Cpen Workshop

8ecomlng a 8eLLer unlverslLy 1eacher, 2013

An Introduction to Teaching
Techniques and Methods

David Jennings

An lnLroducLlon Lo 1eachlng 1echnlques and MeLhods ................................................................... 1
Welcome Card ........................................................................................................................................ 4
Pow we learn ......................................................................................................................................... 6
Common lssues of 1uLorlals/Small Croup 1eachlng ............................................................................. 10
SupporLlng Learnlng ............................................................................................................................. 12
uslng CuesLlons More LffecLlvely ........................................................................................................ 13
Pow Lo Ask CuesLlons LhaL ÞrompL CrlLlcal 1hlnklng ........................................................................... 13
Lxample CuesLlon ConsLrucLs .............................................................................................................. 16
1echnlques for Lncouraglng AcLlve ...................................................................................................... 19
(and More lnLeresLlng!) Learnlng ......................................................................................................... 19
More CpporLunlLles for AcLlve LngagemenL ........................................................................................ 27
AcLlve noLes ......................................................................................................................................... 28

Þlease noLe Lhe maLerlals ln Lhls workbook are based on Lhe conLenLs of uCu 1eachlng and
Learnlng' Cpen LducaLlonal 8esources webslLe, for furLher deLalls and onllne acLlvlLles vlslL:

UCD Teaching and Learning 3
On completion of this session you should be able to:
• ldenLlfy and deflne Lhe core role of a LuLor / faclllLaLor
• Appralse and apply approprlaLe quesLlon consLrucLs Lo faclllLaLe learnlng
• uebaLe Lechnlques and meLhods for 'acLlve' learnlng

1osk. lottoJoctloos, kelotloosblps ooJ commoolcotloo

1ake a momenL Lo flll ouL Lhe welcome card (nexL page)
Share lL wlLh someone you are unfamlllar wlLh,
or have yeL Lo have a chaL Lo.
geL up an move lf you need Lo!

UCD Teaching and Learning 4
Welcome Card

8esearch lnLeresL/s

MosL en[oyable Loplc Lo Leach / learn

lnsplraLlonal 1eacher / Þerson and Why?

lavourlLe ChocolaLe bar?!

UCD Teaching and Learning 5

1osk. ltlot íxpetleoce

loJlvlJoolly, toke o momeot to teflect
8ased on your experlence:
! WhaL have you experlenced ln your Leachlng and/or learnlng LhaL has made lL a
! Pave you experlenced any lssues or dllemmas?



Now come toqetbet lo tbtees ooJ Jlscoss yoot exomples
Agree on one example of each on Lhe posL-lLs provlded
! ked (lsh) - for lssues / ullemmas
! Green (lsh) - for Successes

UCD Teaching and Learning 6
How we learn

Learnlng ls noL a specLaLor sporL. SLudenLs do noL learn much [usL by slLLlng ln class
llsLenlng Lo Leachers, memorlzlng prepackaged asslgnmenLs, and splLLlng ouL
answers. 1hey musL Lalk abouL whaL Lhey are learnlng, wrlLe abouL lL, relaLe lL Lo pasL
experlences, apply lL Lo Lhelr dally llves. 1hey musL make whaL Lhey learn parL of
ArLhur W. Chlckerlng and Zelda l. Camson

AcLlve learnlng, puL slmply ls noL passlve, preferably noL dldacLlc, noL mere noLe Laklng eLc.
ldeally lL provldes a shlfL from Lhe Leacher or faclllLaLor 'dolng' Lo Lhe sLudenL 'dolng'. 1hls
may Lake any number of forms, moLor or physlcally acLlve, sensory / percepLually acLlve or
acLlvaLed, verbal acLlons, cognlLlve acLlvlLy, collaboraLlve or co-operaLlve engagemenL /
acLlvlLy eLc.

Learnlng sLyles has become a somewhaL conLenLlous Lerm used Lo descrlbe Lhe aLLlLudes
and behavlours, whlch 'may' deLermlne an lndlvldual's preferred way of learnlng. lL ls Lhe
'may' LhaL draws aLLenLlon as lL ls ofLen omlLLed and hence Lhe concepL becomes a
deLermlnlsLlc approach Lo caLagorlslng how learners engage wlLh lnformaLlon, Lhelr peers,
educaLors and opporLunlLles Lo learn. Sufflce Lo say lL ls also an area where so many learnlng
sLyles / preference models exlsL, LhaL Lhe markeLplace ls Lruly over-crowded (a clLaLlon
search revealed over 130 arLlcles espouslng models), so where does one look Lo.? And how
may we use Lhem Lo our beneflL?

lf we merely Lake noLe of Lhe range of sLyles and/or preferences avallable, we may begln Lo
address a number of key lssues LhaL lmpacL sLudenL lnLeracLlon. 1he ldea of learner malalse,
lack of moLlvaLlon, mlslnLerpreLaLlon ls noL down Lo recalclLranL lndlvlduals alone. 8y
adapLlng Lhe way ln whlch we Leach and provlde learnlng opporLunlLles Lo reflecL Lhe
poLenLlal 'learnlng sLyles' apparenL ln any cohorL, we may begln Lo offer an open and

UCD Teaching and Learning 7
engaglng process LhaL ls dlrecLed Lo Lhelr (Lhe learners) preferred sLyle / meLhod of
lnLeracLlon and engagemenL.

