dAVid lAsOcKi

New Light on Eighteenth-Century English Woodwind Makers from Newspaper Advertisements
Dedicated to Dr Maurice Byrne in recognition of his researches on English wind makers1 ince Dr Charles Burney in the 1770s, researchers have been using newspaper advertisements to trace musical activity in England in the eighteenth century.2 Two notable reference works of the 1960s and 70s facilitated access to these advertisements by researchers: Michael Tilmouth’s calendar for the years 1660– 1719, originally part of his doctoral thesis, 3 and The London Stage, 1660–1800, which calendared performances for the entire period it surveyed.4 But research on instrument makers, particularly after 1719, has required painstaking work, necessarily piecemeal, in libraries and archives.   The advent of a database containing the images of the entire Burney Newspaper Collection of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British news-

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papers at the British Library has now made it possible to conduct systematic keyword searches of this corpus. 5 The present article is a byproduct of my search for information in the database about the use of the recorder throughout the eighteenth century. It began with the search ‘flute or flutes’ in classified advertisements, which resulted in no fewer than 17,257 ‘hits’ related to published music and tutors, performances, sales and auctions, teachers, and makers and sellers of instruments. (Doing the same search outside advertisements mostly produces instances of the type of small ship called flute.) The optical character recognition in this database is imperfect, so I may have still missed some relevant items. I conducted supplementary searches on individual makers and other woodwind

1 I am most grateful to him, Cecil D. Adkins, and Ardal Powell for their comments on drafts of this article. I also appreciate the help of Jan Bouterse; Maggie Bruce; Mathew Dart; Michael Finkelman; Bernard Gordillo; Sue Gibbons, Society of Genealogists, London; Alan Green and Michael Murray, The Ohio State University Music Library; Robin Howell; Cornelia S. King, Library Company of Philadelphia; Arnold Myers, Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments; Amber Paranick, Library of Congress; Nikolaj Tarasov; Andreas Weinrich; and Lance Whitehead. 2 Charles Burney, A General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Day (London, 1776–79); ed. Frank Mercer, 2 vols. (London: Foulis, 1935). 3 Michael Tilmouth, ‘A Calendar of References to Music in Newspapers Published in London and the Provinces (1660–1719)’, R.M.A. Research Chronicle 1 (entire volume); ‘Chamber Music in England, 1675–1720’ (Ph.D. thesis, Christ’s College, Cambridge University, 1960). 4 The London Stage, 1660–1800, 4 Parts and an Index (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1960–79). 5 17th–18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers (Gale); accessed November 2008–April 2009.

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The Galpin Society Journal the 1670s.   Nothing has been published previously about Hall, whose first name was John. According to the records of the Turners Company of London, he was the son of Samuel Hall of London, mariner.9 John was apprenticed for seven years to Christopher Keene on 22 June 1669, and freed on 4 July 1677. Other apprenticeships in the Company were timed to end when the boy reached the age of 21, so Hall was probably born around 1655. His master, Christopher Keene (d. 1698), has also not been heard of previously, but he forms part of a large network of turners, some of whom are known to have been primarily woodwind makers (see Appendix 1, at the end of this article).10   Hall was listed in the poll tax for the parish of St Andrew Holborn in July 1689 as ‘Scroops Court & wife’ at 2 s.11 The Rocque map of London (1747) shows Scroop’s Court off Holbourn Hill, close to the church.12 Hall was again listed in 1691–92 under ‘Scroopes Court’ as ‘flutemaker’ with his wife at 2s and a servant called Alice Kennarston at 1s.13 The poll tax of January[?] 1695 still places him in Scroop’s Court with a wife, a child, and an apprentice.14 But when his son Matthias was baptised at St Andrew Holborn on 8 March 1696, John was listed with his wife Mary at ‘Smiths Cort in Holborn’.15 He took five apprentices: Anthony Green (1690), William Wood (1696), James Low (1718), Edward Needham (1728),

instruments, including the makers’ relationships with brass instruments, guitars, and pianos, as those came up.   To my amazement, significant information unknown to previous researchers emerged for more than forty makers. For the present article, I have supplemented the newly discovered advertisements with material gleaned from a similar search for members of the flute family in: three other databases of English newspapers, two databases of eighteenthcentury American newspapers, digitized London directories, a database of material relating to London music trades in the second half of the eighteenth century, a database of proceedings of the Old Bailey, and a privately published calendar of musical instruments in Dutch auction catalogues.6 John Hall (b. c1655; fl. 1729) We begin with the following advertisement, which appeared one year before the eighteenth century, in Post Man and the Historical Account,7 27 January 1700:
... two new Flutes made by Hall... They were stoln at the Fire in Red Lyon Square. Notice to be given to the Lady Anderson at Mrs Knightly’s at her house in Red Lyon Square... 8

The term flute had meant recorder in England since

6 Gazettes; available from http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/; accessed March 2009; 19th Century British Newspapers (Gale); accessed January–April 2009; The Times Digital Archive 1785–1985 (Gale); accessed January–April 2009; The Performing Arts in Colonial American Newspapers, 1690–1783, compiled by Mary Jane Corry, Kate Van Winkle Keller, and Robert M. Keller (New York: University Music Editions, 1997); Early American Newspapers, Series I, 1690–1896 (Readex, a division of NewsBank, Inc.; available on subscription from http://infoweb.newsbank.com); accessed 2006; London Music Trades 1750–1800, sponsored by the Centre for Performance History, Royal College of Music; available from http://lmt.rcm.ac.uk/default.aspx; accessed February 2009; The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674–1913; available from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/; accessed March 2009; Gerard Verloop, Het muziekinstrument op de boekenveiling, 1623–1775 (privately printed, 2002); Het muziekinstrument op de boekenveiling, 1776–1810 (privately printed, 2002); Het muzikinstrument op de boekenveiling, 1811–1850 (privately printed, 2003). 7 To save space, I have omitted the definite article from the titles of all the newspapers quoted. 8 This and the following pre-1720 advertisements quoted are not found in Tilmouth, Calendar. The fire in Red Lion Square burned down four houses, apparently killing one of the owners and causing an estimated £20,000 of damage. Two ‘fellows’ were spotted with trunks on their backs, leaving the scene. Post Man and the Historical Account, 18 January; Post Boy, 23 January 1700. 9 Turners Company of London, Apprentice bindings and freedoms 1604–1694, Guildhall Library, London, Ms. 3302/1. 10 These makers will be the subject of a forthcoming article. 11 Notes on the St Andrew Holborn poll tax (24, 11) found at Guildhall Library; accessed in 1981. 12 The A to Z of Georgian London, introductory notes by Ralph Hyde (Lympne Castle, Kent: Harry Margary, in association with Guildhall Library, London, 1981), map 4Bc. 13 St Andrew Holborn poll tax notes (14, 20). 14 Notes on the Farrington Ward Without poll tax (60, 17) found at Guildhall Library; accessed in 1981. 15 Guildhall Library, Ms. 6667/6. Smith’s Court is not shown on the Rocque map.

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and William Hosmar (1729), none of whom was freed.16 His son Matthias Hall was freed by patrimony in the Turners Company on 6 December 1721. Simon Robinson (d. 1703) ‘Simon Robinson of the Parish of St Martin in the Fields in the County of Middx Flute maker’ made his Will on 3 June 1703.17 Among other bequests he left to his son Simon ‘the sum of ten pounds with all my working tooles instruments woods and all other materials belonging to my Trade And all my wearing Apparel and his own picture’. The will was proved on 26 June.   Robinson does not appear in the Turners Company master–apprentice listings referred to above, perhaps because he practised in Westminster rather than the City of London. He might have been the ‘Mr Robinson, near St. James Church’ who supplied information about the ‘English hautbois, treble’ (treble shawm) to James Talbot in the 1690s.18 Peter Bressan (1663–1731) Maurice Byrne’s researches established that Bressan married Mary Margaret, daughter of Claude Mignon, in 1703, and was a lodger in Mignon’s house.19 The following advertisement in Daily Courant, 14 March 1711, brings to light the Sign of the house at this early stage; in 1724 he used ‘the Green Door’.
Lost a Gold Watch-Case, ingraven the 4 Seasons of the Year, and Diana and Andimion in the middle of it, on Monday Night the 12th Instant, between SommersetHouse-yard and St. Martin’s-street Letterfields. Whoever brings the said Case to Mr. Bressan, Flutemaker, at the 2 Flower-Pots in Sommerset-Houseyard in the Strand, shall receive 2 Guineas Reward; or whoever shall stop it, if offer’d to be sold or pawn’d, shall receive the same if brought as aforesaid.

isements and auction catalogues both during his lifetime and afterwards.
14 July 1708, Daily Courant

Stolen out of a Gentleman’s Chambers in the Temple ... a Tortoise-shell Flute, an Ebony one, and several others of different sorts of Bressan... If any of the above are offer’d to be Sold, Pawn’d or Valued, you are desir’d to stop the same and the Party and give notice thereof to W. Freeman at the Bible against the Middle-Temple-Gate, and you shall be well Rewarded for your pains. One surviving treble recorder by Bressan, Paris C.  394, E. 283, has tortoiseshell cladding (now a bit loose).20 We know little about the recorderbuying habits of individual gentlemen during this period. So it is noteworthy that this gentleman, a lawyer, owned a number of Bressan instruments ‘of different sorts’, presumably sizes.
17 May 1732, Daily Journal To be Sold by Auction. On Monday the 22d Day of May Inst. in Dover-House, Dover-Street, St. James’s... All the rich Plate of a noble Peer, lately deceas’d; among which ... a complete Case of Flutes, made by the late famous Mr. Bressan...

The surviving case described by William Waterhouse in 1993 contained a pair of alto recorders by Bressan.21 The adjective ‘complete’ before the case advertised above suggests a larger selection of recorders, perhaps a full consort. That larger cases existed is shown by the following instruments listed in the auction catalogue for the combined possessions of a Colonel John Moore and the famous architect Nicholas Hawksmoor in 1740:22
Musical Instruments and Books of Musick. 1. A Case with five Fluits by Bresan

Instruments by Bressan are mentioned in advert-

16 Turners Company of London, Apprentice bindings 1694–1759, Guildhall Library, Ms. 3302/2; Freedoms 1694– 1759, Ms. 3303. 17 National Archives, PROB 11/470. 18 Anthony Baines, ‘James Talbot’s Manuscript (Christ Church Library Music Ms 1187), 1. Wind Instruments’, GSJ 1 (1948), 12. 19 Maurice Byrne, ‘Pierre Jaillard, Peter Bressan’, GSJ 36 (1983): 8–9; Grove Music Online, s.v., ‘Bressan, P(eter)’, by Byrne; accessed 6 January 2009. 20 Information from Maurice Byrne. 21 William Waterhouse, ‘A Case of Flutes by Bressan’, GSJ 46 (1993), 162–63. 22 A Catalogue of the Houshold Furniture, and Effects of the Hon. Col. John Mercer, Late of Denmark Street, Soho; and Nicholas Hawksmoor, Esq; Both Deceased ([London, 1740], 18; reprinted in Architects, ed., with introductions, by D. J. Watkin, Sale Catalogues of Libraries of Eminent Persons, vol. 4 (London: Mansell with Sotheby Parke–Bernet Publications, 1972).

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[No. see also Bouterse. This and the following Days.26 For an earlier English example. 3. Although the term flute was beginning to be ambiguous. 25 Public Record Office.. 4 Een bruine altfluit van Bressan (2–0). Houtboy and twelve other Fluits. facing the East-India Warehouse. at CARR’s Publick Sale-Warehouse.. the last undoubted example. A curious fluit Cane by Bresan No. Silk-Dyer. two fine Concert Flutes by Bressan.indd 76 07/05/2010 14:12 . No. 27 February 1691..   During the 1740s. 10..23 An example survives by Richard Haka. ALL the entire genuine Houshold Goods of Mr. No. 1660–1760 (Utrecht: Koninklijke Vereniging voor Nederlandse Muziekgeschiedenis. Het muziekinstrument op de boekenveiling. an alto recorder in D. act no. 7 Two fourth flutes with ivory by Van Heerde. Appendix B. 3 Een zwarte ‘sang fluyt’ met ivoor van Bressan (4–0).. (Nos. 8 November 1784. notarial archive no. file number 5075. 2 A brown ditto by Bressan (1 guilder).. The term consort flute for the treble recorder. 10226.. found in the James Talbot manuscript (compiled 1692– 95).28 had by this time metamorphosed into ‘concert 23 Advertisement by Michiel Parent. 3 A black voice flute with ivory by Bressan (4 guilders). also a fine Set of Flutes. including John Walsh. 8 Two sopranino recorders with ivory by Van Heerde and a walking-stick recorder. is a direct translation of the English term voice flute. No. for Conveniency of Sale. 310–11.. 2005). A Collection of Pictures. transcribed in Jan Bouterse. WILLIAM STRONG. and the following Days. No. 7 Twee kwartfluiten met ivoor van Van Heerde No. The Dutch term sang fluyt. It doubtless came in handy for gentleman out on a stroll who wished to stop and play a few tunes. see Jan Bouterse. whose father was a walking-stick maker and who made walking sticks himself.. who had presumably made the instrument himself.24 The inventory-after-death of the celebrated recorder player James Paisible (1721) included ‘an old cane flute’.76 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) 2. 9 Een bruine basfluit van Bressan. by Brassan. ‘James Talbot’s Manuscript’. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. PROB 10/1618. The Hague. Dutch Woodwind Instruments and their Makers. 26 Sale of the belongings of Heer H. (Nos.   The inventory of the possessions of the celebrated Amsterdam music publisher Michel Charles Le Cène after his death in 1743 included:27 No. A ditto with a German Fluit. 5–7 valued together at 2 guilders) No. 1 Twee zwarte ‘fluyt dous’ met ivoor van Bressan (6–0). Like many London music publishers. consisting of . There are further references in The Netherlands and France. by Johannes Mensert. Dutch Woodwind Instruments and their Makers. 81–82.. No. 1776–1810. within two Doors of the Buffalo Tavern in Bloomsbury-Square.. No. Amsterdamsche Courant. 8–9 valued together at 3 guilders)] A ‘fluit cane’ was a walking stick in which a recorder was incorporated. No. see Verloop.. 1 April 1745. No. being auctioned in The Hague as late as 1784.. ‘The Inventory of the Musical Instruments of Michel Charles Le Cene (1743)’. see Bouterse. brought from his late House at Newington-Butts. Gemeentearchief. see under Schuchart below. with the rem[a]ining Part of those of Mr. 27 Amsterdam. and a pitch Pipe by Bresan . Daily Advertiser To be Sold by HAND. It first appears in 1691 in advertisements by two different Amsterdam workshops. 4 A brown tenor (?) recorder by Bressan (2 guilders).. 539. or Cannes a Flute a Bec. No. 9 A brown bass recorder by Bressan. fluitrotting. and three Shallamores. to the Sign of the White Lion. Eerens. The Dutch called such an instrument fluytstok.. fluyt konst-stok. Bressan. Tomorrow. 15. London. FoMRHI Quarterly. Dutch Woodwind Instruments and their Makers. in Fenchurch-Street. The wording suggests that the three chalumeaux were made by another maker. instruments by Bressan were mentioned in two further advertisements: 22 December 1743. Le Cène evidently had a sideline selling instruments. 1 Two black recorders with ivory by Bressan (6 guilders). 5 Een bruine kwartfluit van Bressan. 90 (January 1991): 18–19. 11. no. No. 24 And another by F. No. GEORGE STRACEY.. 2 Een bruine ‘dito’ van Bressan (1–0). 17–18. ‘Een Wandelstok zynde een fluyt Doux’. Michiel Parent and Jan van Heerde’s widow and sons. 5 A brown fourth flute by Bressan. 28 See Baines. 8 Twee octaaffluuiten met ivoor van Van Heerde en ‘rotting fluijt’. Daily Advertiser To be sold by HAND.25 the inventory was taken by his executor. placed in quotation marks. it clearly still referred to the recorder here..

‘The Selhof Auction (1759)’. Bressan. alongside many Dutch instruments:30 131 Une Flute douce longue de Basse de R. libraire.. 972. with large additions (London. 108. 1993). from whom survive a treble recorder with body by Bressan but head and foot joints marked ‘Harris’ over a crowned cinquefoil. Henry Kusder (d.. A long bass recorder by P. by A. a Set of Basan’s Flutes. bookseller. deslaissez par feu Monsieur Nicolas Selhof. 1753–1809: Evidence from the Proceedings of the Old Bailey and the Middlesex Sessions of the Peace’. Moetjens. This reference confirms a working period for one Harris that coincided with those of Bressan (d. ‘Musical Instrument Making in Georgian London. BROWN.indd 77 07/05/2010 14:12 . 24 (1971). with an introduction by A. d. Auction Catalogues of Music. 25 May 1772). more than forty years after Bressan’s death.. and a sixth. 3rd ed. ‘in de Hofstraat’. lesquels seront vendus publiquement aux plus offrants. it still means recorder here. Robert Harris. Daily Advertiser 3 August 1739. The Elements of Musick Display’d (London. Hyatt King. 1692. Besides the instruments by Bressan. By 1772. 1623–1775. Curiously. 32 The second. maker of a surviving flute marked ‘Harris London’. the Moore and Hawksmoor auction catalogue of 1740 includes: ‘A fluit Cane by Harris’. 1772). the following advertisement appeared: TO be sold by Auction. An auction advertised in Daily Journal on 20 February 1731 featured ‘fine German and Concert Flutes’. 269. the well-known psalmodist William Tans’ur. and the Milhouse Family MARYBONE GARDENS. 6 April 1774. said to be a sale ‘door Wylen de heer Hugo van Son. of Turnmill Street.. 102. 162. en toutes sortes de facultez & langues. A New Musical Grammar. THE USUAL CONCERT. not what we now call a basset in F. 1754). 30 Catalogue d’une trés belle bibliotheque de livres. who included measurements for tenor and basset recorders by Bressan in his manuscript. 1973). curieux & rare. 29 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. as a concert flute.. 33 Proceedings of the Old Bailey.. to the Trade and Dealers in Wearing Apparel. Eighteenth Century Music 2. On Monday next. which Waterhouse tentatively attributes to later turners named John and Joseph Harris who flourished around 1780. No. called the basset bass and the bass pedal or great bass.. mercredi le 30 mai 1759 & jours suivants dans la maison de la veuve d’Adrien Moetjens. 31 William Waterhouse. In his New Musical Grammar: or The Harmonical Spectator (1746). yet all may be play’d by the foregoing rules’. Forty years later.. and octave flute. but again. ‘?mid 18c. 89 (October 1997): 23–26. 1759). 26–30.. a third flute. no.29   The auction catalogue of the possessions of the late Nicolas Selhof.. and a treble recorder with head and foot joints by Stanesby Junior but body marked ‘Harris’. Catalogue of the Music Library. Drury-Lane. 58.   Finally. 32 Current Register of Historic Instruments’. Clerkenwell. bookseller. 33 Thomas Stanesby Junior (bap. I. Instruments and Other Property of Nicolas Selhof. Verloop. 145. fiches 1644–1646. 10 May 1780. Bressan. 1759. see also Jan Bouterse. in The Hague in 1759 lists. at No. a fifth. a few Houshold Goods . this Day. Jenny Nex and Lance Whitehead. bookseller. T..... facsimile. In Leven afgetrede Procureur voor de Respective Hoven van Justitie in Holland en de heer P. the same instruments with the same numbers were offered for sale in The Hague on 24 November 1760. 90 (‘sorts’ changed to ‘sizes’). To which will The ‘long’ bass recorder may well have been a true bass in C. London Daily Post and General Advertiser William Tans’ur. noted: ‘Of flutes there are many sorts. libraire dans le Hofstraat (The Hague: la veuve d’Adrien Moetjens.. 2 (2005): 263. no. Auquel suit le catalogue d’une partie très considerable de livres de musique.’. in the house of Nicolaas van Daalen. and to be continued.   The new evidence tends to support the twoHarris theory. K. 102. 1731) and Stanesby Junior (d.. Harris and Harris Waterhouse speculates that there were two different makers called Harris.’. belonging to Mr. Talbot.. Lasocki — woodwind makers 77 flute’. The New Langwill Index: A Dictionary of Musical Wind-Instrument Makers and Inventors (London: Tony Bingham. Sold in The Hague. ‘late 18c’. an advertisement by Bastin that includes the phrase ‘concert and other German flutes’ shows that the term had come to mean flutes of concert quality (Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser. FoMRHI Quarterly.. [131. C. Sr. 145 Deux Flutes a Bec de Brasam. reprinted almost word for word in his The Elements of Musick Display’d (1772). 1756). GSJ 17 (1964). ainsi qu’une collection de toutes sortes d’instruments. flute maker. Het Muziekinstrument op de Boekenveiling. 1 (Amsterdam: Frits Knuf. 1754). Openbare Leeszaal en Bibliotheek Amsterdam. 1802). Two recorders by Bressan] By this time the term flute was shifting towards its modern meaning of transverse flute. was a witness in a legal case at the Old Bailey on 10 May 1780. 31 The first.

in Order to be forthwith sold to the best Bidder. 11 August 1739. jun. 38 Young. Stanesby. 35 Eric Halfpenny came across the 6 August version of the advertisement and published an article based on it in 1953.. 26 June 1770. Music-sellers. allowing Satisfaction for Redeeming and Attending the Sale of the same. the contrabassoons must have been made by Stanesby Junior. een fluweele Zak. in Public Advertiser. Stanesby. because he stated that the advertisement concerns ‘Mr. at the British Coffee-house at Charing-Cross. and no Questions ask’d. then he proceeded to argue correctly that. and who is to go soon out of Town. Watches . 38 More than forty years after Stanesby’s death. opposite to William Walton’s. Gaillard in The Hague. Phillip T.. that will Redeem their Goods. Music-sellers. the following instrument appeared in a sale at the bookshop of B. Meopham. The advertisement was repeated on 6.indd 78 07/05/2010 14:12 . for three Dollars each. the King’s-Arms. presumably concerns a flute with two extra corps de rechange (lower middle joints): LOST. do. jun. the Undertaker being desirous to make the Concert the most complete. Whitehall . 223. 21  December 1795: ‘Een fraaye Zwart Ebbenhoute Dwarsfluyt. Whoever can give Information of the above to Mess.. jun. 30–31. This is to inform such Persons. believ’d to have been left in a Hackney Coach. 36 Eric Halfpenny. 21 January 2009). door Stanesbi. Music & Letters 34. made by Mr.39 Flutes of this type are first documented in America in an advertisement in the New York Mercury. Whoever brings it not broken to Mr. made by the same. 3 December 1746. 1020. Scheurleer.. likewise others with 2. accessed 6 January 2009. s. as having six pieces. &c. 37   The following advertisement. fiches 1713–1715. ‘This Day. 14 August. Dublin.78 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) be added (for the better Entertainment of Gentlemen and Ladies.. ’s-Gravenhage. an Ivory German Flute by Kusder. But the advertisement is more significant for its information on two other makers: To the Pawnbrokers. several common Flutes tipped with Ivory.. a German Flute by Stansby as good as new. Longman and Lukey. 3. same. and 14 August with essentially the same information about the maker and instruments. since Stanesby Senior died in 1734. Arnold Myers. met vier middel stukken in 34 35 The next advertisement. the Maker’s Name Stanesby. Douglas.. these flutes have only four joints (e-mail message to the author. Pawn their Plate.. The following advertisement in General Advertiser. 10 August. At the above Place is to be sold . 13 August 1759: To be sold by a Gentleman who lodges at Widow Darcey’s nigh the Ship-Yards. however.v. exceeding good German Flutes.. July 30. by Stanesby.. with four middle joints in a velvet bag. On Monday was Se-nnight. 4 or 5 middle Pieces to change the Tones and Voice. shows that Stanesby’s flutes were worth pawning: WHEREAS many People thro’ Necessity. 1993). provides evidence that Stanesby’s recorders (for which common flute was now the most popular term) were still in use. and to be continued’. But that seems to have been a typographical error: both Stanesby Junior flutes from that collection are now in the Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments (3902 and 3905). the Greatness of whose Sound surpasses that of any other Base Instrument whatsoever. that at Mr. None of the thirty-nine surviving flutes by Stanesby Junior has any extra middle joints. in London Daily Post and General Advertiser.. ‘Stanesby’ by Friedrich von Huene. 1 (January 1953). very Cheap. Young. PHILLIPS’s. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. 37 The advertisement is still being quoted incorrectly in the article in Grove Music Online. in Repeated 6 August 1739. in Veenestraat.. lists an instrument by Stanesby Junior in the Benn Collection. Esq. 41–43. a small Tenor ditto. 221.) Two GRAND or DOUBLE BASSOONS. 10. STOLEN from a House at Islington the following Articles: A large Bassoon. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. containing a Brown-colour’d German Flute in six Pieces. they may hear of a Person. 39 Koninklijke Bibliotheek. no. by the booksellers Scheurleer and A. Senior’. same. ‘Stanesby Major and Minor’. Het muziekinstrument op de boekenveiling. shall receive One Guinea Reward. 34 A contrabassoon by Stanesby Junior dated 1739 survives in the National Museum. 1776–1810. Never perform’d before. Verloop. in Middle ScotlandYard. made by Milhouse of Newark. No. and according to its director. by Stanesby Junior). 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments: An Inventory of 200 Makers in International Collections (London: Tony Bingham. TWO Small Green Bags. 36 He must have misread either the advertisement or his notes.. Junior ’ (A beautiful black ebony flute. and are not able to Redeem the same again.

8 April 1808. Waterhouse ascribes a death date of 1801 to Kusder solely on the basis of an exhibition catalogue by Herbert Heyde. on 24 June 1805. 8 March. 79 Henry Kusder is a mysterious figure. perhaps Kusder was a dealer who bought in unmarked work from others and sold it under his own name’. 1 August 1809. he was not cleared until April 1813. and was cleared on 26 April. Chapman. ‘Von dem 1801 verstorbenen Henry Kusder sind eine Reihe dieser sog. as his Will states. 22. 1989). 41 Johann George Tromlitz.. und Versuch einer kurzen Anleitung zur bessern Einrichtung und Behandlung derselben (Stendal. widower. with major differences in sounding lengths. translated and edited with an introduction by Ardal Powell (Oxford: Clarendon Press.47 He had made his Will on 25 January.’44   The rate books of St George Hanover Square show that ‘Henry Huster’ entered Flask Row. tube division. doch scheint sie mir nicht über 20 Jahre höchtens hinausszugehen. 18 January 2009. 56.. or Mr. original will PROB 10–3592. Manufactures.43 Such an eagle was also part of the mark of Schuchart Senior (see below). 46 The Register Book of Marriages belonging to the Parish of St George. kann ich nicht mit Gewißheit sagen. Henry Musical Instrument-maker Flask-row. coal merchant. Ribock had by chance seen only one. but it is not original to the ‘Wie alt sie eigentlich sei. oder einem Instrumentmacher in London. an entry in Holden’s Triennial Directory. Lasocki — woodwind makers Cheapside. 29 June 1805. presumably some arrangement made between Jane Kusder and Henry Richard Collard. In April 1808.49   Young lists seven surviving bassoons marked ‘MILHOUSE / NEWARK’ and three marked ‘MILLHOUSE / NEWARK’ (one of which has the top band on the butt joint inscribed ‘MILLHOUSE. the executrix. MAKER. 1799: ‘Kusder. Chelsea’. when he was said to be ‘late a Prisoner in His Majesty’s Prison of the King’s-Bench’. H.. Hanover Square. he stood unsuccessfully for the office of Collector of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts. the first of which is derived from a speculation by Ribock in 1782 that ‘not more than twenty years ago . Herrn Tromlitz Einrichtung ist daher gewiß vorzuziehen. who states. at the Feathers Tavern in the Strand. although no actual proof of this has yet been found’. noch bei keiner andern Flöte angetroffe habe. 49 Collard dissolved a partnership with Nathaniel Hadley the Younger. 2–3. shall receive Two Guineas Reward. ‘since his mark includes the double-headed Imperial eagle. und wer sie gemacht habe. 22.48 The will reveals that all the goods. 43 John Solum. Publications of the Harleian Society. 26 April 1806. 1888). 42 Powell.. 28 January..42 John Solum observes. Dring. Even his first name has been known from only one document. but another (US-Westport CT: Solum) is marked with a double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire/Hapsburg variety and can hardly be by a [native] London maker. G♯ and B♭ keys to the flute. alles Nachforschens ungeachtet. On 1 August 1809 he was declared bankrupt again. Kusder’s surviving flutes are rather heterogeneous.46 He did not survive long. in the County of Middlesex. Registers XIV (London: the Society. indem ich sie. one of the witnesses to Henry’s will. e-mail message to the author. it is sometimes suggested that Kusder came from Germany.. of St James Westminster at St George on 5 August 1801. 47 Information from Maurice Byrne. See London Gazette. R[ibock]. Waterhouse ascribes the dates fl  p1762– 1801 to him. married Jane Dowdall. without a biographical source. ed.45 Henry Kusder. J. 4. Bemerkungen über die Flöte. 242. so wie überhaupt der äußerst fehlerhafte Bau und Arbeit der Kusderschen Flöten sie unter alle Vergleichung mit den meistens sehr guten Tromlitzischen erniedriget ’. and it was proved by Jane. 25. Namens Kusder. Morning Chronicle. From March 1802 to 1805. 48 National Archives. an instrument maker in London named Kusder’ might have been responsible for adding the F. II. 1996). of St George Hanover Square.40 Powell notes that Ribock ‘brought up Kusder’s name because out of all the English keyed flutes being made at the time. and credits of the deceased came to around £600. On 28 January the following year he was declared bankrupt. J. at Scotland Yard.41 Powell elaborates. Others have a griffin or only a name’. by this apparently insignificant figure. 184–85. 1992). und entweder von dem Herrn Tromlitz in Leipzig.. Chelsea. dying on 2 October the next year. 1763’. John H. ‘At least one instrument with his name has London-made keywork (by John Hale). 1782). straight-top-Oboen erhalten. The Keyed Flute. 9 March 1813. chattels. 44 Historische Musikinstrumente der Staatlichen Reka-Sammlung am Bezirksmuseum Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder): Katalog (Leipzig: Deutscher Verlag für Musik. herzurühren. New York: Oxford University Press. spinster. 130. 45 Information from Maurice Byrne. 40 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. around 1790..indd 79 07/05/2010 14:12 . The Early Flute (Oxford: Clarendon Press. PROB 11–1381–758. and Commerce. the rate books give Kusder & Collard as the rate payers of the house. on 25 October. and bore.

