Accounting for Sales

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to
1. Recognize revenue items at the proper time on the income statement 2. Account for cash and credit sales 3. Compute and interpret sales returns and allowances, sales discounts, and bank credit card sales 4. Manage cash and explain its importance to the company 5. Estimate and interpret uncollectible accounts receivable balances

© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing

Introduction to Financial Accounting, 9/e

Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick

2 of 48

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to
6. Assess the level of accounts receivable 7. Develop and explain internal control procedures

© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing

Introduction to Financial Accounting, 9/e

Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick

3 of 48

Recognition of Sales Revenue
• Revenue recognition requires a two-pronged test:
– Goods or services must be delivered to the customers ( the revenue must be earned) – Cash or an asset virtually assured of being converted into cash must be received (the revenue must be realized)

• Most companies recognize revenue at the point of sale

© 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing

Introduction to Financial Accounting, 9/e

Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick

4 of 48

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 5 of 48 .Measurement of Sales Revenue • A $100 cash sale is recorded as: Cash Sales Revenue 100 100 • A $100 credit sale is recorded as: Accounts receivable Sales revenue 100 100 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 6 of 48 .Merchandise Returns and Allowances • Gross sales are the initial revenues or asset inflows based on the initial sales price • Gross sales are decreased by the amount of the returns and allowances to calculate the net sales • A sales return occurs when a customer returns previously purchased merchandise • A sales allowance is a reduction of the original selling price • A contra account (Sales Returns and Allowances) combines both returns and allowances in a single account © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 7 of 48 .000 of gross sales on credit and $80.000 900.000 80.000 of sales returns and allowances • The journal entries are: Accounts receivable Sales Sales returns and allowances Accounts receivable 900.000 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 80.Merchandise Returns and Allowances • Suppose The Disney Store has $900.

000 $820. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 8 of 48 .000 80.000 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Merchandise Returns and Allowances • The income statement would show: Gross sales Deduct: Sales returns and allowances Net sales $900.

Cash and Trade Discounts • Trade discounts offer one or more reductions to the gross selling price for a particular class of customers • The gross sales revenue recognized from a trade discount sale is the price received after deducting the discount • Companies set trade discount terms to be competitive in industries where such discounts are common or to encourage certain customer behavior © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 9 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 10 of 48 .Cash and Trade Discounts • Cash discounts are rewards for prompt payment Credit Terms n/30 Meaning The full billed price (net price) is due on the thirtieth day after the invoice date A 1% discount can be taken for payment within 5 days of the invoice date: otherwise the full billed price is due in 30 days 1/5.O.M. The full price is due within 15 days after the end-of the-month of sale (an invoice dated December 20 is due January 15) © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. n/30 15 E.

Recording Charge Card Transactions • There are three major reasons that retailers accept credit cards: – To attract credit customers who would otherwise shop elsewhere – To get cash immediately instead of waiting for customers to pay in due course – To avoid the cost of tracking. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 11 of 48 . billing and collecting customers’ accounts • Card companies’ service charges are typically from 1% to 4% of gross sales © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

03 x $10.000 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.700 [$10.700 300 10.Recording Charge Card Transactions • Suppose VISA charges a company a straight 3% of sales for its credit card services • Credit sales of $10.000 – (0.000)] • The journal entry is: Cash Cash discounts for bank cards Sales 9.000 will result in cash of only $9. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 12 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 13 of 48 .Accounting for Net Sales Revenue • A detailed income statement might contain multiple elements as follows: Gross sales Deduct: Sales returns and allowances Cash discounts on sales Net sales $ 1000 $ 270 20 290 $ 710 • Reports to shareholders typically omit details and show only net revenues © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Examples include: – Time deposits – Commercial paper – 90-day Treasury bills • Cash includes paper money and coins. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 14 of 48 .Cash • Many companies combine cash and cash equivalents on their balance sheets • Cash equivalents are highly liquid short-term investments that can easily and quickly be converted into cash. money orders. and checks © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Compensating Balances • Compensating balances are required minimum balances on deposit in a bank to compensate for providing loans • Compensating balances increase the effective interest rate that the borrower pays • Annual reports must disclose any significant compensating balances © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 15 of 48 .

the flow of cash can be enormous – Cash is the most liquid asset. and it is enticing to thieves and embezzlers – Adequate cash is essential to the smooth functioning of operations – Businesses should not hold excess cash because cash itself does not earn income © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 16 of 48 .Management of Cash • Cash management is important because – Although the cash balance may be small at any one time.

and require proper authorization by someone other than the person writing the check – Reconcile bank accounts monthly © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 17 of 48 .Management of Cash • The major internal control procedures set up to safeguard cash include the following: – Have different individuals receive cash than those who disburse cash – Have different individuals handle cash than those who access accounting records – Record and deposit cash receipts immediately – Make disbursements using serially numbered checks.

