have to adopt the same integration no matter where you come from) . the Public Administration. of the EU asks too much out of its MS it can take longer for a MS to adjust it or integrate it. Positive integration 2. you have to adopt their policies. Areas where change can be seen • Politics (Political and normative structures) • This includes changes to national political institutions. you are given advice however. Malta's environmental policy was sketchy. • Policies (type and scope of policies) • Polity (political parties and interest groups) • Changes in societal-cleavage structures. Europeanization in Malta . the role of actors and how business is undertaken. you do not necessarily have to implit You have to adjust to what the EU wants a country to do. the expectation of society of politics. legal structures. Amnesty international find it easy to cooperate because they manage to come along on various policies.

***************** . • Individual EU affairs Directorates • Scrutiny committee with Parliament • MEUS/ AC • Processes foe establishing national positions on Commission proposals. especially interest group activity and values. both horizontal and vertical • The creation of the EU Secretariat with the OPM (the Prime minister is strongly empowered) • The PPCD (planning and priorities coordination division) for cohesion Funds.• Changes to core government structures. can make policies which were usually done by the ministers). (Nowadays the Prime minister. • The presidency as a force for concentrated change. • Changes to policy • Policy types • Policy mechanisms • Including enhanced environmental and consumer policy • Greater regulatory emphasis • Changes within the wider polity.