Musical Instrument-maker. ‘On the Oboe and Bassoon’. is confirmed by a poll tax record for 29 July 1788 (London Music Trades 1750–1800). 56 Nevertheless. ‘William Milhouse’. lists forty-seven flutes.indd 80 07/05/2010 14:12 . 5. shall receive a handsome reward. which will be executed in the best manner as usual. Luke’s. The Harmonicon 8 (1830): 192. on Sunday Night last . BEGS leave to inform his Friends.. much marked at the top with the screw of a mouth-piece. in which he ‘RESPECTFULLY offers his grateful Acknowledgments to the Public. Nottinghamshire all his life. Widow of the late Richard Millhouse. e-mail message to the author. tipped with ivory. MILHOUSE / NEWARK’. advertised in the London Argus. St.58 The following advertisement in Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. 14. Out of the House of Mr. addresses one such improvement: WILLIAM MILHOUSE.’ Adkins.  Attributing the marks of the Milhouse family has been a thorny problem. especially with a name derived from ‘mill’ and ‘house’. If offered to pawn or sale. 1760) and a vox humana—are stamped with the spelling “Millhouse”. 1835 or later). of Newark upon Trent. what transpired is not known’. William established a workshop in London in 1787. having the assistance of an eminent hand from London. New Langwill Index... the only maker in England of any celebrity’. 264.. 51 Waterhouse. 28 December 1791 and 23 May 1792. 30 December 1789.80 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) The mis-spelling of the last name is typical of the casual attitude towards spelling of that age. Powell’s 18th-Century Flute Database. 159–61. Milhouse”) instructed his executors to either find for [Richard Junior] a partner to enter the business or else sell up. 158–59. and the same hands as were lately employed by her husband. Soho. 264. 157.baroqueflute. 3 December 1791. and given information so that they be brought to justice. 57 STOLEN. Prior activity in Newark is also suggested by the wording of his advertisements in Newark Herald. d. and the Public in general. 52–53. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments.. Musical Instrument-maker. 52 Cecil Adkins. wrote in The Harmonicon in 1830 that ‘Great improvements have been made on [the oboe] by Millhouse. 27 January 2009. William was a prolific flute-maker. 16. conferred on her late Husband. perhaps made by Richard Senior. and wishes to inform his Friends in NEWARK and its Vicinity. and hopes for the continuance of their future commands. Waterhouse suggested that MILLHOUSE belonged to him. Richard Milhouse Senior (1724–1775) worked in Newark-on-Trent. 100. Featherstone Street. no. that he now Young. 53 An advertisement in London Evening Post on 24 October that year now shows what arrangements had been made for the time being: HANNAH MILLHOUSE. her son. stop them and the party. 14 October... n. Adkins. takes this public method to return her thanks to all her friends. then became a ratepayer at 100 Wardour Street in mid-1787. www. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. No. for their favours. His presence at that address. 54 He was married in Newark on 5 September 1786. instrument). for the great and liberal Support he has already received. 51 But Cecil Adkins rightly objected: ‘Of the forty known Newark instrument. 50 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. 159. Waterhouse notes that Richard Senior’s ‘will of 3 August 1775 (signed “R. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. 3 (2001): 101–20. Cabinet Maker. by applying as above. 58 I. 50 None of these bassoons is larger or smaller than the standard size. 56 Young. James Street. ‘William Milhouse’. [four]—[three] four-keyed bassoons (ca. information about dating from Cecil D. and it seems inaccurate to circumscribe the elder Richard’s activity on the basis of these few early instruments or a spelling that is found nowhere else in connection with the family’. New Langwill Index. P. Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 22 (1996): 47. Richard Junior (1759–1845) and William (b. a Canecoloured German Flute.com/database (accessed 19 January 2009). deceased. 54 but a surviving vox humana is marked ‘W. with some fifty surviving instruments. P. 52   Richard Junior was only 16 when his father died. Adkins. gives five and possibly seven more. CUERTON. ‘William Milhouse and the English Classical Oboe’. the article was reprinted in The Double Reed 24. 57 Young. 53 Waterhouse. The ‘eminent master’ may have stayed on to train Richard and William. and MILHOUSE to his sons. 55 Young. 55   For the following flute. Maker’s name Millhouse. No. Wardour-street. There is one surviving one-keyed flute with the mark ‘MILHOUSE / NEWARK’. in the parish of St James Piccadilly. One I. demonstrating prior activity there. the ‘much marked’ tag suggests an old instrument. 81. 1761.

62. he being the only one that has the inventor’s permission to use his name. 81 As long ago as 1956. which was used for the remaining groups. a d♯ for the right little finger and a long c♯—in this case carried right up to the left little finger. Kalman A.. The sounding of c♯ on this instrument required the use of both little fingers. Burnim & Edward A. Mr.59 The instrument is illustrated in his Plate IV. 1825). in presumed chronological order.. Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 27 (2001): 5–47. s. Oxford (No. ‘The German Oboe in the Eighteenth Century’. Parke. The main developments in oboe design during the mid–late eighteenth century came from Dresden. presence of double holes.62  Adkins classified the surviving oboes into eight 59 60 groups. This type of oboe ‘appears to have originated outside of London as a by-product of the resurgence of psalm singing in English country churches during the first two-thirds of the eighteenth century. in the greatest perfection. PARKE. Philip H. ‘William Milhouse’. German Flutes. from the Earliest Ages to the Present Time (London: Sainsbury. This latter key is engraved “W. 54. one of the leading oboists of the day. accessed 6 January 2009. s.indd 81 07/05/2010 14:12 .65 The celebrated German oboist Johann Christian Fischer. &c. Managers & Other Stage Personnel in London 1660–1800. MILHOUSE / LONDON / 337 OXFORD STT. Development and Construction (London: Ernest Benn. His distinction between the two types of oboe is still valid. Musicians. no. ‘Fischer. (William Thomas)’. had been a member of the Dresden Kapelle. 64 Adkins. now in the Bate Collection. the first group to have the bulb top. Adkins. The presence of this type of top is probably the meaning of the term Italian in Milhouse’s advertisement. repeated in his ‘Historical Oboes 5: The Milhouse Family and the English Straight-top Oboe’. in the hands of such makers as August Grenser (1720–1807). & D’Almaine (1800). invented and used by Mr.. ‘Italian’ oboes are contrasted with ‘English’ ones in the catalogues of George Astor (1799) and Goulding. and maker’s mark. are spurious. Philip Bate noted the presence of this type of key on a surviving oboe by Milhouse. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. ‘Communication’. that those that are not marked on the key ‘W. Inventor’. outside London. 66. then the Dresden opera orchestra.66 The influence of Carlo Palanca of Turin Philip Bate.61 a form of mark evidently earlier than that found after his removal from Wardour Street in 1797: ‘W. Langhans (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press). Flageolets. Dancers. II. and then probably only as a means of increasing sales volume through their country sales’. 1 as well as in the more recent article on the Milhouse oboes by Adkins. Phipps.v. ‘William Thomas Parke’. and Grove Music Online. and Heinrich Grenser (1764–1813). Jakob Friedrich Grundmann (1727–1800). The Oboe: An Outline of its History. accessed 9 February 2009. Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 25 (1999): 164–65. Instruments properly repaired. 62 See Dictionary of Musicians. MILHOUSE / LONDON’. Clarinets. 61 Adkins. ‘William Milhouse’. based on their type of top (straight or bulb). In his chart on p. Actresses.  As this Invention will be doubt be copied. Only later was the manufacture of these cheaper instruments taken up by the more prominent city makers. Highfill. warranted.   Makes Bassoons. 65 See Cecil Adkins. ‘Parke. The instrument is marked ‘W. 11 (1987). 1766. Herman Keahey. number of keys. Lasocki — woodwind makers makes his ITALIAN HAUTBOYS with a new C Sharp Key. 27): ‘an unusual specimen [which has] three keys only—the c♮.’ The advertisement confirms the identity of William Thomas Parke (1761–1847).   Regiments supplied with all kinds of Instruments. Figure 11. ‘Parke. inventor”— possibly William Parke of Musical Memoirs fame. 1956). The origin of the bulb-top oboes remains controversial.v. himself a well-known oboist. bell type.v. 63 Adkins. 1760–64. one to open the c♯ and the other to close the c♮’. 69.64  As we shall see. s.v. wholesale and retail. Johann Christian’. 57. bore. Howe. 57 he omits ‘LONDON’ from the mark. s. by T. ‘William Millhouse’. ‘William Milhouse’. Adkins produces evidence that the straight-top type in England was a cheaper model developed for sale in the ‘country’. W. The Double Reed 24.60 Such a key is unique on the fifty surviving oboes by Milhouse surveyed by Adkins. William Thomas’. ed. which will be found to make that Note so long [as] wanted. No. 66 Grove Music Online. who settled in London in 1768 (Public Advertiser.63 Bate 27 falls into group 4. 4 (2001): 17–19. even if we accept Robert Howe’s objection that the straight-top oboes were not necessarily cheaper to make than what he calls ‘oniontop oboes’ and his suggestion that the straight top was favoured because it ‘looks much more chaste and pious’. Figure 16. working alongside the Italian oboists Antonio Besozzi and his son Carlo. Park. 16 April). for use in churches as part of a ‘band’ of stringed and woodwind instruments that served instead of the far more expensive organ. Hautboys.. A Biographical Dictionary of Actors. Milhouse requests his Friends and the Public to observe. Figure 22d.

A reviewer remarked: ‘A Signor FERLENDIS played a Concerto on what was called the English Horn. Lambeth’. and that he had apparently concentrated on making instruments for the military: RICHARD MILHOUSE. 2 June 1795). Adkins wrote: ‘Aside from a 1778 entry in the register of the Baslow Church for payment of a Mr. ‘Concertante for Two Hautboys. Mr.. The first. but which seemed merely a bended oboe. (from Venice. Pratt street. William is also listed as ‘Millhouse. No. &c.. by Guido Salvetti and T.’69  An advertisement in Star. the Voce Umana’. and R. 4 February 1768). 27 May).—He played with good expression’ (True Briton. And Ferlendis introduced the English horn in 1795: ‘Concerto on the English horn.70 Richard. clarinet. Ope. Bassoons. 52. musical instrument maker. Ferlendis. The Yale Musical Instrument Series (New Haven & London: Yale University Press... could easily have had a son. Soho”. Signor Besozzi and Signor Caravoglia’ (Morning Chronicle. Review of Bruce Haynes. Biographical Dictionary of Actors 11 (1987). This advertisement also connects Richard with two listings in London directories.v.v. 12 February 1793. for repair of the bassoon. Grove Music Online. 9 April 1778.67 In any case. s. and hopes for the continuance of their favours. 20. 27 April 1795). 50. was actually his mother. who probably supplied instruments to the Besozzis’. s. Concert for the benefit of Besozzi included. Ferlendis’ (Morning Chronicle. ‘Concerto Bassoon. since his removal from Lambeth. if they had not already been familiar with it. which have given such universal satisfaction. Gaetano’.. Signor. or Voce Umana (for the First Time in this Country). The Oboe. The Eloquent Oboe: A History of the Hautboy 1640–1760 (Oxford: Oxford University Press.indd 82 07/05/2010 14:12 . Biographical Dictionary of Actors 6 (1978). Milhouse. Geoffrey Burgess and Bruce Haynes. Regardless of whether such an instrument was known in England as German or Italian. Musical Instrument Maker. on the other hand. Richd. presumably Richard. s.. Gregorio Patria (1783–93). and Giuseppe Ferlendis (1795). 7: ‘Beozzi. 29 May 1795).. Ferlendis—Ferlendis’ (Oracle and Public Advertiser. 68 ‘A Concerto on the Hautboy by Signor Giustinelli’ (Public Advertiser. Biographical Dictionary of Actors 2 (1973). Brewer-street. Hannah née Hollitt (1729–1793). 20 February 1783). but why would the initial H have been placed before his? Because he had no brothers besides William. Signor Caravoglia’ (Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. Caravoglia (1778. no. Gaetano Besozzi (1793–98). s. and that could have been the origin of the term. brings out the differences between the wall-thicknesses and bore dimensions of Palanca oboes and those from Dresden and Leipzig.—No.. on the Dresden makers via the Besozzis has been suggested but not proven. 2001) in Music & Letters 84. Caravoglia even introduced ‘a New Instrument. but it may have been within a few years of William’s 1787 departure from Newark. aged 31 that year. Wardour str. called. which was presumably different enough from the local variety of vox humana that it could be claimed as new (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. ‘William Milhouse’. respectfully assures them of his unremitting attention to the perfection of his Instruments. 11 May 1778). 69 Adkins. accessed 9 February 2009. 220. and to the Military ones in particular. who had come down to London with ‘The earliest surviving hautboys by Grenser and Grundmann closely resemble the instruments of Carla Palanca of Turin. mentions ‘Millhouse.   The whereabouts of Richard Milhouse Junior for almost thirty years after his father’s death have been a mystery. ‘Besozzi. Old instruments carefully repaired. Golden-lane. (Antonio Besozzi worked at Dresden 1738–1758 and 1759–74. A Musical Directory.. between the oboes of Palanca and the early instruments (c1760) of Johann August Crone (1727–1804) of Leipzig’. Wm. 13. ‘Besozzi’. Poland-Street ’. &c. H. it is more likely that H. Clarinets. Oboes. surely Fischer would have introduced the Dresden-style oboe to English makers.. for the Year 1790. german flute.v.v. 2 (2003): 280–83.68 The instruments they played would no doubt have been of interest to local players and makers. ‘Concerto. 2004). 1793). Soho’. on the Hautboy Signor Patria’ (Parker’s General Advertiser and Morning Intelligencer. Gregorio’. nothing is confirmed until 1805. in 1790.82 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) For that year Holden’s London Directory contains the entry: “Milhouse. ‘Giustinelli. shows that by then Richard had been established in London long enough to remove to new premises. Carlo joined him his 1755. musical instrument makers. ‘Patria.) Cecil Adkins’ study of oboe bores. 70 Wakefield’s Merchant and Tradesman’s General Directory . ‘Concerto . and he finds ‘a striking likeness . Hermann Keahey. starting from the same year as Fischer Italian oboists began to visit London: Giuseppe Giustinelli (1768). impressed with a due sense of gratitude for the numerous favours he has already received from his Friends and the Public in general. viz.. Oboe. 92. Hautboi—Mr. hautboy and bassoon maker. being his first performance in this country). Giuseppe’. 67 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Fischer played an oboe concerto in the same concert). The date of Richard’s move to London is unknown. Doane. 17 Prince’s st.. 100.

lists George as ‘Musical Instrument Maker. ‘Een Hobois en een dwars Fluyt aan een stuk. 6 (December 1793). Holland. Besides immodestly claiming to have brought German flutes ‘to that Degree of Perfection.75 This information correlates with Adkins’ oboe groups: groups 3–4 without street address.78 Brown reported that ‘he has been for this considerable Time past a successful Practitioner in his Art. Lambeth’. Dublin: Irish Academic Press. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. 12 January 1748. 75 Young. 8 (William and his son Richard). and has wrought’ (presumably made instruments) ‘for the most eminent Masters in his Travels through Germany. he sold ‘excellent German Cane Flutes’.74 The instruments in Adkins’ groups 1 and 2 are marked ‘MILHOUSE / NEWARK’. Lasocki — woodwind makers 83 him. fifty-seven have the 337 Oxford Street address (from 1797). Instrument Maker. with the exception of one marked merely ‘MILHOUSE’.73   The information in the newly discovered advertisements suggests the following scenario. Of the seventy-nine surviving woodwind instruments with W. from the highest to the lowest’. which were replacing the recorder kind. Cutler in Crane-lane. and by 1836 Richard III was described as ‘French Horn-. 5 (William and his son Richard). MILHOUSE / NEWARK’ on the vox humana suggests that already in Newark William felt the need to differentiate himself from Richard. one in group 5 without. he advertised ‘a new Machine of his own Invention’ by which ‘Gentlemen may with the greatest Facility sound all the Notes of the said Instrument. Flanders and England’. Doane. 1747’ and Joseph as ‘German Flute and German Cane Flute Maker. Boydell also lists a Joseph Brown in partnership with George. ‘A List of Irish Instrument Makers’. 1747–66) An advertisement reproduced by both Philip Bate and Brian Boydell found George Brown established as an instrument maker on 12 January 1748. ‘William Milhouse’. The Flute: A Study of its History. 71 Gentleman’s Magazine 63.76 In 1822. A Musical Directory for the Year 1794 (London: editor). A Dublin Musical Calendar 1700–1760 (Blackrock. 70. 260). The advertisement is embellished with a woodcut of a gentleman playing a (regular) flute. William’s son Richard (b.77 George Brown (fl. ‘dwelling at Mr Hyens’s. 77 Adkins. Finally.. that the most Knowing in that Art can find no Defect in them’. The existence of ‘W.. Milhouse & Son. in the mark catalogued by Young. 80. 76 Waterhouse already speculated that ‘MILHOUSE / LONDON’ belonged to Richard. Dublin. 1748’. The almost identical oboes in group 6a (marked ‘MILHOUSE / LONDON’) and 6b (‘MILHOUSE / NEWARK’) probably belonged to Richard: in London and after his return to Newark. Instrument-Makers. Again. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. then cannot be traced again until he turns up in a directory of 1822 in Newark. Did Richard (and Hannah?) and William remove to London together or independently? In any case. Mrs Millhouse of Newark’. groups 7–8 with. Aged 65. reproduced in Philip Bate. 2 (Richard Junior and William). twenty-two lack a street address.—Pratt Street. 100. but this change is not reflected in the surviving marks.indd 83 07/05/2010 14:12 . Bugle-. in the mark and are clearly associated with William. Wardour-Street. 6a (William). Therefore Richard and William may have initially shared the ‘MILHOUSE / NEWARK’ mark. William. 45. William is listed separately: ‘Milhouse. Co. 1969). no. 1156: under ‘Obituary of considerable Persons. 1988). who may therefore have set up an independent workshop there. which assigns the groups as follows: 1 (Richard Senior). The exception in group 3 may have been a mark that William used before his brother arrived. three with. Dublin. 74 This paragraph should be contrasted with Adkins’ Figure 23. That would then have been the occasion for Richard to remove from Lambeth to Westminster. p. but such a person is not mentioned in this advertisement. In his index (p. which originated with their father. GSJ 16 (1963): 28.. 3–4 (William). John Teahan. 7 (William). Dublin’. including the oboe with the long c♯ key mentioned in the 1791 advertisement. & Sons. 82. Soho’. It is likely that both references are really to George. plate 4C. groups 3–5 (with one exception in 3) and groups 7–8 have W. Development and Construction (London: Ernest Benn. 159–65. She died in Newark on 12 December 1793. Trumpet maker’ at the same address. ‘for the Accommodation of those Gentlemen that would recreate themselves abroad’.72 Richard is found in Holden’s directory at the Soho address 1805–1808. Crane Lane. H. Dublin Courant. ‘William Milhouse’. Crane Lane. 113. 6b (Richard Junior).—No. 1796) joined him to form W. 73 Adkins. Doane’s Musical Directory (1794) seems to have a garbled and outdated entry: ‘Milhouse.   This is the earliest advertisement for such flute walking sticks. Brian Boydell. 78 Advertisement.71 A possible scenario is that she became seriously ill about a year before and moved back to Newark to be cared for by her daughters. 72 J.

  Five years after his Dublin advertisements. South Carolina Gazette (Timothy). 15 December 1763. Esq. Wind Musical Instrument Maker. by an easy method. from the first Artists in London and of various Prices.79   It seems likely that Brown’s ‘machine’ was a detachable mouthpiece for focusing the sound of the flute. that he was the inventor of such a device: . by a gentleman who is to leave the Province soon. and lodges at the Widow Darcey’s. the like has not been performed by any other maker but himself in England. facing Villars St. it lists all the other instruments Brown makes: ‘common Flutes. makes all sorts of Wind Musical Instruments in the greatest Perfection. at the Smith’s the Harp and Crown in Old Butcher Row Oxford.. consisting of . &c. 26 March 1754. fiches 172–173. the corner of Church Lane. 100. which can serve as a walking stick) was auctioned in The Hague in 1754. whereby Gentlemen will find it agreeable to make use of this machine. Brown turned up in London. German Flutes. No.. musical Instruments. Philadelphia Rivington and Brown. Walking Kane German Flutes and Hautboys’. A Very elegant Collection of Musick.82 die kan dienen tot een Wandelstock ’ (An oboe and a flute in one piece. New York Gazette & Weekly Post Boy To be disposed of. &c. German flutes with mouth-pieces and books for learners.. Charleston Lately imported and to be sold by Watsone and McKenzie. fine and pleasant toned. A school teacher named Robert Coe even claimed in Pennsylvania Gazette. To encourage Gentlemen to use his instruments he has likewise invented a new fashioned machine to fill the German Flute in every note from the lowest to the highest. MAKES all Sorts of Wind Musical Instruments in the greatest The London music publisher Robert Bremner listed for sale around 1765: ‘French Horn Mouth Pieces / Gemeente-archief ’s-Gravenhage. He likewise makes Hautboys. at their store on the Bay. opposite to William Walton’s. At Mr. have imported for Sale in the last Vessels from London.. Jackson’s Oxford Journal George Brown. as possibly mentioned in American advertisements as early as 1737 and made more explicit in 1759 and 1763: 23 April 1737. lately arrived from London. Het Muziekinstrument op de Boekenveiling. 27 August 1759. adding bassoons to the instruments he made: 12 February 1753..81  A slightly earlier advertisement from 17 November 1747 in George Faulkner the Dublin Journal gives a more likely spelling of the name of Brown’s landlord: ‘Mr. Verloop. Daily Advertiser GEORGE BROWN.. . but likewise mentions the maker’s skill with flutes and the ‘new Machine of his own Contrivance’. 1623–1775.. They sometimes show up at auctions. 80 Printed at the end of The Compleat Tutor for the Flute. 21. At the Corner of Market and Front streets. the subscriber has invented a mouth-piece.. and does not in the least alter the tone of the flute.. Brown made trips to Oxford to sell his instruments. Again he appended the woodcut of the flautist to his advertisement: 30 November 1754.80 Ardal Powell comments that such mouthpieces were: ‘usually metal or metaland-ivory devices that clip onto the head joint. Over the next few years. a German flute mouth-piece for blowing it. 26 April 2006.84 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) German Flute ditto’. Harvey’s. see Eric Halfpenny. Bassoons and common Flutes in great Perfection. 82 The two advertisements from Jackson’s Oxford Journal cited in this article were kindly transcribed and conveyed by Maurice Byrne. Gentlemen who plan to honour him with their commands may be sure of being well us’d.indd 84 07/05/2010 14:12 . Musical Instrument Maker.... Cheesemonger. Strand. made either of tin or silver... but does the same as if blown by the nicest lip. opposite to Elliot’s bridge. In addition.. Pennsylvania Gazette. 79 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. lately arrived from Abroad. but buyers (and museums) often take them off and put them aside as they are not considered part of the “work”’. GSJ 17 (1964): 100. viz. Mouth pieces that render the blowing of the German Flute remarkably easy. Fifes. to teach on that agreeable instrument the German flute. Hyne’s’. e-mail message to the author.. ‘An Eighteenth-Century Trade List of Musical Instruments’.. 81 Ardal Powell. as some gentlemen are afraid to undertake it by reason of its taking more wind than they think they can well spare. adding the clarinet to his instrumentarium.

85  A remarkable twist in Brown’s story now involves him with that of our next maker. Lasocki — woodwind makers Perfection.84 The same is true of the flute in the Dayton Miller collection (1269) marked ‘BROWN / (star)’ (reproduced by Waterhouse). near Conduit-street. By Mr. Reeds for Hautboys and Bassoons’. Brown had again expanded the instruments he made to include fifes. 1754–78) and Henry Colquhoun (d. which is the Foundation of all Instruments. Brown had ‘removed into ExeterStreet in the Strand. His stay will be only one week. Bassoons. but it became commonplace among music educators of the twentieth century and remains so today.   ‘A bassoon by Brown’ auctioned by Prestage in April 1760 is more likely to have been made by George Brown than the John Brown. 86 Maurice Byrne. Waterhouse. That there was an amateur market for the instrument as early as 1748 is shown by advertisements from a Mr. especially a good Concert Common Flute. Brown failed to mention the flute by name in his next Oxford advertisement. at the Sign of the Flute’. (Sharp holds a pair of flageolets in his right hand in the celebrated portrait of the Sharp family. His stay at Oxford will be only one week. Perhaps he had finally been able to set up his own workshop. who taught the ‘clarennet’ or ‘clarannet’ in addition to the violin. which will put it in good Perfection for every Note. belonging to a Gentleman deceased. besides those two flageolets (now in the Bate Collection.. to great Perfection. Alas. A Curious Collection of Coins and Medals in Gold. Violins. An advertisement in the Whitehall Evening Post or London Intelligencer. He stretched the meaning of ‘new’ by re-advertising his ‘new invented Machine for the German Flute. He has now with him great Choice of Bassoons. likewise several Pieces of Music in MS.B. He likewise makes Hautboys.indd 85 07/05/2010 14:12 . 7 April 1760)..) According to Waterhouse. New Langwill Index.   Curiously. recorder. Mason (1765). 83 Four years later. Makes all sorts of Wind Musical Instruments in the greatest perfection. At David M’Lean’s at the Star and Garter in the Corn Market in Oxford. GSJ 18 (1965): 7. whose trade card from c1743 survives. a claim that was refuted by both Caleb Gedney and Charles Schuchart. Flutes. a flute in the Dayton Miller Collection (1268) and an oboe in the Buckinghamshire County Museum. A similar advertisement in Jackson’s Oxford Journal. and a rate payer in King Street. 24 January 2009. The earliest surviving English clarinet is probably one by Miller dated 1770 (see below). ‘Schuchart and the Extended Foot-Joint’. for the Use of those Gentlemen and Ladies that are not capable of filling it. At the End of Savile Row. around the mid-1720s’. John Mason. 85 Ardal Powell. and he mentioned reeds for the first time: ‘all Sorts of German and Common Flutes. Gedney. 84 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. the latter End of this Month.. Clarnets and Common Flutes. flute. Silver and Brass. now at Hardwicke Court. from the lowest to the highest. Hautboys and common Flutes in great Perfection. painted by Johann Zoffany. No such advertisement is in the Burney Collection.86 Byrne also noted him as ‘the maker of the flageolets owned by Granville Sharp. PRESTAGE. 1 October 1761. 1791) Mason has previously been known as the maker who advertised in 1756 that he had invented the C-foot for the flute. Hautboys and Basoons. several large and small Basses. Westminster. true and pleasant toned. 1779–81. Hart. the like has not been performed by any Maker but himself in England. Clarinetts and Fifes. 23 November and 3 December). Whoever deals with him may be sure of being well serv’d.83 85 Brown was probably the first maker in England to advertise the clarinet: certainly well before Colquhoun (1765). Powell describes it as ‘a solid ivory flute of early proportions with the reverse headjoint socket typical of Stanesby .  A ‘concert common flute’ was presumably a highquality recorder. Oxford). although it may have been the same sale as: ‘To be SOLD by AUCTION. Wind Musical Instrument Maker from London. and Stanesby Junior all have somewhat doubtful surviving instruments attributed to them. 27 March 1757. although it was still decorated with the flautist woodcut. N. also two fine toned Harpsichords. and a few other instruments’. these educators have not been as concerned about quality as Brown was. 10 May 1755.’ (Public Advertiser. John Mason (fl. 1754–56. and Muræus (1766) (see below). without the last sentence. Brown’s idea about its fundamental nature appears to be unique for the eighteenth century. 46. &c. includes the same woodcut as before. even from the lowest to the highest’. Jackson’s Oxford Journal George Brown. the Schucharts. musical instrument maker and dealer. To encourage Gentlemen to use his Instruments he has likewise invented a New-fashioned Machine to fill the German Flute in every Note. horn ‘or any other instrument’ (General Advertiser.. &c. e-mail message to the author. fine and pleasant toned.

19 January 2009. the lowest Price is one Guinea unmounted. on 21 April 1760 in the same newspaper. for only two months later. and blow with a little Wind. As I serve no Shops. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.. my chief Study has been to teach and make the Instrument for many Years. Lewer’s.88   The newly discovered advertisements reveal a great deal more about Mason. or any Gentleman’s Use. This invention was presumably the same as that already advertised by Brown in 1747 (see above). Price One Guinea. St. being occasionally of a deep and solemn. and the Consequences of unskilful and difficult Winding. expressing like the human Voice. Mason. Newton’s Music Shop. and raises the Reputation of all Shopkeepers and other Customers. he announced that he: has. at Manchester. Three months after that.. e-mail message to the author.. and consequently no Benefit can accrue to them. being both the Maker and Teacher of this delightful Organ. whose Effects are very obvious to Gentlemen of good Understanding. he published yet another variation on his theme: To avoid the aukward Puffing of a bad Instrument. 2 February 1760. and much in Esteem with the best Musicians: He teaches upon very moderate Terms.. Address. Duke’s Music Shop. now removed to the Corner of Exeter Court. and Mess. as well as the Obligations I shall be under to my future Customers.   Mason evidently thought he was onto a good thing. Any Gentleman may satisfy himself with the Truth of these Assertions. perhaps Mason encountered it when Brown removed to London. and Facility. whose whole Time and Study have been engaged in the FLUTE. Mr. and the Demand I have had for them. he published a further advertisement. has fabricated a German Flute upon much more curious and rational Principles. in Holborn.B. MASON. He had also managed to place his instruments in five London music shops. all marked with three Lions Rampant’. 255. I make no doubt but they will depreciate as far as possible the Merit of it. obliges me to express my grateful Acknowledgments for the past. Mr. are a demonstrative Proof that the unskilful and laborious Puffing of a bad Instrument is a Violence upon Nature. near Exeter Exchange in the Strand. found out a new Method of making German Flutes. being occasionally of a deep and solemn. for the Army. in full Length.. Price One Guinea. and three Lions Rampant. in St. who made it his chief Study all his Life time.. they are marked by J. Hall and Bury. Martin’s Court.86 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) and even one in Manchester: MASON. Moorfields. or loud. and are much better for Concerts than those that have that small Paper Tone. to exceed in Tune any yet made. In Public Advertiser. London. both with Regard to the Sweetness and Body of Tone. Mr. on 9 February 1760 in the same newspaper. To prevent any Mistakes. describing even more graphically the experience of gentlemen with cheap flutes and talking up his own solution. whether they buy or not. New Langwill Index. MASON. on 5 July 1760 in the same newspaper. has fabricated a German Flute upon much more curious and rational Principles. big Cheeks. Only a week later.indd 86 07/05/2010 14:12 . clear and charming Tone. from due Reflection and Experience begs Leave to say. who buy of him. red Looks. To be had at Mr. Gentlemen and others may be satisfied of the above Assertion. and much in Esteem with the ablest Musicians. 20 June 1761.87 Powell describes the flute as ‘a nice Stanesby [Junior] type instrument’. which may be breathed with incredible Ease. Maiden-Lane. It has been approved of by the greatest Masters. and flatter myself I have at last hit upon an Invention which entirely removes all those Obstacles. Ardal Powell. which may be breathed with incredible Ease. by calling at my House. On 23 December 1762. Martin’s ChurchYard. and charming Tone. expiring like the Human Voice. Mason made another claim about the flute: THE German Flute being an Instrument that is difficult to make in Tune. Mr.   Mr. Address. by long Practice and great Expence. again in the same newspaper. Oswald’s Music Shop. and distorted Eyes. they are marked with three Lions Rampant under my Name. Aylesbury have survived. has discouraged many Gentlemen from endeavouring to obtain a Proficiency on it. in the same newspaper. or loud.   N. MR. by calling at my House. a reasonable Profit will be allowed to Merchants and wholesale Dealers. much the same advertisement adds Waterhouse. Rutherford’s Music Shop. being both the Maker and Teacher of this delightful ORGAN. 87 88 A similar advertisement a year later. Maker and Teacher of the German Flute . and Facility. clear. adds: ‘Fifes and Fife Cases compleated in the neatest and truest Manner.