1he followlng Lhree Lables elaboraLe Lhe deLalls of Lhelr respecLlve models (8ose, Poney &
Mumford and Cardener) and Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe lmplled learnlng sLyles on Lhe
8ose 1983
V|sua|! Learners prefer Lo learn wlLh vlsual relnforcemenL such as charLs and dlagrams
Aud|tory. Learners prefer Lo learn by llsLenlng
k|naesthet|c. Learners prefer Lo learn Lhrough, movlng, dolng and Louchlng

Poney and Mumford 1996
1heoret|ca|. Learners prefer Lo learn by readlng and llsLenlng Lo Lhe experLs
Þragmat|c. Learners llke Lo be able Lo see Lhe pracLlcal appllcaLlon of Lheory. 1hey llke Lo use
deducLlve reasonlng Lo focus on problems and Lhey prefer slLuaLlons where Lhere ls a slngle correcL
answer or soluLlon
kef|ect|ve. Learners Lend Lo be lmaglnaLlve and emoLlonal. 1hey work well ln group dlscusslons
Act|v|st. Learners are acLlon orlenLed. 1hey learn by dolng

Cardener 1993
V|sua|/Spat|a| Inte|||gence. Þuzzle bulldlng, readlng, wrlLlng, undersLandlng charLs and graphs, a
good sense of dlrecLlon, skeLchlng, palnLlng, creaLlng vlsual meLaphors and analogles (perhaps
Lhrough Lhe vlsual arLs), manlpulaLlng lmages, consLrucLlng, flxlng, deslgnlng pracLlcal ob[ecLs,
lnLerpreLlng vlsual lmages.
Verba|]L|ngu|st|c Inte|||gence. LlsLenlng, speaklng, wrlLlng, sLory Lelllng, explalnlng, Leachlng, uslng
humour, undersLandlng Lhe synLax and meanlng of words, rememberlng lnformaLlon, convlnclng
someone of Lhelr polnL of vlew, analyslng language usage.
Log|ca|]Mathemat|ca| Inte|||gence. Þroblem solvlng, classlfylng and caLegorlslng lnformaLlon,
worklng wlLh absLracL concepLs Lo flgure ouL Lhe relaLlonshlp of each Lo Lhe oLher, handllng long
chalns of reason Lo make local progresslons, dolng conLrolled experlmenLs, quesLlonlng and
wonderlng abouL naLural evenLs, performlng complex maLhemaLlcal calculaLlons, worklng wlLh

UCD Teaching and Learning 8
geomeLrlc shapes.
8od||y]k|naesthet|c Inte|||gence. uanclng, physlcal co-ordlnaLlon, sporLs, hands on experlmenLaLlon,
uslng body language, crafLs, acLlng, mlmlng, uslng Lhelr hands Lo creaLe or bulld, expresslng
emoLlons Lhrough Lhe body.
Mus|ca|]khythm|c Inte|||gence. Slnglng, whlsLllng, playlng muslcal lnsLrumenLs, recognlslng Lonal
paLLerns, composlng muslc, rememberlng melodles, undersLandlng Lhe sLrucLure and rhyLhm of
Interpersona| Inte|||gence. Seelng Lhlngs from oLher perspecLlves (dual-perspecLlve), llsLenlng, uslng
empaLhy, undersLandlng oLher people's moods and feellngs, counselllng, co-operaLlng wlLh groups,
noLlclng people's moods, moLlvaLlons and lnLenLlons, communlcaLlng boLh verbally and non-verbally,
bulldlng LrusL, peaceful confllcL resoluLlon, esLabllshlng poslLlve relaLlons wlLh oLher people.
Intrapersona| Inte|||gence. 8ecognlslng Lhelr own sLrengLhs and weaknesses, reflecLlng and
analyslng Lhemselves, awareness of Lhelr lnner feellngs, deslres and dreams, evaluaLlng Lhelr
Lhlnklng paLLerns, reasonlng wlLh Lhemselves, undersLandlng Lhelr role ln relaLlonshlp Lo oLhers.

1ake a momenL Lo underLake one of Lhe followlng onllne LesLs Lo assess your preferred
'learnlng sLyle', are Lhey appllcable?
- Myers-8rlggs
- uavld kelrsey's 'SorLer' Lo dlscover one's personallLy Lype
- Soloman & lelder Cnllne LesL
- 8ose's vA8k Cnllne LesL
- Poney and Mumford's 80 lLem quesLlonnalre

UCD Teaching and Learning 9
nomewotk! 1ty oootbet test ooJ compote tbe two floJloqs.

UCD Teaching and Learning 10
Common Issues of Tutorials/Small Group Teaching
1osk. 1ototlol lssoes

wotkloq lo qtoops, toke 7 mlootes to complete toble below.
Address Lhe ldenLlfled lssues and assess whaL lmpacL Lhey may have on Lhe success of a
Leachlng sesslon, begln Lo ldenLlfy poLenLlal soluLlons.
1uLor / laclllLaLor / LecLurer lmpacL / SoluLlon
Lack of preparaLlon
Coals and sLrucLure are unclear
Þoor presenLaLlon skllls
Lack of faclllLaLlon
1uLor Lalks Loo much
ulscusslons Lend Lo be aL a low cognlLlve
level (and borlng)
CuesLlons asked by LuLors rarely go beyond
ellclLlng recall

SLudenLs (Learners) lmpacL / SoluLlon
Lack of preparaLlon by learners
Lack of sLudenL parLlclpaLlon and
Cne or Lwo sLudenLs are allowed Lo
domlnaLe Lhe dlscusslon

UCD Teaching and Learning 11

UCD Teaching and Learning 12
Supporting Learning

Cne of Lhe maln alms of any LuLorlal / semlnar / small group lnLeracLlon ls Lo creaLe a
relaxed buL secure envlronmenL where sLudenLs feel confldenL conLrlbuLlng Lo dlscusslons
and explorlng concepLs. 1o ensure professlonal behavlour ln LuLorlals, sLudenLs should be
made aware of and agree Lo adhere Lo guldellnes or a muLually agreeable learnlng conLracL
Lo suporL Lhem and Lhelr peers.

