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Civil Engineers

Geotechnical Engineering 163

April 2010 Issue GE2

Pages 101–106

doi: 10.1680/geng.2010.163.2.101

Paper 800012

Received 12/02/2008

Accepted 13/07/2009

Keywords: geotechnical

engineering/rock mechanics

Sabah Said Razouki

Professor of Civil Engineering,

Nahrain University,

Al-Jadiriya, Iraq

Dahlia A. Al-Zubaidy

Formerly postgraduate

student in Civil Engineering,

Nahrain University,

Al-Jadiriya, Iraq

Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit

S. S. Razouki PhD, Dipl.Ing, Ceng, MASE and D. A. Al-Zubaidy MSc

Two charts for elastic (immediate) settlement at the

centerline of a ﬂexible square footing on Burmister two-

layer elastic system are presented in this paper. The

charts are developed for different values of the modular

ratio E

1

/E

2

[where E

1

refers to the modulus of elasticity

of the ﬁrst (top) layer and E

2

corresponds to the second

(bottom) layer] and relative layer thickness h/B (where h

refers to the ﬁrst layer’s thickness and B to the side

length of square footing ). The ﬁrst chart is devoted to

the case of a soft top layer on a stiffer bottom layer,

while the second chart is for a stiff top layer over a softer

bottom layer. The analytical solution for surface

deﬂection was based on Burmister analysis and extended

to the case of square footings. The paper reveals that the

surface settlement at centerline decreases with

increasing modular ratio for E

1

/E

2

> 1 and it increases

with decreasing modular ratio for E

1

/E

2

< 1 especially for

the higher values of h/B.

NOTATION

a radius of uniformly loaded circular area

B width (least dimension) of rectangular footing; diameter

of circular footing (B ¼ 2a); side length of square

footing

D

f

embedment depth

E modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) of soil

E

1

modulus of elasticity of ﬁrst (top) layer

E

2

modulus of elasticity of second (bottom) layer

E

1

/E

2

modular ratio

F

0

surface deﬂection factor for ﬂexible circular footing on

Burmister two-layer elastic system

F

S

surface deﬂection factor for ﬂexible square footing on

Burmister two-layer elastic system, F

S

¼ F

0

/ˇð

f (x

i

) the function at the ith point

G function of N and m

h ﬁrst layer’s thickness for two-layer elastic system

I

5

inﬂuence factor for ﬂexible rectangular footing for

different values of L/B

J

0

Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind, of order zero

J

1

Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind, of order one

L largest dimension (length) of rectangular footing

m a parameter

N ratio used in Sections 2, 3 and 4 ¼ (E

1

/E

2

À 1)/

(E

1

/E

2

+ 1)

q intensity of contact pressure in units of E

r radial distance (horizontal distance) from centre of

loaded area to computational point

S

e

immediate settlement (elastic settlement)

w

i

weight of function at ith point

w

0

vertical surface deﬂection at any point on the surface at

horizontal radial distance r from centre of uniform

loading

x

i

position of function at ith point

ä

e

surface elastic settlement at centreline of a ﬂexible

square footing

í Poisson’s ratio

í

1

Poisson’s ratio for ﬁrst (top) layer

í

2

Poisson’s ratio for second (bottom) layer

1. INTRODUCTION

In general, the total settlement of a foundation consists of three

parts: immediate settlement, primary consolidation settlement,

and secondary consolidation settlement (Das, 1985, 2004). The

immediate settlement is also referred to as the elastic

settlement (Das, 1985) or initial settlement (Kezdi, 1964).

According to Bowles (1988, 1996), the immediate settlement

takes place as the load is applied, or within a time period of 7

days. According to Das (1985) and Bowles (1988), the

immediate settlement is the predominant part of the settlement

in granular soils. In practice, the immediate settlement is

usually calculated from the theory of elasticity using the

linearly elastic homogeneous and isotropic Boussinesq half-

space (Das, 1985). This means that the elastic soil layer extends

to an inﬁnite depth. This assumption is far from being true in

many cases in practice. However, for an elastic soil layer

underlain by a rigid incompressible base, Das (1985) suggested

an approximate solution for the determination of immediate

settlement on the basis of a Boussinesq solution, and Poulos

(1967) and Poulos and Davis (1974) developed charts that

enable the elastic settlement for an elastic layer underlain by a

rough rigid base to be determined for various cases of loadings.