who is probably the 89 The ‘new improvement on the inside’ suggests that Repeated 8 February 1765. shall be handsomely rewarded. ‘Musical Instrument Maker’ in Cork. adding some important details and the invention of a new size. by all I can learn. which contained the unintentionally memorable phrase that his flutes are ‘expiring like the Human Voice’. Likewise. Mason took time off from promoting his flutes to respond to an advertisement by Henry Colquhoun. his Work being well known. Fifes. for there are Numbers of them about’. Clarinets. Hautboys. In a further advertisement of 3 December 1763 in Gazetteer and London Daily Advertiser. the head-piece of a Voice German flute. Lloyd’s Evening Post DIED. there never was any thing of this kind finished before. he has been Fife-maker to his Majesty’s three Regiments of Guards these 18 Years: His Musical Knowledge and Capacity in teaching. for Exportation or Home Consumption. may also have been a relative. loud. In an advertisement published in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Clarinet and Fife Maker.90 His instruments did find their way to the American colonies. ‘A List of Irish Instrument Makers’. Dublin. 5. 92 Waterhouse. and teacher of that delightful instrument. On the 3d inst. assures the Public. and will return it to the printer.) whose Fifes are on a new Construction. and of great ease to the masters. Fife Cases and Carriages. clear. 21 January 1778: Lost. ‘Lessons from Inventories and Sales of Flutes and Recorders. Whoever has found the same. Mai 2006. 299–330... 1793–1810. on Monday last. Lasocki — woodwind makers man mentioned in the following: 87 for the first time that his music shop is ‘at the Sign of the Violin. 1650–1800’. I have finished a fine bass German flute. Mason returned to the flute. N. To be had any my shop in Maiden-lane. Teahan. Mason appended the note: ‘Gentlemen. not in the Burney Collection. please to beware of Counterfeits. HENRY COLQUHOUN. and used through all Parts of his Majesty’s Dominions Abroad and at Home. was presumably Henry’s son. Wissenschaftliche Arbeitstagung Michaelstein. 1775. THE German Flute. and repeated Experiments and Skill in all sorts of Wind Instruments. the exact concert pitch.B.  On 26 January 1765 in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. 28. it tells us which other instruments he made: JOHN MASON. which may be sounded with incredible ease. solemn tone. Band 73 (Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag. (and by Authority Fife Maker to his Majesty’s Three Regiments of Foot Guards. in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. he had also removed again: To the CURIOUS. are Advantages which the Ostentation of no Novice of a few Months Exercise in this Business can assume or pretend to. makes and sells all Kinds of Wind Instruments. German and Common Flutes. with a great deal of study. He makes the most curious German and Common Flutes. of a new improvement in the inside. Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte. German Flute and Hautboy’. deemed the best flute-maker in Ireland. being of a fine. 69. which Waterhouse takes to have been made by George Colquhoun (probably Henry’s son). &c. which I take to be a repeat of one from a month or so earlier. At the same time. 91 See David Lasocki.91 An alto flute survives marked ‘Colquhoun. in Flötenmusik in Geschichte und Aufführungspraxis von 1650 bis 1850: XXXIV. much resembling the human voice. Mr. as Bassoons. 2009). New Langwill Index. herausgegeben von Ute Omonsky und Boje E. by John Mason. stained brown. Colquhoun claimed the same relationship with the Guards: To the ARMY in General. the maker’s name Colquhon. bis 7. The George Colquhoun listed as ‘Musical Instrument Maker’ at 5 Trinity Street. &c. but it could just as easily have been made by Henry. They are adapted for young beginners. No further advertisements are in the Burney Collection from Colquhoun. Hans Schmuhl/Stiftung Kloster Michaelstein. Dublin’. &c. which.indd 87 07/05/2010 14:12 . &c. Philadelphia. wind musical instrument maker. Vox Humanes. &c. &c.89 22 July 1791. to answer in concert with a first and second concert German flute. Dublin. Henry Colquhoun. The William Colquhoun.92  On 16 July 1765. Price one guinea plain. 20 February 1765. Wind Musical Instrument-Maker. in Trinity-street. and is greatly esteemed by the best judges. Hautboys. The term voice German flute was used in American advertisements of the second half of the eighteenth century to refer to some kind of low flute. Bassoons. as the following advertisement appeared in Pennsylvania Ledger. 90 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. next door to a cutler’s shop.

when at the same Time I have made the like near 40 Years before in my own Country in the best Perfection. This time it is not accompanied by the woodcut. or have been brought up only common turners. and to the encouragement of the scholar in learning. in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. plain. lost. one guinea). 93 94 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 20 December 1782 (lost. and never yet executed before in Europe. six shillings). one key. like those who falsely give out they have a Bass German Flute of a new Invention. and has. and Hautboy. lost. 85. 13 November 1723 (lost. and greatly esteemed by the best judges. he acquaints the Public that he is so far Master of his Business as to excel all others in Europe. THE German flute. London. stolen. and may be had at the following prices: The first at one guinea. stolen. and sonorous tone. by his great Study and Pains. 5 January 1766. 22 August 1774 (Gedney. 21 April 1772 (one key. Has a peculiar Method likewise. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. half a guinea). by the Use of which not only young Learners can. and the bass. lost. wind-musicalinstrument-maker.96 he had modified the bore of the flute. Public Advertiser. They are towards the low end of the scale. mellow. three guineas. given that rewards of half a guinea or a guinea were generally offered for the return of lost or stolen flutes. London Daily Post and General Advertiser. It is not only filled with greater ease and pleasure than that instrument usually is. one guinea). FleetStreet. Public Advertiser. The only Young.94 These prices seem to be the first ever given in an advertisement by an English woodwind maker. of his own Invention. 95 See Daily Courant. Mason revised this advertisement. Violin. coming up with yet more adjectives to describe his flutes and giving the prices of both sizes: TO the CURIOUS in MUSICK. six pieces. Daily Courant. greatly improved in the justness and fluency of the tone. fill the Flute with Ease.88 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) GEORGE BROWNE. having practised that Art in Germany (his native Country) and in England. invented and brought to Perfection an additional Instrument for blowing the German-Flute. That he imposes no bad Instruments on the Public. 18 September 1772 (Schuchart Junior. the sign of the German Flute. of an invention entirely new. half a guinea). which are esteemed preferable to other Reeds. far more pleasant and exquisitely sweeter in Tone than can be performed with the naked Mouth. but the references to the device for blowing the flute more easily and the reed-making establish that it is the same man. Daily Advertiser. as well as the most able Hands in the Trade. and has been esteemed by great Judges to be a complete Master of his Trade. intended to accompany German flutes and other instruments in concert. clear. can also make Fifes of a more melodious Sound than those generally used in the Guards. So far researchers have found no trace of a maker called Georg Braun in Germany in the first half of the eighteenth century (Johan Georg Braun stems from much later. Daily Advertiser. of a new construction. not the Burney Collection. Wind Musical InstrumentMaker. lost.95   Here is where George Brown joins the story. In Daily Advertiser. much resembling the human voice. of making Reeds for Hautboys and Bassoons. half a guinea).indd 88 07/05/2010 14:12 . 18 November 1774 (flute d’amour?. but Gentlemen and Ladies of the most delicate Constitution may play upon it without the least Difficulty. Public Advertiser. despite the change in spelling: Brown’s country of origin and his claimed length of career come as a surprise for someone we have followed from Dublin (1747–48) to London (1753– 61). for near 50 Years past. half a guinea reward). Covent-Garden. Likewise the Bass German flute. makes and sells all Sorts of Wind Musical Instruments. upon their first Attempt. He assures the Publick that he can make all Kind of Wind Musical Instruments in general fit for Concerts. or private Entertainment. c1790–1833). JOHN MASON. 6 February 1769 (Cahusac. in Maidenlane. 3. like many who are either bad Workmen. at the [two words illegible] as his Majesty pays for those. 11 August 1739 (Stanesby Junior. Salisbury-Court. never before executed. neither is his Advertisement a fallacious Puff. 4 March 1727 (garnished with ivory in case.93   A month later. one guinea). but produces a strong. Mason does not mention the pitch-relationship of his ‘bass’ flute to the standard one. one guinea). he published the following advertisement. two keys. The reference to ‘exact concert pitch’ may mean that other makers of cheap instruments had not been concerned about the pitch-standard of their instruments. In short. 1 January 1766. 24 December 1765. Both these instruments are of exact concert pitch. in Half Paved Court. 96 In the Library of Congress. Public Advertiser. 23 August 1765. stolen. Repeated 24 August. at my musick-shop. much conducive to the ease of the master in teaching. for the use of his Prussian Majesty’s Subjects. A tenor flute in F by Gedney has survived.

in Maiden-lane. Mason. Goswell-street. To be had next door to the Horse-shoe Inn. the price Six Guineas per pair. shows that there was only one GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. or any other. 1988).’ Recercare 20/1–2 (2008): 181–215. 65–66. against me John Mason. 60 (Warren. Having removed again. capable of great delicacy of expression. 311–15.100  On 21 January 1766 in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. and that he despises his boasting as much as the squalling of a pair of bagpipes. 22. Whereas an advertisement has been published in the Daily Advertiser of January 1. and fife cases. 47. Likewise may be 97 Waterhouse. and hautboys in concert. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. and bassoons. 17 April 1773. Mr. beyond the naked mouth. JOHN MASON. in Glasshouse-yard. Mason made another claim. and may be played on with greater ease than any bassoon made in the common stile. New Langwill Index. 99 Young. Those Instruments are marked ‘J. lists two makers called Jan Barend Beuker. the English horn was not introduced until 1795 (see below). Waterhouse. in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Goswell street. clarinets. gives ‘[Puttick and Simpson 1896]’ as the source of the information about Rolander. 100 Young. this instrument may be sounded with the same ease and pleasure as the common German Flute. and at great expence. as opposed to an alto or a tenor. answered Brown: JOHN MASON. Likewise may be had. with U-shaped heads. he returned to advertise yet another new instrument. Mr. Lasocki — woodwind makers 89 known Berlin or Potsdam maker of the period is Johann Heitz (a1702–1737). I have also finished a Vauxhumana. 1766. 6. must consequently be very amusing to ignorant people. my new-invented Bass German Flute. on an entire new construction. although a flute by one Rolander is dated 1747. or to accompany french horns. New Langwill Index. to prevent trouble. and boasting. to satisfy that advertiser. and has gained the admiration of the town for his great improvements on the German flute. Browne. hautboys. compleated a number of Bassoons. was a tenor oboe in F. Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung. and let him stand by the merits of his work. until Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser. dated 1739) and Charles Bizey (five keys. have survived by two Continental makers working in the first half of the eighteenth century: Giovanni Maria Anciuti (one key. and other. at the Violin and German Flute. and is suitable for the army and navy. MI: Harmonie Park Press. he labours in vain to excel those fifes. he has these many years had the honour of making for his Majesty’s army. Bouterse. takes this opportunity of informing gentlemen of the army. 151. but that babbling advertiser. but Bouterse. 333. Mason was quiet for seven years.indd 89 07/05/2010 14:12 . 1794–1971. Mason assures the insignificant advertiser. clarinets. But James Coover. that they may be surprised with the best of fifes of all pitches and sizes. 19. Dutch Woodwind Instruments and their Makers. on constructions entirely new. challenges the advertiser to produce the excellent bass he pretends to. Mason has the approbation of the most eminent musicians. A. apparently named after the eponymous organ stop. unless it was covered by the generic descriptions ‘antique instruments’ (24 March) or ‘wood wind instruments’ (28 April). which will produce double the body of tone. The vox humana. Another bass flute by Beuker with four keys and a U-shaped head is dated 1791. 98 Waterhouse. Francesco Carreras and Cinzia Meroni. Such instruments. original Fife-maker to his Majesty’s Forces for upwards of twenty years. and ridiculous fluff.99 Other Continental makers might just have been producing bass flutes in the 1760s: instruments survive by Jan Barend Beuker (three keys and a straight head) and Thomas Lot (five keys). 472). 10 January 1778. Detroit Studies in Music Bibliography. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. this time for the bassoon: To ALL ADMIRERS of MUSIC. Mason. plug his ‘new’ bass flute. 31. defying the insignificance of bragging. botching [sic]. and his piece of art. London. modestly presumes to excel all Europe. the original Fife-maker to his Majesty’s forces for upwards of twenty years. Covent-Garden. Inventor’. New Langwill Index. has by long study. would be early for a genuine bass flute. London’ used to be in Berlin (Musikinstrumenten-Museum. Mr. Music at Auction: Puttick and Simpson (of London). so presumably at least mid-century). in high dudgeon. and never made before by any other person. has no such information. JOHN MASON. much nearer in tune. wind musical instrument maker. Beware of counterfeits. the price is Three Guineas each. ‘Giovanni Maria Anciuti: a Craftsman at Work in Milan and Venice.98  A date ‘near’ to 1726. and teacher of all instruments he makes. his reeds.   Five years later. pretending a prior skill in that instrument. 381–82. Mason.97 It may be relevant that a one-keyed flute marked ‘G. as Brown claims. navy. and warn against counterfeits: To all Admirers of MUSIC. this instrument has a very noble and harmonious tone. whose career is well documented.

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had my German Flutes on the same constructions.— N.B. Mr. Mason being a performer on the abovementioned instruments, and judging they may be injured in the eyes of the public, by ill-designing persons, for their own interest, is ready at any time to convince those gentlemen who chuse to apply to him of the truth of what he has asserted.

1721.101 Not coincidentally, Bressan lived in the same parish, and Byrne suggested plausibly that Schuchart was working for him.102 An advertisement in Daily Courant, 7 September 1720, now pushes back Schuchart’s arrival a little earlier:
Left on the 23d of August last. (a Flute Cane with an Ivory Head, with two Holes in it, joining together with a silver Ferril at Top and Bottom, strung with a black Ribbon, made by Scuchart) in a Coach, or in the Stagebox at Drury-Lane Playhouse. If any person will bring the said Cane to Baker’s Coffee-house in ExchangeAlley, shall have half a Guinea Reward.

Mason’s final advertisement, in Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser, 4 December 1778, repeated the claim about the bassoon and revealed that he also played the clarinet and oboe:
To the ARMY in General. JOHN MASON, original FIFE and Fie Case Maker to the Army for near Thirty years, and now to the Office of Ordnance, takes the liberty to acquaint those Gentlemen that he is the first man that has brought the Fife to perfection it is now at, with a key on them to play with clarinets.   Likewise may be had his New-invented BASSOONS, that are more useful to the army, as they are double the body of sound, and finely in tune.   Likewise Clarinets and Hautboys to the greatest perfection (he being a player on them).   He having been much injured by some of the Fife-teachers, who have introduced Fifes of an inferior nature to his, begs leave to declare he is now determined to teach Bands of Music with the greatest correctness and expedition; at his house in Old Mitreyard, Goswell-street, near the Charter house Wall.

For a reference to flutes by Mason being imported into the American colonies in 1762, see below. The Schucharts and Henry (Hindrick) John Muræus (fl. 1757–76) Flutes made by the Schucharts, father and son, were popular enough to have been noted in advertisements relating to sales or thefts of property up to the end of the eighteenth century. It was previously known from the baptism of one of his children that John Just Schuchart had come from Germany and settled in the parish of St Mary le Strand by 17 February

The last years of John Just and the career of his son Charles have been the subject of some confusion, so it is worth rehearsing the facts as previously known. According to the rate books, John Just had several addresses in London: Coventry Court, off the Haymarket (1732–38); Panton Street (1738–48); Sherwood Street, in St James’s parish (1748–56); and Angel Court, Windmill Street, same parish (1756– 58).103 Byrne took the last reference as evidence that John Just died in 1758.104 Byrne also discovered the Will of ‘John Just Schuchart, flute-maker of St James’, made on 18 February 1757, and proved on 17  September 1759.105 In it, he left his property to his daughter, Sarah Johnston, who was a widow, but as Byrne commented, ‘not his wife, who had then already died, nor Charles, who presumably had already inherited his father’s tools and business’.106   When Charles was buried at St Paul, Covent Garden, on 17 December 1765, the burial account gave his age as forty-five.107 If that account is accurate, he would therefore have been born in 1720, or late 1719.108 The new information about his father makes it more likely that Charles was born in London rather than Germany.  On 25 August 1751, when Charles married at St Martin-in-the-Fields, he was described as being of that parish.109 Presumably, therefore, he had already left his father’s house. He began paying rates on Chandos Street, St Martin-in-the-Fields,

maker, born around 1741. 101 Byrne, ‘Pierre Jaillard, Peter Bressan’, 10. 102 Ibid., 11. 103 Byrne, ‘Schuchart’, 7, 9–10. 104 Ibid., 10. 105 Byrne, ‘Church Band’, 94. 106 Byrne, ‘Schuchart’, 10; ‘Church Band’, 94. 107 Byrne, ‘Schuchart’, 93–94. 108 Byrne’s statement that Charles ‘was thus born in 1720’ is rightly corrected to ‘1719/20’ in his article in Grove

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at Christmas 1754. The record of the burial of Ann Schuchart, presumably his daughter, aged four years, nine months, at St Paul, Covent Garden on 6 June 1754, noted that she was of Chandos Street (a street that crossed the boundary between the two parishes).110 If Ann had truly been four years, nine months when she died, she would have been born around September 1749, some two years before Charles married. The birth of a child out of wedlock could have been the cause of a rift between Charles and his father. (A relevant piece of contemporary information: Stanesby Junior made it a condition of Gedney taking over his workshop that Gedney marry the mother of his illegitimate children.111)   In 1756, Charles advertised that his ‘Music Shop’ in Chandos Street, near Covent Garden, had ‘The Sign of the Two Flutes and Hautboy’.112 Byrne took Charles’ departure for Chandos Street113 as proof that ‘his father at about this time must have retired’. Among the five different surviving Schuchart maker’s marks, an important six-keyed flute, the earliest surviving flute of this type, is stamped SCHUCHART / SENIOR, and another flute is reported to be stamped SCHUCHART / JUNIOR. Powell suggests that these stamps come from the period 1753–58 when ‘two Schuchart shops were in operation simultaneously’; after John Just’s death, the term Junior would have been redundant.114  A man named Muræus has previously been known as the maker of seven surviving woodwind instruments: three flutes, a flute-flageolet, an oboe, a clarinet, and a bassoon.115 A two-keyed flute with an extended foot-joint is marked ‘SUCCESSOR / TO / SCH...T’ (part illegible).116 Byrne speculated that the obscured name was Schuchart, adding ‘it is more likely that Muræus claimed to be successor to the younger Schuchart’ (Charles). Powell, however, on the strength of the separation of businesses of the two Schucharts in the period 1753–58, commented: ‘Surely it was John Just’s business that Muraeus took over, on the former’s death in 1758’.117   The newly discovered advertisements confirm Powell’s ideas and supply some interesting details.

John Just Schuchart died on 16 September 1759, and not in 1758 as previously thought. A notice published in Public Advertiser, 20 September 1759, reads:
On Sunday-Night last died Mr. Schuchart, sen. Musical Wind-Instrument-maker, at his House in Brewerstreet, Golden-square. And we hear will be succeeded in the Business by his only surviving Son Charles Schuchart, in Chandois-street, Covent-garden.

John Just’s address in the notice is different from his last known date from the rate books. As already noted, his Will, made on 18 February 1757, was proved on 17 September 1759, which we can now see was only one day after his death.  On 22 September, Charles published the following brief advertisement in the same newspaper:
CHARLES SCHUCHART, Musical-Wind-InstrumentMaker, at the Two Flutes and Hautboy, in Chandois street, Covent-garden, humbly begs for the Favours of his late Father’s former Customers.

This advertisement and the notice of John Just’s death confirm the father–son relationship between the two Schucharts. Note that Charles himself did not claim to be his father’s successor.  On 27 September, five days after Charles’ advertisement, Muræus published his own in a different newspaper, Westminster Evening Post or London Intelligencer :
MR. MURAES begs Leave to acquaint the Quality, Gentry, and Others, that his deceas’d Father-in-Law, Mr. Schuchardt, sen. Flute-maker, at the Bassoon, two Flutes, and Hautboy, in Brewer-Street, having left him in Possession of all his Working-Tools, House, and Business; he the said Muraes having carried on the Business for two Years for his late Father-inLaw, on Account of his Illness, and intends to carry it on as usual, and hereby requests the Favour of his late Father’s Customers, who will do his utmost Endeavours to please those who favour him with

Music Online, s.v., ‘Schuchart, J(ohan) J(ust)’; accessed 6 January 2009. 109 Byrne, ‘Church Band’, 93. 110 Byrne, ‘Church Band’, 93. 111 Maurice Byrne, ‘Some More on Stanesby Junior’, GSJ 45 (1992): 116. 112 Byrne, ‘Schuchart’, 7. 113 Given without further evidence as in 1753 rather than the 1754 of the rate books; corrected to 1754 in Grove Music Online. 114 Powell, Keyed Flute, 178. 115 Waterhouse, New Langwill Index, 276; www.baroqueflute.com/database; accessed 19 January 2009. 116 See Maurice Byrne, ‘Muræus’, GSJ 38 (1985): 146.

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their Commands. Whoever has any Demand on the deceas’d, Mr. Schuchardt, will be pleased to apply to Mr. Muraes, at his House in Brewer-Street aforesaid; or any Person being indebted to him, are desired to pay their respective Debts as soon as possible. MR. MURAEUS, Musical Wind Instrument Maker, Son-in-Law and Successor to the late Mr. Schuchardt, senior, at the Sign of the Bassoon, two Flutes and Hautboy, in John-street, Golden-square, St. James’s, begs Leave to inform the Nobility, Gentry, and Public, by particular Desire of many Gentlemen, who have been imposed on with base and counterfeit Instruments in the Name of the late Mr. Schuchardt, Senior; to prevent Counterfeits being imposed on the Public, as I have never disposed of those Instruments which were finished in the Lifetime of my late Fathe[r]in-Law, and are now to be had of me only, whereas many malicious designing People give out they have served their Apprenticeship, and others who falsely give out they were employed to finish for the late Mr. Schuchardt, Senior, which I declare to be a false and scandalous Invention, designed to injure me, there being no Man living but myself, who ever was taught his Art, having carried on the Business for my late Father in his illness three Years before his Death, having left me his Successor, and possessed me with all his working Implements. Gentlemen, who have bought Instruments since September 1759, for the late Mr. Schuchard’s, Senior, may be satisfied if they be Real or Counterfeit, by applying as above, and humbly begs the Favours of his worthy Friends and Customers. I am, Gentlemen, Your most obedient humble Servant to Command, H. I. MURAEUS. Makes and sells Wholesale and Retail, Bassoons, Hautboys, Clarinets, German Flutes and Fifes.

Given that Charles had had his own workshop since at least 1754, the likely scenario is that Muræus had married John Just’s widowed daughter between 1757 and 1759, which is why he was not mentioned in the Will. It would certainly make sense that he was responsible for the elder Schuchart’s debts. His workshop being in the same street where John Just died confirms that the two men had been living there together. The name of Muræus’ shop, the Bassoon, Two Flutes, and Hautboy, is suspiciously close to Charles’ Two Flutes and Hautboy. Perhaps John Just had had this sign before the split with his son, who chose his own sign to spite his father.   Muræus is not heard from again until 17 March 1764, when he published the following advertisement in Public Advertiser :
MR. MURDUS, Musical Wind Instrument-Maker, Sonin-law and Successor to the late Mr. Schuchardisen, begs Leave to inform the Nobility Gentry, and others, that he is now returned from abroad, and carries on the Business as before, and returns his humble Thanks to all his late worthy Friend and Customers, who were pleased to honour him with their former Commands, and humbly begs the kind Renewal of those past Favours. All Commands will be gratefully acknowledged by their obedient Servant to command. MURDUS. N.B. At the Sign of the Bassoon, Two Flutes and Hautboy, Warwick-street, near Golden-square, five Doors from Silver-street, St. James’s.

Clearly, the makers’ names had given the newspaper typesetter some trouble. A revised version of the advertisement, correcting his name to MURAEUS and his father-in-law’s to SCHUCHART, Senior, was published ten days later. After six months, in the Public Advertiser, 6 August 1764, ‘MURACUS’ advertised that he had removed again: to Oxendenstreet near the Tennis-Court near St. James’s, Haymarket, using the same Sign.  On 18 April 1766 in Public Advertiser, Muræus found it necessary to publish the following advertisement against counterfeiters; it also serves the fortunate purpose of telling us which instruments he made:
117 118

The target of Muræus’ complaint may well have been Charles Schuchart, who presumably apprenticed with his father before the split, despite what Muræus said, and after his father’s death was using the plain mark SCHUCHART. Another possibility is Thomas Collier, who took over Charles’s shop, the Two Flutes and Hautboy, after his death in 1765, and was already living on Chandos Street, and presumably working for Charles, in 1763.118 That actual counterfeit instruments did exist is confirmed by William Waterhouse, who notes of Schuchart: ‘a clarinet datable to c1800 and other late [woodwind instruments] are reported, suggesting either the existence of another maker of this name or that the name was used by a competitor’.119   Muræus failed to prosper in the woodwindmaking business. He appears in London Gazette, 19 July 1774, among a list of persons in gaol for debt who wished to take advantage of An Act for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors; and for the Relief of Bankrupts

Powell, Keyed Flute, 178. Byrne, ‘Church Band’, 94.

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Junior. 22. the same Reward will be given. The advertisements for 29 April 1746 119 120 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Martin’s in the Fields. The Person suspects is a Plaisterer’s Labourer. Second and third notices were published on 4 and 8 June. pale Complexion. Martin’s in the Fields Middlesex. made by old Schugart. and small Flutes of all sizes’ These are the earliest advertisements I have found that include the phrase ‘of all sizes’ in reference to recorders or flutes. Maker Schuchart. 64. 364. in Little Titchfield-street. Enquire at No. But he was evidently not released that year. STOLEN last Night out of a House at Lambeth . on Recovery of the same. It is intirely straight.. Public Advertiser Public Office. Lasocki — woodwind makers 93 in certain Cases that had recently been passed. and a Silver Key. of all sizes’ 29 April 1746: ‘Schuchart’s German and Common Flutes of all Sizes’ 14 November 1747: ‘Schukhart’s German and Common Flutes of all sizes’ 1 April 1749: ‘Shuckart’s Flutes of all sizes’ 1 May 1751: ‘Shuckard’s Ebony German Flute tipped with ivory & a silver key’ 16 October 1753: ‘Schuchart’s German Flutes’ 21 May 1754: ‘Shuchard’s German Flutes.. Bow-street. Instrument-maker. without any Swelling at the Joints. New Langwill Index. instrument seller. 183. Hautboys. If offered to be pawned or sold. First Notice.. 127. New Langwill Index.. In Dublin.. and you shall receive Five Guineas Reward from the Owner. and bring him or them before Sir John Fielding..120   Instruments by the Schucharts were also exported. 151. 1 May 1771. William Manwaring.. Waterhouse. at the above Office. near Oxford-market. 3 October 1800.. STOLEN on Thursday last out of a House in Brown-street.. about 5 Feet 6 Inches high. Dublin Music Calendar. Maker Schuckhart.. and you shall receive Half a Guinea Reward from the Owner. late of Cecil-court St.. formerly of Cecil-court St. and give Notice to Sir John Fielding. music publisher. By Mr.. and other valuable effects removed from Bedford-row. 140.B. late of Bell-savage-yard London. 107. an oblong German Flute. WELLS. Golden Square. Waterhouse notes the presence of the mark ‘Golding London’ on a surviving flute. ALL the genuine HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE . Public Advertiser A GERMAN FLUTE. and common Flutes of all Sizes’ 17 January 1744: ‘Schuchart’s choicest German and common Flutes. 96. probably all made by John Just:121 1743: ‘Just imported . TWO GERMAN FLUTES. his own light hair tied behind. and silver key. THIS DAY. with Ivory. 94.. Schuchart’s best German Flutes.. in a Soldier’s Coat and long Trousers. stop it and the Party.   Four instruments by the Schucharts were stolen later in the century: 25 October 1770. At his Spacious Rooms.. Long Acre. a German Flute with a Silver Key... N. 112. The advertisement reveals Muræus’ first names: ‘Prisoners in His Majesty’s Prison of the FLEET. because another ‘first notice’ appears on 1 June 1776. Musical-instrument-maker’. Maker Schuchart. The adjective ‘oblong’ probably refers to the property noted in the previous advertisement: that the flute had no swellings at the joints. 186.’ Second and third notices were published on 23 and 26 July. If offer’d to be pawn’d or sold. 3 Violins.. 14. 194. No. under a more Germanic version of his first name: ‘Hindrick John Muraus. Whoever will apprehend the Person or Persons guilty of the above Burglary.. 121 Boydell. The next in chronological order is one by Gedney in London Evening Post for Waterhouse. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser . Dec. shall receive Three Guineas Reward on Conviction from the Person robbed. 130. The two are two guineas. on producing it as Matter of Evidence for the Crown. one ivory. Public Advertiser BROKE open last Monday Morning early a House near Queenhithe. the other box tipt. and give Notice to Sir Sampson Wright. stop them and the Party... 3 Flutes by Golding and Schucart. Henry John Muraeus. The advertiser presumably saw John Just’s maker’s mark SCHUCHART / SENIOR... Morning Chronicle SALES BY AUCTION. 18 September 1772. and stolen . Spinnet. and violinist.. 23 December 1783.. TO be SOLD. commenting ‘?Counterfeit for GOULDING’.indd 93 07/05/2010 14:12 . a German Flute made of yellow Box tipt. Or if already pawned or sold. advertised that had the following in stock.. 1783.

.122 Manwaring published no further advertisements for instruments after 1754 (and he died in 1763). Potter. Les ventes d’instruments de musique. and bass violin. Given that John Just had died in 1759 and Charles died in 1765. They are being sold together for 3 louis and separately for 4 francs apiece. just landed from the Edward. called flutes d’amour. 122 ‘Deux grandes flûtes traversières d’Angleterre. George Faulkner the Dublin Journal. Two flutes d’amour by Charles Schuchart were sold in Paris in 1759: Two large flutes from England. rue du Roule. viz. où elles ont été déposées’. Advertisement in Affiches. Only one bassoon attributed to the Schucharts has survived. Rice’s consort room in Broad-Street’. Maryland Gazette–Annapolis (Green) Ran away from the subscriber. dites flûtes d’amour. Davis . where they have been deposited. from the printer. Pennsylvania Gazette. and a pair of silver spurs. In Hanover-Square.. and sopranino recorders in 1746/1772. at a school he had set up ‘in Mr. They are of Chinese violet wood and each three English feet long. Philadelphia Lost a German flute of Schuchart’s make.94 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) was an ancestor of General Robert E. Philadelphia Just imported by James Rivington. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 1908). German Flutes by Schuckart. 2 July 1753. brand new. et séparément 4 francs chacune. French horn.   Instruments attributed to Schuchart and other London makers are mentioned in further advertisements in America between 1762 and 1769. and the phrase may have also encompassed flutes with a C foot. which he carried with him. garnies en ivoire et faites par Schuchart le jeune. As we have seen. Mason and others. or three pistoles on finding either of them. probably piccolos and flutes d’amour already existed. as also a Dutch or German fiddle. [signed] Philip Ludwell Lee. and ten pounds if taken any where else on the continent. et avis divers. and plays extremely well on the violin. third flute. 31 March 1763. the owner of Stratford Plantation. Evidently. announced that he was ‘teaching gentlemen musick on the following instruments. which mentions ‘Travers or German Flutes of all Sizes. Lee (1727–1775). Elles sont d’un bois violet de la Chine et ont chacune trois pieds d’Angleterre. if taken in Virginia. toutes neuves.. On les vendra ensemble 3 louis. dancing. bassoon. nine pounds if taken in Maryland or NorthCarolina. violin. rue du Roule. à la Croixd’Or. tenor. English Flutes ditto’. if desired’... embellished with ivory and made by Schuchart Junior in London.. a tall thin man. with a Virginia made saddle. in Stratford. advertising in New York Mercury (Gaine). quoted in Eugène de Bricqueville. à Londres.. Schuchart’s German Flutes. 25 March 1762. S’addresser au magasin de musique. sixth flute. and as we shall see. German and common flutes. made by Schuchart. and the 1769 listings are for instruments that Collier was selling off. he rode a small white horse.123 Love. New-York Mercury A Fresh Importation by Rivington and Brown. (besides a large Quantity of Books and Stationary Wares) the following Articles by the most esteemed Workmen. about sixty years of age. 21  November 1754. Lee. xviiie siècle (Paris: Librairie Fischbacher. Apply to the music shop. annonces. at Stratford. Love did not find enough students to make a living in New York and had to move on to Virginia. which are his own. Whoever apprehends the said Love. ‘musician from London’. 31. and brings him to me. viz. it is just possible that they were all by Charles up to and including 1766.indd 94 07/05/2010 14:12 . who was born at Stratford... Charles Love.. at the Golden Cross. he stole when he went away a very good bassoon. Potter’s cheapest flutes were half a guinea and a guinea.   The following advertisement that mentions a bassoon by one of the Schucharts appeared in America: 29 September 1757. Whoever will give information to the printer of this paper where they may be found. at the Corner of Market and Front streets. Because Mason was charging one guinea for his flutes. do. and a coarse blue cloth housing: it is supposed he will make towards Charles-Town in South-Carolina. hautboy. 17 October 1759. are in the Burney Collection. and 14 November 1747. Pennsylvania Journal. shall receive five pistoles reward. from Seven Pound to Thirty Five Shillings. fifth flute (descant). As for what sizes of flutes were available in 1746–54 besides the standard one in D. Bookseller and Stationer. Voice Flutes. and all wind instruments. fencing. with an old hautboy and German flute. Capt. shall have eight pounds reward... in Westmoreland County. we get some idea of how much the mark-up was on English instruments imported into the American colonies: 14 November 1763. he professes music. on Sunday the 28th of August. Tans’ur mentioned alto.