ColJelloes fot ptofessloool bebovloot lo tototlols

8especL LlsLen respecLfully
Avold rude, arroganL or paLronlzlng verbal and non-verbal behavlour
Allow Lhe free exchange of ldeas & acknowledge oLhers' conLrlbuLlons
ulfferenLlaLe value of lnformaLlon from value of person
CommunlcaLlon Skllls

Speak dlrecLly Lo group members
ÞresenL clearly & use words LhaL oLhers undersLand
ldenLlfy & aLLempL Lo resolve mlsundersLandlng
Lxpress own emoLlonal sLaLe ln approprlaLe slLuaLlons
8ecognlzes and responds Lo group member's verbal or non-verbal

ÞuncLual & glves prlor noLlce of lnLended absence
CompleLe asslgned Lasks (or negoLlaLe alLernaLlves- were appllcable)
ÞresenL relevanL lnformaLlon
Pelp Lo malnLaln group dynamlcs
Self-Awareness and/or

Acknowledge own dlfflculLy ln undersLandlng or own lack of approprlaLe
Acknowledge own dlscomforL ln dlscusslng or deallng wlLh a parLlcular
ldenLlfy own sLrengLhs & weaknesses
8espond Lo falr negaLlve evaluaLlve commenL wlLhouL becomlng defenslve

courLesy of McMasLer unlverslLy

UCD Teaching and Learning 13
Using Questions More Effectively
1he effecLlveness of quesLlonlng ln Leacher-sLudenL lnLeracLlons can be slgnlflcanLly
enhanced by a few baslc Lechnlques

Þose the quest|on f|rst, before ask|ng a student to respond.
- When you call on a sLudenL before poslng Lhe quesLlon, Lhe resL of Lhe class ls less llkely
Lo llsLen Lo Lhe quesLlon, much less formulaLe a response.
- Þoslng Lhe quesLlon before ldenLlfylng someone Lo respond leLs sLudenLs know Lhey
wlll be held accounLable and should be prepared Lo answer every quesLlon.

A||ow p|enty of "th|nk t|me" by wa|t|ng at |east 7-10 seconds before expect|ng students to
- Ask sLudenLs Lo refraln from respondlng unLll you ask for a volunLeer or ldenLlfy
someone. Slnce mosL Leachers walL only 1-3 seconds before expecLlng a response, Lhe
lncreased walL Llme can seem llke an eLernlLy and feel very uncomforLable aL flrsL.
- 1o help sLudenLs ad[usL Lo an exLended walL Llme, use Lhe Llme Lo repeaL and rephrase
Lhe quesLlon, also suggesL LhaL sLudenLs use Lhe Llme Lo wrlLe down Lhe responses Lhey

Make sure you g|ve a|| students the opportun|ty to respond rather than re|y|ng on
- CreaLe a sysLem Lo help you keep Lrack of who you call on so you can ensure LhaL all
sLudenLs have equal opporLunlLles Lo conLrlbuLe.

AdapLed from 1he CenLre for 1eachlng Lxcellence, SL Ldward's unlverslLy, AusLln 1exas, Avallable aL

UCD Teaching and Learning 14
- lf you call on a sLudenL who ls noL ready Lo respond or does noL know Lhe answer, allow
Lhe sLudenL Lo "pass" and Lhen glve her/hlm anoLher opporLunlLy laLer.

no|d students accountab|e by expect|ng, requ|r|ng and fac|||tat|ng the|r part|c|pat|on and
- never answer your own quesLlons! lf Lhe sLudenLs know you wlll glve Lhem Lhe answers
afLer a few seconds of sllence anyway, whaL ls Lhelr lncenLlve?
- uon'L be Lo ready Lo accepL "l don'L know" for an answer. Allow addlLlonal Lhlnk Llme, lf
necessary, by movlng on and Lhen comlng back Lo Lhe sLudenL for a response laLer.
AlLernaLlvely, have a slmpler alLernaLlve quesLlon ready.
- Cffer hlnLs or suggesLlons Lo gulde sLudenLs ln formulaLlng quallLy responses.
- lf a sLudenL ls unable or unwllllng Lo formulaLe a response, Lhen offer Lwo or more
opLlons and leL Lhe sLudenL choose one.

Lstab||sh a safe atmosphere for r|sk tak|ng by gu|d|ng students |n the process of |earn|ng
from the|r m|stakes.
- Always "dlgnlfy" lncorrecL responses by saylng someLhlng poslLlve abouL sLudenLs'
efforLs, publlc embarrassmenL only conflrms apprehenslons abouL class parLlclpaLlon.
- 8emember Lo glve poslLlve non-verbal Slgnals.
- When sLudenLs make mlsLakes, bulld Lhelr confldence and LrusL by asklng follow-up
quesLlons deslgned Lo help Lhem self-correcL and achleve success.
- AdmlL your own mlsLakes and "Lhlnk aloud" examples of a reflecLlon process LhaL
demonsLraLes lncreased awareness, new lnslghLs, concepL clarlflcaLlon, eLc.