Credit Sales and Accounts Receivable • Most sales are on credit. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 18 of 48 . which create Accounts Receivable • Credit sales create a new set of problems for measuring revenue and managing the company’s assets • Credit sales generate potential uncollectible accounts © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Uncollectible Accounts • Granting credit entails both costs and benefits: – The main benefit is the boost in sales and profit that a company generates when it extends credit – The most significant cost is uncollectible accounts or bad debts—receivables that some credit customers are either unable or unwilling to pay – The cost of granting credit that arises from uncollectible accounts is called bad debts expense © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 19 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 20 of 48 .Measurement of Uncollectible Accounts • Uncollectible accounts require special accounting procedures • There are two basic ways to record uncollectibles: – The specific write-off method – The allowance method © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

000 Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 21 of 48 Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 40.Specific Write-Off Method • The specific write-off method assumes that all sales are fully collectible until proved otherwise • When a company identifies a specific customer account as uncollectible. 9/e . it reduces the Accounts Receivable • The journal entry for the write-off of a specific Account Receivable of $40.000 is: Bad debts expense Accounts receivable © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing 40.

Specific Write-Off Method • The specific write-off method fails to apply the matching principle of accrual accounting • Matching requires recognition of the bad debts expense at the same time as the related revenue © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 22 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 23 of 48 . which contains the estimated uncollectible amount that is deducted from the total Accounts Receivable © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Allowance Method • The allowance method has two basic elements: – An estimate of the amounts that will ultimately be uncollectible and – A contra account.

Allowance Method • The contra account is called allowance for uncollectible accounts • The contra account recognizes bad debts in general during the proper period before uncollectible accounts from specific individuals are identified in the following period © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 24 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 25 of 48 .000 or $2.000 – Estimates that 2% x $100.000 worth of bad debts in 20X1 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Allowance Method • Suppose Compuport – Knows from experience that it will not collect about 2% of sales – Has sales in 20X1 of $100.000 of the 20X1 sales will be uncollectible – Does not know on December 31. 20X1. which customers will fail to pay their accounts • Compuport can still acknowledge the $2.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 26 of 48 .000 100.Allowance Method • The journal entries are: 20X1 Sales: Accounts receivable Sales 100.000 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 20X1 Allowances: Bad debts expense Allowance for uncollectible accounts 2.000 2.

000 1.Allowance Method • The journal entry for the write-off of two customer accounts in 20X2 is: 20X2 Write-offs: Allowance for uncollectible accounts Accounts receivable.400 600 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. Monterro 2. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 27 of 48 . Jones Accounts receivable.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 28 of 48 .Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Sales • Expressing the amount of bad debts as a percentage of total sales is known as the percentage of sales method • This approach directly calculates the bad debts expense that appears on the income statement • The previous example illustrates this approach © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable • The percentage of accounts receivable method estimates uncollectible accounts based on the historical relationship between uncollectibles to year-end gross accounts receivable—not sales • Additions to the allowance account are calculated to achieve a target ending balance © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 29 of 48 .

400 $ 3.500 2. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 30 of 48 .000 110000 120.Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable • Consider the historical experience in the following table: Accounts Receivable At End Of Year $100.100 5.400 20X1 20X2 20X3 20X4 20X5 20X6 Six-year total Average (divide by 6) Average percentage not collected = $3.000 Bad Debts Deemed Uncollectible and Written Off $ 3.600 2.000 = 3.33% © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 112.000 $612.550 4.000 80.200 $20.000 90.400 / $102.000 $102.450 2.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 31 of 48 .Applying the Allowance Method Using a Percentage of Accounts Receivable • Assume the accounts receivable balance is $115.000 x 3.000 at the end of 20X7 • The average percentage of accounts receivable not collected is applied to the 20X7 ending balance ($115.33%) • The adjusting journal entry is: Bad debts expense Allowance for bad debts 3.130 3.130 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 32 of 48 .Applying the Allowance Method Using the Aging of Accounts Receivable • The aging of accounts receivable method directly incorporates the customers’ payment histories • As more time elapses after the sale. 20X7. collection becomes less likely • The $115. might be aged as shown on the next slide © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 balance in Accounts Receivable on December 31.

000 25.000 10.000 12.000 2.000 10.072: Bad debts expense Allowance for bad debts © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing 3.000 3.000 90% 2.000 $ 27.072 3.772 = $ $ Total 20.072 Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 33 of 48 Introduction to Financial Accounting.000 4.000 22.700 31-60 Days 61-90 Days More Than 90 Days The journal entry to record the Bad Debts Expense is $3.000 $ 10.000 $ 115.000 $ 5.772-$700.000 0.000 5% 750 + $ $ $ 1.000 20.000 15.10% 72 + $ $ 8.000 15. or $3.000 72.000 3.000 2.000 39.Applying the Allowance Method Using the Aging of Accounts Receivable Name Oxwall Tools Chicago Castings Estee Sarasota Pipe Ceilcote Other accounts (each detailed) Total Historical bad debt percentages Bad debt allowance to be provided $ 3.000 1% 250 + $ $ 1-30 Days $ 20. 9/e .