Schuchart’s very best German flutes. 1 March 1764... an assortment of the following . opposite the London Coffee house. No... If there is any Name on the Spurs. Gouverneur van Sluis in Vlaanderen. 170. 1499. 216. GSJ 13 (1960): 63–64.. Musical Instruments.indd 95 07/05/2010 14:12 .. South Carolina Gazette (Crouch).. it has been known that Caleb Gedney was Thomas Stanesby Junior’s sole surviving apprentice and successor... W. 1623–1775. makes and sells wholesale and retail. whether in London or in Germany (the closest name is that of Johann Conrad Heise).. have imported in the last Vessels from London . Gedney. lined with Steel. A. Bookseller. 20 August 1764. 1623–1775. Schuchart’s hautboys. Verloop. Cannon’s Wharf.. ebony or box. Hasse is a previously unknown maker. 23 May 1765. sold by and at the house of Pieter van Os. a new German Flute. bookseller. all sorts of letter cases. New York Gazette & Weekly Post Boy Rivington and Brown. &c. but it is used in the same catalogue to refer to fifth flutes (descant recorders) by Richard Haka. New York Gazette & Weekly Post Boy Lately arrived from England. No. Deverson. Pennsylvania Journal. Paris. ‘Further Light on the Stanesby Family’. Same date.’ and ‘Baron van d’Errevaux’. At their Store. Boston Gazette Just imported in the Mary. in Fleet-street’. and a Pair of Silver Spurs... North Side of the CourtHouse Boston. A very FINE BASSOON made by SHUCHART. or Three Pistoles for either of them. Gedney’s daughters published the Young. the very best cases of mathematical instruments. and is now at Mr. and that he was buried at St Dunstan-in-the-West on 14 May 1769. German Flutes.. Byrne. &ct. ‘Biographical Notices of the Early English Woodwind-making School’. ‘Een Octavo Fluytje. &c.. W. letter-case. New Langwill Index. and to be sold by Rivington & Miller. the Corner of Market and Front streets. on 2 June. by Schucart. Suchaat’s. Schucart’s German flutes.126 Caleb Gedney (1729–69) and His Daughters Since the researches of Maurice Byrne and Eric Halfpenny. Grave van Pretorius. common flutes. or give Information where they may be found. ‘Some More on Stanesby 124 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. fiches 2532–2534.... En den Konstminnaar G.’ on 14 March the following year. Charleston Just Imported. South Carolina & American General 123 An instrument by Schuchart is also mentioned in two Dutch auction catalogues. Pennsylvania Gazette Lost. 7–13. ‘Schuchart’. T. 127 Eric Halfpenny.. it is Moore. by Nicholas Langford. Waterhouse.. by Schuchart. So Schuchart’s octavo fluytje was probably a sopranino recorder.125 The Dutch term fluitje (literally.. Charles Gilmore’s the sign of the Orange Tree. from London . Het Muziekinstrument op de Boekenveiling. Potter’s and Hasse’s German Flutes . N. Whoever will bring them to the New Printing Office. 34. book binder. 95 Gazette Robert Wells. door Chuchart ’. remarkably long in the Neck and Shank. Flute-maker.124 So perhaps ‘Hasse’ here is a corruption of Hallet. deskcases.. includes. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. ‘Sucharts’. made by Schuchart. ‘op de Plaats’ in The Hague on 13 September 1762. Lasocki — woodwind makers Similar advertisement. Gidney. as . Paris. fiches 2309–2312. 126 Bibliothèque Nationale. 20 December 1764. 21 November 1769.. Pennsylvania Gazette Rivington and Brown..127 A notice in Whitehall Evening Post or London Intelligencer for 9 May 1769 states that ‘Yesterday died Mr. 13 June 1766. Probably the instrument did not sell immediately as it appears again in Van Os’ catalogue of the possessions of ‘A. Less than a month later. at the Great Stationery and Book Shop on the Bay. 24 November 1768. German flutes of ivory. among other members of the flute family.B... GSJ 12 (1959): 50–51. 125 Bibliothèque Nationale. &c. Verloop. 33. Capt. New-York. de Harde. 7 April 1763. shall receive Five Pistoles Reward. New-York Journal The following Articles are to be had of JAMES RIVINGTON.. That of the possessions of ‘A. travelling cases and travelling boxes. have this day imported in Capt. Berton from London . Anderton. has imported for sale in the last vessels from London. and pocket book-maker.. Where also may be had. Het Muziekinstrument op de Boekenveiling. ‘little flute’) was ambiguous by this time.. In zyn Edle Leven Generaal van de Infanterie. 1389. English flutes of all sizes..

1761–73). Gentlemen favouring them with their commands. Miller. also Hautboys to the greatest Perfection. run by the composer and organist John Whitaker. when Mr.’ GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.132 In view of this reference.. 16. belonging to Covent-Garden theatre. 129 Powell. approv’d on and recommended by Mr. and finished most of the instruments for some years. in Bassoons. neatest] and best Travers or German Flutes of all Sizes. George Miller. 115–22. 14 March. Henry Thorowgood (fl. or to No.e. 128 Byrne. Pitch Pipes. deceas’d’. in LondonStreet.131 he published another one in the same newspaper on 21  November that year in which he listed for the only time which instruments he made: ‘and greatly excels any other Maker. in which Gedney set out his relationship to Stanesby. ‘being the entire Collection of an eminent Virtuoso. active 1819–37. but if so. the nearest [i. He was for many years reckoned the best performer on the bassoon. CATHERINE and ANN GEDNEY. The eminent bassoonist in question was John Miller (1700/1–1770). sale of music and instrument. and took it over after Collier’s death in 1785. by CATHERINE and ANN GEDNEY. 132 Middlesex Journal or Chronicle of Liberty. between the Eagle at Snaresbrook.. and under the inspection of Mr. including ‘several German and English flutes. Fifes. 179. musician. Robert Horne (fl. he did not live to fulfill his commission for long.indd 96 07/05/2010 14:12 . at the lower level of reward normally offered for such instruments: LOST out of a Gentleman’s Pocket on Friday Morning last. active c1760–78 as musical instrument maker. continue to be made and executed in the most complete manner. their guardian. Keyed Flute. music printer and publisher’. 2 July 1761: Junior’.134 Waterhouse himself speculated that the flute in question may have been ‘?Connected with WHITAKER & CO. Mr. Near South-Audley chapel. 15. Whoever will bring it to Mr. 1749) was 20 at the time. first documented in 1745. 1751) 17. 26 February 1745.96 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) be punctually obey’d’. English flute. Catherine (b. and always presided at the Italian operas. See also Biographical Dictionary of Actors 10 (1984). Henry Kusder. ‘Some More on Stanesby Junior’. The above daughters were brought up in the business. 133 Daily Advertiser.. as the principal on that instrument. 130 Powell. see above. but supplied keys to other makers. Richard Potter. including George Astor.133  A flute by Gedney was advertised in Daily Advertiser. 24 March 1770: ‘DIED.. the reason why they were still under the care of a guardian. Caleb Gedney. ’till about four years since. Gibson.’. it is possible that he was the guardian of Gedney’s daughters. s. ‘Miller. Orders out of the Country shall For a reference to flutes by Gedney being imported into America in 1766. the Cahusac family. English Flutes ditto.v..129 Its keywork is by John Hale. at the Temple-Exchange Coffee-house.128 The surviving six-keyed flute marked CALEB / GEDNEY on all the joints and 1769 on the foot may well have been made by his daughters. and all Kinds of Musical Wind Instruments. the late Mr. 22 August 1774. &c. and the six-mile Stone. as he was riding on the Forest on the Left Hand Side of the Road leading to Lee-Bridge.130   In addition to the well-known advertisement in London Evening Post of 9 March 1754. was another term for the recorder. aged 69. and Proser. 157. Waterhouse. Dayton Miller attrributed a one-keyed flute in his collection (USDC-Washington: 485) marked WHITAKER / LONDON to ‘Maurice Whitaker. The stories of Maurice Whitaker and Henry Thorowgood are so intertwined that I have chosen to tell them together. and Ann (b. John’. 131 Reprinted 12. will be most thankfully acknowledged. and punctually executed by their obedient servants. viz. Tabor Pipes.   Thorowgood and Robert Horne are first linked in the following advertisement in Public Ledger. 1760–80). Fenchurch-Street. and other eminent Masters on that Instrument. New Langwill Index. Maker’s Name Caleb Gedney.. No greater Reward will be offered. a brown German Flute in a green Baize Bag. Keyed Flute.. following advertisement in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser : FLUTES. in their father’s life time. who worked at the Two Flutes and Hautboy. Fleet-street. Beard engaged him on a good salary at the above house’.. shall received Half a Guinea. 183–84. daughters and successors to their father. and Maurice Philips Whitaker (fl. 1760–82) According to Waterhouse. John Miller. Millar. at the Eagle abovementioned.

. Henry Thorowgood continued the business alone’. and its blessings be diffused to all the inhabitants of the earth.v. 97 Previous meetings of the Society had been advertised on 8 February 1760 and 6 February 1761 (both Public Ledger. Music Publishing in the British Isles from the Beginning until the Middle of the Nineteenth Century. on frivolous pretences. 1. opposite GrocersAlley in the Poultry. then from 1751 with her second husband. Queen. near Mercer’s Chapel. which ended the Seven Year’s War. All orders executed with the utmost Punctuality. 12. 137 Charles Humphries and William C. s. at first alone. To an equitable land-tax. are desired to take Notice. Confusion to those who desert any true patriot. Confusion to all those who assume such characters. May the late peace prove a good one.. and to those who trample on the just prerogative of the King. ‘Hare (John)’. 11. Musical instrument makers. every thing was conducted with that unanimity and good order for which the Society is so justly remarkable’. under colourable pretences. that they have opened a Shop. Mr. 426. and not desert their country in time of need. No Scottish Ministry. as summarized by Humphries and Smith: ‘Thorowgood & Horne. with pensions or peerages. Captains of Ships. shared his business with his son Joseph from 1722. 1748–69. who had worked for her. where Merchants.. When he died around 1749. set up shop in Sweeting’s Alley in 1734. 7. at Mrs. 8. October 1764. at the Violin and Guitar. The ‘peace’ was the Treaty of Paris. probably in conjunction with his mother.. King.136 134 135 This advertisement links Thorowgood with a complicated line of succession in English music publishing history. May we have Ministers who will be content with their salaries. and Prince of Wales. beg Leave to inform their Friends. and others. HENRY THOROWGOOD. when a faction or opposition is against measures or men. Music Publishing. 5. The society is last mentioned on 25 October 1766 in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser : ‘On Thursday last the gentlemen belonging to the Society of Free Britons. royalist agenda is revealed by the toasts given at a meeting in 1763 (Gazetteer and London Daily Advertiser.. Cheapside. 10. ‘While Britania Shakes her Lance: An Ode in Honour of the Society of Free Britons’ (London.137  As reported in the supplement to Humphries and Smith. ‘Hare GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Henry Legge.. reporting Daily Advertiser). But more likely Horne had apprenticed Waterhouse. Its conservative. St Paul’s Churchyard. from Mr. 9. 21 May). ‘Hare (Elizabeth).). (New York: Barnes & Noble. who often co-published music with John Walsh. music printers and publishers.   Horne had presumably apprenticed with Thompson: but which one? Robert Thompson had premises at Paul’s Alley. Country Dealers.138 John Hare (d. n. London: at the Violin and Guitar. The Church of England.v. 4 January 1762: HENRY THOROWGOOD. that the Annual Feast will be held on Wednesday next the 8th Instant. and all those who opposed continental connections. may be supplied with all Sorts of Goods in the Musical Business. 6. 1725).. Horne and Thorowgood became business partners. Elizabeth the younger. only to the disturbance of the nation’s tranquility. COX’s. Joseph took over from 1725 to 1728. although the meeting was very numerous... and ROBERT HORNE. at Spring Gardens. Wholesale and Retail. Paul’s Church-yard. John Cox. ‘Cox (John)’. January 1772 [recte 1762]–mid-1763. New Langwill Index. dined together . Legge served several times as Chancellor of the Exchequer. 3. ‘Thorowgood & Horne’.. when it was taken over by his widow. opposite Grocers Alley in the Poultry. held at the Horn Tavern in Doctor’s Commons. his widow Ann carried on the business. Elizabeth the elder. 1763– c. Cooper’s. Then he set up his own business and ran it until his death in 1733. 136 The British Library Integrated Catalogue also lists a song. Supplement.135   Perhaps because of their work as fellow free Britons. May the people of England be at all times able to discover. Royal-Exchange. late SIMPSON’s Musick-Shop in Sweeting’s-Alley. defending the just liberties of an Englishman. ROBERT HORNE. 1970). 2nd ed.indd 97 07/05/2010 14:12 . from Mess. Lasocki — woodwind makers THE Gentlemen belonging to the Society of FREE BRITONS. ‘Measures not men’ became William Pitt the Elder’s slogan in 1766. THOMPSON’s in St.d. 4. and were unwilling to exhaust the treasury in support of any foreign power. Newington Green. s.. 138 See Humphries and Smith. President. The Princess Dowager and all the Royal Family. Smith. No extension or enlargement of privilege of parliament.   Musical Instruments repaired in the neatest Manner. the partnership was announced in an advertisement in Public Advertiser. To the Right Hon. John Simpson. at the Sign of the Violin and Guitar. Secretary. the Younger’. or use him contemptuously. 2.

Harpsichord.. ‘Thompson (Peter)’ and ‘Thompson (Robert)’. Mandolins. 1746–57. performed at Ranelagh with great Applause. Simpson’s’ in Whitaker’s initial advertisement become clear with another in Public Advertiser. Love in a Village. s. First. and Hand Organs. this time including ‘Hautboys. too. 140 The material reported here about Whitaker is summarized in Humphries and Smith. who was at the West end of St Paul’s Churchyard. Thorowgood and Horne continued to advertise between 13 August 1762 (Public Advertiser) and 3 March 1764 (Gazetteer and London Daily Advertiser). Harpsichords. at his Music Shop in Sweeting’s Alley. the compleatest Tutors for the German Flute. Basses. next the North-Gate of the Royal-Exchange’. Guitars. next the North-Gate of the Royal-Exchange. Choice of Second-hand Harpsichords and Spinnets. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. &c. COX.’ (Gazetteer and London Daily Advertiser. under the North Piazza of the Royal Exchange. Simpson) now in the Occupation of Mrs.. Also all the genuine Stock in Trade. Cornhill. at his Music Shop. (carried on many years by Mr. Music for all Instruments. (Joseph)’. which may have been intended to announce the opening of his shop:140 WHITAKER. BROWNING. wholesale or retail. her Health not permitting her to continue in Business. with the Simpson succession (see above). Of whom may be had. as ‘under the Piazza. Cornhill. taught. esteemed worth 50 Guineas. s. Whitaker placed the following advertisement in Public Advertiser. and chief Manager of that Business for several Years after his Death for the Widow. German and Common Flutes. Basses. neither of them extant. particularly a remarkable fine Fiddler by Jacobus Stainer. On Tuesday the 26th Instant. a Collection of useful and instructive Airs for that Instrument. Harpsichords. Violoncellos.B. Variety of curious Fiddles. Tenors. and Mr. 10 June 1763). &c.. and ‘Simpson (John)’. where he hopes to receive the Favour of their Commands. By Mr. Violins. Musical Instrument-Maker. Music Publishing. an exceeding fine Cremona Tenor. Where may be had. Dulcimers. ‘A Compleat Tutor for the GERMAN FLUTE. by Their most obedient humble Servant. &c. tuned and lett out. and Guitar. the Sign of the Violin. 139 Humphries and Smith. among which are the favourite ones in Artaxerxes.indd 98 07/05/2010 14:12 . which will be most punctually and respectfully obeyed. amongst which are some favourite ones. of the Works of the most esteemed and eminent Musick Masters. lists a similar ‘great choice of Musical Instruments by the best Makers’. Spinnets. Simpson’s). 16 June 1764. Another advertisement for Whitaker. The Violin. Second. (From the late Mr. but also a pleasing Variety of the newest Airs. then was succeeded by his widow Ann and son Charles as Thompson and Son. Among their publications were two particularly relevant to our subject. in which Whitaker seeks to take over the customers from the Simpson/ Cox shop. Music Publishing. 1671.v. and German Flute. At the Violin.98 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) 25 November 1760. who will recommend all the Customers to the Purchaser of the Lease. &c. Violin. with Peter Thompson. together with a great Number of Musick Books of the newest and most favourite Pieces. Not until four years later does the significance of the ambiguous phrase ‘From the late Mr.. French Horns. At his Great Room in the Royal Exchanges. 3 May 1760. not only the best instructions for that Instrument. Musical Instrument Maker. Assistant to the late Mr. and the best Roman Strings. Harpsichords repaired.v. her second Husband. N.’ His address is clarified in Gazetteer and London Daily Advertiser.139   From the respective addresses given by Humphries and Smith. viz. MAURICE WHITAKER. in full Trade. Bassoons. Containing. (finding by public Advertisement that Mrs. ‘Simpson (Ann)’. and the following Day. Cox. which was about to be sold: MAURICE WHITAKER. Songs.   Details of the sale of the Simpson/Cox shop appear in an advertisement in Lloyd’s Evening Post. and the Merchants in particular. MAKES and sells all Sorts of Musical Instruments.. 20 June: To be SOLD by AUCTION. Cox’s Health does not permit her to continue in Business) begs Leave to acquaint the Public. and never before published. what seems to have been the earliest separately published instructional material for the clarinet in any country (3 March 1764): A Complete Scale for the CLARINET: To which is added. Public Advertiser. and other Instruments. c. SIMPSON. &c. Thomas and Sally. that he carries on the same Business in every Branch thereof. This advertisement links Whitaker. 11 March 1760. particularly one for Horns and Clarinets. THE Remainder of the Lease of the Dwelling-House and Shop of that old and well-established Musick-Shop in Sweeting’s-alley. French Horns. consisting of several Thousand curious engraved Copper and Pewter Plates. 1673..

but on the lowest Terms: He therefore hopes for the Continuance of the Favours of the late Mr. be carried on by me alone. HENRY THOROWGOOD. on the most reasonable Terms. to the late Mr. 141 Other stock had been bought by John Walsh Jr. ‘THE WIDOW of the late WILLIAM CURTIS’. at the above Shop. officiated as my Servant or Shopman.. ‘Whitaker (Maurice)’.. and having purchased the most valuable Part of the Stock of that Shop. (with whom I served my Apprenticeship) having left off Trade. 20 August: MAURICE PHILIPS WHITAKER. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Cox’s Musical Effects. and Robert Bremner. he had responded to Curtis’s advertisement in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. are desired to pay such Debts to me only. On 25 November 1765. of Sweeting’s-Alley. The said William Curtis builds Organs. Mr. Royal-Exchange. who advertised the same day he did. and various other Effects. and others. the same being my Property. and in the mean Time. at the Violin and Guitar. But about two months after that. and all Persons of the Trade. and a considerable Part of Mr. N. Lasocki — woodwind makers a very valuable Steel Engine complete for silvering Strings of all Kinds. and Others. Curtis’s Customers. which shall be punctually performed by they most obedient Servant. are hereby warned not to give him Credit on my Account. 14 August 1764) in which he claimed to be the owner of the shop that Whitaker had been advertising as his own: To the PUBLIC. as the same was carried on in her Husband’s Life-time. and at his House and Warehouse in Threadneedle-street. in a different newspaper. which will be shortly opened. 99 Whitaker had a competitor for the customers of the Simpson/Cox shop in the shape of Thorowgood. he is enabled not only to oblige the Public with every Thing in the Musical-Way with the utmost Dispatch. for the Benefit of herself and her Infant Son. to carry on the Business. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.. at a late Public Sale. in Sweeting’s-Alley) begs Leave to inform his Customers and the Public in general. and all others may depend on being respectfully treated. I humbly solicit the Favours of his Customers. at the Music-Shop under the North Piazza of the Royal Exchange. COX. On 15 October (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser). in which MAURICE PHILLIPS WHITAKER. Mary Curtis. who may depend on being supplied with all Sorts of Goods in the Musical Business. it is ascerted that he had left off Business. CURTIS. takes the Liberty to inform his Friends and the Public. and other Instruments. he was reported to be the tenant of a Supplement. as will appear by Deed executed between us (on his First entering into my Service) left for Perusal at the said Shop. he will give constant Attendance at the Portugal Coffee-House. which with the Stock of his late Shop in Cheapside. Cheapside. this is to acquaint them to the contrary. By their most obedient Servant.’   That arrangement did not last long: by 22 December Mary and Thomas Curtis had been bought out by Thorowgood (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser). by several Advertisements in the Daily Papers. to take the Orders of those Gentlemen who will favour him with their Commands. makes Harpsichords. MAURICE PHILIPS WHITAKER. see Humphries and Smith. Music Publishing. announced that she ‘intends. Sweeting’s-Alley. and their Favours gratefully acknowledged. near the Royal Exchange. that notwithstanding. and that he will continue to carry on his said Business. CURTIS’s Music-Shop. who had also picked up some of the stock from the Simpson/Cox shop:141 HENRY THOROWGOOD. Where did that leave Whitaker? Not to be outdone. MR. and is now preparing a Shop near his former one. (the Apprentice at SIMPSON’s. THO. THE MUSIC SHOP in the North Piazza of the Royal-Exchange.indd 99 07/05/2010 14:12 .. near Mercers-Chapel. DEALERS. in the North Piazza of the RoyalExchange. that he is removed from Cheapside. a large Parcel of very old fine season’d Air Wood for Fiddles. will. Musical Instrument-Maker.B. with the Assistance of her said Husband’s Brother. 16 June. and repairs and sells all Manner of Musical Instruments. as usual. from this Time. Musical-Instrument Maker and Music Printer. and all those who are indebted for Goods bought at the said Shop. at the North Side of the Royal Exchange. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser : To MERCHANTS. The situation became more complicated when William Curtis took out an advertisement two months later (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Musical Instrument Maker. Curtis was dead. WILLIAM CURTIS. for some Time past.

at the Violin and German Flute. Mutes or Sardines. Tail-Pieces. 24. however. or the Birmingham dealer Michael Woodward’. perhaps indicating the name of a dealer to whom the instrument was sold. Mandolins.142 When street numbering began. Keyed Flute. where he actually makes instruments in the ancient manner. real Musical Instrument-maker. all sorts of Bows and Bridges. all sorts and sizes of English and German Flutes. Vanity it may be thought. Violins of all Prices. Thus ‘Cox (John)’. small Violins. s. Trumpets. Double Basses. Kitts. Whitaker does not seem to have advertised again. Oxford. Guittars. Pens to rule Music Paper. and violoncellos. &c. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 29 October 1764. in Cheapside. ditto Pipes. All Musical Instruments repaired. under the Piazza. of what a music shop could sell in the mid-eighteenth century: THOROWGOOD. ‘Schuchart’. but that he has served seven years apprenticeship to that much-esteemed artist. On 5 April the following year. Hautboys. soliciting business. dancing master and violin teacher. makes and sells. Whitaker’s musical instrument-maker. 26 December 1767). made improvements on his art to alter violins that are deficient in tone equal to those made in Cremona. Perhaps in the adjective ‘real’ and the phrases ‘actually makes’ and ‘pretend to be makers’ Betts was even having a dig at him. used the mark WOODWARD / BIRMING. only his address. North Piazza. should he venture to say.   From the confirmed Sign of Whitaker’s shop. 17 January 1777). his separation from Horne seems to be marked by the following advertisement in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Cases for all Instruments. 22 January 1767). which appears in several variants: ‘at the North-gate of the Royal Exchange’ (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. Mr. Likely candidates are Maurice Whitaker. John. Jacobus Stainers.143 The latter. 2. Organs. 13. opposite Bartholomew-lane’.. Strait Horns. Bagpipes Scotch and Irish. Violoncellos. French Horns. Mouth-Pieces for Horns. in an advertisement for the sale of the freehold. Bell Harps. 23 April 1769). near Mercer’sChapel.v. when Whitaker’s successor in business advertised: To the Curious in Musical Instruments. Pitch Pipes. all Sorts and Sizes of Rules Books and Paper. Thorowgood’s music shop was advertised at No. 182. 31 August 1771. ‘The MW stamp appears below the maker’s mark. n. senior and worked with him full ten years after. Pins for Violins. that he has taken Mr. Wholesale and Retail. tenours. Flutes for Birds. from A to Z.indd 100 07/05/2010 14:12 . Kettle Drums. ditto for German Flutes. see Grove Music Online. if he made any instruments at all. by his assiduity and observing his late master’s method. ditto Hammers and Wires. the Violin. German Flute Bags. an advertisement in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser by a Mr. ‘opposite the Bank’ (Public Advertiser. n. Clarinets. and are obliged to give the work entrusted to them to others.   Powell observes that on a flute stamped CAHUSAC /LONDON in the Bate Collection. see also Byrne. it is likely that Whitaker also made stringed ones. ditto Strings. that he has rather.100 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) since around 1764 there had existed the curious phenomenon of two different music shops within a few doors of each other in the North Piazza of the Royal Exchange. Flagelets for ditto.144   To return to Thorowgood. No.’ by Charles Beare. 14. Musical Instrument-Maker and Music-Printer. &c. accessed 2 March 2009. next the North-gate of the RoyalExchange. just before he removed to Curtis’s former premises. Tabors. Spinnets. ‘behind the Royal Exchange’ (Public Advertiser. asks readers to ‘direct a line’ to him ‘at Mr. Fifes for the Army. Æolian Harps. This may represent a change of sign for Whitaker. Rosin Boxes. at the Violin and Guitar. Reeds for Bassoons and Hautboys. and ‘North side the Royal-Exchange’ (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. and in particular those gentlemen who are judges of violins. Welch Harps. Richards. Bassoons. 23 January 1772). all Sorts of Roman Strings. Several fine-toned instruments to be sold as above. Bass Viols. Unfortunately. Crow or Raven Quills. Harpsichords. Music Books ‘substantial messuage’ on Fleet Street at £50 per annum. that he is not to be numbered amongst those who pretend to be makers. 6 North Piazza (Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. both owned by former associates of John Simpson. Nicholas Amati. begs leave to inform the public. after the patterns of Antonius Stravuraus.   The exact address is finally spelt out in Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser. ditto Hinges and Locks. 143 Powell. 13 April 1782. Desks or Music Stands. He further adds. and the fact that his successor was a stringedinstrument maker. Dulcimeres. or just an error. and references to him in advertisements by others do not mention his sign. [Richard] Duke. JOHN BETTS. It gives us a wonderful sense. Tenors. Drums. Cymballs. Nuts for Bows. ditto Jacks. 142 On Betts. Royal Exchange. however. ‘Betts. Whitaker’s late shop.

lett out and tuned on immediate notice’. and will be published in a collection with several other favourite songs in a day or two’. Thorowgood advertised two guineas’ reward for the apprehension and conviction of ‘some evil and ill-disposed person or persons’ who had defaced and damaged several shops in the North Piazza and ‘wantonly and maliciously cut the backs of several Sedan Chairs under the same’. 13 June 1770. Merchants may be supplied with any of the above. &c. on which is fixed a scale for tuning Guitars. Bridges. Drum-maker. And a notice of bankruptcy against ‘Robert Horne. in a compleat case. bridges. after he had set up his own shop. Nancy Groce. German Flute. Lasocki — woodwind makers bound. — N. that it is an incorrect copy. London in the mid-eighteenth century’. Musical Instrument-Maker. (Virtually the same list appears in the same newspaper. and lettered. Francis Colley’s.) He expanded on the Æolian harps in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. behind the Royal Exchange) of the favourite Scotch Song.. Dealer and Chapman’ in London Gazette. tennors. in New-York Mercury he advertised 144 145 In his next advertisement. Musical Instrument-Maker. B. on Golden-Hill. at Mr. on proper notice given.   Meanwhile. Horne no longer mentioned flutes: ROBERT HORNE. Mr. The true copy is sold to Mr. price one guinea. Guittar. suggests that ‘Horne was probably the same man who worked as “Drum maker to his Majesty’s Office of Ordnance” at 20 Barbican Street. not knowing how to tune that instrument. &c. Vernon. French Horn.145 Horne does not. will be delivered to the purchases gratis. that most pleasing and harmonious instrument. &c. however.indd 101 07/05/2010 14:12 . HAVING just arrived with a Parcel of fine VIOLINS. bows hair’d. at Mr. N. pins. Hook thinks it his duty (it being his property) to inform the public.. cheaper than in London. 436. 9 December 1771 (repeated up to 23 December 1772). Also the newest and most approved Instruction Books for the Violin. the composer James Book complained: ‘Whereas a spurious copy has been published (by Thorowgood. at Vauxhall. guittars. violin bows. and Whitaker adds: ‘harpsichords. late of Barbican in the Parish of St. mention drums in his New York advertisements. not only having many wrong notes. but added that he also made flutes: Robert Horne. Horne confirmed that he was primarily a stringedinstrument maker.B.B. bass viols. Musical Instrument Makers of New York: A Directory of Eighteenth. MAKES and repairs musical instruments viz. gilt. &c. All orders punctually obey’d. except that the ‘flutes for birds’ are now ‘of all sorts and sizes’. sung by Mr. kitts. 22 March 1783. In the neatest and compleatest manner. kitts. Makes and repairs violins. In the same newspaper on 15 September. and Music published for Authors. He continued advertising music up to 15 March 1779 (Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser). 101 himself as: Musical Instrument maker from LONDON. aeolus harps. Giles Cripplegate in the City of London. Pins.  On 22 November 1775 in the same newspaper. Silversmith. on the most reasonable Terms. &c. in New-York Gazette. who noticed these advertisements. Music copied. violoncellos. Clarinet. adapted to the meanest capacity. from London. to be sold wholesale and retail. called the HARP of ÆOLUS. Simon Coley’s. Violins. and spinnet jacks. from LONDON. may tune it immediately. guittars. Singing. Horne had emigrated to America. tailpieces. with the quickest dispatch: The favour of Gentlemen and Ladies shall be duly honour’d with their Commands. On 25 August 1772 (Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser).and Nineteenth-Century Urban GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. but being deficient in the song and symphony twelve bars. spinnets. Æolian harps. beginning with “believe my sighs”. including of the Æolian harps beloved by Thorowgood. and the Weekly Mercury. violin bows. spinnets. by which any person. and the best Roman Strings. which plays of itself when placed in a window. printed directions. and in order to facilitate the tuning of both instruments. tenor viols. confirms that he Waterhouse. Country stores supply’d on the shortest notice. with the best Roman Strings. &c. Music Seller. New Langwill Index. without the assistance of a master. near the Coffee-House. in the best Manner. 23 May 1765: Where may be had. Makes and repairs Musical Instruments. Nancy Groce. gauiters. [Peter] Welker. N. and his shop is last mentioned on 27 January the following year (same newspaper). On GOLDEN-HILL. near Burling’sSlip. German flutes. by 4 May 1767. and Bows haired.