UCD Teaching and Learning 15
How to Ask Questions that Prompt Critical Thinking

llrsLly avold quesLlons LhaL have an easy one-dlmenslonal answer. Secondly plan your
quesLlons ln advance, uslng 8loom's 1axonomy as a gulde, sLrucLure Lhe quesLlons so LhaL
you may gulde a sLudenL by provldlng Lhem wlLh Lhe approprlaLe prompL Lo aLLaln ºhlgher
order Lhlnklng".
8loom´s kevlseJ 1oxooomy of coqoltlve ltocesses.
6. Creat|on ] Synthes|s: Lhe ablllLy Lo puL facLs LogeLher lnLo a coherenL whole, or, creaLlvely achleve
a new undersLandlng by llnklng facLs LogeLher
5oqqesteJ vetbs. ueslgn, organlse, formulaLe, propose, comblne, lnLegraLe, modlfy, rearrange,
subsLlLuLe, plan, creaLe, lnvenL, 'whaL lf?', compose, prepare, rewrlLe.

S. Lva|uat|on: Lhe ablllLy Lo make [udgemenLs uslng crlLerla and sLandards
5oqqesteJ vetbs. !udge, supporL, conclude, compare, summarlse, evaluaLe, appralse, assess, declde,
rank, grade, recommend, convlnce.

4. Ana|ys|s: ablllLy Lo deLermlne lnLernal relaLlonshlps
5oqqesteJ vetbs. ulsLlngulsh, analyse, calculaLe, LesL, lnspecL.

3. App||cat|on: Lhe ablllLy Lo apply whaL ls learned Lo a new slLuaLlon
5oqqesteJ vetbs. Apply, use, demonsLraLe, lllusLraLe, pracLlce.

2. Comprehens|on: Lhe ablllLy Lo lnLerpreL lnformaLlon ln one's own words
5oqqesteJ vetbs. uescrlbe, explaln, dlscuss, recognlse.

1. know|edge: Lhe ablllLy Lo recall facLs, oplnlons and concepLs
5oqqesteJ vetbs. ueflne, llsL, name, recall, record.
lrom: Anderson eL al (2001)
Example Question Constructs

1. knowledge
LxhlblLs prevlously learned maLerlal by recalllng facLs, Lerms, baslc concepLs and answers.

WhaL ls . . . ?
When dld ____ happen?
Pow would you explaln . . . ?
Why dld . .. ?
Pow would you descrlbe . .. ?
Pow would you show... ?
Can you selecL... ?
Who were Lhe maln . . . ?
Can you llsL Lhree ... ?
Who was . .. ?

2: Comprehenslon
uemonsLraLlng undersLandlng of facLs and ldeas by organlslng, comparlng, LranslaLlng,
lnLerpreLlng, glvlng descrlpLlons and sLaLlng maln ldeas.

Pow would you compare . .. ? conLrasL.. ?
Lxplaln ln your own words . . . ?
WhaL facLs or ldeas show . .. ?
WhaL evldence ls Lhere LhaL.?
Lxplaln whaL happened .... whaL ls meanL. ..?
3: AppllcaLlon
Solvlng problems by applylng acqulred knowledge, facLs, Lechnlques and rules ln a dlfferenL

WhaL examples can you flnd Lo . . . ?
Pow would you show your undersLandlng of. .. ?
WhaL approach would you use Lo ... ?
WhaL mlghL have happened lf. . . ?

4: Analysls
Lxamlnlng and breaklng lnformaLlon lnLo parLs by ldenLlfylng moLlves or causes, maklng
lnferences and flndlng evldence Lo supporL generallsaLlons.

WhaL lnference can you make from. . . ?
Pow would you classlfy . . . ?
Pow would you caLegorlze . .. ?
Can you ldenLlfy Lhe dlfference parLs... ?
WhaL ls Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween . .. ?
WhaL ls Lhe funcLlon of. . . ?
Can you make a dlsLlncLlon beLween . . . ?

3: LvaluaLlon
ÞresenLlng and defendlng oplnlons by maklng [udgmenLs abouL lnformaLlon, valldlLy of ldeas
or quallLy of work based on a seL of crlLerla.

Pow would you compare ..?
Whlch do you Lhlnk ls beLLer..?
WhaL was Lhe value or lmporLance of .... ln ......?
WhaL would you have recommended lf you had been ..?
Pow would you raLe Lhe lnfluence of ... on Lhe ouLcome of .....?

UCD Teaching and Learning 18
Pow would you defend Lhe acLlons of.... clLlng auLhorlLles?
Pow would you [usLlfy . . . ?
Pow would you explaln . . . ?
Pow would you supporL Lhe vlew . . . ?

6: CreaLlon / SynLhesls:
Complllng lnformaLlon LogeLher ln a dlfferenL way by comblnlng elemenLs ln a new paLLern
or proposlng alLernaLlve soluLlons.

WhaL mlghL have happened lf. ?
Can you propose an alLernaLlve lnLerpreLaLlon Lo LhaL of ... . ?
ls Lhere a marmlLe soluLlon


1osk. nomewotk!