Similarly, Razouki and Issa (2001) presented charts for

determining the elastic settlement due to ﬂexible embankment

loading on an elastic layer underlain by a rough rigid base.

In practice, the foundation engineer faces the problem of

layered soil systems. The simplest case is that of a two-layer

soil system with a modular ratio greater or less than 1, for

which charts of immediate settlement are required. This paper

Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki 101

is devoted to such a problem, but for the special case of square

footings only.

2. SURFACE SETTLEMENT DUE TO UNIFORMLY

LOADED RECTANGULAR AREA ON BOUSSINESQ

HALF-SPACE

The elastic surface settlement at the centre of a uniformly

loaded ﬂexible rectangular area can be found using the

following equation based on Boussinesq half-space (Das,

1985).

S

e

¼

qB

E

1 Àí

2

ð Þ

I

5

1

where S

e

is the surface elastic settlement at the centreline of a

ﬂexible rectangular footing; q is the intensity of contact

pressure; B is the width of the rectangular footing; E is the

Young’s modulus of elasticity of the soil; í is the Poisson’s

ratio of the soil; I

5

is an inﬂuence factor (depending on L/B for

surface deﬂection); and L is the length of the rectangular

footing.

For a square footing, I

5

¼ 1

.

122 (according to Das, 1985), and

Equation 1 yields

ä

e

¼ 1

:

122

qB

E

1 Àí

2

ð Þ

2

where ä

e

is the surface elastic settlement at the centreline of a

ﬂexible square footing.

3. SURFACE DEFLECTION OF BURMISTER TWO-

LAYER ELASTIC SYSTEM

For the purpose of pavement design for highways (Huang,

1993; Yoder and Witczak, 1975) and airports (Horonjeff and

McKelvey, 1994; Huang, 1993), Burmister (1943) solved the

problem of a two-layer soil system representing a stiff soil

layer with a modulus of elasticity E

1

on top of a softer layer

with a modulus of elasticity E

2

subjected to ﬂexible uniform

circular loading. Each layer of the system is assumed to extend

to inﬁnity in the lateral direction. The top or ﬁrst layer has a

ﬁnite thickness, whereas the bottom or second layer extends to

inﬁnity in depth. Each layer is assumed to be linearly elastic

homogeneous and isotropic, with no slippage at the interface

between the two layers.

Burmister (1943) assumed that the top and bottom layers have

the same Poisson’s ratio of 0

.

5.

According to Huang (1969), the surface deﬂection at the

centreline of uniform ﬂexible circular loading on top of a two-

layer soil system is given by

w

0

¼

qa

E

2

F

0 3

where w

0

is the vertical surface deﬂection at any point on the

surface at a horizontal radial distance r from the centre of the

circular loading; q is uniformly distributed load; a is the radius

of the circular loading area; E

2

is the modulus of elasticity of

the second (bottom) layer; and F

0

is the surface deﬂection

factor for a ﬂexible circular footing on a Burmister two-layer

elastic system.

The surface deﬂection factor for the case of í

1

¼ í

2

¼ 0

.

5 for a

circular footing is given by (Huang, 1969)

F

0

¼

_

1

0

f m ð Þdm 4

where

f m ð Þ ¼ J

0

mr

h

_ _

J

1

ma

h

_ _

G m

E

1

E

2

_ _

5

G m

E

1

E

2

_ _

¼

1

:

5 1 þ4Nme

À2m

À N

2

e

À4m

ð Þ

E

1

=E

2

ð Þ 1 À2N 1 þ2m

2

ð Þe

À2m

þ N

2

e

À4m

_ ¸

m

6

N ¼

E

1

À E

2

E

1

þ E

2

¼

E

1

=E

2

À1

E

1

=E

2

þ1

7

m is a parameter; E

1

/E

2

is the modular ratio, where E

1

refers

to the modulus of elasticity of the ﬁrst (top) layer and E

2

refers

to the modulus of elasticity of the second (bottom) layer; J

0

is a

Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind, of order zero (Watson, 1966),

given by

J

0

mr

h

_ _

¼

1

K¼0

À1 ð Þ

K

mr=2h ð Þ

2K

K! ð Þ

2

8

and J

1

is a Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind, of order one

(Watson, 1966), given by

J

1

mB

h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_ _

¼

1

KÀ0

À1 ð Þ

K

mB=2h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_ _

2Kþ1

K! K þ1 ð Þ!