. 148 Byrne.   Similar advertisement 18 August 1766: A German flute by Cahusac. IR1/27. appeared with a notice that Adam Tunno intended to leave the ‘province’: Of the forty-two surviving flutes by Cahusac. In addition to the well-known maker Benjamin Hallet. As he supposed the person who took it only meant to borrow it for a few days. If stolen. THE neat Houshold Furniture. South Carolina. of a Country Shopkeeper.146 Robert Hallet. Byrne cited Hale’s initials on a five-keyed clarinet by Collier in the Keighley Corporation Museum dated 1770 as evidence ‘that he was working with Collier from at least this date’. one to C sharp. Daily Advertiser To be Sold by Auction by HENRY WATKINS. supports this theory. White Horse Alley. 1785) Two instruments by Collier were advertised in London newspapers: 10 September 1776. released three men from prosecution on 1 September 1767. Charing-cross. 94. maker’s name T.. Enquire at the Sun. Kew. this and the following Day . Daily Advertiser LOST between Charing-Cross and Temple-Bar. may have belonged to Pietro Grassi Florio. for 12s. deceased. 158. 1750–1800.150 15 August 1776..148 A record for an apprentice of Hale’s named Allen Grant. none have two keys. he is therefore requested to return it. But perhaps the date is a coincidence and the flute had belonged to Joseph Tacet. NY: Pendragon Press. Collier. indentured on 13 November 1772. and valuable Stock in Trade. 10 March 1795... ‘Church Band at Swalcliffe’. shall receive Five Shillings. Maker’s Name Cahusac. The flute mentioned in the following advertisement in Oracle and Public Advertiser. two Violins by Thompson. the two lower Joints of a German Flute. If offered to be pawned or sold. stop it and the Party. John Hale (fl. New Langwill Index. The following advertisement in Royal Georgia Gazette. (For their association with keyed flutes..indd 102 07/05/2010 14:12 . 147 Nex and Whitehead. 146 Waterhouse. 6 February 1769. Public Advertiser STOLEN since Thursday last. 2. in a mahogany Case. mounted with Silver. and all the ADDITIONAL KEYS..147 Thomas Collier (d. It was a long time the Instrument of one of the First Masters in the World. Now to be sold. 79. with two Silver Keys. with TWO MIDDLE JOINTS. to be disposed of. but uncertain whether marked so or not. and you shall receive Half a Guinea Reward from the Owner. for almost half their value . London. Gough-Square. 1767) I draw attention to two instruments possibly made by Hallet (see under Schuchart above and Hall below). Any Person who has found the same and will bring them to Mr. Annotated Reference Tools in Music. Robert Hallet (fl. A CAPITAL COLLIER’s FLUTE. f. Maker’s Name Cahusac. citing Apprenticeship Books at Public Record Office. and is warranted genuine and perfect. Cow Cross. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. The Price is FIVE GUINEAS—Inquire at the OFFICE of THIS PAPER.. 153. an Ivory German Flute. one guinea reward will be given to any person upon delivery. 96.149 Thomas Cahusac Senior (1714–1798) The following instruments by Cahusac were advertised cheaply: 28 July 1766.. Hildisch. wind instrument maker. It Craftsman. and give Notice to Sir John Fielding. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. with ivory ferrils. &c. 262. 1772–1804) We have already noted Hale as the successor to Collier in 1785 and a supplier of keys to other London woodwind makers.102 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Taken out of said Tunno’s room last Saturday. a boxwood German flute. Holborn-Bridge. in Scotland-yard. certainly he and Florio had been the leading London flautists of this period. 4 (Stuyvesant. a German flute.)   Flutes by Collier also found their way to America. At his Sale Rooms. 1991). being advertised a little before his death on 20 June that year: TO FLUTE PLAYERS. see below. a Clarinet by Collier. was a different man than the earlier string maker. No. on 8 June 1780. Charleston. consisting of a Quantity of Musical Instruments. particularly a fine toned Chamber Organ.. 149 London Music Trades. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser PAWNS.

60. 156 He is listed there in Kent’s Original London Directory 1816. St Martin-in-the Fields. Clement’s Church. Kew. Instruments tuned.157 Budd The following advertisement in Public Advertiser. on 27 January 1795 described as ‘bookseller’. IR1/23. 1794–1816) An entry in a poll book for 3 April 1784 confirms the first address given by Waterhouse for Thomas Cahusac Junior: Great Newport Street. New Langwill Index. no.. then moving to 79 High Holborn until 1816. Budd (1762–1839). every new Publication. IR1/32. 28 September 1816. Waterhouse 150 151 Public Advertiser for 23 January gives the cause of death as ‘the Yellow-jaundice’. where he has opened a Manufactory for all kind of Musical Instruments of the best quality. a German Flute. New Langwill Index. Kew. St Martinin-the-Fields. was last Night broke open and robbed of . Bridewell-lane’. 21 January 1775. Strand. f. 155 Guildhall Library. Yesterday. 153 London Music Trades 1750–1800. IR1/29. of May’s Buildings. ANDREWS. William. in Bride-lane. London Evening Post Died. f.. 43–44.indd 103 07/05/2010 14:12 . confusing the parish with its bestknown inhabitant. if the Whole is recovered.. 103 Four apprentices of Thomas Senior are known: Robert Lawson (apprenticed 22 November 1763).155 He was enough of a publisher. 28 November 1769. Bride’s.158 F. 152 London Music Trades 1750–1800.B. Mss. puts the address back to his separation from his brother in 1800: THOMAS CAHUSAC. Also may be had. 226.153   Waterhouse noted that Thomas Cahusac was in partnership with his brother William Maurice between 1798 and 1800.160 In fact. The first name may have been given incorrectly.156 What Waterhouse does not mention is that he went bankrupt in the latter year. 161. N. like his brother and father. Thomas Turner. Maker’s Name William Budd. Bridewell prison. Musical Instrument Maker. and you shall receive Two Guineas Reward from the Owner.154 The following advertisement in Morning Herald. Mortimer’s directory of 1763 had given a slightly garbled version of Cotton’s address: ‘COTTON. New Langwill Index.. London Music Trades 1750–1800. and lett out on hire. Lasocki — woodwind makers will be no more advertised. that he is removed from No. citing Apprenticeship Books at Public Record Office.159 The Cotton Family Waterhouse. then gave Thomas’ new address at 41 Haymarket as 1802–05.151 Thomas Cahusac Junior (b. 41. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. is recorded in a poll book on 18 October 1774. 157 London Gazette. Cotton. to merit an entry in Humphries and Smith. nor any further Reward offered. his certificates being confirmed on 19 October. 48. 158 London Music Trades 1750–1800. 196. Mr. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 160 Waterhouse. to No. citing Langwill.. citing Apprenticeship Books at Public Record Office.   William Maurice was described in two fire insurance policies (1808 and 1812) as ‘musical wind instrument maker and music seller’. begs leave to inform his Friends and the Public in general. 55.152 Cahusac was enough of a music publisher and seller that he took an apprentice. flute maker. stop them and the Party. 11936/445/816470 and 11936/459/871082. and later newspaper reports were incorrect. lists him as remaining in the Strand premises until 1810. Robert Wheeler (21 July 1777). mentions an otherwise unknown maker: WHEREAS the House of Mr.161 The address is Young. 119. f. 17177. George Ibbetson (2 August 1782). 159 Waterhouse. 72. because an Edward Budd. 154 Waterhouse. 20 August 1800. he died on the 20th. states that William Cotton died on 22 January 1775. 1756) and William Maurice Cahusac (fl. and give Notice to Sir John Fielding. Haymarket. and William Barritt (29 April 1785). perhaps a son.. If any of the above Things should be offered for Sale. Real Importer of Roman Strings. or Pledge. Apothecary in Kensington. or in Proportion for Part. facing St. Flute-maker. flutemaker and under beadle of St. is listed in Waterhouse. The dissolution of the partnership on 12 August had been reported in London Gazette on the 16th.

189. since the technological innovations in the flute and the legal protection of the patent discouraged imitators. although ‘German flutes of a new construction’ had been advertised by Nicholas Brooks in Philadelphia on 25 January 1773 (Pennsylvania Packet. even his father. The flute’s ivory screwcork has an ungraduated gauge with numbers from 1 to 6 stamped on its spindle’. given by Waterhouse as 66. Keyed Flute. Potter’s fine toned German Flutes. (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. GB-London Horniman 14. for a period of three months. of inferior Price given even more accurately on his trade card.   The ‘Mr. ‘Workshop established c1745 by . 164 The statement in Waterhouse. vol. The following are the Particulars of those lately imported. graduated tenon projecting from the barrel into a socket in the main part of the headjoint. for the patent. Do. G♯–offside F–D♯ in metal-lined keyways.165 Powell remarks: ‘When the novice amateur flautist of the 1780s turned to the fingeringchart in his first flute tutor. 169 London Music Trades 1750–1800. The graduated double slide is marked with positions about 1. and to be sold by J. Cotton.5. Potter’s do on a new Construction. Rivington. 2nd ed.. The earliest dated Potter flute with six keys stems from ‘An Eighteenth-Century Directory of London Musicians’. is unlikely to be true. round embouchure. None of the advertisements mentions Cotton’s age at his death. at least initially’. It too is unlined.163 Richard Potter (1726–1806) Potter had been an undistinguished flute-maker for more than thirty years164 when he became ‘a household word in late eighteenth-century Europe’ for his 1785 patent: ‘a flute with a graduated screwcork. 194. Using all the music shops of London to distribute the patent flute held few risks for Potter. ‘London Wind-Instrument Makers of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries’. numbered from 1 to 6. three. citing Corporation of London Record Office. The tuning slide is not lined with metal. Do.indd 104 07/05/2010 14:12 .. Jnr.D. with six Silver Keys. 120.6 mm apart. Fleet-Street ’—perhaps William’s son—as well as ‘Cotton. 308 (probably left over from Lyndesay G. beneath a thicker. and the General Advertiser). Potter’s new-invented Patent German-Flute” was a potent marketing tool against which competitors who had been making keyed flutes for 30 years were defenceless.166   Powell’s survey of surviving dated Potter flutes shows that he was making flutes with one. Licence Books to Employ NonFree Journeymen. 1984). no.162 Doane’s A Musical Directory (1794) still lists ‘Cotton. 168 Powell. New Langwill Index. p. 167 Powell. Musical Instruments.6 mm apart. 165 Powell. Public Advertiser. numbered from 1 (fully extended) to 6 (fully closed). 10.167 None of them exhibits any innovative features. 1694–1866. ‘Bride Lane Court’. A. Steward of Bridewell’ who died on 27 November 1759 was presumably a relative of William’s. A Musical Directory. 190. and metal-lined tuning slide. Table 2. New-York Loyal Gazette. The ‘new construction’ in the case of the Rivington advertisement of 1777. 1871. reprint. but has a wooden tenon wound with thread which slides into a socket in the barrel join. and its tenon is wound with thread. given that Potter did not finish his apprenticeship until 1748 around the age of 22.169   Two American advertisements are of interest: 22 November 1777. GSJ 2 (1949): 30. ‘On Tuesday died.47/148 has a bore identical with that 161 162 This is the earliest American advertisement that mentions flutes with any additional keys. German Flutes. Florios.104 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) of the 1782 one-keyed flute. all non-free journeymen. Langwill. 29 November 1759.—Ditto’.’ 163 Doane. John Varnell. 16–17. 187. 166 Powell. 2 [1946]: 100). But two undated one-keyed flutes with the same stamp (POTTER / SENIOR) found on instruments dated 1776–81 ‘seem to indicate that Potter was developing his ideas about a graduated tuning slide and register at some stage before he filed the 1785 patent. Flute-Maker. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Music Review 7. Keyed Flute. and Samuel Varnell. The foot-register is correspondingly marked with groove 1. Keyed Flute.. five. pewter-plug keys for B♭. Richard’. London: Tony Bingham. 15.— Bride’s Passage. Violin. see Patents for Inventions.. Abridgments of Specifications relating to Music and Musical Instruments.168   Perhaps it was because he was cranking up his production that on 10 July 1781 Potter obtained a licence from the Lord Mayor to employ William Silk. and six keys between 1776 and 1782. Keyed Flute. and a graduated metallined register’. the illustration of “Mr. probably stemming from Potter’s own advertising material.. with six Brass Keys. 192–93. presumably just referred to additional keys.

are mentioned more than flutes by any other maker.. William Smith’s tavern in Fredericksburg. one of them marked with the maker’s name on it. Table 2. 1... Was stolen out of Mr. the second house above Walnut-Street. Waterhouse does not list any surviving fifes by Potter.. 15 April 1797... 3 January 1777. Federal Gazette & Baltimore Daily Advertiser Musick Store. Potter’s best German flutes of three and four keys. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. with instructions for do.. stationer.. a large portmanteau. and of the German Flute 3 Guineas. organ builder. Has imported for sale in the ships Major Pinckney.. J. the following articles: . respectfully inform the public that they have received per the ship George Barclay. Best Voice Flutes. 190. 18 July 1771.. 4 July 1798. and sold by James Rivington... City Gazette and Daily Advertiser. having Potter. and The Weekly Mercury Cheap for cash . via Charleston. Musical Instruments imported in the London fleet. the prices are. or in its neighbourhood. Carr has received by the Montezuma . A fine toned Forte Piano in a mahogany case. and now opening for sale.. opposite the Coffee-House. and Young does not have an entry on him. It can be of no service to any person. a German Flute.... Potter. Carr & Co. the top part of a German flute. currency.. 14 July 1798. Pennsylvania Gazette Books and Stationary. No.. May be had of Valentine Nutter. B. in Front-Street. Rivington’s New York Gazette . South side of Market street.. Lasocki — woodwind makers 105 that same year. Potter’s and other English and German Flutes.. either in York. Potter’s patent German flutes.... Peter’s [Potter’s?] German flutes. opposite the Coffee-House. the most particular of which are the following.. from London . 9 December 1793. Philadelphia. Water-Street. and two with five keys are known from the previous year. Virginia Gazette Ten Pounds Reward.. 329 Pearl-street... viz. has for sale. 3 April 1797. Gay-Street.. 122.. shoemaker.. of the Violoncello 6 Guineas. at William Prichard’s Circulating Library and Book-store. to go with a drum. 130. in Second-street . or just ‘patent flutes’. No. Whoever finds it. To prevent trouble. 3 May 1780. Potter’s patent flutes.. and Philadelphia Evening Post Musical Repository. Virginia Gazette.. have also received from London... Bradford. New York .. The Federal Gazette.. 27 January 1783. Keyed Flute. 4 February 1782. . that in addition to his extensive stock of Musical Instruments. South Carolina T. New-York Gazette and General Advertiser William Howe. Metts’s. Pottor’s fifes of the very best kind. Jeweller & Watchmaker. continues to dispose of the following curious collection of goods..indd 105 07/05/2010 14:12 .. Carolina Planter and Minerva. New York Mercury Valentine Nutter. from London . south Third-street.170 27 September 1783. John and M. Patent and common German flutes. 29 July 1775. 170 Powell... Pennsylvania Ledger Nicholas Brooks.. and is very easy to learn.. 30 October 1793. made in London.. 112 Broadway. Musical Instruments from the first manufactories—consisting of . Respectfully informs his friends and the public in general.. patent and plain flutes. on it. No... between the hours of 7 and 9 o’clock. made by Potter in London on an entire new construction. No.. Commercial Advertiser. an excellent Violoncello of an extra sweet sound. containing a variety of wearing apparel and other articles. the maker’s name. Water street. Williamsburg Lost.. of the Forte-Piano 25l.. Pennsylvania Packet Musical Instruments To be disposed of at prime cost. 2 German flutes. New-York Gazette. tipped with ivory.. Charleston. and Potter’s three Key Flutes. 22. 6. to be seen at No.. No. on the evening of the 22nd of December 1776. No.. is desired to send of bring it to the printer hereof. he has just received by the Two We have already noted other flutes by Potter being imported into the American colonies in 1762 and 1764. a great variety of musical instruments . Thereafter they. just imported. They may be seen at Mr. 22. 30 July 1783. at his store. who will direct him where to find a reward. (formerly Cook’s store) has imported in the last ships from London. Tradd-Street. viz. Philadelphia Gazette & Universal Daily Advertiser James Jacks. Paff ... without the other parts. Patent German Flutes with silver tubes.

. Macanulty. Respectfully informs the public. who will immediately deliver them to any subscriber. Salem Gazette.. Duets. a Flute. GRATIS. and 4. while the servant was gone up stairs) and stole a great-coat. Potter’s patent and other German flutes. As follows . Organist and Composer to his Majesty. a pint mug. of HARRISON’S NEW GERMAN FLUTE MAGAZINE. and Others. Paternoster-row. 1. and silver keys. 12 April 1787. No.106 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) in English advertisements: 17 May 1766. John-Street.. Arnold. patent Flutes. and got off without detection. till the whole is completed. Manufactured by the celebrated Mr. . under the direction of Dr. on receiving the full subscription. Potter was talking with an Acquaintance. a pair of tea-tongs. at P. Solos. a thief or thieves got in at the kitchen-window of Mr. No.indd 106 07/05/2010 14:12 . Consisting of new. they have received from London a great variety of Musical Instruments. opposite the City Tavern... and a half-pint mug. Potter was newsworthy enough to have two of his misfortunes reported: 1 October 1776. by Homan Turpin. New York J. finely engraved by Smith. a great assortment of Music & Musical Instruments.   Printed for Harrison and Co. ARNOLD. No.   Further Potter or patent flutes are also mentioned 171 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. manufactured by Mr. This Day was published. viz.. a punch-ladle. a bundle of linen.   The flutes of both descriptions may now be seen at the shop of Messrs. German Flutes .. with a Silver Key. uniformly. Burney. while Mr. 18. written on purpose by Dr. tipped with ivory. 11 March 1799 18 October 1799. of the New German Friends from London. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. West-Smithfield. Any Person or Persons having lost any of the above Things.   This Work will commence with an entirely new and most familiar book of instructions for the German Flute. 1782. at half the usual prices. Potter. by Potter.. PAFFS.. Daily Advertiser. 4 and 6 keys... tipped with ivory. with six silver keys. on producing the whole sixty. 26 October 1782. and silver keys. and though every number of the Work is to contain nearly double the quantity of music usually sold at the same price—a note will be delivered Gratis with each number. Soho. only. entitling the bearer of those given with the first 30 numbers to a half-guinea flute. a coat and waistcoat. and correctly engraved. No. made by Potter. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. four new German flutes. and M. POTTER. 26 May 1787. within a very few Inches of the Aperture formed by the Accident. about five in evening. October 25. from an original design by Mr.171 The witnesses included his servant Mary Hudson. are desired to apply immediately to the fitting Magistrates at the above Office. near Gough Square. a pepper-castor.. Potter.. accompanied by an elegant frontispiece. Public Advertiser On Monday last.. No. suddenly fell into a Vault underneath. patent and common Flutes. likewise . &c. Songs. To STABLE-KEEPERS. Litchfield-street. 21 January 1785. The whole neatly. Public Advertiser Rotation Office. Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser.. bookseller. in 60 numbers). Oratorios. and complete Operas. corner of Essex and Washington Streets. Potter’s house had been a target earlier: on 21 February 1770 one Matthew Martin was convinced at the Old Bailey for the theft of various items of silverware from Potter: five tablepoons. Minuets. Cantatas. Boston This Day Published. London Chronicle GUINEA GERMAN FLUTES. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser . by the same celebrated maker. Likewise—for sale—A new supply of imported .. Massachusetts Just received & for sale by B. Potter. supposed to have been stolen . near Goughsquare. Harrison and Co. Von Hagen’s Piano Forte Ware-House. 3.. Dances.   Similar advertisement in New York Gazette and General Advertiser. Flute-maker in Pemberton-row. and they will be informed of the Persons who have them in Care. 21 February 1770. Cornhill . 2.. a pap-spoon. Nex and Whitehead. Harrison and Co... tipped with Ivory.. and the maid’s cloaths and bonnet.. or a guinea flute. Price 1s... Paternoster-row. a marrow spoon.. NUMBER 1.. Marches. FOUND in the Possession of two suspicious Persons now in Custody. A. Of whom may be had. at the Golden-Key. (To be continued Weekly.... Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser BOOKS ON SALE. B. 112 Broadway.. favourite. Public Advertiser Saturday Part of the Pavement of the Yard of Mr. 19 December 1798. 3. St. 262. 1 December 1800. Flutemaker in Pemberton Row. 18. Potter’s patent flutes with 1.

. but Florio did not.. or to Lett on Hire.. China.. PATENT GERMAN FLUTES.. Later Florio flutes with a C-foot were made by Hale. and other Effects Of Mr. reported that Tacet used a flute with extra keys.. 54. &c. and cello. Gerber had evidently not actually seen a ‘Tacet’ flute himself. But none of his authorities cites such information. and the following day.. Lasocki — woodwind makers Flute Magazine.. 1751–86)172 and Pietro Grassi Florio (d. a choice collection of . neither is he listed in Doane. By Messrs.. World SALES BY AUCTION. with Guinea Flutes gratis..175 Incidentally. Tacet and Florio’].174   The trade name Florio was used on keyed flutes by the Two Flutes and Hautboy workshop. THE Genteel and Neat HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. do not seem to have been quoted in full before: Waterhouse.. By ORDER of the ADMINISTRATRIX. published anonymously at Bath. makes no express claim as to the inventor. 394. probably beginning in about 1770. s. Tacet. [Richard] Potter. low C♯s occur in Florio’s Op. 1795)173 and the development of the flute with multiple keys have been well surveyed by Powell. III trios for flute. Byrne. and other Effects of a GENTLEMAN retiring into Wales. 107 ‘Florio’ and ‘Tacet’ The relationship between the flautists Joseph Tacet (fl.. Oxford street. ABBEY-CHURCH-YARD. from mentions in the first edition of Gerber’s Lexicon [1790–92] and in Tromlitz’s 1791 An das musikalische Publikum. Gentry. Surry. were a cheaper grade of instrument made for an altogether less discriminating clientele. on Wednesday. THE genteel and modern HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE . A Musical Directory (1794). at Twelve o’Clock.. by KIRCKMAN. JOHN CHRISTOPHER ZEIDLER. Tacet’s name became known in Germany around 1790.1766 [‘a new invented German Flute with additional Keys . See also Biographical Dictionary of Actors 14 (1991).. JAMES LINTERN respectfully informs the Nobility. 3.. When Florio’s name was dropped from the association with Tacet’s in about 1780. WHITE.. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Documentation of their use of flutes is ambiguous: in 1780 ABC Dario Musico. as his description is inaccurate. On the Premises. 11.. BATH. 1 August 1798. and in particular with the pewter 172 plugs. By Mr. from 1760 until March 1786..v. and Florio have frequently been credited with ‘improvements’ to the flute. Bath Chronicle MUSICK LIBRARY. The remark in Arnold’s 1787 tutor for the Potter patent flute that the additional keys were ‘an advantage first suggested by Mr. Morning Chronicle SALES BY AUCTION. ‘Florio. the 7th of May next.. such as Cahusac’s of c. Tacet’ was made explicitly for the first time. referring to ‘Florio and Tacet’s new invented German Flute with all the Keys’. at Waddon. a Capital GRAND PIANO FORTE. 10 December 1789. the charming entries in ABC Dario musico.   Because their names were featured in the earliest instruction books for the keyed flute.. How [Tacet’s] name came to be associated with the additional keys. Joseph’... However. ‘Schuchart’. a Guitar. The earliest mention of his name in this connection is the legend added to The Compleat Tutor of c. the claim ‘Invented by Mr.1765 published by Fentum. Keyed Flute. s. and Tacet does not appear in advertisements in the Burney Collection after 1782. 174 Powell. 27 April 1793. The wording there.. near Croydon. Pietro Grassi’.. death date 20 June 1795 given in Grove Music Online. and if we interpret it in the light of the wording in subsequent tutors. Wells-street.v.. Pietro Grassi’. by Potter. the story of their lives and work provides no substance for such claims. price 1s. As for Tacet and Florio. is a matter of some confusion. 182–83. 175 Powell. and he may well have relied on information for the entry from Tromlitz himself. which Powell cites via Byrne. a Violoncello.. New Langwill Index. No.. SPURRIER and PHIPPS. reported that Tacet was a ratepayer at Meards Court. that he has now ready for Sale. No. Dean Street. a fine toned Harpsichord. ‘Florio. each number. Tacet’ is not made in independence of this questionable rumour.. violin. One-keyed flutes with a Florio stamp . accessed 6 January 2009.. on Monday the 13th inst. a Flute.. s. states that Tacet died in London in 1801.indd 107 07/05/2010 14:12 . Keyed Flute. 173 See Biographical Dictionary of Actors 5 (1978). in a workshop with much lower standards of design and workmanship.. two Viol da Gambas. On the Premises... a German Flute by Potter .. Deceased. such as play’d on by the two celebrated Masters. it would seem that the names of these two performers were used only because it would help to sell the instruments they had been heard to play in public concerts. ‘Tacet. 10–11. And MUSICAL INSTRUMENT Warehouse.. published on Christmas Eve 1781.v.

Mr. 176 177 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. with at least an equal power and compass. (The same confusion is found in an advertisement what seems to have been his last advertised performance.indd 108 07/05/2010 14:12 . Whoever will bring it to the Cocoa Tree Coffee-House... Throgmorton-Street. such instruments do appear in advertisements. Daily Advertiser April 21. of Mr. 1974]. that Tacet stemmed from Nantes is more likely to be true than Gustav Schilling’s that Tacet ‘war aus London gebürtig ’ (Encyclopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften oder Universal-Lexicon der Tonkunst [Stuttgart: Franz Heinrich Köhler. 1838.. We decide on them as unnecessary. ‘without any real evidence. the essence of which is expression..179 In fact. Copt-hall Court.176 T•C•T. s. 562. Thus the statement by Paule Chaillon-Guiomar in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. New York: Da Capo Press. Pall-Mall. 56: ‘Joseph Tacet. As a performer on the flute. 1970). Tacet had begun his performing career in England by the year before. mentions a London advertisement of 13 February 1755 as Tacet’s ‘first notice in London’.. a double key’d Harpsichord by Kirkman. Tacet and Potter’ could be a generic reference to keyed flutes: 9 July 1782. reprint. Sampson.. where Tacet was a rate payer in 1760–86. by Messrs. reprint. ‘Tacet. on the Dover Road. Although no flutes bearing Tacet’s name have apparently survived. A performer of great eminence on the German flute.177 Byrne suggested.. 10. On the Premises. To-morrow. at the Residence late of — FITZGERALD. Spurrier. der 1756 zum erstenmal auftrat.181)   The next reference is ambiguous. because Florio. ABC Dario musico (Bath. plays without them.. 181 His identity is confirmed by an advertisement for the same concert in the Morning Herald and Daily Advertiser. 21–22. Jacet’ marked on the several Pieces. play that music. on Monday the 29th Instant. Dean Street. FLORIO. to which instrument he has tacked an unnecessary number of keys. that Joseph Tacet was in some way responsible for Mason making his extended flute’. which in turn cites C. ABC Dario musico. we shall pass it over. Tacet. AT the New Theatre in the Haymarket. Esq. supposed to have been left in the Pocket of a Chaise or Coach. the 13th Instant.. LOST. in Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser. nor is his tone so generally soft or pleasing.. and of Mr.180 No higher reward than one guinea was offered for any other flute in the advertisements. if offered to be pawned or sold stop it. VI. 179 Byrne cites Eitner’s Quellen Lexikon. Hildesheim & New York: Georg Olms. 22 February 1782: ‘Concerto. a Piano Forte by Zumpe. ‘J. He has published some musick.. will be performed . shall receive Two Guineas Reward.’ Biographical Dictionary of Actors 14 (1991). and not execution. SAMPSON & SPURRIER. Joseph’. 4 German Flutes by Florio. Surrey]. a German Flute. or any one else.108 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) 29 April 1774. Tacet and Potter. 45. having been lost while he was taking a trip to his native France. attempting to surprise more than to please. deceased [in Weybridge. 1774. 1780). and the two following Days at 11 o’Clock THE neat and genteel HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE . Mozart und Haydn in London (Vienna: Carl Gerold’s Sohn.. German Flute. s.v. a fine old Violin. but never having heard himself. 178 Byrne.178 Byrne evidently came up with this idea because Mason made his announcement in the same year as Tacet has hitherto been reported to have arrived in England. though not greater than Florio’s. F. Tacet has composed. and the same Gratuity shall be given.. If he did not fall into the common vice of solo performers. in a green Cloth Case. ‘Nantes’.v. Throgmorton-Street. 21 February 1782. as an advertisement in Public Advertiser for 12 February 1755 makes clear: At the Instance of several of the Nobility and Gentry. Pohl. his tone is full and round. He has very great execution. with six Keys. Pall-Mall is about a mile from Meard’s Court. ‘Schuchart’. It may well be that the mark was Tacet’s signature and the flute belonged to him.. yet sometimes forced. 180 Biographical Dictionary of Actors reports that ‘The Burney papers at McGill University reveal that Joseph Tacet played in the Concerts Spirituels in Paris in 1751’. 1867. I. because ‘German flutes by Florio. A Saxon. but we never have seen or heard his works. and the confusion of Jacet for Tacet is more likely to have happened with a signature than a mark. we should give him unlimited praise for his performance on an instrument. Whitehall Evening Post To be SOLD by AUCTION. a Solo upon the German Flute by Mr. Jacet’. Catalogues may be had on the Premises.

4. and to be sold by J. TO-MORROW. of Mr. may be had on very low terms. and sold by James Rivington.. Rivington’s New York Gazette Music Ware-House. Cornhill—(opposite the State-House. Throgmorton-Street. THOMAS WAGGSTAFF. shall receive FIFTEEN POUNDS. Massachusetts Mercury. containing. Lasocki — woodwind makers 109 The following reference does sound generic: 6 October 1784. Florio flutes are also named in several American advertisements: 22 November 1777. Times SALES BY AUCTION. 7 January 1794.. with extra Keys... and other valuable effects of A GENTLEMAN retiring into the country... SPURRIER and PHIPPS.. the other old. Times SALES BY AUCTION. China. Newman-street.. with additional keys. 2 fine toned Violins. Effects of THOMAS BETTESWORTH... 56.. as .. with all the keys.. to No. new patent and Florio Flutes. deceased. No. by enquiring at Warden and Russell’s Printing Office. GreekStreet. Florio’s German Flutes. 3 May 1780. with F.. THE Modern and Excellent HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. 1774.. T.. And the following reference could also be just to a flute with additional keys. on Wednesday Sept. 11 November 1794. Whoever will leave the above at the Bar of the Oxford Coffee-House. 7.. By Messrs. 23 December 1780. 1731. china. Scott. but fastened on with glue. New-York Loyal Gazette Musical Instruments. from London. among other Things .. 3 November 1791... Morning Post and Daily Advertiser LOST last Night. 1670.. for Sale. ALL the neat Houshold Furniture.. Oxford-street. WINSTANLEY. 191. By Messrs. THE handsome and modern HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE . Who have for sale at their Musical Magazine. and a Tacit and Florio German Flute. GREAT TOWER HILL. fieries [Florio’s?] do. Strand.. 20 May 1796. and following Day. By James Rivington.. GILBERT and Co. Who sells a variety of instruments. although it is rather late to be invoking Tacet’s name in that connection: 27 June 1797. SPURRIER and PHIPPS... No. An excellent ton’d.. Great Tower-Hill. 1 September 1796. with six Silver Keys.. Esq.. advertisement in Massachusetts Centinel and the Republican Journal Musick.. 87. a ditto. by Foster. the tube in the upper joint solid silver. Florios.. Musical Instruments imported in the London fleet. Daily Advertiser. by Mislewicek. and removed from John-Street. and German Flute by Florio.. 20 April 1793. The adjectives ‘valuable’ and ‘capital’ suggest instruments made by the Two Flutes and Hautboy workshop rather than the cheap variety: 17 November 1786. Have commenced business. 3.. By Mr. Rivington’s New York Gazette The following late pamphlets to be had of James Rivington. deceased.. a German Flute by Tasset. by Kirkman. consisting of .. out of one of the Windows at the Oxford Coffee-House.. on Wednesday the 22d instant. second-hand Harpsichord. Daily Advertiser To be Sold by Auction by Mr. HASKEW. a valuable German flute... a ditto.. by Florio. ninety-three complete sets of overtures. Abel. a very fine Grand Piano-forte by Stodhart. a capital Flute by Floris [sic] . a new Spinnet.. Boston Just imported In the Minerva. Morning Post and Daily Advertiser Sales by Auction. Informs his Friends and Customers . by Stradiuarius. and other Effects of a GENTLEMAN. No. At his Store.indd 109 07/05/2010 14:12 . and other eminent masters. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. On the Premises. On the Premises. A large and general Assortment of European Goods . Rivington.. VALUABLE EFFECTS. THE Genteel and Excellent Household Furniture. By Nathaniel Blake. Boston Notice! Nathaniel Blake. New York Frederick Rausch and George Gilbert. one new. Warnford-court. Bach. Soho Square. German Flutes. a full toned violin by Stainer.. A Great variety of music and musical instruments. On the Premises. cremona. and the ivory on the top joint has been cracked. with six Brass Keys.. Do.. fine table and bed linen. Columbian Centinel.. Musical Instruments—such as . Taylor. at Eleven o’Clock. No. Florio Instruments by ‘Florio’ are named in four further advertisements. G.. [the owner’s initials] on one of the lower keys. This and following Days. and Wearing-Apparel. Linen.. and now opening.. Capt. two Florio Flutes.. BROADWAY. The following are the Particulars of those lately imported. a capital brilliant toned harpsichord. a Black Leather PORTMANTEAU. Ricci.. Florio’s celebrated and approved German Flutes with six keys.. and following day.. under the firm of. Tottenham-Court-Road. German flutes.