Þrepare some quesLlons for your own nexL Leachlng sesslon, LuLorlal or class - deslgned Lo
ellclL Lhe parLlcular responses as per 8loom

ALLempL Lo bulld Lhe quesLlons from Lhe knowledge base up l.e. ldenLlfy 'x' facLors? now
whlch mlghL be Lhe besL Lo use ln 'y' clrcumsLances? Lxplaln how Lhese affecL Lhe process.?

ue 8ono's laLeral Lhlnklng hLLp://flndarLlcles.com/p/arLlcles/ml_qn4138/ls_19991219/al_n14266074/
Techniques for Encouraging Active
(and More Interesting!) Learning

1o engage learners acLlvely ln small group sesslons and avold Lhe plLfalls ldenLlfled above,
LuLors can use a range of Lechnlques LhaL help producLlve lnLeracLlon Lo promoLe learnlng.
1hls means movlng Lowards sLudenL-cenLred meLhods where Lhe focus ls on learnlng, raLher
Lhan Leachlng. A reperLolre of meLhods can be used Lo produce a balanced sesslon where
dlfferenL klnds of acLlvlLles can be used Lo make learnlng more acLlve and more effecLlve.

Þrovlded below are a selecLlon of common flexlble meLhods one may use ln boLh large and
small group Leachlng. 8aslc guldellnes are provlded Lo demonsLraLe how each may work ln a
glven slLuaLlon, llke all such meLhods Lhey are open Lo adapLlon and lnLerpreLaLlon Lo sulL
your lndlvldual needs.

S||ent kef|ect|on
1hls ls where you glve sLudenLs a few mlnuLes Lo Lhlnk abouL a problem or lssue. Ask Lhem
Lo wrlLe down Lhelr LhoughLs or ldeas on a noLe pad. keep Lhe Lask speclflc. lor example,
ask Lhem Lo wrlLe down Lhe Lhree mosL lmporLanL, or poslLlve, or expenslve eLc. aspecLs of
an lssue. lL ls ofLen useful Lo ask Lhem Lo wrlLe on posL-lLs and Lhen posL Lhem on, say, a
noLlce board or Lhe wall. AlLernaLlvely, ask Lhem Lo share Lhelr ldeas wlLh Lhelr nelghbour
before movlng lnLo a dlscusslon phase.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
Large groups, before group ls acLlve / LalkaLlve, quleLer groups, end of class summary /
revlew, Lo geL feedback from everyone.

1he followlng have been adapLed from 8rown, S. '1he ArL of 1eachlng ln Small Croups', 1he new Academlc vol. 6, no. 1
(Sprlng 1997).

UCD Teaching and Learning 20
Co around everyone ln Lhe group and ask Lhem Lo respond. 1ry noL Lo make Lhe round Loo
daunLlng by glvlng sLudenLs guldance on whaL ls expecLed of Lhem. keep |t short! lor
example Lry and avold quesLlons llke "l woot evetyooe to qlve tbelt oome ooJ tbeo lJeotlfy
ooe ospect of tbe cootse tbot tbey koow ootbloq oboot bot ote lookloq fotwotJ to leotoloq
oboot´. ln blg rounds, sLudenLs can be qulLe nervous, so make lL clear LhaL lL's Ck Lo pass
and lf people aL Lhe beglnnlng have made your polnL, LhaL concurrence ls sufflclenL.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
lalrly small groups (20 or so), lcebreakers, parL of Lhe wlndlng-up of a sesslon, Lo explore
large / expanslve Loplcs.

1hree M|nutes Lach Way
Ask sLudenLs ln palrs Lo speak for Lhree mlnuLes on a glven Loplc.

8e sLrlcL wlLh Llmekeeplng. ?our sLudenLs mlghL flnd Lhls qulLe dlfflculL aL flrsL, buL lL ls an
excellenL way of geLLlng sLudenLs Lo arLlculaLe Lhelr ldeas, and also means LhaL Lhe quleLer
sLudenLs are glven opporLunlLles Lo speak and be heard. 1he arL of llsLenlng wlLhouL
lnLerrupLlng (oLher Lhan wlLh brlef prompLs Lo geL Lhe speaker back on LargeL lf Lhey wander
off Lhe Loplc) ls one LhaL many sLudenLs wlll need Lo fosLer. 1hls palr-work can Lhen feed
lnLo oLher acLlvlLles.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
1o develop relaLlonshlps / lce-breakers, encourage peer learnlng and lnLeracLlon, flrsL sLep
Lo lncreased parLlclpaLlon and larger dlscusslon.

UCD Teaching and Learning 21
8uzz Groups
Clve palrs, Lhrees, fours or flves small Llmed Lasks whlch lnvolve Lhem Lalklng Lo each oLher,
creaLlng a hubbub of nolse as Lhey work. 1helr ouLcomes can Lhen be shared wlLh Lhe whole
group Lhrough feedback, on a fllp charL sheeL posLer, on an overhead pro[ecLor
Lransparency or oLherwlse as approprlaLe.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
ulscuss more dlfflculL or conLroverslal lssues, peer learnlng, geL dlfferenL perspecLlves on

1each|ng w|th Þr|mary Sources
- PypoLheLlcals, ask Lhe learner 'WhaL lf' Lhe source dld noL exlsL, lL was wrlLLen a
year laLer / earller?
- 8eadlng 8ounds, lnvlLe learners Lo read a LexL, Lhe nexL learner commenLs and/or
- CapLlon Cap, presenL a source wlLh lLs capLlon edlLed ouL, lnvlLe new capLlons
- CCC, uslng groups of Lhree, lnvlLe sLudenLs Lo dlscuss Lhe ConLexL, ConLenL and
Consequence of Lhe source maLerlals
ívety Jlsclplloe bose bos coose fot occess to ptlmoty tesootces..?
8evlew whaL you mlghL uLllse and dlscuss lLs poLenLlal lmpacL on Lhe learner

