Global Studies Ms. Biggart November 14, 2013 Hinduism and Buddhism Develop !

The Aryans and non-Aryans followed same religion causing thousands of gods. Also, complex lifestyles questioned some people about the world. Hinduism Evolves Over Centuries ! Hinduism developed slowly over time. Its aspects are easily identifiable too. Hindu scholars tried to comprise many cults, gods, and tradition for one single belief, but unlike other religion, hinduism remained as a collection of religious beliefs. Origins and Beliefs ! Hindus believe that a religion is a way of liberating the soul from illusions, disappointment, and mistakes. Sometime BCE, Hindu teachers worked on explaining Vedic hymns, but instead, their comments were recorded as the Upanishads. It is written as dialogues, described as moksha(a state of perfect understandings of all things). ! The teacher explains atam(individual soul), and Brahman’s(world soul), relationship. And in order to perfectly understand, they need to go through reincarnation, being born and born again until moksha. During this process, Karma(good or bad deeds) follows, affecting its destiny. Hinduism Changes and Develops ! For 2,500 years, Hindu gods have changed its personalities. Brahman, Vishnu, Shiva, Krishna, Rama, and Devi. Hindus have a choice of choosing different paths for moksha too. Hinduism and Society ! Karma and reincarnation strengthened the caste system: from Brahmin to the untouchables. Born as a lower class would mean it’s a result of bad deeds in a former life. Caste system had dominance over everything, valuing purity. New Religions Arise ! The Upanishads led to two other religions: Jainism and Buddhism. Mahavira was the founder of Jainism, teaching that everything have souls and they should not be harmed. Also, they believed in nonviolence and actively contributed to business activities. Jains are the wealthiest communities in India and only in India.

The Buddha Seeks Enlightenment ! Siddhartha Gautama was the founder of Buddhism. They believed that a child exhibited the marks of a great man: a world ruler, a universal spiritual leader, or a great king. Siddhartha’s Quest ! Siddhartha, while venturing outside the palace saw an old man, and decided to spend his life searching for religious truth and an end to life’s suffering. He looked for enlightenment(state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe). Finally when meditated 49 days under a fig tree, he was known as the Buddha. Origins and Beliefs ! Buddha preached sermons including four main ideas of enlightenment: the four noble truths. Buddha said following the Eighthold path will lead to nirvana meaning the release from pain and suffering after enlightenment. Hinduism affected Buddha’s ideas, but he rejected gods, and kept teaching a way of enlightenment. The Religious Community ! Buddhist religious order, the sangha was accepted by the first monks, and it was the religious community. This religious community, Buddha, and dharma is the “Three Jewels” of Buddhism. Buddhism and Society ! Buddhism did not consist of caste system, so many followers were laborers and craftspeople. Monks and nuns took vows to live a life of poverty, nonviolence, and nonmarriage. They went for begging a charity offerings. After the Buddha’s death, the sacred literature, the Jatakas were written. Buddhism in India ! After Buddha died, missionaries spread his faith in Asia for centuries. The idea itself traveled all the way to China. However, it slowly disappeared from India. Some people say that Hinduism absorbed Buddhism, but Buddhist pilgrims remain to worship the Buddhism. Trade and the Spread of Buddhism ! Buddhist traders traveled along southeast, Burma, Thailand, and the island of Sumatra. They also traveled through Silk Roads all the way to Korea and Japan. Trade was the way of spreading ideas.