9

4. SURFACE SETTLEMENT OF SQUARE FOOTING

ON BURMISTER TWO-LAYER ELASTIC SYSTEM

To obtain the surface elastic settlement of a ﬂexible square

footing with uniform loading on a Burmister two-layer soil

system, it is satisfactory for all practical purposes to replace

the square footing by an equivalent circular footing having

the same area and the same centre as the square footing, as

follows

ða

2

¼ B

2

or a ¼

B

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

10

where a is the radius of the equivalent circular footing and B is

the width or side length of the square footing. Thus the elastic

surface settlement at the centreline of a square footing on a

Burmister two-layer system can be obtained as

102 Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki

w

0

¼

qa

E

2

F

0

¼

qB

E

2

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p F

0

or

w

0

¼

qB

E

2

F

S 11

where w

0

is the vertical surface deﬂection at any point on the

surface of the square footing, and F

s

is the surface deﬂection

factor at the centreline for the case of a square footing on

Burmister two-layer elastic system, given by

F

s

¼

F

0

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

12

Making use of Equations 4 and 12, the surface deﬂection factor

F

s

becomes

F

s

¼

1

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_

1

0

f m ð Þdm

¼

1

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_

1

0

J

0

mr

h

_ _

J

1

mB

h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_ _

G m

E

1

E

2

_ _

dm

13

It is obvious from this equation that the integrand f (m) is very

complicated, and therefore it is very difﬁcult or rather

impossible to solve the integral analytically. Thus numerical

methods should be used for computing the deﬂection factors.

For the case of the centreline

J

0

mr

h

_ _

¼ J

0

0 ð Þ ¼ 1

14

and Equation 13 can be written as

F

s

¼

1

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_

1

0

J

1

mB

h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_ _

G m

E

1

E

2

_ _

dm

15

Selvadurai (1979) showed that inﬁnite integrals involving

products of Bessel functions are commonly encountered in the

analysis of the axisymmetric problem related to a ﬁnite elastic

footing resting on a linearly deformable medium. The

numerical evaluation of integrals of this type is carried out by

representing the integrals as an inﬁnite series bounded by

subsequent zeros of the related Bessel functions. Integration,

which proceeds by one interval at a time, is carried out using a

15-point Gauss–Legendre quadrature. The 15-point Gaussian

formula (Selvadurai, 1979) was used in order to achieve higher

accuracy than that obtained from the commonly used four- or

eight-point Gaussian formulae. The summation was terminated

when the absolute value of the ratio of the area of the last sub-

interval to the summation of areas of all previous sub-intervals

became less than 0

.

001 (Huang, 1968).

Accordingly, the integrand f (m) was assigned to a rather

wide range of m, beginning from zero, until the effect of the

upper limit on the integral became insigniﬁcant. First, the

zeros of the Bessel function J

1

(mB=h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

) were computed by

using the computer program SDF (surface deﬂection factor)

written in Mathcad (2001) and checked by comparing them

with those tabulated by Watson (1966), and excellent

agreement was obtained. The area between every two

consecutive zeros was calculated using the Gaussian

quadrature procedure. The Gaussian quadrature was selected

to compute these areas owing to its highest possible degree

of precision (Engel, 1980).

The Gaussian 15-point formula is (Selvadurai, 1979)

_

1

À1

f x ð Þdx ¼

15

i¼1

w

i

f x

i ð Þ 16

where w

i

is the weight of the function at the ith point; x

i

is the

position of the function at the ith point; and f (x

i

) is the

function at the ith point. The values of x

i

and the weights w

i

are given by Selvadurai (1979).

When the limits of the integral are a and b, the integration is

computed using the Gaussian quadrature method (Engel, 1980)

as

_

b

a

f x ð Þdx ¼

_

1

À1

b À a

2

f a þ

b À a

2

x þ1 ð Þ

_ _

dx 17

where

x ¼ a þ

b À a

2

x þ1 ð Þ 18

For the square footing, the values of h/B adopted in this work

varied between 0

.

01 and 25, and the values for the modular

ratios E

1

/E

2

were 0

.

01, 0

.

1, 0

.

2, 0

.

25, 0

.

3, 0

.

5, 0

.

75, 1, 2

.

5, 5,

10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000.

5. COMPUTER PROGRAM

To evaluate the elastic surface settlement at the centreline of a

square footing on a Burmister two-layer system, the surface

deﬂection factors at the centreline are required.