SLarL wlLh a quesLlon llke "now coo we..?" or "wbot Jo we koow oboot ...?" and encourage
Lhe group Lo call ouL ldeas as fasL as you can wrlLe Lhem up (perhaps use Lwo scrlbes on

UCD Teaching and Learning 22
separaLe boards lf Lhe bralnsLorm flows well). Make lL clear LhaL Lhls ls supposed Lo be an
exploraLory process, so seL ground-rules LhaL:

- A large quanLlLy of ldeas ls deslrable, so everyone should be encouraged Lo
conLrlbuLe aL whaLever level Lhey feel comforLable.
- Culck snappy responses are more valuable aL Lhls sLage Lhan long, complex, drawn-
ouL senLences.
- ldeas should be noLed wlLhouL commenL, elLher poslLlve or negaLlve - no one should
say "1haL wouldn'L work because...'" or "1haL's Lhe besL ldea we've heard yeL" whlle
Lhe bralnsLorm ls ln progress as Lhls mlghL make people feel foollsh abouL Lhelr
- ÞarLlclpanLs should 'plggyback' on each oLher's ldeas lf Lhey seL off a Lraln of LhoughL,
'loglc clrculLs' should be dlsengaged, allowlng for a freewheellng approach.
- 1he ldeas Lhus generaLed can Lhen be used as a basls for elLher a furLher problem-
solvlng Lask or a LuLor exposlLlon.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
CreaLe open, secure envlronmenL, sLlmulaLlng creaLlve free-Lhlnklng, problem solvlng,
generaLlng dlverse ldeas.

1hls ls Lhe Lerm used Lo descrlbe acLlvlLles underLaken by groups of sLudenLs worklng Lo a
brlef under Lhelr own dlrecLlon. 1hey can be asked Lo underLake lnLerneL or llLeraLure
searches, debaLe an lssue, explore a plece of LexL, prepare an argumenL, deslgn an arLlfacL
or many oLher Lasks. 1o achleve producLlvely, Lhey wlll need an expllclL brlef, approprlaLe
resources and clear ouLcomes.

UCD Teaching and Learning 23
SpeclallsL accommodaLlon ls noL always necessary, syndlcaLes can work ln groups spread ouL
ln a large room, or, where faclllLles permlL, go away and use oLher classrooms eLc. lf Lhe Lask
ls subsLanLlal, Lhe LuLor may wlsh Lo move from group Lo group, or may be avallable on a
'help desk' aL a cenLral locaLlon. CuLcomes may be ln Lhe form of assessed work from Lhe
group or produced aL a plenary as descrlbed above.

wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
ueveloplng ldeas, assessmenL, developlng lnLerpersonal skllls & generlc / Lransferable

Snowba|||ng (A|so known As Þyram|d|ng)
SLarL by glvlng sLudenLs an lndlvldual Lask of a falrly slmple naLure such as llsLlng feaLures,
noLlng quesLlons, ldenLlfylng problems, summarlslng Lhe maln polnLs of Lhelr lasL lecLure.
1hen ask Lhem Lo work ln palrs on a sllghLly more complex Lask, such as prlorlLlslng lssues or
suggesLlng sLraLegles. 1hlrdly, ask Lhem Lo come LogeLher ln larger groups, fours or slxes for
example and underLake a Lask lnvolvlng, perhaps, synLhesls, asslmllaLlon or evaluaLlon. Ask
Lhem Lo draw up guldellnes, perhaps, or produce an acLlon plan or Lo assess Lhe lmpacL of a
parLlcular course of acLlon. 1hey can Lhen feed back Lo Lhe whole group lf requlred.

wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
Worklng on complex Lasks, lnLroduclng new ldeas, peer learnlng, scaffoldlng for more
effecLlve learnlng.

UCD Teaching and Learning 24
Ask for a small group of up Lo half a dozen or so volunLeers Lo slL ln Lhe mlddle of a larger
clrcle comprlslng Lhe resL of Lhe group. Clve Lhem a Lask Lo underLake LhaL lnvolves
dlscusslon, wlLh Lhe group around Lhe ouLslde acLlng as observers. Make Lhe Lask you glve
Lhe lnner clrcle sufflclenLly slmple ln Lhe flrsL lnsLance Lo glve Lhem Lhe confldence Lo geL
sLarLed. 1hls can be enhanced once sLudenLs have had pracLlce and become more confldenL.
AfLer a sulLable lnLerval, you can ask oLhers from Lhe ouLer clrcle Lo replace Lhem.

Some sLudenLs wlll flnd lL dlfflculL Lo be Lhe focus of all eyes and ears, so lL may be necessary
Lo avold coerclng anyone Lo Lake cenLre sLage (alLhough genLle prompLlng can be valuable).