185   The advertisements by this partnership stress keyboard instruments.. I keep a musick shop. jun. In the latter year. 270... LONGMAN and LUKEY. Public Ledger or the Daily Register of Commerce and Intelligence ...   The first of many similar ones. 185 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. I lost a great quantity of instruments to the amount of £300–400’.. and Fifes.110 and German Flutes. 22 November 1777. CHEAPSIDE. or any parts of such. keep them free from dust.182 three advertisements for flutes lost or stolen report them as having been kept in bags— presumably one of the reasons why individual joints were sometimes lost. 12 December 1787.. 26. Also old Instruments repaired.. 31 October 1815. 263.. 183 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Norton was found guilty of stealing ‘to the value of 39s. the following modern development occurred: 20 January 1770. 270.. Where may be had. LONDON. he had spotted the flutes and recognized them as his own by the spare joints left behind. JUST received from London. while my present house in Cheapside was rebuilding. and list woodwind instruments only as an afterthought.. 12 January 1774. and from all danger of breaking. Nex and Whitehead..indd 110 07/05/2010 14:12 . Longman and Brodrip employ a great many men in their trade?’ and replied ‘A great many’. was asked by the counsel for the defence. Bassoons and Clarinets. Musical Instrument Makers. Daily Courant. MILITARY INSTRUMENTS. the NEW STORE. 4 March 1727.. and ‘a German Flute garnished with Ivory. a man named Samuel Allen who worked for Thomas Culliford.. by the Milo. and sell musical instruments. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. Hautboys.. 264. 29 October 1764 and 13 June 1770.183  A man named John Norton was indicted at the Old Bailey on 12 January 1774 for stealing seven flutes from Longman and Lukey. their newinvented Pocket-cases for German flutes. Regiments supplied with complete sets. (1739. via Liverpool. well seasoned. ‘of a person who answered to the description of the prisoner’. see above) Henry Thorowgood even advertised ‘German Flute Bags’ in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. a harpsichord maker in Cheapside. may be exchanged. (of all sizes) which preserve them in excessive hot or immoderate damp climates. Long Rooms. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Paul’s Church-yard. Captain Glover .. Maker’s Name Caleb Gedney.... Callender & Son’s. New-York Loyal Gazette. containing a Brown-colour’d German Flute in six Pieces. and. ‘Three of them were left me by a friend and relation at his decease’.. Flutes. over Messrs. Despite the contention of an instrument-maker named Robert Worland that ‘it is impossible in my judgment.. which no doubt had a bigger profit margin. in a Case’ was advertised as early as 1727. represents a brief change in approach: MILITARY Musical Instruments of every description Manufactured and Sold in the greatest perfection by LONGMAN and BRODERIP. A German Flute in a green Silk Bag. Advertisement.. Longman and Lukey Although we have already seen sets of recorders being kept in cases. General Evening Post .. 184 Proceedings of the Old Bailey.184 Longman testified: ‘In the year 1772 I lived in St. 182 The following. Marlboro’-street. a brown German Flute in a green Baize Bag. 11 October 1796.. In the ‘flute shop in High-Holborn’ belonging to James Wheeler. J. ‘Messrs. (1774. Longman and Broderip In a legal case on 12 December 1787.. No. however. Florio Flutes. see above) 21 August 1760. 13. valued at £3 10 s. No. New-England Palladium & Commercial Advertiser. 26. in Star. and Music sellers to their Majesties. the Maker’s Name Stanesby. TWO Small Green Bags. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERS TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES...’ and transported for seven years. LONGMAN AND BRODERIP.. For example: 18 November 1790. Wheeler testified that he had bought them two or three years earlier.. at their music-shop. as will be warranted. LOST . at No.. Cheapside. ‘Cases for German Flutes’ were being imported by Rivington in New York in 1777. HAYMARKET. for any man to swear to a flute without some private mark upon it’.. AND NO.. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser . Nex and Whitehead. if not approved. Boston .

. who made instruments for Longman and Broderip.186 One of the assignees was Muzio Clementi. because of his good character). Brodrip and Longman’s manufactory. or their Agents. an employee of Ellison & Oakley. and five violin bows. are requested to send the amount of their Debts. 23 April). on Saturday next. a musician and instrument seller aged 32. Trumpets. has just received from Messrs. 81. of all sorts and sizes.. it was last mentioned in advertisements on 2 April 1802 (The Morning Chronicle).. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. Hay-market. organ builder aged 47. 13. that the above Business is carried on.. sold their instruments on a sale-or-return basis. Joshua Collins (fl. sentenced to twelve months in Newgate and fined 1 s. Serpents.. 69. the firm announced (London Packet or Lloyd’s New Evening Post): ‘LONGMAN AND BRODERIP. and John Wood. Cheapside. where Commanders of Regiments. 23 May 1795. from 3 to 9 dollars.. as first reported in London Gazette.187 with whom Longman went into partnership in 1798 (Morning Chronicle.   Fortunately. 3 November). 9 February). Bass Drums. Philadelphia Gazette & Universal Daily Advertiser Thomas Biggs. certificates to be granted on or before 14 May 1796 (General Evening Post. guilty of stealing another piano. with the Particulars of the Securities they hold.. Fifes... because of his good character). John Bates. New Langwill Index. tuner (found not guilty of stealing a piano. 190 Waterhouse. &c. From the public’s point of view. The other assignees are named in a series of three legal cases at the Old Bailey on 6 April 1796: William Blake. 1771–73) Waterhouse reported a mark ‘Joseph Collings’ on an oboe and octave bassoon. We shall see below that woodwind instruments by John Cramer were being sold by the firm. William Gater. meeting of creditors. Josiah Banger. 111 advertisement: But by this time the firm was going through bankruptcy. 25  February 1773. Front street. No. Herne and Pearce. Several employees or associates of the firm appeared during the case. 21 August). silver and brass keys. Cymbals. that their Depositions may be prepared prior to the Meeting’. William Boxam. At the sign of the Mariner and Quadrant. a spinnet. musical instrument makers. remarking. to Messrs. Lasocki — woodwind makers 26. who claimed to sell the firm’s instruments on a sale-or-return basis (found guilty of stealing a piano forte. The oboe .. also German and common flutes.. Regimental Flutes.   Fifes from 7s6 to 10s made of the best Turkey box wood and tip’d. and Tambour de Basque. 189 Samuel Allen (see above). Clarinets. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Concert Horns. their attorneys advertised: ‘The Creditors of Messrs. where all sorts of turner’s work is executed in the compleatest manner. the latest and most approved music [sic] as follows. and all Orders will be punctually executed’.   Likewise . where he teaches the most modern 186 On 3 June (Morning Post and Fashionable World ).   German flutes with single and extra joints. Bugle Horns. the Haymarket. 188 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. describing himself as ‘musical instrument-maker and turner from Manchester’. ‘He has opened an evening school for musick. 22 August (London Packet or Lloyd’s New Evening Post. may be supplied with them on reasonable terms. Annapolis. LONGMAN and BRODERIP . Cheapside. at Mr.188 David Davies declared that he was ‘superintendant of the works’ for the firm and ‘manager of the affairs of the assignees’. Fountain-court. announced in Maryland Gazette. (the Day appointed for the Choice of Assignees). formerly in the firm’s employment. Triangles. dividends 28 May 1800 (Observer. LONGMAN and BRODERIP. 265–66.. porter and packer at the firm’s warehouse. assignees begin advertising 18 November (Courier and Evening Gazette). THE PUBLIC are respectfully informed.189 Waterhouse says that Longman & Clementi lasted until ‘c1801’.190   Joshua Collins. Richard Geast. ‘The name has also been read as “Joshua Collinge”. Thomas Young. hautboys.. organ builder. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. fifes. at the Houses of Messrs.indd 111 07/05/2010 14:12 . 187 Nex and Whitehead. some details of the firm’s flutes and fifes are found in the following American 23 February 1795. Mathematical & Optical Instrument Maker. viz. William Figgs. solicitors to the Commission. MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERS. musical instruments.. who intend proving their Debts under the Commission. 6 April 1796. and Tottenham Court-road. 265–66. &c. “Coigne”. bears a dating (manuscript) of “November 1771”’. &c. sentenced to be transported for seven years). Nex and Whitehead. all sorts of musical instruments repaired. John Hepburn’s. in Cheapside. and at short notice. harpsichord and piano forte maker. Bassoons. a violin. the bankruptcy went smoothly: six days later. employed for sixteen years (found guilty of stealing a piano forte and fined 1s. Henry Holland. worker in firm’s ‘wareroom’.. that he had begun business ‘at Messrs Shaw and Chisholm’s Cabinet shop.’ Furthermore. Thomas Baskerville. as usual. and at No. south . Fountain Court. mouth pieces for German flutes. aged 28..

clarinet.   No other woodwind makers from Manchester are known before Michael Cowlan in 1835.—Hermitage Bridge. two globes. four feather beds. ADAM MARTIN. Inst. 3  November). To Musical Instrument Makers and others. Cities of London and Westminster. of Mr.londonancestor. satin wood. London. of Hermitage Bridge in the County of Middlesex. as first reported in London Gazette. 195 Wakefield’s Merchant and Tradesman’s General Directory . Gentlemen and others who are pleased to honour him with their Commands. a Bankrupt. Sold by the Printer hereof.com/kents/kents-menu. accessed 3 March 2009.. twenty-two fifes. Linen. Tortoishell joined for Mathematical Instrument Makers and others in the neatest and most durable Manner. glasses. Martin. The stock comprises nineteen violins. in which the Beauty of the Shell and Mellowness of the Wood are united. blankets. On Thursday. he went bankrupt. Mkr.. 193 See also Doane. HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. listed 1796 as “Mus.” at Hermitage Bridge’. cedar. Martin’s tortoiseshell is like Bressan’s mentioned above: a veneer was fitted over the body of the flute. a valuable cremona. or. Daily Advertiser TORTOISHELL Work. and variety of kitchen furniture. Martin is listed in a London directory of 1790 as 191 Martin is still listed in a London directory for 1800 at Hermitage Bridge.. four organs.   The following American advertisement could well be a garbled version of his name and address. one harp. sycamore. hautboy. 76. 28 May 1793: ‘Adam Martin. a large quantity of ivory and tortoishell. forty-two unfinished ditto. 1775–1800) Two surviving one-keyed flutes are marked ‘A. &c. two vertical jacks. Instrument Maker.191 Adam Martin (fl. He also makes and covers Flutes with Tortoishell. adjoining the Hermitage Bridge. four piano fortes. linen. All other Kinds of German Flutes made and sold by him. available from http://www. East Smithfield.195 Three years later. 200. mahogany in boards and veneers.htm.112 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) ‘musical instrument maker. showing that he stocked not only woodwind instruments and material to make them (including ‘tortoishell’). mahogany bureau and bookcase. and approved methods of playing the German flute. under the care of some of the greatest masters in England’. The household furniture comprises four-post bedsteads and bureau ditto. counters. a grate and copper. Dealer and Chapman’.196 Waterhouse. and The General London Guide. 253–54. Musical-Instrument-Maker. London’ and ‘MARTIN / LONDON’.193 A 1794 London directory described him as ‘Musical Instrument-maker. & Tortoiseshell worker’. A Musical Directory (1794). shelves. A month after his bankruptcy. Made by M. Perhaps he had picked up such training by stopping off in London on the way to America. 44: ‘Martin. by order of the Assignees. a patent ditto. bassoon. china. at eleven o’clock. but also bowed and plucked strings and keyboard instruments: 24 June 1793. Having been educated in that science. Musical Instrument Maker. six German flutes. several dozen of base viol wood. Musical Instrument and Flute Maker. New York Packet and the American Advertiser (printed by Samuel Loudon) GERMAN FLUTES. and quilts. Tradesman’s Directory for the Year 1794. five guitars. ‘identifiable with Adam Martin. 196 The New Annual Directory for the Year 1800 (London: T. however. seven hundred and eighty nine dozen of slate pieces. mahogany double and single chests of d[r]awers. 1800). three Bassoons. as fixed. by ADAM MARTIN. 246. New Langwill Index. music books. HERMITAGE. 194 Kent’s Directory for the Year 1794.. since no maker of the given name is known: 5 April 1784. ALL the Valuable STOCK in TRADE. New Langwill Index. The final dividend on his estate was not made until 1 December 1795 (London Gazette.192 Waterhouse wondered whether they were made by the same man. 192 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Hermitage bridge’. for the Year 1790. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser SALES by AUCTION. eleven bundles of first strings. Waterhouse. his stock-in-trade and belongings were auctioned off. 74.194 The following advertisement confirms that he made flutes and gives details of his speciality: 28 December 1775. gothic doors. at the Hermitage Bridge. and hard woods. Maiden for the proprietors. three tenor ditto.indd 112 07/05/2010 14:12 . Wapping ’. & Borough of Southwark . scales and weights. an eight-day clock. mahogany chairs. and on the most reasonable Terms. nineteen gross of pencils. books. the 27th instant. By JOHN AYRES. nests of drawers. on the Premises. &c. and variety of other effects. holly. may depend upon being served with the best Instruments.

accessed 6 January 2009. 5. 1836. Lippincott. 1845. 6. ‘cheerfully gave him all the information in his power as to the quality and value of different furs. 1973). 1931. reported that Astor ‘had a pacotillo of musical instruments’. 4. MA: Harvard University Press. the son of John Whetten. by a curious turn of fate. who. Lea & Blanchard. 1966). 1836. 177 (February 1865): 311. the celebrated author. 36.203 Rather. apart from what he had picked up over the previous two years from working as an assistant in his father’s butcher’s shop. London” may have been made by the younger Astor’202 But he left for the United States in November 1783. 201 Kenneth Wiggins Porter.205 and O’Loughlin goes so far as to characterize him as having ‘left for the USA to sell flutes’. Howden Smith. New Langwill Index. An Index of Musical Wind-Instrument Makers (Edinburgh: author. by Niall O’Loughlin. ‘Astor’. 440. s.v. according to an account by Astor’s friend Washington Irving. moved to another (again unidentifiable) around May 1791. to Which is Appended a Copy of his Last Will (New York: American News Company. B.207 Joseph G.. reprint. 18. in a letter written in 1836. some of which is assuredly garbled. 1929). mate on the ship that took Astor to America. John Jacob Astor.199 In the 1788 poll book he is noted as ‘George Astor 24 Wych St Flute Maker’. 202 Grove Music Online. Parton.198 The rate books suggest that George entered a house that is impossible to identify on Wych Street around August 1782. Langwill. London: R. Martha Novak Clinkscale. Astoria. 197 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. XV [Boston: Twayne. Makers of the Piano 1700–1820 (Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. ‘John Jacob Astor’. 28. ‘Astor’. 200 Information from Byrne. Grove Music Online. Cogswell. 205 [Moses Yale Beach]. More reliably. where he met a Swiss merchant and told the man he ‘had some articles of merchandise to dispose of chiefly music and musical-instruments’. 1993). 204 Washington Irving. Lasocki — woodwind makers 113 George Astor (1752–1813) and Family.   The so-called partnership between the Astor brothers would have been impossible. Famous Americans of Recent Times (Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin.201 He could well have been apprenticed to his brother over the next four years.v. John Jacob Astor: Landlord of New York (Philadelphia: J. when he was only about 16 and had not yet learned a trade. when his son Joseph was baptised. Richard Dilworth Rust. 29. 203 Porter. the same parish as Wych Street. 11–12.   George was living in St Clement Danes. Harper’s New Monthly Magazine 30. on the voyage Astor made the acquaintance of a German furrier. arriving in Baltimore in March the following year. anon. 1960).indd 113 07/05/2010 14:12 . and eventually invested the profits in real-estate. John Jacob did not join his brother in London until 1779. 25–26.206 William Whetten. New York: Arno Press. The Todd Genealogy.204 Thus Astor entered the fur trade. reprinted in Parton’s Life of John Jacob Astor. no. 15.. wrote: ‘a consignment from Lyndesay G. s. only two months after the end of the Revolutionary War. 12. Wealth and Biography of the Wealthy Citizens of New York City (New York: Sun Office. The Complete Works of Washington Irving. accessed 6 January 2009. [James Parton]. Astor himself described his arrival in Baltimore. accessed 25 January 2009. New York: Russell & Russell. and the mode of carrying on the traffic’. 207 Quoted in Richard Henry Greene. 1867). London) marked “Jacob. In any case. 206 Quoted in Porter. reprint. famously amassing vast wealth. who knew Astor and after his death was appointed by his wishes superintendent of the Astor Library. 1867). ed. by Niall O’Loughlin. then left again around 1797 for 79 Cornhill. John Jacob Astor.200 Perhaps this was an error for 26. Waterhouse.197 No source is ever given for this information. 198 International Genealogical Index . Arthur D. and O’Loughlin suggests that ‘A one- key flute (Horniman Museum. John Jacob Astor: Business Man (Cambridge. 199 Information kindly supplied by Maurice Byrne. London from around 1778 to 1783. 7. 1976]). or the Register of the Descendants of Adam Todd (New York: Wilbur & Hastings. 1865). on 15 July 1781. Bentley. or Anecdotes of an Enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains (Philadelphia: Carey. John Jacob Astor (1763–1848) Reference sources from Langwill to Waterhouse to Clinkscale to Grove Music Online state that the German-born brothers George (Georg Peter) and John Jacob (Johann Jacob) Astor established a flutemaking workshop as ‘George & John Astor’ at 26 Wych Street. this entry may be the sole surviving evidence that he actually made flutes rather than act as a dealer or manufacturer. reprint. and there is no evidence that he tried to practice the turner’s trade in his new country.  Astor is traditionally said to have taken seven flutes with him to America that he had bought from his brother for five guineas.

observing. 5 (October 1855): 137. Loudon. in the ship Triumph. John Jacob Astor. 6 (April 1876): 881. No. Astor. 27 February.215 set up his own shop in New York at his mother-inlaw’s house. finally left his flutes at the printing-office of Samuel Loudon’s New York Packet for sale. and rendered an account to his brother of the consignment he had made to him. by S. by John Denis Haeger. disposed of them advantageously. Porter. Cogswell]. Art. New York Packet and the American Advertiser German Flutes. cit. N. 10 March 1785 The first scholarly biographer. Historical. Violins. 24. the returns from which were sold for their mutual benefit’. 214 although Porter had considered it doubtful. 46. Manufactures. Of a Superior Quality. Guitar’s. Hautboy’s. but of course we cannot be positive’. it is almost possible that these belonged to Astor. Queen-Street. 21 October 1784. Has just imported. newly married. no. John Jacob Astor. Great Lakes Books (Detroit: Wayne State University Press. 1991). and in any case he would have been far more likely to have flutes made by his brother than by Martin. 210 Porter. With these he sailed from New York to London in 1784. to be sold at this Printing-Office. such as Piannaforte’s. ‘Astor Library’.. but the date is about two weeks before he arrived in New York. 209 An Old New Yorker (Richard Williamm. dating back to the establishment of the first papers’. 4. 137. for piano forte and harpsichord. 215 He married Sarah Todd on 19 September 1785. John Jacob Astor. remarks: ‘It is altogether possible that these were Astor’s flutes.indd 114 07/05/2010 14:12 . Agriculture. no. an elegant assortment of musical instruments. As the above mentioned. The United States Magazine of Science. for several instruments.) Porter does note the following advertisement in the New York Packet. 1 Chamber That presupposes Astor had made an immediate return trip to England. those who intend to purchase will be speedy in their application. 22. with Diapason Stops. Scribner’s Monhly 11. Bath Packs country dances.209 Williamm then quotes the following advertisement. with no place of business. 8[blank]. are the property of a gentleman who means to leave this city about two or three weeks hence.213 Even the most recent study of Astor. and Commercial JACOB ASTOR. Kenneth Wiggins Porter. and to be SOLD.. Repeated 24 November with ‘No. Political. A variety of music by the best Masters. 3.). and by his advice Mr. German Flutes. He must have had already had some capital or good credit with London makers. Jr. as related by Irving: the German furrier ‘subsequently accompanied him to New York.210 (We have seen above that Loudon was selling flutes apparently made by Adam Martin on 5 April that year. ‘This is exactly the type of consignment which Astor would probably have brought from England’. as he could advertise: 19 November 1785. 8[blank]’ corrected [Joseph C.   Less than two years later. Daily Advertiser. John Jacob Astor. pseud. Astor was induced to invest the proceeds of his merchandize in furs. 208 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. an early biographer.211 JUST IMPORTED.208   By the middle of April 1784. The sale of goods on commission by printers was an old custom in New York. making the assumption that the flutes were Astor’s and that the advertisement was repeated until they were sold: 23 September 1784. his brother of some few hundred dollars’ worth of musical instruments’. all of which will be sold on reasonable terms. ‘The Astor Library and its Founder’. 212 Loc.’ 212 The story was supported by Cogswell: ‘After a short visit to this country he returned to London. Captain Danser. wrote that: ‘Young Astor. Business and Finance in the Early Republic. Commerce and Trade 2. 211 Porter. 10 February. near the Friends Meeting-House. Richard Williamm. 21. tipt with silver and common. 27 January 1785. &c. 213 Cogswell. 214 John Denis Haeger.B. Repeated 30 September. German-flutes. repeats the story approvingly. ‘The Astor Family of New York’.114 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Organ. 1 Eolichord with hammer and strings. and no acquaintance among those most likely to buy musical instruments. Clarinets. Astor had moved on to New York and doubtless wished to sell whatever he may have brought from London for ready cash. made himself further acquainted with the course of the trade and returned the same year to New York. Per the Mesborough.. 11.

two doors from the Friends Meeting House. So evidently John Jacob kept on dealing in pianos for a while after he stopped advertising them. Has just imported from London. Violins of all sorts. Whatever Astor ordered. pianoforte guittars. such as Piano-Fortes of the best kind. yours. spinnets. and every other article in the musical line. Queen-Street. 81. When done call on Mr. repeated 2–3.   I am.. to ‘No. Has just received from London. Philadelphia 216 217 Porter. 26–29 January 1789. German Flutes.. German flutes. 26 February 1890. the instruments were probably among the flutes Astor had imported. 219 ‘The House of Astor. I wish to have it plain in every respect and the case of handsome wood. which are to be sold on very reasonable terms. addl. 26 February 1890.216 A similar advertisement followed the next year: 7 August 1787. 30 December 1788. A g. and as we have said he ordered largely.indd 115 07/05/2010 14:12 . or any other good ship.’. maker’s name Austin. an assortment of PIANOFORTES of different kinds. Astor as the seller thereof. before mentioning only furs (and wine on the side)... pf.   Now let us return to George’s career in London. 1027. &c. 10. I shall wish to have it shipped in July or August next by the ship Hope for New York. George Astor. 18 September After that. an elegant assortment of MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. Clarinet. New-York Packet: ‘J.. Violins and flutes. Bassoons. Byrne suggested: ‘It is possible that he was of German extraction and that he attracted other German immigrants to work with him. Repeated 8 June Twenty Dollars Reward.220 We do not know exactly when Astor arrived in London but. HoutBoys... ‘The original John Jacob Astor did a large business with us.. the best of violins. of the newest construction. Astor advertised only pianos for two years. Pennsylvania Packet. March 14. several german flutes. London. ‘To the Editor of The Times’. a flute-maker in Cornhill’. An elegant assortment of Musical Instruments. was broke open and robbed of . GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Cheapside.   Messrs. hautboys. Keys. ‘Miller. and all other kinds of strings. I rely on your honour to let it be a good one. two doors from the Friends Meeting-House. in Market street. If so. 1795.   Gentlemen:—Please to make me one of the best grant pianofortes you can. 5 May 1788. music books and paper. 81. made by the best makers in London’. as reported verbally to the clerk: 10 April 1786. 314. clarinets. Loudon’s New-York Packet JACOB ASTOR. guittars. with respect. No. like his younger brother. The address 26 Wych Street is found on a surviving clarinet by George Miller (see below). he paid for.. New-York Packet JACOB ASTOR. 26 November Lasocki — woodwind makers 115 25 May 1786. ‘John Jacob Astor’. To be sent Mr. by Maurice Byrne. he is unlikely to have had any Porter. 19–20. Made by the best makers in London’. just received per the ship Ann from London. 220 New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments.   JOHN JACOB ASTOR   638. 28 October 1788. also. Broadwood and Sons219 Broadwood’s letter commented. Queen Street. Repeated 14 August. Daily Advertiser : ‘an assortment of Piano Fortes. and Daily Advertiser.v. J. 5–9. J. The belly may be screwed fast. JACOB ASTOR .217 Parton (1865) reported that ‘in some old houses are preserved ancient pianos bearing the name of J. which he will dispose of on very low terms for cash.218   In the following advertisement.. the invoices being delivered to his brother. in which they reproduce a letter to them from John Jacob who had been visiting London a century earlier and ordered one of their pianos:   City Coffee-house. George’. 23–24. John Jacob Astor.. 218 Parton. 12–13.   The firm of John Broadwood and Sons wrote a letter to The Times. Austin has not been reported previously. April 5. Life of John Jacob Astor. Last Night the store of John Rice. Daily Advertiser : ‘an elegant assortment of PIANO FORTES. Times. states that his brother George ‘sold him goods for his musical-instrument store and acted as his London agent in various transactions’. gentlemen. are occasionally met with that have his name upon them’. No. fifes. so the word was probably a corruption of Astor. repeated 6. 10 May. 17. 81’. 40. the best Roman violin strings. presumably based on papers in the Astor archive. George Astor for the payment. 8. indeed that he was the maker with whom George Astor first worked on his arrival in England’. s. such as piano fortes. Astor.

Oct. By 1777 Miller had left Wych Street. his naturalization was publicized: ‘HOUSE OF COMMONS.   Regiments supplied with complete Setts of Military Instruments. 223 Astor’s expansion into music publishing. repaired.. beg leave to acknowledge their obligations to their friends. The story about Astor is perpetuated by the letter from John Broadwood and Sons to The Times. 2 December 1791.   Later that year. Harpsichords. French-horns. Clement’s. 26 Wych-street.indd 116 07/05/2010 14:12 . St.  ASTOR and Co. he advertised from his new premises:   ASTOR and CO.   MUSICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERS TO HIS MAJESTY’S ARMY. Tamborines. Esq. Bassoons.   In advertisements Wych Street without a number is first associated with Astor in World. 222 Porter. consisting of Clarionets. and finished in the best manner’. Were the engines used in the manufacture of pianos?   In Morning Chronicle. Astor sought to introduce himself to the military market as an agent and instrument seller: MILITARY BANDS OF MUSIC OFFICERS of the ARMY and NAVY may be immediately supplied with complete sets of Instruments for a Band. 20 December 1796. grand and small Piano Fortes. Later he did manufacture pianos. when he was one of the ticket sellers for a charity performance of Handel’s Messiah. A PERSON wellacquainted with the CONSTRUCTION of STEAM ENGINES. with good Musicians to play the same. MANUFACTURE and sell Wholesale.. 26. and Wind Instruments of every description. [William] Wennington. in Oracle and Public Advertiser.. and Cymbals equal to those made in Turkey. 221 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. who keeps always ready for their inspection an Assortment of well-tuned and properly-seasoned Instruments. Likewise some capital French Harps.116 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) A similar advertisement in Morning Chronicle. when he announced that he ‘WANTED.221 The Astor biographies observe that George ‘is said to have had an uncle connected in some capacity with the musical-instrument manufacturing firm of Shudi & Broadwood’. and tuned in Town and Country. Violincellos. 26 February 1890. Serpents. and adapted to music by various modern Composers’ (not listed in RISM). by applying to George Astor. 25 June 1797. 69 [recte 79]. Violins.v. Fifes. and the Public in general. Roman Strings. 8 July 1795. is confirmed by an advertisement in The Observer. Astor. and the best materials. and respectfully inform them.222 and which is likely to have given him employment at first. of fine seasoned wood. and published. St. and for Exportation. for their former favours.   Instruments let on hire. upon different subjects.223 In a similar advertisement in Times. complete sets of which. listed by O’Loughlin as having happened ‘By 1800’.   Several good Masters for teaching Bands to be heard of as above. A message was received from the [House of] Lords. respectfully begs leave to inform the Officers of his Majesty’s Army. describing himself as ‘Musical Instrumentmaker. that they have removed from their late Manufactory in Wych-street. John Jacob Astor. Organs. ‘Broadwood’. O’Loughlin’s statement that Astor made ‘an initial visit to London’ before he ‘decided to establish a business there’ is unsupported by the sources he cites. Wych-street. and Musicians provided. Grove Music Online. Retail. CORNHILL. Drums.   No. 25 October. Nevertheless. announcing that they had given their assent to the bill for the naturalization of George Astor. He himself did not advertise until four years later. mentions ‘complete sets of instruments warranted well in tune. that Astor married Elizabeth in London in 1777. so he may have passed on the workshop to Astor. made of good seasoned wood. at GEORGE ASTOR’s. Monday. especially as both used a unicorn head in their maker’s mark. who would undertake the Management of one for a Term of Years. printed. He will meet with liberal encouragement. for in Telegraph. Importers of Pedal Harps. 6 June 1798.. relating to George and John Jacob: ‘The uncle of both may have been at one time in the employment of our house’. in Telegraph. Flutes. Musical Instrumentmaker. an apprenticeship with a woodwind maker such as Miller is highly probable. s. accessed 6 January 2009. International Genealogical Index says. 9 January 1795. Triangles. for a collection of ‘Twenty-two Songs and Glees. written by Mr. 1027. No. that he has always ready for sale a large Assortment of Military Musical Instruments of every description. without a source. trade besides butchering at the time. Bugle-horns. and Music Seller . Music sold..’  Astor evidently succeeded in his attempt to woo the military. John Broadwood married Burkat Shudi’s daughter in 1769 and became a partner in the firm the following year. 25 April 1796. Drums. Hautboys. No. Trumpets. 14. Tambourines. by Derek Adlam and Cyril Ehrlich. and German Wire. Clements’.

Bassoon tops. to Nathaniel Winchcombe. &c. patented 1788.. which. Esq. illustrated in Rob van Acht. Whitehead and Myers note: ‘There is . Astor listed his ‘low prices’ for the military instruments: usually sold for —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— —————— 5 10 5 20 26 6 12 6 4 5 8 to 10 And every other Article in the Musical Line. Good Musicians recommended’. Lasocki — woodwind makers 117 for a Band. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 241. in Silver.’ Although hardly new. 89 St.. Also a new-invented Sliding Horn. hence the name’. Oakham. 237. Brass and Copper..B. 22. 1 August 1798..228 Some light is shed on the purpose of the trumpet top by a letter written around 1798 by John Pearce. Jahrhunderts = Dutch Double Reed Instruments of the 17th and 18th Centuries: Sammlung = Collection Haags Gemeentemuseum (Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. and is a most desirable acquisition. was made possible by the invention. added ‘N. 4 August 1798. He asks that Winchcombe ‘order . ‘the work of Charles Clagget .. Historic Brass Society Journal 16 (2004): 91. 18 August. tunes it in all the keys. Jan Bouterse and Piet Dhont.229  A repeat of Astor’s advertisement in Star.v. inscribed near the rim “John Köhler Maker Whitcomb Street London”. per pair Best Bassoons. No. enclosed with a bill in 1795. 549–50. a ‘carver’ (stone mason) in Frampton. Niederländische Doppelrohrblattinstrumente des 17. 225 Lance Whitehead and Arnold Myers.. an eight-keyed bassoon with brass keys and mounts bearing the stamp of George Astor . on Köhler’s trade card’. For Clagget’s patent. states that he ‘Makes German post horns. ‘manufactured by him’: 224 Oxford Dictionary of Music... Gloucestershire. gave discounted prices for keyboard instruments. with Bells Bass Drum 4 guineas 8 ditto 4 ditto 16 ditto 20 ditto 5 ditto 8 ditto 4 ditto 3 ditto 4 ditto 6 to 8 ditto and could thus gain the advantage of the full chromatic scale. cit.227 A separate brass bell has been preserved with a four-keyed bassoon by the Dutch maker Wilhelmus Wyne (1730–1816) of Nijmegen.226 The card.. ‘The Köhler Family of Brasswind Instrument Makers’. concerning instruments he needed for the Frampton Volunteers. by the addition of one crook only.. in Morning Herald. of curved sliding crooks called “inventions”. Clagget’s work. s. 1997). James’s Street.. Dutch Woodwind Instruments. one in D and the other in E♭. ‘Inventionshorn’. And a parallel advertisement in the same newspaper.224   Two months later. Frampton Volunteers D149/X21/15. Tops to Bassoons Concert Horns Ditto with Slides Concert Trumpet Serpent. this instrument may simply have been the Inventionshorn. The ‘trump[et] tops to bassoons’—expensive at the same price as a pair of clarinets—were extra metal bells with a wide flair. 90.. The bell is probably an example of a “Bassoon top” as listed and depicted . in Ridlington Church. 226 Loc. 228 Bouterse. who united 2 instruments. London’. by the horn player Hampel of Dresden.. may be had at an hour’s notice.. the Bassoons [to] have Trumpet Bell tops and common tops to use occasionally which will render them fit for concerts or Church Music when wanted—the Trumpet tops to correspond with the Horns &c’. 229 Gloucestershire Archives. und 18. Bugal horns. ‘Köhler Family’. in such a way that the player had both at command Best Clarionets. 227 Reproduced in Whitehead and Myers. see Patents for Inventions.. accessed 7 February 2009. at a saving to the Public from 15 to 25 per cent. lord of the manor. per pair Trump. with case Cymbals Bugle Horns Tambourine.indd 117 07/05/2010 14:12 .225 Köhler occupied that address in 1786–93. with a copper bell by John Köhler..