The computer program SDF has been written in the Mathcad

language. The ﬁrst job of the computer program is to calculate

the zeros of the Bessel function J

1

. The next step is to evaluate

the areas between every two successive zeros of the integrand

of Equation 15.

The zeros of the integrand are determined by the zeros of the

Bessel function J

1

(mB=

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

h).

After determining the zeros of the integrand (m values

corresponding to zeros of Bessel functions J

1

), the integral

between each two successive zeros is evaluated using a

15-point Gaussian quadrature as follows

Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki 103

_

b

a

f m ð Þdm ¼

b À a

2

_

1

À1

f a þ

b À a

2

x þ1 ð Þ

_ _

dx

¼

b À a

2

15

i¼1

w

i

f a þ

b À a

2

x

i

þ1 ð Þ

_ _

¼

b À a

2

15

i¼1

w

i

J

1

a þ

b À a

2

x

i

þ1 ð Þ

_ _ _ _

3

B

h

ﬃﬃﬃ

ð

p

_

G a þ

b À a

2

x

i

þ1 ð Þ

_ __

19

After calculating the areas by Gaussian quadrature, these areas

are summed together, and this summation terminates when the

ratio of the absolute value of the last area to the summation of

the preceding areas is less than 0

.

001. To validate the written

computer program, it is necessary to compare its results with

published results for special cases. Such a special case is given

by a square footing on a Boussinesq half-space as given

by Equation 1. For this purpose, the case of h/B ¼ 1 with

E

1

/E

2

¼ 1 was chosen, as it represents a case of a Boussinesq

half-space. For a Poisson’s ratio of í ¼ 0

.

5 (fully saturated

clay), Equation 1 becomes

S

e

¼

0

:

75qB

E

Á I

5

21

where E ¼ E

1

¼ E

2

is the modulus of elasticity of the

Boussinesq half-space.

According to Das (1985), the inﬂuence factor for a point lying

on the surface at centreline is I

5

¼ 1

.

122, so that the surface

deﬂection at centreline of the square footing becomes

S

e

¼ 0

:

8415

qB

E

22

Using the computer program SDF written in this work, it was

shown that for the case of h/B ¼ 1 with E

1

/E

2

¼ 1, Equation

15 yielded a surface deﬂection factor F

s

¼ 0

.

845034278.

Making use of Equation 11, the surface deﬂection at the

centreline of the square footing becomes w

0

¼ 0

.

845(qB/E).

This is in good agreement with that obtained above from the

Boussinesq solution directly. The difference between the two

results is due to the approximation of the square footing as an

equivalent circle.

6. DESIGN CHARTS

To simplify the use of the results of this work in practice,

design charts should be developed. These charts are useful in

rapid determination of the surface deﬂection factors to

compute the immediate settlement for a ﬂexible square footing

based on a two-layer elastic system, taking into account the

geometry and strength properties of the system.

The behaviour of the surface deﬂection factor F

s

will differ

according to the value of the modular ratio and the geometry

of the foundation. In practice, two different cases may appear.

The ﬁrst represents the case of a soft top (ﬁrst) layer over a

stiffer bottom (second) layer, reﬂected through a modular ratio

E

1

/E

2

, 1. The second important case is that of a stiff top

layer over a softer bottom layer, reﬂected through a modular

ratio E

1

/E

2

. 1.

For E

1

/E

2

, 1, Figure 1 shows the surface deﬂection factor at

the centreline of a square footing on a Burmister two-layer

elastic system, plotted against the relative layer thickness h/B

for values of the modular ratio E

1

/E

2

of 0

.

01, 0

.

1, 0

.

2, 0

.

25,

0

.

3, 0

.

5, 0

.

75 and 1.

For E

1

/E

2

.1, Figure 2 shows the surface deﬂection factor at

the centreline of a square footing on a Burmister two-layer

elastic system plotted against the relative layer thickness h/B

for different values of the modular ratio E

1

/E

2

of 1, 2

.

5, 5, 10,

25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000.

It is clear from Figures 1 and 2 that the surface settlement at

the centreline of a square footing decreases with increasing

100

40

30

20

10

4

3

2

1

0·4

0·3

0·2

0·1

S

u

r

f

a

c

e

d

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

,

F

s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25

Relative layer thickness, h/B

0·01

0·1

0·2

0·25

0·3

0·5

0·75

E E

1 2

/ 1 ϭ

Figure 1. Surface deﬂection factor at centreline of a square footing on a Burmister two-layer elastic system for E

1

/E

2

, 1

104 Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki

modular ratio for E

1

/E

2

. 1, and it increases with decreasing

modular ratio for E

1

/E

2

, 1, especially for the higher values of

the relative layer thickness h/B.