A 'Lag' verslon can also be used, wlLh Lhose ln Lhe ouLer clrcle who wanL Lo [oln ln genLly
Lapplng on Lhe shoulder of someone ln Lhe mlddle Lhey wanL Lo replace and Laklng over
Lhelr chalr and chance of Lalklng. AlLernaLlvely lL can be very effecLlve Lo glve Lhe observers
ln Lhe ouLer group a speclflc Lask Lo ensure acLlve llsLenlng. lor example, ask Lhem Lo
deLermlne Lhe Lhree key lssues or concluslons ldenLlfled by Lhe lnner group. lL ls Lhen
posslble Lo swap Lhe groups round and ask Lhe new lnner group Lo evaluaLe Lhe concluslons
ldenLlfled by Lhe flrsL group. llshbowls can work well wlLh qulLe large groups Loo.
wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
May be useful for managlng domlnaLlng sLudenLs (permlsslon Lo be Lhe cenLre of aLLenLlon
for a perlod of Llme), glves less vocal sLudenLs opporLunlLy for undlsLurbed ºalr-Llme", ways
of geLLlng feedback from buzz groups Lo class.

1each|ng Abstract Concepts
- uLlllse graphlcal represenLaLlons (arL, dlagrams, even sculpLure), lnvlLe learners
Lo explore relaLlonshlps vla Lhelr own dlagrams.
- ManlfesLo wrlLlng, lnvlLe learners Lo apply Lhe LheoreLlcal Lo pracLlce

UCD Teaching and Learning 25
- Wall of ÞosL-lLs, lnvlLe learners Lo respond 'emoLlonally' and 'lnLellecLually'
dlscuss Lhe dlvergence and lLs lmpacL on Lhe naLure of Lhe concepL
wbeo coolJ tbese opptoocbes be effectlvely oseJ?
ulscuss Lhe lmpacL LhaL Lhese 'creaLlve' and 'personal' lnLerpreLaLlons may have upon Lhe

CfLen we wanL Lo mlx sLudenLs up ln a sysLemaLlc way so Lhey work ln small groups of
dlfferenL composlLlons. ?ou can use crossovers wlLh large groups of sLudenLs, buL Lhe
followlng example shows how Lhls meLhod would work wlLh LwenLy-seven sLudenLs.

Þrepare as many pleces of paper as you have sLudenLs, marklng on Lhem A1, A2, A3, 81, 82,
83 and so on (Lhls comblnaLlon ls for creaLlng Lrlads). lf you wanL Lo creaLe groups of four
sLudenLs add A4, 84 eLc. (?ou can do Lhls as a header on handouLs.)

When you are ready Lo have Lhe sLudenLs go lnLo smaller groups, geL Lhem Lo group
Lhemselves wlLh sLudenLs who have Lhe same leLLer as Lhemselves: AAA, 888, CCC and so on
for one group exerclse. lor a second exerclse, ask Lhe sLudenLs Lo work wlLh people who
have Lhe same number as Lhemselves: 111, 222, 333. A Lhlrd exerclse wlll have sLudenLs ln
Lrlads where none of Lhe sLudenLs can have a maLchlng leLLer or number: e.g. A1, u2 l3.
1hls wlll allow you Lo geL sLudenLs Lo crossover wlLhln groups, so Lhey work wlLh dlfferenL
people on each Lask ln a sLrucLured way.

1hls Lechnlque also cuLs down on Lhe need Lo geL a loL of feedback from Lhe groups because
each lndlvldual wlll acL as rapporLeur on Lhe ouLcomes of Lhelr prevlous Lask ln Lhe lasL
conflguraLlon. As wlLh snowballlng or pyramlds, you can make Lhe Lask aL each sLage sllghLly

UCD Teaching and Learning 26
more dlfflculL and ask for a producL from Lhe flnal conflguraLlon lf deslred. Crossovers are
useful ln maklng sure everyone ln Lhe group ls acLlve and also help Lo mlx sLudenLs ouLslde
Lhelr normal frlendshlp, eLhnlc or gender groups.

lL Lakes a llLLle foreLhoughL Lo geL Lhe numbers rlghL for Lhe cohorL you are worklng wlLh (for
example, you can use lnlLlal conflguraLlons of four raLher Lhan Lhree, so LhaL ln sLage Lwo
Lhey wlll work as fours raLher Lhan Lrlads). lf you have one person lefL over, you can [usL
palr Lhem wlLh one oLher person and ask Lhem Lo shadow LhaL person wherever Lhey go.

wbeo coolJ tbls opptoocb be effectlvely oseJ?
1o break up small, well-esLabllshed groups from formlng and reformlng, oLher meLhods for
mlxlng groups up: arrange Lhemselves accordlng Lo helghL / monLh of blrLh / counLy of blrLh
/ sLar slgn.

1each|ng w|th Numer|ca| Data
- 8ogus daLa, lnvlLe learners Lo ldenLlfy and explaln why cerLaln daLa ls noL
- ÞredlcLlons, provlde parLlal daLa, lnvlLe learners Lo lnLerpreL and exLrapolaLe real
- MarkeL 1ranslaLlon, lnvlLe learners Lo represenL Lhe 'meanlng' of flgures ln
anoLher form
wbeo coolJ tbese opptoocbes be effectlvely oseJ?
ldenLlfy how Lhls may lmpacL sLudenL learnlng by use of real-world examples.