. Fitzroy Square.118 As sold by G. Astor’s catalogue did not include two instruments he began to advertise in 1799–1800. It reinforced the promise: ‘Regiments furnished with complete Sets of Instruments in one hour’s notice’.   English... and ‘tamborins’. and patent pianos. third. ditto Small ditto ditto. ditto ditto. Astor announced: ‘REAL FINE TURKEY BOX WOOD. Flutes from a second to an octave higher. see under Goulding below. 20 ditto  Astor gives more details of some of the pianos in Times. UPWARDS of Twenty Tons. For comments on the flageolets. and to be sold by J.231 We have already seen that the move to Cornhill took place in late 1796. 79 Cornhill and 27 Tottenham Street.   English. ‘Astor (George)’. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments.. 1800) is probably equivalent to that between London (bulb-top) and country (straight-top) oboes observed by Adkins (see above). Astor. which the database dates 1799. with Patent. The first advertisement to include the second address in Tottenham Street was in Star. as such an instrument was introduced four years earlier by Ferlendis (see above). four stops.230   Humphries and Smith state that in the period c1798–1814 Astor had two addresses. and fourth above 230 231 the standard instrument in D (sometimes extended to C) are already mentioned in an American advertisement of more than twenty years earlier: 22 November 1777. and additional keys. The ‘vox-humana’ could have been an English horn by this date. On internal evidence that dating is probable. 18 ditto Ditto ditto ditto. to be Disposed of’. Humphries and Smith. & D’Almaine.   The Burney Collection includes the following catalogue. 7–9. or common Concert Flutes. The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) By other houses. second Concert Flutes.. without ditto ditto 50. and possessing a superior brilliancy and sweetness of tone’. That catalogue even includes English flutes (recorders) in six sizes. 9 May 1799: ‘his new and much-improved Piano Fortes. 28 ditto Fifteen ditto ditto. in which case the first version may have been produced to mark the expansion to the second address. from six to fifteen inches diameter. flutes. s. Waterhouse notes that the Frenchman Louis Alexandre Frichot (1760–1825) in the ‘Early 1790s came to London as player of Young. upright. cited below. even including a seventh. The following are the Particulars of those lately imported. piccolos. ditto without ditto.   English. 16 ditto Twenty-one Keyed Organ with Drum and Triangle. Music Publishing. and additional keys. 232 A preface to the version imprinted 1799 lists discount prices for pianos and key’d organs.  On 3 November 1798 in Oracle and Daily Advertiser. all surviving Astor fifes. and their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and Dukes of York and Clarence’. and clarinets are made of box.v. and three barrels.   Second German Flutes   Third German Flutes   Fourth German Flutes   . New-York Loyal Gazette Musical Instruments. oboes.. and additional Upper Notes to F in Alt.   Despite being so comprehensive. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. ditto with common action. Phipps. & D’Almaine of 1800. It shows in remarkable detail what the well-appointed instrument manufacturer and dealer was selling (see facing page):232   Flutes pitched a second. without ditto. 22 ditto Ditto ditto ditto ditto. fourth Concert Flutes. 15  November 1798. We should not take this as evidence that he was abandoning box for some harder wood: according to Young. and gives details of the grand. and three barrels. are listed in the catalogue of Goulding. third Concert Flutes. and MUSIC-SELLER to their Majesties. or double action.   English.   The differentiation between ‘Italian’ and ‘English’ oboes in Astor’s catalogue (and also that of Goulding. barrel organs. with Patent or Double Action.   German Flutes with extra middle Pieces. being an octave higher than the usual scale. Rivington. three stops. 20 ditto Ditto ditto. Phipps. 70 guineas 65 ditto 30 ditto 26 ditto 24 ditto 20 ditto 38 ditto 25 ditto Grand Piano Fortes. 55 guineas Ditto ditto ditto. with additional keys. as the catalogue is virtually identical to another actually imprinted ‘1799’.indd 118 07/05/2010 14:12 . Astor now described himself as ‘MANUFACTURER of MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

and Case Kettle Drums. Brass ditto English Hautboy. No. Regiments furnished with complete sets of Military Instruments. 1 Piece C ditto. lapp’d. with Crooks E Flat ditto Foreign Concert Horns E ditto E Flat Trumpets A Serpent. ditto Ditto. 2d ditto Ditto. Wood Nuts Common ditto. 4th ditto Ditto. 6 Brass ditto. 3 Ferrels B ditto. silver Keys Ditto.. lapp Violin ditto. Brass ditto Plain ditto. 4 ditto Ditto. for Violoncellos Violin ditto. Hammers Common ditto. Trumpet Top Tipp’d B Clarionet Ditto C ditto Ditto D ditto A plain B Clarinet Ditto C ditto A Basset Horn French Horns. ditto Black Ebony Tail-pieces. with Key German Flute Mouth-piece Bass Bows. plain D ditto. Octave ditto A Tabor Pipe Lasocki — woodwind makers A Flagelet A French Flagelet A Bassoon with extra Keys Ditto. ditto Irish Bagpipes Scotch ditto. 4 ditto Ditto. 1 Silver ditto Ditto. silver Keys Ditto. small Tipp’d Italian Hautboy. 1 Piece D ditto. Screw Bows. 28 Inches Rosin Boxes. 27. ditto Clarinet ditto.indd 119 07/05/2010 14:12 . Fitzroy-Square. and extra Joints Ditto. wood ditto Tenor ditto. and No. with Drum and Triangle Grand Piano Fortes. tipp’d with Ivory. 3 Ferrels B ditto. and good Musicians recommended. with and without the Additional Keys French Pedal Harps Piano-Forte Guitars Spanish Guitars Eollian Harps. common Cover’d Guitar Strings 119 Harpsichord and Piano Forte Wire Bass Bridges Violin ditto Tenor ditto Common Violin Bridges French Horn Mouth-piece Trumpet. Concert English E ditto Concert Trumpet. 5 ditto Ditto. English Concert Flute Ditto. per pair Tabor Drums Triangle. ditto Tuning Forks Best ditto. for an Orchestra Ditto. 1 Piece B ditto. 5 silver Keys Ditto. not lapp’d Ditto. small Music Desks of all Sizes GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. to 50 guineas Kitts and small Violins A Flute. 79. Cornhill. London. 3 Ferrels C ditto. 6 silver Keys. 5th ditto Ditto. A CATALOGUE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS MANUFACTURED AND SOLD BY GEORGE ASTOR. 6th ditto Ditto. large Ditto. 2 ditto C ditto. with Bells Tambourine for Ladies Cymbals. Tottenham-Street. small Bugle Horn. Bone and Wood Ditto Rolls Brass Mutes Ivory ditto Wood ditto Best Violin Pegs Ditto. for a Regiment A large Brass Drum A common ditto Army Tambourine. large Ditto. Octave Ditto. large Ditto. 2 ditto C ditto.. ditto Ruling Pens Best Bassoon Reeds Hautboy ditto. ditto Vox-humana Tenorroon A Fife. and extra Joints Ditto. 2 ditto B Fifes with Key C Fife. Finger Organs Barrel ditto. 6d. 1 Piece 1 ditto. 6th ditto Ditto. 2d ditto Ditto. tipp’d. 4th ditto Ditto. 3d ditto Ditto. Silver ditto Ditto. Ivory Nuts. newly improved Double Basses Violoncellos Tenors Violins from 7s. 1 Brass ditto A Plain Flute Ditto. common Ditto. 3d ditto Ditto. Ivory Nuts Ditto Screw Bows. and Bugle Horn. 5th ditto Ditto. Brass ditto Plain ditto.

may be performed on. N. Green’. invented by M.120 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) a complete Military Band. he added the two new instruments to an advertisement addressed to the military: To the OFFICERS of his MAJESTY’S ARMY GEORGE ASTOR begs leave to inform the Officers of his Majesty’s Army. and manufactured by J. In 1800. Several good Masters of reputation. une description de son instrument dans une sorte de méthode intitulée. 236 Grove Music Online. made of the best materials. a description of his instrument in a kind of method entitled A complete scale and gammut of the bass-horn.235 ‘A fine specimen. La facture instrumentale à l’Exposition Universelle de 1889: notes d’un musicien sur les instruments à souffle humain nouveaux & perfectionnés (Paris: Librairie de l’Art Indépendant. (an Octave higher) with a Scale for both. in the Morning Chronicle. s. by the improvement of Finger-holes and Keys. Made and Sold by G. [sic] Astor ’. and dated 1807. GEORGE ASTOR respectfully begs leave to recommend to the Officers of his Majesty’s Army and Loyal Volunteer Associations. for which in 1800 he published a fingering chart’. as mentioned above. London.’ Constant Pierre. serpent. New Langwill Index. The so-called bass-horn was ‘an early variety of upright serpent’. These references to a keyed bugle are an astonishing find. Phipps. 14 July 1800. ASTOR.v.237 The earliest previous reference to a keyed bugle has been Joseph Haliday’s patent for such an instrument. warranted to be well in tune. the Tones being much superior to those now in use. complete Sets of which for a Band.   Morning Chronicle. 235 Grove Music Online. 291. is in F-Pc’. by Howard Mayer Brown and Stephen J. Specimens of the above. where he went as a refugee at the beginning of the Revolution. Louis Alexandre’. announced: ‘NEW-INVENTED BUGLE HORN. ‘New Light on the Early History of the Keyed Bugle. a new invented BASS HORN. No. accessed 23 January 2009. 4 April 1800. has already induced several Regiments to Introduce the same.indd 120 07/05/2010 14:12 . with facility and ease.. also the Bugle. where may be had. N. 1890).236 We can now move back the dates of the instrument and its fingering chart one year... and made of the best materials. Several Music Masters of good abilities that can be well recommended. which. 29 November 1799. 233 234 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 25) under ‘Frishot.. complete Sets of Military Instruments. Baines (revised). may be seen at his Warehouse. a1800 had a bass-horn built for him by George Astor . 79. London. and is of handsome appearance. Part 1: The Astor Advertisement and Collins v.. produces a most astonishing and powerful Bass. ‘Halliday’s [sic] Improvements in the Musical Instrument called the Bugle Horn’. ‘Ce cor-basse avait été imaginé par Frichot pendant le sèjour qu’il fit à Londres. In Star. that can be well recommended. Historic Brass Society Journal 21 (2009). as the following advertisement in Morning Chronicle. although it was unknown to Goulding.. which independent of its elegant appearance. a new instrument. p.. which reported that ‘this bass horn was conceived by Frichot during his sojourn in London. in all climates and changes of weather. s. Frichot. shewing the fingering and use of the Keys. he appended an important detail: ‘The new invented Bass Horn. insures its certain durability of keeping in tune. being a most valuable Acquisition to Military and other Bands of Music.v. il publia dans cette ville. où il s’était réfugié dès le commencement de la Révolution. may be had. 237 David Lasocki. also The bass-horn was not exclusive to Astor. he published in this city. in any Key of Music. by Reginald Morley-Pegge and Anthony C. 79.B. & D’Almaine that same year (see below). and is very light in carriage. Serpent ’. with a Scale. may be had at an hour’s notice.B. Cornhill. where I suggest that both instruments may have been made for Astor by John Köhler I (1753/4– 1801). signed by Astor & Co. as William Napier advertised it on 22 November 1800. 124.’ Three months later. attests: NEW INVENTED BASS HORN. No. ‘Frichot. who has a known connection with Astor. that he has now ready for sale a large assortment of Military Musical Instruments of every description. also the new invented Bugle Horn and Brass [sic] Horn. far superior to the Serpents now in use. as above’.. En 1800. on the shortest notice.. Cornhill. ‘Bass-horn’. which I explore in a separate article. the decided superiority it possesses over other Bass Instruments. accessed 23 January 2009. from its clearness of tones also.234 Frichot is listed in Doane’s A Musical Directory (1794. and being manufactured of Copper and Brass. 30 July 1800.233 His source of information was a book by Constant Pierre (1890). Weston. Waterhouse.

the property of George Astor. Tottenham-street. The report appends. Astor took out a fire insurance policy on property at ‘North side of the Open Space. Manufacturer of Grand and small Piano Fortes. it is called aire wood. Bassoons. Fitzroy-square. was George’s eponymous son (1779– 1832). Banks’. Oboes. Also. see also Patents for Inventions. (Lanham. was indicted for stealing eight pieces of wood. Horwood. 238 1824–1827 also in partnership with Gerock as “Gerock & Astor”. Astor. Bishopsgate-street. reproduced in Ralph T.. Later he testified that Skinner ‘was a servant before I was in the partnership. aged 45. Ms. value £3 3s. the new-invented Finger’d Bugle Horn.—Witness our Hands the 23rd of March 1809. 16 September 1801. being manufactured of copper and brass. in their dwelling house’. Benj. as “Gerock. far superior to the Serpents now in use.’. Violoncellos. I have the management of the business of that factory. but referring to 1810. Merchants and Captains supplied on the shortest notice. Geo. New Langwill Index. and Benjamin Banks. Musical Instrument-maker to his Majesty’s Army. curiously: ‘Second Count. jun. ‘gent. where are for sale several of the new invented Bass Horns. cit. being a most valuable acquisition to Military and other Bands of Music. in Sun-street. has already induced several Regiments to introduce the same. Waterhouse is more accurate than Humphries and Smith. 15. George Junior. Lasocki — woodwind makers 121 granted on 5 May 1810. Sun-street. 1830 last directory listing’. value 10s. was this Day dissolved.. 244 Year of birth given without source in International Genealogical Index .  On 16 September 1801. and Benjamin Banks. Cornhill. George Horwood.indd 121 07/05/2010 14:12 . 2nd ed. Horns. Charging it to be the dwelling-house of George Astor and George Horwood. MARK: “Astor & Lucas. London”’. independent of its elegant appearance. present a more complex picture. shows they were dashed: ‘Cornhill. shows that Astor had already opened such a factory seven years earlier. and No. Trumpets.239 The following advertisement in Times. Astor. Tambourines. the following noticed appeared: ‘The Partnership between George Astor. it is used for veneering’. Bishopsgate Street’ in 1802. 79. Astor. and keeping in tune in all climates and changes of weather. The decided superiority it possesses over other Bass Instruments.. and Music Seller. London. ‘two clarinets. but a notice in London Gazette. Finger and Barrel Organs with Drum and Triangle.. death date from Porter. however. Sun Street. MD: Scarecrow Press. 241 Loc. Importer of Pedal Harps.241 The advertisements and other sources relating to the family. December 4. 1809.”’ 242 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. Music Publishing. Astor rarely advertised after 1800—only the import of ‘Roman violin and harp-strings’ in Times.. Scots and Irish Bagpipes.242 On 12 January 1803. Third Count. 2004). and it includes his claim that the keyed bugle had already become popular:240 . 8 April 1809. That same year. a Thomas Singleton was acquitted of stealing.. wholesale. George Horwood. the prisoner was a servant in our house’.. then Gerock. Drums. and Banks. Horwood. Flutes. Guildhall Library. Musical InstrumentManufacturers... The Keyed Bugle. Waterhouse remarks: ‘1813 his widow successor.244 who testified: ‘I knew it to be the wood of Astor and Company from the quality and size of it. George Astor. at No. G. I have been in the partnership nearly two years’. retail. and German Wire. 61. of Cornhill. A printed version published in 1856. 8 August 1806—and he died in December 1813. 62 Sun St. ?his partner identifiable with John Lucas. 27. which. Horwood’. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 243 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. 12. Geo. 12 January 1803. now so much in use. 11936/423/727697.238   Waterhouse notes that Astor ‘had from c1807– c1811 an organ manufactory at the address below. insures its certain durability. produces a most astonishing and powerful Bass. 5 December. 28 October 1800. in the City of London. Geo. Geo. who did not know Astor’s death date and therefore have him rather than his widow in partnership with Horwood.   In London Gazette. John Jacob Astor. Clarinets. Skinner was found guilty and transported for seven years. Roman Strings. George Junior had clearly entertained hopes of going into business with his father. Serpents. Astor & Co. the Royal Manufactory. however. c1814–1819 in partnership with Horwood as Astor & Horwood. two months earlier. The Partnership which was in Contemplation between the undersigned. Thomas Skinner. Waterhouse himself slipped in his entry on Gerock in saying ‘in partnership with George Astor . The Astor involved in the case. 239 Waterhouse. in partnership with George Astor and George Horwood. the property of Astor. and for exportation.243 Banks swore he was ‘a musical instrument maker. Violins. I am in the habit of frequenting the factory. 1028. Charging it to be the dwelling-house of George Horwood’. has not taken place. 240 Moreover. Dudgeon.

Astor had apparently removed again: he took out a fire insurance policy on 4 Trafalgar Place. 251 Porter. have left for America before the end of his bankruptcy proceedings on 24 April 1813.   George Astor Senior made his Will on 10 January 1803. Merchant’. 11936/446/834234.245 Three years later. 245 246 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 1027. in the course of one year.249 Guildhall Library. Baker. Dittmer & Son are known as piano makers from around 1810 to 1849. Clinkscale notes ‘Their address was probably Magdalene Street. I understand took out fire insurance on 1 Brunswick Place. An apparently later piano suggests a move to Upper Mary-le-bone Street. I remitted to him on the 1st of Octbr. Benjamin Banks. Bloomsbury.248 He mainly bequeaths his property to his wife. Clapton. T. Astor removes Banks and Dobson as executors. PROB 11/1550–577. he set up in the fur trade for himself’.. 11936/446/834880. He mentions that since making the Will he has ‘purchased a certain share in the freehold messuage or tenement and premises in Cornhill wherein my business is carried out and also certain lands in America in the neighborhood of New York or elsewhere’. and his home address as Mat[t]hews Place. his certificates being confirmed on 30 March. described as Astor’s ‘partner’. last 2 bills for £500 each & on the 19th of Decr. described as ‘late of Cornhill . and his brotherin-law Joseph Wright wrote to John Jacob Astor on the seventeenth to tell him the news.   By the writing of the first codicil in 1808 Astor had removed to Clapton Passage.122 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010)   In the second codicil in 1813.251 He could not.  Astor also takes out his son George as beneficiary: ‘it is my will that the trusts of my said will shall not be deemed to extend to my son George Astor but shall be carried into effect in favor of all my other children as though he had never been born’. an area of Cambridge Heath in Bethnal Green that had been developed since 1792.. 249 Guildhall Library. which will go by this opportunity this was intended in advance as he expressed a want in his last letter to me. Fitzroy Square’. on the day before yesterday I wrote & enclosed a bill for one thousand pounds more. dated 14 February 1814. 550–52. 248 See A History of the Country of Middlesex. National Archives.250 Astor’s codicil establishes that Dittmer was known to his friends by his middle name and had to removed to Marylebone Street by 1813.246 The Will was proved on 6 December 1813. Clearly he had quarreled with Junior. Volume 11: Early Stepney with Bethnal Green. The Will and the first codicil were both witnessed by George Horwood.indd 122 07/05/2010 14:12 . and a friend. probably George’s wife. He states his ‘will that my said wife shall be at liberty to continue my trade or business in the same manner that I have carried on the same and for that purpose to employ such part of my property as may be necessary without being responsible for the risque attached to so doing and to take to her own use the profits thereof’. presumably shortly after his death. and the codicil was also witnessed by Mary Horwood. say to extent of £1000 Stlg. The Victoria History of the Counties of England (Oxford: Published for the Institute of Historical Research by Oxford University Press. after her death to be divided equally among their children after age 21. her brother Joseph of Hyde Street. ed. gentleman. during the years from 1810 to 1815. replacing them with ‘my friend William Dittmer of Marylebone Street Middlesex Piano Forte maker’. Ms. The Will gives Astor’s profession as Musical Instrument Manufacturer. 1998). in that letter he stated to me the many losses which he had met with.   Not only the War of 1812 but perhaps also George Junior played some part in the financial setbacks that George experienced a year or two before his death. F. who has often been confused with his father... 247 The response by John Jacob Astor. 84. 109–12. Porter states: ‘George Astor. T. George W. perhaps because of the son’s poor head for business. came to the United States shortly before the War of 1812 and was employed by his uncle in fur-trade transactions in Canada and the Great Lakes region in the years 1813–14. as first reported in London Gazette. however. John Jacob Astor. John Jacob Astor.247 The executors of the Will had originally been Astor’s wife Elizabeth née Wright. Fitzroy Square.. pawnbroker. Jr. After the war. By the following year. City Road. 9 February 1813. 250 Clinkscale. Ms. adding codicils on 5 April 1808 and 1 November 1813. one for £1000 more making together £2000. he was declared bankrupt. Hackney Road. is transcribed in Porter. Makers of the Piano. he went quickly through the proceedings. as relayed in John Jacob’s letter to Wright: the last letter which I have received from him was dated the 15th of May. Thomas Dobson. Hackney Road.

then of Edmund-Street. William Henry. 21 June 1814. Astor who I am sure will take good care of it & having you at hand she cannot want good advice. late of the Carlton Rooms. William Henry. Somer’s-Town.. his master. was this day dissolved by us .. musical instrument maker’ on some property in Artillery Court. 254 Porter. John Jacob Astor. 257 Guildhall Library. I take it for granted that his family know of his having some Wild lands in Lower Canada I think 10000 acres which he had from me . and adjoining the Haberdashers Almshouses. 7th day of February 1823’ (London Gazette. heretofore carried on by us. 7 October 1824. in Cornhill. Hoxton. I presume she will not think of carrying on the business if possible to avoid it & to keep what little property she may have & not risk it in strange hands. 258 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. was this day dissolved by us’. and in Tottenham-Street. Tottenham Court-Road.255 On the other hand. to sell some property’.   Elizabeth dissolved her partnership with Horwood ‘by mutual consent’ on 24 June 1818. Ms. 11936/478/948698.. 256 Year of birth without source in International Genealogical Index. Princess-Street.. and ‘William Astor and Co. This is presumably the partnership that Waterhouse had placed in the period c1807– c1811 and associated with George Astor. Hoxton New Town.253   John Jacob. 551–52. probably one of [Norman E. musicsellers. under the firm of Astor and Lucas. 11936/463/893270. Five months later. 260 Clinkscale. formerly of Warren-Street.257   William Henry then went into partnership with Lucas. ‘musical instrument maker’. Astor. 5 November): ‘The Partnership trade or business of Musical Instrument Manufacturers and Dealers in Music. in the county of Middlesex.  One Thomas Pearson was found not guilty at the Old Bailey of stealing a mahogany board. 11936/499/1016331.259 Clinkscale reports a surviving piano bearing his name. of Sun-street.252 123 George’s North American property is also mentioned by John Jacob: ‘some claims in Philadelphia. in 1814. worth 1500 or two thousand pounds Sterling’. who presumably did not know that George had encouraged his widow Elizabeth to stay in the business. Astor testified that ‘The premises were mine. 15  February). In 1818. Chiswell Street. took 252 out fire insurance on property described as both Haberdashers Walk. described as ‘of SunStreet . in the City of London. Makers of the Piano. heretofore carried on by us in Sun-Street.258   Freed from bankruptcy.’. Guildhall Library. John Jacob Astor. as witnessed by a notice of their break-up on 4 November 1822 (London Gazette. His certificate was confirmed on 22 November. Cornhill’ are cited as creditors of ‘Thomas Smith.indd 123 07/05/2010 14:12 . as she took out a fire insurance policy as ‘Elizabeth Astor. ‘There exists no information at all about this maker. William Henry. Ms. but it lasted a mere three months: ‘The Partnership trade or business of Musical Instrument-Manufacturers. Hoxton— probably where she was living. ‘gent. 551. to what extent I do not know. subscription and coffee-room keeper. Elizabeth. because he appears in a notice from the Court for Relief of Insolvent Debtors whose petition was to be heard on 10 February 1826: ‘Astor. 1787–p1838)256 and John Lucas. in the City of London. wrote to Wright in his unorthodox prose style: ‘I think my brother could not have done better with his property than to place it in the hand of Mrs.] Michel’s errors’. 79 Cornhill. 22 July). Lamb’s Conduit-street’. 253 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. took out fire insurance on property at 37 Moniers Street. of 61 Lambs Conduit Street.. 3 December 1823. refers to ‘Mr. William Henry tried his hand in business again: an advertisement in Morning Chronicle. Astor and Horwood. Porter. LeicesterSquare’ in London Gazette.. you may make it still less’. 255 Guildhall Library. then of Porter. She then evidently went into partnership with her son William Henry (b.. ‘Messrs. Booth testified that he ‘was employed by the assignees of Mr. Mss. was declared bankrupt (London Gazette. in Sun-Street. 550–51. as reported in London Gazette on the 30th. from Robert Booth. I continued on them up to the time in question’. 11936/480/954884 and 11936/478/954563. Lasocki — woodwind makers that some goods which he shipp’d since the war has been seized & is or will be condemned. 11936/478/948698. Astor’s Music Warehouse.. In 1819. 259 Guildhall Library. wind instrument makers and music sellers’ took out fire insurance policies the same year. on 12 November 1823. and 11936/499/1019691. Mss. Musical Instrument-Manufacturer’. 12.254 Before linking up with Horwood she may have tried to go it alone. remarking doubtingly. Pitfield Street.260   But William Henry evidently went bankrupt again. John Jacob Astor. under the firm of Astor and Company. value 10s.. Battle-Bridge.

. Gerock. Waterhouse gives 3 Ann Street. or to C. wine cooper.124 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) brought to justice. In any case. at 79 Cornhill. Gerock does. Germany. 262 Porter. Bishopsgate-street. 1837 succeeded by Robert Wolf. 265 London Gazette. music teacher Avenue 6th c. 1028. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Thirteenth’. Lamb’s-Conduit-Street.264 That had been George Astor’s address from 1796 until his death in 1813.. Weinsberg. 2.—Whereas. Cornhill’. are revealed by an advertisement that he placed in Times. A New York directory for 1835–36 lists: ‘Astor. see Patents for Inventions. 264 Waterhouse.). he has MOVED his STOCK and TRADE to No. 263 Proceedings of the Old Bailey. Wolf was still invoking the memory of Astor when he advertised in relation to his own patent pianos: ‘Robert Wolf & Co. 1804 granted freedom of Musicians’ Company as “son of Jacob Gerock of Ritzfield. 1814– 18.261 On 4 July 1836.262   In his entry on Christopher Gerock. and late of New-Street.—79. cited in Porter.—C. 1827–30. Bow-road’ died on 27 March 1850 in his 78th year. all in Middlesex. 6 December 1821: FIVE GUINEAS REWARD. Gerock had arrived in London around 1795: he testified in a case at the Old Bailey on 28 October 1830: ‘I have been thirtyfive years in London’. 28 October 1830. which firm he attributes to Elizabeth Astor.. 25 October 1826: TO the MUSICAL WORLD. dissolved 1822). pianoforte makers’. then of Cheapside. Holborn.indd 124 07/05/2010 14:12 . some Person or Persons did break open and enter the premises belonging to Mr. that having disposed of his premises (No. There was no formal announcement of the dissolution of Gerock. Wilmington-Square. 266 Wolf had taken out the patent on 6 November 1834. shall upon conviction receive the above-mentioned reward. Whoever will give information to John Barnes. on Saturday night (1st Dec. as witness the following advertisement in Times. however. although he observes: ‘1831 entered as a “small” worker his silver hallmark “CG” at Goldsmith’s Hall’. London’. Gerock retired to Harley Place (Times. Morning Chronicle. In Times. 22. Spa-Fields. naturalized”. 1028 and 1076 n. Gerock remained at 79 Cornhill by himself until 1831. 76. Hand and Trumpet. and where he hopes for a continuation of those favours which have been so liberally bestowed on him during the 25 years he has carried on his business in the abovementioned situation. GEROCK begs leave to inform his Friends and the Public. and when I send any to a customer I put a star under my name’. William H. 1821. Cornhill.. New-York Register. John Jacob made him a bequest of $10. Gerock observed of his maker’s mark: ‘there is an unicorn on the top of my name. Middlesex. and also SIXTEEN POUNDS WEIGHT of BRASS MUSIC KEYS. which he has occupied in the manufacture of musical instruments for the last 4 years (having succeeded the late Mr. as the last known address for Astor & Co. Morning Chronicle. in London Gazette.000. Then he went into a partnership that lasted only until 9 May 1832 with Robert Wolf. 9 March 1837. then that of his widow. The true dates of Elizabeth’s partnership with Gerock. 117. Astor). 11 May 1832. seem to have made some brass instruments. The dates and the attribution now seem suspect. and City Directory. 76. in an unfinished state. Waterhouse notes ‘fl London 1804–1837. Waterhouse lists Gerock only as a woodwind maker. Astor & Co.266   Elizabeth Astor does not seem to have had any further partnerships after Gerock & Astor folded in 1826. and to express his confidence that no diminution will be found in the attention which has been hitherto exerted in the execution of their commands. 11 April 1828. of the offender or offenders. 28th September 1826. Gerock.—Dec. Gerock & Co. London. solicit the favour of personal inspection at their ware rooms. as above. 133. 79. Bishopsgate-street within). 29 March 1850).. so that he or they may be 261 Waterhouse gives both ‘c1824–27’ and ‘1824–26’ for Gerock.. 17 January). of Harley-place. and of Ann-Street. 1822–1826. William Henry soon took a cue from his older brother and emigrated to the United States. 23 January 1834. 18 August 1837) and was succeeded by Wolf. Elizabeth (at first with Horwood. Astor & Co. John Jacob Astor. publican. Esq. and STOLE therefrom a KENT BUGLE and a CONCERT TRUMPET. Stone. 1805 established. Wilmington Square. and Co’s). Astor. described in 1828 as a young man who was his employee and in 1834 as his son-in-law.263 ‘Christopher A. John Jacob Astor. Cornhill. maker’s name engraved on each. and thus had been born in 1772/3 (Morning Chronicle. ‘C. Staffordshire. changed on 19 January 1838 to $500 a year. then 1827–37 for C. (late Gerock. In later years John Jacob took some care of Longworth’s American Almanac. Gerock. 79. Musical InstrumentMaker’ (London Gazette. John Barnes. New Langwill Index. Covent-Garden.265 After working alone for five years. then with William Henry and Lucas.