7. APPLICATION

To show how the developed charts can be used in practice, the

case of example 5

.

6 treated by Bowles (1988) and shown in

Figure 3 will be discussed here.

Bowles (1988) required the estimation of the immediate

settlement at the centreline on the surface of a raft foundation

having a rectangular shape of B 3 L ¼ 33

.

5 m 3 39

.

5 m

subjected to uniform loading q ¼ 134 kPa. The soil is layered

clay, with one sand seam from the ground surface to the

sandstone bedrock at À11 m. The modulus of elasticity for the

top layer extending from 0 to 3 m is E

T

¼ 42

.

5 MPa, and for

the second (bottom) layer is E

B

¼ 60 MPa. For the sandstone,

Bowles (1988) reported E

s

> 500 MPa.

Bowles (1988) estimated the required settlement on the basis of

converting the top and bottom layers into an equivalent layer

having an average modulus of elasticity of

E

ave

¼

42

:

5 33 ð Þ þ 60 38 ð Þ

11

¼ 55 MPa

The equivalent layer rests on a rigid base. This means that

the sandstone was considered rigid. Accordingly, Bowles

(1988) reported an immediate settlement at the centreline of

16

.

5 mm.

First, to evaluate the immediate settlement on the centreline of

a square footing by making use of the charts developed in this

work, the rectangular raft should be converted into an

equivalent square raft with the same area and centre. This

yields a square raft of 36

.

4 m side length.

Because the ratio of depth of the raft D

f

¼ 3 m to its width

B ¼ 36

.

4 m is very small, the effect of foundation depth can be

neglected (Das, 2004).

To use the chart, the system will be considered as a two-layer

system. The ﬁrst layer is that with E

ave

¼ 55 MPa, and the

second layer is the sandstone with E

s

¼ 500 MPa.

To evaluate the immediate settlement by the procedure

followed in this work, use can be made of Equation 11.

For h/B ¼ 11/36

.

4 ¼ 0

.

3022 and E

1

/E

2

¼ 55/500 ¼ 0

.

11, use

of the chart in Figure 1 yields F

s

¼ 1

.

503, and the immediate

settlement will be

w

0

¼

134 336

:

4 31000

500 31000

31

:

503

¼ 14

:

6621 mm

The difference between the two results can be attributed to

the following. First, Bowles (1988) assumed that the

sandstone is completely rigid, whereas in this work the

contribution of the sandstone to surface settlement is taken

into consideration. Second, the chart in this work is devoted

to a Poisson’s ratio of 0

.

5 for both layers, whereas Bowles

(1988) assumed a Poisson’s ratio of 0

.

35 for the layered clay.

Third, the rectangular footing has been converted into an

equivalent square one.

To take approximate account of the rectangular shape of the

footing, the following correction can be suggested. For the case

1

0·01

0·001

0·0001

S

u

r

f

a

c

e

d

e

f

l

e

c

t

i

o

n

f

a

c

t

o

r

,

F

s

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25

Relative layer thickness, h/B

2·5

5

10

25

50

100

200

E E

1 2

/ 1 ϭ

0·1

500

1000

2000

Figure 2. Surface deﬂection factor at centreline of a square footing on a Burmister two-layer elastic system for E

1

/E

2

. 1

B L 33·5 m 39·5 m ϫ ϭ ϫ

q 134 kPa ϭ

D

f

3 m ϭ

3 m

8 m

Top layer ( 42·5 MPa, 0·35) E

T

ϭ ϭ ν

Bottom layer ( 60 MPa, 0·35) E

B

ϭ ϭ ν

z (m)

E

S

(sandstone) 500 MPa у

Figure 3. Elastic settlement below the centre of a ﬂexible

foundation for Bowles (1988) example 5

.

6.

Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki 105

of a Boussinesq half-space, the effect of L/B on the surface

deﬂection factor at the centreline (where L refers to the length

and B the width of the rectangular footing) can be obtained

from Bowles (1988). For the given raft with L/B ¼ 39

.

5/33

.

5 ¼

1

.

18 the surface deﬂection factor I

5

(see Equation 1) becomes

I

5R

¼ 1

.

207, whereas for the square footing I

5S

¼ 1

.