UCD Teaching and Learning 27
More Opportunities for Active Engagement
M|sce||aneous |deas
- AcLlve 8eadlng, geL learners Lo make noLe of quesLlons before readlng, Lhe Lask
Lhen becomes readlng wlLh an agenda. Also sLress Lhe lmporLance of creaLlng
summarles or synopses of Lhe LexLs

- Card Croups, provlde groups wlLh a focused quesLlon on a card, ask Lhem Lo
answer on same card

- CraflLl Þuzzles, lnvlLe learners Lo annoLaLe a map, dlagram, lmage eLc, and share
noLes wlLh oLher learner

- Coogle[ockeylng, uLlllse Lhe sLudenLs lapLops ln sesslon, lnvlLe Lhem Lo seek ouL
lnformaLlon on a parLlcular Loplc and presenL lL back Lo Lhelr group or cohorL

- Þ8S / Cllckers, uLlllse handheld qulz remoLes Lo lnLeracL wlLh Lhe class, galnlng
oplnlon, consensus, level of undersLandlng eLc.

- SegmenLed ÞresenLaLlons, lnvlLe learners Lo do a shorL presenLaLlon on an lssue,
quesLlon, Lheme eLc, presenL for 1 mlnuLe, group response for 3 mlnuLes, eLc.

- SMS, (98° of sLudenLs have a moblle phone), lnvlLe responses Lo a moblle blog
or LexL manager, or 1wlLLer eLc.

- vldeo, provlde learners wlLh duLles (ldenLlfled Lasks) regardlng Lhe vldeo, Lurn off
Lhe sound and ask for a commenLary or narraLlon.

- Wlkls, uLllslng lapLops, lnvlLe sLudenLs Lo bralnsLorm, conLrlbuLe, debaLe eLc ln an
'acLlve' wlkl

UCD Teaching and Learning 28
Active Notes

When our sLudenLs have Lhelr heads down (ln a lapLop or noLepad) whaL are Lhey acLually
dolng. Lhe concepL of Laklng noLes, Lhough fundamenLally sound, ls ofLen found wanLlng -
lLs adherence Lo a llnear sysLem does noL reflecL Lhe way ln whlch we process and lnLerpreL
lnformaLlon. Cne may ask 'do LradlLlonal noLes ald forgeLLlng noL memory?' ln effecL
sLudenLs aLLempL Lo Lranscrlbe whaL ls belng sald and are merely summarlslng someone
else's LhoughLs.

ln an ldeal slLuaLlon lL would be far beLLer lf Lhey were 'maklng (creaLlng) noLes' raLher Lhan
'Laklng' Lhem. 1he very acL of personallzlng Lhe process means LhaL Lhe lndlvldual ls
organlzlng Lhelr own LhoughLs, on a Loplc, ln Lhelr own way.

1he handouL has become ublqulLous ln Leachlng and learnlng, wheLher lL ls a serles of slldes
(wlLh or wlLhouL noLes and references), a daLa sheeL, a blbllographlc llsL or an acLual acLlvlLy
plan - Lhe lssue ls how Lo lnLegraLe lL ln a sesslon Lo avall of a learnlng opporLunlLy, raLher
Lhan have lL LreaLed as a mere seL of reference polnLs (or crlb noLes!).

use of PandouLs AcLlvely
CrlenLaLlon lnvlLe Lhe learner / parLlclpanL Lo wrlLe down whaL
Lhey expecL Lhe sesslon Lo cover (le. Þersonal learnlng
ouLcomes) - reLurn Lo lL aL Lhe end
1oo much lnformaLlon for a sllde (daLa seLs, graphs
Þrovlde an opporLunlLy (pose a quesLlon, lnvlLe a
dlscusslon, lnvlLe lndlvlduals Lo produce a graphlcal
lnLerpreLaLlon eLc.) Lo reflecL, analyse and dlscuss Lhe
lnformaLlon presenLed
need Lo elaboraLe a concepL (provlslon of graphlcs,
furLher LexL, references eLc)
Add sLrucLure / deconsLrucL a sesslon lnvlLe learners Lo ldenLlfy poLenLlal 'lssue' areas ln
need of furLher exploraLlon
Culdance for self-sLudy (addlLlonal noLes, furLher 1le ln Lhe resources (by provldlng a Lask) Lo ald

UCD Teaching and Learning 29
readlng, formaLlve quesLlons, eLc) reflecLlon and work Lowards asslgnmenLs and / or
AcLlvlLy / Lask plan (deLalled 'Lo do' llsL e.g. lab

Cffer a sLep by sLep acLlvlLy gulde, maklng sure Lo
provlde 'space' Lo record observaLlons, querles eLc

Ask Lhe learners Lo synLhesle Lhe maln lssues of Lhe
sesslon, perhaps as a concepL map or graphlcal
lnLerpreLaLlon - lnvlLe Lhem Lo share
As a plan for Lhe nexL sesslon

8equesL Lhe learners Lo address Lhe key ouLcomes of
a sesslon and how Lhey may prepare Lo follow Lhem
for Lhe nexL

Why? What?
Why am l uslng Lhls handouL? WhaL ls Lhe learner expecLed Lo do?
WhaL are Lhe adv/dlsadv

now? When?
Pow ls Lhe learner meanL Lo lnLeracL? When should Lhey be clrculaLed?
Are Lhere oLher parLs? 8efore, afLer, ln sesslon, onllne?
uoes lL relaLe Lo onllne maLerlals?


8evlew your handouLs,
- ldenLlfy how Lhey may be made beLLer. uslng Lhe quesLlon prompLs above
8evlew your Small group Leachlng,
- noLe how you may pre-empL lssues. and offer a beLLer learnlng envlronmenL
8evlew your Leachlng meLhods,
- noLe someLhlng 'lnnovaLlve' or 'responslve' you may lnLroduce Lo supporL and
enhance learnlng.

UCD Teaching and Learning 31

End of Workbook