20X2 .Bad Debt Recoveries • When bad debt recoveries occur. 20X2 Allowance for uncollectible accounts Accounts receivable Accounts receivable Allowance for uncollectible accounts Cash Accounts receivable © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e 600 600 600 600 600 600 Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 34 of 48 Oct. the write-off is reversed and the collection is handled as a normal receipt on account • The following October journal entries reverse the February write-off of an individual account receivable Feb.

Assessing the Level of Accounts Receivable • One measure of the ability to control receivables is the accounts receivable turnover Accounts receivable turnover = Credit Sales / Average accounts receivable • Higher turnovers indicate that a company collects its receivables quickly • Lower turnovers indicate slower collection © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 35 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 36 of 48 .000 and $112. respectively Accounts receivable turnover = $1.000 / 0.000.81 © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Assessing the Level of Accounts Receivable • Suppose credit sales for Compuport in 20X8 were $1 million and beginning and ending accounts receivable were $115.5 ($115.000 + $112.000) = 8.000.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 37 of 48 .81 = 41.4 days • There is significant variability in accounts receivable turnover levels among industries © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. is calculated by dividing 365 by the accounts receivable turnover Days to collect accounts receivable = 365 / Accounts receivable turnover = 365 days / 8. or average collection period.Assessing the Level of Accounts Receivable • The days to collect accounts receivable.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 38 of 48 .Overview of Internal Control • Internal control is a system of checks and balances that protects company assets and ensures that management maintains accurate financial records. • Internal control refers to both administrative controls and accounting controls © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Overview of Internal Control • Administrative controls include methods and procedures that facilitate management planning and control of operations. Examples include: – Budgeting procedures – Reports on performance – Procedures for granting credit to customers © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 39 of 48 .

and ensuring the accuracy of the financial records • Accounting controls should provide reasonable assurance concerning – Authorization – transactions are created in accordance with management’s intentions – Recording – transactions are authorized and accurately recorded © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Overview of Internal Control • Accounting controls include the methods and procedures for authorizing transactions. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 40 of 48 . safeguarding assets.

Overview of Internal Control • Accounting controls should provide reasonable assurance concerning – Safeguarding – restrictions on access to assets are appropriate – Reconciliation – records are verified with other independently kept records or confirmed by physical counts – Valuation – recorded amounts are periodically reviewed for impairment of values and necessary write-downs – Operational Efficiency – errors and fraud are prevented while promoting efficient actions © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 41 of 48 .

including employee payroll – Sales or other rendering of goods and services © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.The Accounting System • The accounting system handles many repetitive transactions. which fall primarily into four categories: – Cash disbursements – Cash receipts – Purchase of goods and services. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 42 of 48 .

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 43 of 48 .The Accounting System • Well-designed and well-run accounting systems are positive contributions to organizations and the economy • For example. integrated inventory controls and ordering systems allow a computer to interact automatically with suppliers to generate orders and reduce delivery times © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.

Checklist of Internal Control • The following is a checklist of internal controls that a manager might use to create or evaluate specific procedures for cash. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 44 of 48 . and payroll – Reliable personnel with clear responsibilities – Separation of duties • The person with custody of assets should not have access to the records of those assets • The same individual should not authorize payments and also sign the check in payment of the bill © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. sales. purchases.

Checklist of Internal Control – Proper authorization • Credit limits to customers • Approval of overtime • Approval of large expenditures for capital assets – Adequate documents • Companies use source documents to support the immediate. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 45 of 48 . and tamper-proof recording of data © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. complete.

and automatic checks on each step in the routine – Physical safeguards • Using safes. guard dogs. and special lighting • Limiting access to sensitive areas – Vacations and rotation of duties • Rotating employees and requiring them to take vacations © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting. guards.Checklist of Internal Control – Proper procedures • Well designed routines permit specialization of effort. locks. 9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 46 of 48 . division of duties.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 47 of 48 . but the achievement of efficient operations and the minimization of temptation © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.Checklist of Internal Control – Independent check • All phases of the system should undergo periodic review by independent public accountants and internal auditors – Cost-benefit analysis • The cost of a control should not exceed its benefits • The goal of internal control is not total prevention of fraud.

9/e Horngren/Sundem/Elliott/Philbrick 48 of 48 .Management’s Responsibility • Management bears the primary responsibility for a company’s financial statements • The audit committee oversees the – Internal accounting controls – Financial statements – Financial affairs of the corporation © 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Introduction to Financial Accounting.