122. Thus

I

5R

/I

5S

¼ 1

.

0757.

Similarly, according to Equation 1 of Boussinesq, the

approximate effect of Poisson’s ratio may be estimated as

1 Àí

2

a

1 Àí

2

u

¼

1 À 0

:

35 ð Þ

2

1 À 0

:

5 ð Þ

2

¼ 1

:

17

where ía is the actual Poisson’s ratio, and í

u

is the Poisson’s

ratio used.

Thus the settlement of 14

.

6621 mm at the centreline obtained

on the basis of this work should be multiplied by (1

.

17 3

1

.

0757 ¼ 1

.

2585) to give a more logical immediate settlement

of 18

.

45 mm, which is very close to the measured value of

18 mm as reported by Bowles (1988). It is worth mentioning at

this stage that if the immediate settlement is calculated on the

basis of the Boussinesq half-space a value of 98 mm will be

obtained, which is far from the actual measured settlement of

18 mm reported by Bowles (1988). This indicates the

importance of the developed charts.

Finally, because of the limitations of the charts for actual

ground conditions encountered by practising geotechnical

engineers, it is intended in the near future to extend the charts

to other (more actual) values of Poisson’s ratio, and to

rectangular footings, to encourage the application of the charts

in practice.

8. CONCLUSIONS

The main conclusions of this work can be summarised as

follows.

(a) The surface deﬂection at the centreline of a square footing

on a Burmister two-layer soil system obtained from the

developed solution of this work is in good agreement, for

the case of E

1

/E

2

¼ 1, with that obtained from the

Boussinesq solution.

(b) The surface deﬂection factor at the centreline of a square

footing on a Burmister two-layer elastic system depends on

the modular ratio and the geometry of the two-layer soil

system.

(c) For the case of a soft top layer over a stiffer bottom

layer, the surface deﬂection factor at the centreline of a

square footing increases with decreasing modular ratio,

especially for higher values of the relative layer thickness

h/B.

(d) For the case of a stiff top layer over a softer bottom layer,

the surface deﬂection at the centreline of a square footing

decreases with increasing modular ratio and increasing

relative layer thickness.

(e) There is a good agreement between the calculated and

measured surface deﬂection at the centreline of the raft

foundation studied by Bowles (1988).

REFERENCES

Bowles JE (1988) Foundation Analysis and Design, 4th edn.

McGraw-Hill, New York.

Bowles JE (1996) Foundation Analysis and Design, 5th edn.

McGraw-Hill, Peoria.

Burmister DM (1943) The theory of stresses and displacements

in layered systems and application to the design of airport

runways. Proceedings, Highway Research Board, 23: 127–

148.

Das BM (1985) Advanced Soil Mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New

York.

Das BM (2004) Principles of Foundation Engineering, 5th edn.

Thomson Learning, California State University, Sacramento.

Engel H (1980) Numerical Quadrature and Cubature. Acadamic

Press, London.

Horonjeff R and McKelvey F (1994) Planning and Design of

Airports. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Huang YH (1968) Chart for determining equivalent single

wheel loads. Journal of the Highway Division, ASCE

94(HW2): 115–128.

Huang YH (1969) Computation of equivalent single wheel loads

using layered theory. Highway Research Record 291: 144–

155.

Huang YH (1993) Pavement Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall,

Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Kezdi A (1964) Bodenmechanik, Vol. 2. VEB Verlag fuer

Bauwesen, Berlin.

Poulos HG (1967) Stresses and displacements in an elastic

layer underlain by a rough rigid base. Ge´otechnique 17(2):

35–48.

Poulos HG and Davis EH (1974) Elastic Solutions for Soil and

Rock. Wiley, New York.

Razouki SS and Issa W (2001) Displacement due to trapezoidal

loading on an elastic layer underlain by a rough rigid base.

Proceedings of the 3rd Jordanian Civil Engineering

Conference, Amman 1: 312–322.

Selvadurai APS (1979) Elastic Analysis of Soil–Foundation

Interaction. Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, Vol.

17. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Watson GN (1966) A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel

Functions, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge.

Yoder E and Witczak M (1975) Principles of Pavement Design,

2nd edn. Wiley, New York.

What do you think?

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author(s) for a reply and, if considered appropriate by the editorial panel, will be published as discussion in a future issue of the

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106 Geotechnical Engineering 163 Issue GE2 Elastic settlement of square footings on a two-layer deposit Razouki

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