JOHN CRAMER to carry on my business of a MUSICAL INSTRUMENT-MAKER and TURNER. and a bass drum and drumsticks’ (e-mail message to the author. National Archives IR-26-570.267 But when Elizabeth died in 1842. Westminster. Miller did vote from that address on 1 August 1788. No. 1027. Their most obedient humble servant. 75. 3.273 The following advertisement appeared in the Daily Advertiser on 13 February 1773: TO Pawnbrokers. that my future support is derived entirely from Mr. 3. Cramer’s place of abode in London. 275. New Langwill Index. but the rates were paid by Frederick Wolf in 1784–90. Mrs.) Byrne established that Miller was working at 3 Dacre Street. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. and John Cramer in 1790–96. I beg leave also to assure them. 273 According to Waterhouse. 269 Eric Halfpenny. my PATRONS. from my great age and infirmities.269 (We have already seen that in his early career George Astor worked at the same address. in Knightsbridge. that I have.v. ‘George Miller and John Cramer’. 2 horns by George Henry Rodenbostel. Stolen the 8th instant. 1790–1812) Halfpenny observed that the address of 26 Wych Street for George Miller ‘occurs uniquely and very indistinctly on a C clarinet bell in the Hague Collection at Glasgow University’.272  A surviving clarinet by Miller is dated 1770. and I most humbly solicit for him the future favours of my kind friends and patrons. see Patents for Inventions. 1811–14. having been taught such business under my particular inspection. With the greatest deference and respect.271 Byrne noted that two surviving clarinets ‘have the mark “Cramer / London /unicorn” on all joints except the bell which has: “successor / to / G. 272 Byrne had suggested that they may have been the same man. Waterhouse quotes the letter written around 1798 by John Pearce about the Frampton Volunteers to the effect that ‘Cramer and Milhouse’s Clarionets are said to be superior to all others’. apparently quite on his own initiative’. New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. a Clarinet. ‘Early English Clarinets’. GSJ 19 (1966): 134–35. by a Man in red Clothing. On the patent. and this legacy was repeated in the codicil of January 19. In 1834 and 1837 Astor sent his brother’s widow bills on London amounting to £500 and £200 sterling. New Langwill Index. It is also necessary for me to observe.indd 125 07/05/2010 14:12 . and bring the Offender to Justice. yearly for her life”. Number 3 on the large Key. so that he may recover the abovesaid Clarinet. Elizabeth Astor was bequeathed “two hundred pounds sterling. 16. 1838. thought proper to appoint Mr. but as he is reputed the first Musician in England should think he may be easily traced out. 271 London Music Trades 1750–1800. the Estate duty registers record: ‘The whole of the estate lost in trade by the Executrix who died i[nsolvent]’. 1770–91) and John Cramer (fl. Maker’s Name Miller. respectively. John Jacob Astor. Dacre-street. I have the honour to be. Westminster. a small Cut with a Knife. I Beg leave most respectfully to inform them. he being a person duly qualified for that purpose. 4900 Historical Woodwind Instruments. Lasocki — woodwind makers 125 her financially: ‘In Astor’s will.274 He does not quote the lead-in sentences. Information supplied by Byrne. at 267 268 No. 19 May 1791. 270 Maurice Byrne. GSJ 18 (1965): 44. ‘Miller. and to caution them against any one who hath. 274 Waterhouse.270 According to a poll tax record. Mathew Dart reports that ‘the instruments are now in the Gloucestershire Folk Museum and consist of 2 clarinets and 2 bassoons. 165–66. Miller London / unicorn”’. George’. 25 February 2009).) George Miller (fl. all by Goulding—no mention of “trumpet tops”. from 1777. at the Queen’s Head. shall receive Half a Guinea Reward. dated July 4. and the PUBLIC in general. that no other person whatever is authorised by me to carry on the said trade. Westminster. 1836.268 (For a summary of the addresses with dates of members of the Astor family and their associates. Miller himself had used the unicorn mark (and it was continued by the partnership of Cramer and Key). Haymarket. see Appendix 2. Cramer is also listed at that address as ‘Inst Maker ’ in Doane’s A Musical Directory (1794). not listed in Young. Broadway. Whoever will give Information to George Bird. supposed to be pawned. s. in particular. Dacre-street. CRAMER. assume my name. I have from the Porter. which are even more revealing: ‘I have not been able to procure Mr. by me GEORGE BIRD. or hereafter may. shows that Cramer was not only the successor to Miller but had been his apprentice: To the NOBILITY and GENTRY. It therefore seems improbable that Miller was the man of that name who took out a patent on twojointed fifes of a copper-brass alloy in 1810 and lived at 3 Panton Street. 64. GEORGE MILLER. The following advertisement in World. establishing a terminus ante quem for his work.

. 474. Napier .. 46. inquire of Wm. Sun MILITARY MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.. ‘Napier. ‘Napier.126 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) may depend upon being served in the best manner. or exchange. and judicious Masters recommended. No.. which. Public Advertiser W. No. MR. 49. Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser REGIMENTAL MUSIC. Trumpets. Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser .. where may be had Military Instruments well seasoned and tuned. 1791–99. and concert promoter.. He normally advertised only his music publications. Leicester-square. &c.. 8. 97 Strand. 26 February 1783. Composed by T.. A Musical Directory.275 William Napier (1741–1812) Waterhouse wrote of William Napier: ‘1800 “trumpet Maker to the Board of Ordnance” . and 1800. later called No. 22 January 1780. Sun .v. Viola. ladies and gentlemen having musical instruments. Great Queen-street. takes this opportunity of returning his most grateful thanks to the Gentlemen of the Army.—For Particulars.. 8. Instruments of all kinds exchanged and taken in for sale. 278. And sold for the Author by Wm. which is seldom the case on those Instruments. by the best Masters.. he styled himself ‘Music-seller to their Majesties’. manufactured in the best manner. the corner of Lancaster Court. and at the shortest notice.. Doane.277   Napier had three different addresses in the eighteenth century: 1772–90. but from time to time he mentioned instruments: 6 August 1774. No. no expence incurred. Bugle Horns and Cymbals. 11 March 1783. No. by the best makers. Trumpet and Bugle Horn-maker to the Ordnance. that very best authority been told that he manufactures the best Wind Instruments in Europe—you may be supplied from the Shops of Longman and Brodrip Haymarket—who serve the Prince of Wales—or of Preston and Son No..v.. the fifths on the Trumpets and Bugle Horns are perfectly in tune.276 The newspaper advertisements show that they were indeed the same man. Strand.. warranted to stand any climate.—He now begs leave to acquaint them. Lisle-street. for the many favours he has lately received from them. may now have that opportunity free of expence. William’. music seller. which they wish to dispose of. such Gentlemen as may in future please to favour him with their commands. near Charing Cross. s. who had an unusually broad career: violinist and violist.indd 126 07/05/2010 14:12 . 49. New Langwill Index. but wheresoever you procure them.. Lincoln’sInn-Fields. Leicester-square.. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 12 June 1799. s. he has in his power to sell much cheaper than the ordinary selling prices of these instruments. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser . WANTED a MUSICIAN.. Frampton Volunteers D149/X21/15. SIX SONATINAS for the Piano Forte. WILLIAM NAPIER. Napier still continues to execute all Commissions in the Musical Line. and Gentlemen having Commissions from Abroad for MILITARY MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. Napier. 8 May 1800. or exchanged. 277 See Biographical Dictionary of Actors 10 (I1984). with fidelity and dispatch. No.. Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields. ?Identifiable with the music seller. World . and Grove Music Online. Strand. Music-seller to Their Majesties. qualified to lead and teacher a Military Band of Music. and as his attention for some time past has been principally directed to obtain Regimental Instruments.. music publisher. NAPIER begs leave to inform Officers of the Army and Navy. Great Queen-street. instrument manufacturer. WILLIAMSON. in the Strand. 474. Napier having considerably enlarged his shop. To be sold . Cramer and Milhouse’s Clarionets are said to be superior to all others’. W. 275 276 Gloucestershire Archives. Lisle-street. that he has with much industry procured an Assortment of the best CONCERT HORNS. listed 1794 by Doane as “Violin. in being employed to furnish their Regiments with Musical Instruments. by his method of manufacturing them. True Briton TO MUSICIANS. Music-Seller”’. publisher active c1772–1809. instrument dealer. Napier. accessed 23 January 2009. G. 16 February 1793. Military Bands furnished with the best Instruments. Waterhouse. a variety of other instruments.. at the usual Prices. in a Fencible Regiment of Foot.. and all Sorts of the newest Music and Musical Instruments. 22 November 1800. From 1783 to 1793 and again in 1800. William’. and if not sold.

. No. Trumpet and Bugle Horn-maker to the Ordnance.. by his Majesty’s letters patent. The Governors granted him £8 14s. Music Publishing. value 1 s. Covent Garden. Phipps and D’Almaine early in 1798’.   Biographical Dictionary of Actors states that ‘During his last months at [the Strand] he suffered financial reverses and bankruptcy.. c. Phipps & D’Almaine’. 25 June 1787). dulcimer. Tambourines. As this instrument needs but to be heard to convince the public of its great superiority over every one yet offered to the public.v. 42 St Martin-le-Grand. Bailey testified that he ‘had been at General Procedings of the Old Bailey. James’s Street. a flute maker named William Bailey. Goulding first demonstrated his association with Bury by appending to his address ‘and Messrs. and two fifes. see above. and that his wife and children were in extreme distress. They consist of Clarionets. 1784) At the Old Bailey on 21 April 1784. 21 April 1784. Bury and Co.. The bankruptcy notices all describe him as ‘Musical Instrument-maker’. 267. called an English flute.. The Royal Concert Piano Forte. Nex and Whitehead. 17 May 1788. 127 Prevost’s tuning a piano fort. music sellers and publishers . ‘Musical Instrument Making’. by applying to Mr..indd 127 07/05/2010 14:12 .279 George Goulding (fl. G. 10 March 1785: ‘G. George Goulding. Lasocki — woodwind makers he has now for Sale a large and valuable Assortment manufactured in the best manner. and Triangles. being announced in London Gazette. Concert and Bugle Horns. fit for training a Band. Goulding. that he was confined to the King’s Bench. 11 February 1788. Bury had been On the bass horn. 280 Humphries and Smith. 1787–98. 264. although the final dividend was not declared until 5 April 1791. ‘Musical Instrument Making’. Lislestreet.280 That partnership was of ‘Military musical instrument makers. 25. that he has provided an assortment of them for their inspection. a premium is expected’ (World and Fashionable Advertiser.   He has likewise great choice of Second-hand Instruments. harp and flute.’ He was still there on 19 April 1787 (Morning Chronicle and London Advertiser). comprising the harpsichord.. Had additional premises at 17 Great Turnstile. 267. On 5 December 1790 he informed the Governors of the Royal Society of Musicians that his goods that been taken in execution. &c. His bankrupcy actually went back a few years earlier.   In Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. 8. inasmuch as Napier was now liberated and in good health’. 278 279 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 113. for that month. 1787. Bishopsgate-street Within’ and advertising ‘Of whom may be had. Jamesstreet. 6 James Street. According to Humphries and Smith. The man was sentenced to death. who also sold and manufactured musical instruments. 1800–04. ‘and they played on them to try them’. Became Goulding. Music-Seller to Their Majesties. Bassoons. value 4 s. Covent-garden’. adding ‘An Apprentice is wanted. Goulding was at ‘25 James Street. at his Music Warehouse. with additional premises at 76 St. 1798–c. Holborn. or for the common use of one already formed. and Musician in Ordinary to the King. 113 Bishopsgate Street within [the City] in 1788. organ. Cymbals. The lads were convicted of burglary. No. and others.278  On 8 December the same year. a man was accused of robbing Bailey at pistol-point ‘on the King’s highway’. 1785–1834) The database of the Burney Collection should prove invaluable for adjusting the addresses and dates of London music publishers. and a selling agency at Samuel Bury and Co. c. Goulding takes the liberty of informing the nobility. Trombones or Sackbuts. and warranted to stand in tune in any climate. Napier. His removal down the street must have happened almost at once. 1786–87. 6. Nex and Whitehead. James-street Covent-garden. No. on 7 March 1791 [the Governors] ordered the allowance discontinued. 8 December 1784.’ from his house.   Great variety of Military Music. and the best Masters and other Performers recommended. s. No. The next month he called the premises Haydn’s Head. and each sentenced to transportation for seven years. A witness said he saw ‘the lads’ go to an ironmonger’s shop in Fleet Street to sell them.. gentry. Music Publishing. accused a young shoemaker and a boy of stealing ‘one flute. 264. Bass Horns. but not breaking and entering. s. Trumpets. is a case in point.v. ‘Goulding. William Bailey (fl. he being the only vender of them at the west-end of the town’. 45 Pall Mall. ‘Goulding (George)’. The Haydn’s Head. Pianoforte makers and organ builders.’ 281   The first advertisement for Goulding is in the Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. Proceedings of the Old Bailey. Bass Drums. 281 Humphries and Smith. at his House.. 1804.. for on 25 May in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser he announced: ‘George Goulding. Covent Garden. and double harpsicord’. ‘where every article in Musick may be had on the most reasonable terms’.

‘Goulding. The additional premises at 76 St James’ Street were first advertised on 22 February 1800 (Sun). showing the breadth of their offerings.283 On 4 January 1799 in True Briton. 285 Alan Radford. Bishops-gate-street’. 289 See Nikolaj Tarasov. any noise. 35.’ presumably the new English flageolet and its longstanding French counterpart. and No. and could get very little sleep. 12 (December 2005–January 2006): 28–31. Pyott had suffered from ‘lowness of spirits.v. etc. 113. Potter & Co.org. from study of the mouldings he puts on his clarinets and various other idiosyncracies’. was freed from all my old complaints.. No. The same combined address is given in Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. 286 Patents for Inventions. Covent-garden.285   The statement about ‘their new-invented Patent Clarinets’ confirms the firm’s association with James Wood. on 12 April in the same newspaper. 20. 1800). however. 5 June 1788). granted less than a month earlier. 435. I applied to the Doctor in September last. accessed 28 January 2009. James-street. The idea of the English type was simple: a recorder (‘English flute’) was fitted with a sponge chamber similar to that of the French flageolet and given a new name to make it sound stylish. or melancholy event. and other means. New Langwill Index.’   In World. the partnership with Phipps and Thomas D’Almaine was advertised: ‘Goulding. Goulding dubbed himself for the first time ‘Music-seller to her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales’.B. Goulding’s catalogue calls the instruments by name. as it was mentioned under his name alone in Morning Post and Gazetteer. Phipps. Jahrhundert: Fiktion oder Wirklichkeit?’ Concerto 22. Music Publishing. 45 Pall Mall happened slightly ahead of Goulding taking on partners. ivory. On 3 February 1798 in Morning Chronicle. metal. and D’Almaine (London: Printed by S.289 This ploy worked: the flageolet gained a new lease of life and became the duct flute of choice for the entire nineteenth century. E. was restless. and on 29 August in Sun they announced themselves also as ‘Real Manufacturers of Military and other 282 Patents for Inventions. were used without effect’. recommended me to Doctor Brown. distress and horror of mind.. in London Music Trades 1750–1800. For the next two years.. Phipps.287 Wood was clearly working for Goulding and his associates by 1800. D’Almaine. 6. 283 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. in one fortnight I . without source. Engraved. and of most of the principal Booksellers in England. of James-street. 2–4. that is.. Scotland. 4 March 1789.waits. who took out a patent on 19 March 1800 for a clarinet with an additional key for G♯ and the holes covered by keys lined with tubes of wood.   The removal to No.’ 288 Quoted in Waterhouse. on 15 January. after a seven years trial elsewhere.. sudden occurrence. The surviving copy is inscribed by hand: ‘To be had of E. Gosnell. Goulding.html. only the James Street address appears.282   That same year.. ‘The Leeds Waits’. Goulding was cited by a coach driver named Thomas Pyott in a modern-sounding medical testimonial (Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. Phipps’ first names are given as William Window. Geoffrey Rendall already speculated that Wood ‘was a considerable maker for the trade and especially for Goulding and D’Almaine.286 Although that association was not formally celebrated in the name of the firm until about 1813. filled me with terror. Until. who had cured him of the same disorder. the firm added ‘Music Sellers to Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales’. and Ireland’. and by his care and skill. regained my lost appetite and rest. that the hasty approach of any person. No. similar to those of Astor (1799) cited above. of Leicester-square. s.indd 128 07/05/2010 14:12 .288  Astor’s catalogue had distinguished tersely between ‘A Flagelet / A French Flagelet. Note that this extensive catalogue does not mention the bass-horns or keyed bugles listed by Astor (see facing page).uk/history/leeds. a fitting appendage for his new upscale premises. and D’Almaine. inasmuch. F. this is quite plain. and found immediate relief. and now remain in good health and spirits. 287 Humphries and Smith. 45. 9 November 1797. I think. Three months later. 15 November 1788. http://www. I lost my appetite. Haydn’s Head. musician & musical instrument seller. perhaps not coincidentally appending the Prince of Wales to the Princess.’ For ten years ‘several trials of salt water. Goulding skipped the reference to Bury but kept his address: ‘George Goulding. ‘Mr. Covent-Garden. Porter Leeds’. Accordingly. Lower-head Row’. ‘Blockflöten im 19.. the above Catalogues and Contents may be had of every Music Shop in Town and Country.  A surviving catalogue of the music published by the firm dated 1800 is prefaced by a three-page list of their instruments. no. Printed. Pall-mall’.128 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Musical Instruments’. 284 Catalogue of Instrumental and Vocal Music. and Published by Goulding.284 The catalogue bears the legend ‘N. Leeds’ first published directory in 1798 lists ‘Porter.

with 1 do. Do. brass and ivory Ruling Pens Tuning Forks and Hammers German Flute Mouth-pieces Bassoon Reeds Clarinet do. English. ST. do. do. do. with 4 do. do. Piano Forte and Guitar Strings Music Desks of all sorts French Horn Mouth-pieces Trumpet and Bugle Horn do. do. No. without do. plain do. with all the crooks Do. 76. plain Do. brass do. tipt Do. do. C do. B do. with 6 brass do. do. plain Do. without do. Tail-pieces Violincello Bows of all sorts Do. do. tipt. (French). do. PHIPPS. plain Do. B do. do. and where may be seen their new-invented Patent Clarinets. do. do. with 5 do. C do. in 1 piece A do. Lasocki — woodwind makers Do. B Clarinets. Fourths. Bridge Do. 3 tips B do. Thirds. Thirds. for Ladies Triangles for the Army Do. plain Flagelets (English). E do. do.indd 129 07/05/2010 14:12 . C do. silver keys Do. do. 3 do. Fifths. do. large Do. 1 do. LIST OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Manufactured by GOULDING. do. B CLARINETS. AND D’ALMAINE. patents with 6 silver keys Do. with 1 silver do. Serpents with case Voxhumain. Seconds. AND WARRANTED IN TUNE. Foreign. with crooks Do. do.. silver do. do. Real Importers of Violin Strings. tips Do. do. Sixths. plain Do. tips. for a Regiment Large Bass Drums Common Drums Army tambourines. box do. small Hunting do. common Do. and Octaves Bassoons with extra keys Do. A do. patent. do. do. plain German Flutes. plain. do. tipt. silver keys Do. Sixths. bone and wood Mutes. Where Gentlemen of the Army may be supplied with regular Sets of Instruments for a Military Band. do. do. Do. with extra keys C do. with 4 brass do. and Octaves. B. Eolian Harps improved Double Basses Violincellos at different prices Tenors Violins at all prices 129 Violin Bows of all sorts and prices Do. Concert. E flat Bugle Horns. do. do. Concerts. plains Do. do. with 1 brass do. Ruled Music Books of all sorts Ruled Music Paper do. plain Tabor Pipes ——— Drums French Horns. do. do. do. German Flutes. with 5 brass do. plain Tenoroon B Fife (Military). do. 3 tips C do. E do. do. ivory mouth-piece. do. do. Hautboy do. Trumpet Concert. superior in Tone and Quality to any thing of the kind every offered to the Public. for Ladies French Pedal Harps Piano Forte Guitars Common do. tipt C do. ebony mouth-piece C do. do. Tail-pieces Rosin Boxes. do. with trumpet top English Hautboy. box do. Do. do. B do. upon the shortest notice. do. plain do. do. tipt Do. Do. tipt. do. 4 silver do. Fifths. tipt Do. Thirds. with 6 silver keys and extra joints Do. 4 brass do. do. Do. do. do. English Flutes. without do. 1 brass key. with 1 do. tips. brass do. Pegs and Bridges Do. Do. with 4 brass do. JAMES’S STREET. brass do. Ladies’ do. with 5 silver do. do Do. all sorts and sizes Cymbals for the Army Do. plain C do. do. Do. with do. do. do. do. do. Do. 2 do. do. do. do. do. do. Thirds. tipt Do. plain Do. do. C Clarinets. do. with 4 silver do. do. Sevenths. do. with key B do. PIANO FORTES of every Description GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 2 do. plain Italian do. Pegs Do.. C do. Do. ebony mouth-piece B do. do. tipt Do. At their MANUFACTORY. tipt Do. large Do. tipt Do. do. Seconds and Thirds Do. with Bells Do. do. do. small Kettle Drums for an Orchestra Do. do.

266. new Editions’. 7 Westmorland Street. at Mr. John Preston (d. Teacher of the Flageolet and German Flute. Astor’s catalogue imprinted 1799 does not mention the flageolet under the heading ‘INSTRUCTION BOOKS. HALL. plain. Phipps. nearly new. Common Flute. Dublin.293 He is otherwise unknown. By THOMAS ELLIOTT. and ‘Common Flute’ among members of the flute family. at Stat. no. ‘A Selection of Instrumental and Vocal Tutors’. he stated that he had been ‘First Flute.. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. and bassoon.. Borough of Southwark. 21 March 1803. D’Almaine & Co. 2 Little Queen Street. 76 St. he removed to Cornhill in 1796 and began styling himself maker to the army at the same time. Oboe and Flageolet Player.130 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) March 1803 (Morning Chronicle). But again. 1790) A London directory of 1790 lists: ‘Power Thomas. ‘Flute’. flute. Printed by Goulding. Humphries and Smith state that the firm ‘Became George Astor and Co. Star TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION. see Patents for Inventions. The maker Hall is previously unrecorded in the late eighteenth century. Goulding’s catalogue lists only tutors for the German Flute. Mary’s Church. two ditto. at Astley’s Theatre and Sadler’s Wells’ and had ‘served an apprenticeship in the Turnery business’. the tutor is not listed in Music Entries at Stationers’ Hall 1710–1818 or Rice. the tutor cannot be dated more accurately than 1799–1813.indd 130 07/05/2010 14:12 . despite the notice ‘Entd. ‘A Selection of Instrumental and Vocal Tutors’. no. c. so perhaps this reference is a garbled version of Hallet. New Langwill Index.. 311. New Bond Street and No. in the Castle View.. The English & French Flageolet Preceptor.’ had already appeared in 1796. Again. 206. in the Whole Art of playing the Flageolet.291 Elliott was a stringed-instrument maker. At Stats. Leicester. 45 Pall Mall and Manufacturer of Military Musical Instruments. but it is not listed in Music Entries at Stationers’ Hall 1710–1818 or Rice. 294.flageolets.294 15 January 1798. and the paucity of advertisements after 1800 makes the consistency of any claim impossible to prove. clarinet. Hall’. London). the Sign of the Black-a-moor Lady. Music Seller to their Royal Highnesses the Prince & Princess of Wales. London Printed by Goulding Phipps & D’Almaine. 293 Wakefield’s Merchant and Tradesman’s General Directory for London. As we have seen. An Annotated Bibliography.   The inventor of the English flageolet has not been traced. and the first advertisement to add this Dublin address to the new London address dates from 7 March 1808 (all Morning Chronicle). hautbuoy. Hall 18 July 1792. a good Bassoon. James’s Street. 46. Warner.   The question now arises as to which firm had the English flageolet first. The firm removed from 117 to 124 New Bond Street between 18 May and 24 September 1807.. Morning Chronicle. Holborn. Similarly. Both published tutors for the new instrument. John street. Astor. for the Year 1790. 24. sometimes but not always adding his extra premises to his address. 1801’. Paul’s. Bainbridge advertised at his ‘Music Shop and Flageolet Manufactory’ at Little Queen Street on 21 290 Warner. 294 Waterhouse. lists a later edition: The English & French Flageolet Preceptor.292 Thomas Power (fl.. The title page states that the tutor had been ‘Entd. the 26th of this Instant July. and two German Flutes. for the last five years. to whose firm Waterhouse attributes the marks ‘PRESTON / LONDON’ and ‘Preston... He remained in Cornhill until his death in 1813. or. Oracle and Public Advertiser Goulding’s tutor is easier to pin down: 1800–1804. only ‘Fife’. An Annotated Bibliography. Bainbridge. (Maker. but they are undated. St. Hall’ on the title page of the later edition. and Fife. near St. and Twenty-two Miles Circular from St. 124. the designation ‘Astor and Co. The firm added the St James’ Street premises in 1800. 292 The patent was not officially granted until 2 April 1803. In an advertisement for his newly patented octave flageolet. Military Musical Instrument Maker to his Majestys Army No 79 Cornhill)290 states on page 5: ‘English & French Flageolets may be supplied by the real Manufacturer G Astor’.. Therefore. on 23 July 1804 he announced he had removed to 35 Holborn Hill (Morning Chronicle). with Silver Keys. 291 http://www. No. Clerkenwell’. clarinet and bassoon maker. & to be had of W. London (unicorn head)’ found on a surviving flute. Westminster. rendr’d Easy to every Capacity. 1798) The following advertisement establishes the (approximate) death date of John Preston. MARTIN’s.com/music/bainbridgepreceptor/. although it could well have been Bainbridge. On TUESDAY. a Hautboy. accessed 9 February 2009. Astor and Co.. The New & Complete Pocket Preceptor for the English & French Flagelets (London Printed by Geo.

299  As far as woodwind instruments are concerned.. on the most reasonable terms. that the Nobility. ‘Preston (John)’. 97 Strand. the address given by Humphries and Smith as the sole one c1778–87. and will keep the tune in that Order for a Month together. 3 February 1766. but to no Effect. c.B. harpsichord wires. and others. the most lucrative part of his business was keyboard and stringed instruments. Lasocki — woodwind makers DIED. Mr. is listed in an advertisement in General Evening Post. and which is greatly approved of by all Masters and Dealers in this Branch of Business. being so troublesome to tune. upon producing the same. that. pushes back his making and establishment by eight years and his invention by twelve: JOHN PRESTON. They had just purchased the stock-in-trade of Robert Music Printing and Publishing. 7 January 1766. That he has lately found out and invented a new Improvement. 297 Humphries and Smith. ‘to be Exchanged. c1774–75. Publishers and Wholesale Dealers’. all sorts of musical instruments. as the Proprietor signs his Name on the Belly of the above Guittars. Humphries and Smith. He also supplied new or second-hand instruments to ‘Merchants and Captains of Ships. 13 December 1785. claimed to be the original inventor of the method for tuning the guitar with a watch key’. B.297 An advertisement in London Evening Post. and Ladies. shows.   ‘PRESTON and SON’ are first mentioned together in World. Repaired. in Town.298 In an advertisement in Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. in the Strand. two second-hand barrel organs. and the original Inventor for tuning the guittar with a watch key’. and Ireland.. Musical Instrument Maker. for Tuning of Guittars. by many Years Practice and Industry. which is done Instantly.. or Instrument. N. as a ‘Manufactory’. unless altered. and two spinnets’. 300 An advertisement in the same newspaper on 24 November 1789 calls the firm ‘Manufacturers of Musical Instruments. s. 9 April 1778. 300 Humphries and Smith state that ‘His son Thomas joined the business and it became Preston and Son . now removed to No. two years before the 1791 date that Waterhouse gives for ‘John and Thomas Preston’. ‘Preston’. BEGS Leave to acquaint the Nobility. and advertised: ‘Instruments Sold by Commission.   The Proprietor of the above Guittars begs Leave to say. Strand. Wholesale and Retail. Long-Acre.. or the full Money Returned. No. still described himself as ‘Guittar and Violin-maker. and at the lowest Prices. Scotland. Please to beware of Counterfeits. for ready Money only. having Commissions for Musical Instruments’. taken in Exchange. Gentry. retail. and every other article in the music branch wholesale. Long Acre. 299 Such a patent is not listed in Patents for Inventions.   N. 298 Repeated. Preston. the Pegs belonging thereunto are of so bad a Nature. The only woodwind instruments mentioned by name in his advertisements (e. and Country’. and shall be waited on immediately. deducting the Hire and Porterage’. He had also started to expand his line: ‘Of whom may be had.g. 25 July. violin-strings. To be sold cheap. Music Publishing. 105. Preston had already established a ‘commodious Second-Hand Musical Instrument Warehouse’ at Exeter-´Change nearby.295 was at 9 Banbury Court.   The Manner of Tuning the above Guittars is by a small Watch Key.. and all Orders sent shall be punctually observed. 1789–98’. though various Attempts has been made for that Purpose. As late as 1786. Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser. and for exportation. 19 February 1789. do not chuse to trouble themselves so much with the above Guittars. Gentlemen. GUITTAR and VIOLIN-MAKER. that all those who are pleased to favour him with their Commands. Lett out. near Beaufort Buildings. ‘Preston’.v.296 and ‘in an advertisement of 1778 . General Evening Post.   Whereas others will not keep in Tune for five Minutes.. Of Banbury-Court. 295 296 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. presumably because of the greater profit margin on them. will be fully satisfied of the above. Preston seems to have been a dealer rather than a maker. s. Lately. London. and Tuned. 13  December 1788) are bassoons. where he let instruments out on three months’ trial. as an advertisement in Morning Post and Daily Advertiser. two harpsichords. Preston.indd 131 07/05/2010 14:12 . Music Publishing. We saw above that woodwind instruments by John Cramer were being sold by the firm. which never could as yet be found out. 131 It has been previously known that Preston ‘by about 1774 was established as a guitar and violin maker in London’. Preston could still bill himself as ‘Guittar-maker and original Inventor of the machine for tuning with a watch-key’ while promoting his new ‘patent piano forte guittars’. in England.v.  As with Longman. Music Printers.

Macintosh. James’s Chronicle or the British Evening Post. 1804–11. A Musical Directory. 302 He is also found in Doane’s directory the same year as ‘Oboe. Long-lane. Parker is listed in a London trade directory of 1794 as ‘Musical Wind Instrument Maker’ at the Southwark address.’ the object being to produce flutes an octave below all the different sizes of flute. 302 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. He is first mentioned in Oracle and Public Advertiser. 61–62.indd 132 07/05/2010 14:12 .’303 The abbreviations for the places he had performed mean New Musical Fund. The case. But it may be significant that he described himself in this way. Samuel Barnett date from Waterhouse. 14 May 1789.   Nikolaj Tarasov suggests that Parker’s career may have lasted well beyond 1815. 306 E-mail message to the author. Bass. I (London: A. music publisher and instrument dealer (d. Wigley Panharmonicon Exhibition.. 307 According to Waterhouse. 1770–1815) Waterhouse cites John Parker at 52 Long Lane. a Premium will be expected. At the NEW PROMENADE ROOMS. with improved keys. Washing. are also applicable to flutes and various other musical instruments then in use. 309 Humphries and Smith. Apply to JOHN PARKER. alone at 204 Strand. Bremner. He has seen a duct flute with a six-finger system under the trademark Dulcet bearing both the ‘B S’ plus triangle mark of the dealer Barnett Samuel (established 1832) and the ‘Improved Parker London’ (with crown) mark of Parker. c1770–1804. 52. 151 Strand. because there are more surviving members of the flute family by him than reed instruments. 17 August 1797. Westminster. is reported in William Carpmael. No. 303 Doane. 6 Spring Gardens’. Charing Cross. music seller and publisher. Johnson’s British Gazette and Sunday Monitor : REPOSITORY OF FASHION. s. He was also a jeweller in business at the Repository of Fashion. 309   Newspaper advertisements reveal many details of Wigley’s varied career as businessman and entrepreneur. Han So. 1797–1825) Wigley is largely known today as the instrument maker who was sued unsuccessfully by William Bainbridge in 1810 for infringing his flageolet patent. 12 May). which . Wind Instrument-Maker. who the previous year had patented ‘a flute . c. 305 Six years later. 429. and a bugle survive with Wigley’s mark.   Humphries and Smith have the following entry for Wigley: ‘Musical instrument maker. What he was doing there is set out three months later on 24 December in E. he entered into partnership with the flute maker Malcolm McGregor. Published by C. 304   Parker took an apprentice named Thomas Rayment on 16 January 1793. His friends to find him in Clothes. 305 London Music Trades 1750–1800. s. Southwark. Southwark. became Wigley and Bishop. 1816–24.  1811–16. Charing Cross.132 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) these instruments were left-over stock that Barnett Samuel had acquired because. IR1/35. 234. and Handelian Society. at Spring Garden Gate. New Mu Fu. Royal Great Rooms. adjoining the Academy of Fashion. c. 248. 308 Several flutes of various types by this partnership survive.. &c. ‘Wigley (Charles)’. N. 49. In 1811. Paul’s for the Year 1794.. ‘Bass’ may mean bass singer rather than double bass player: Biographical Dictionary of Actors cites a payment to him by the Academy of Ancient Music in the 1787– 88 season as ‘Alto Voice 6/6/0’.v. King’s Bench. 1799–1801. 1843). as well as a similar instrument with the BS mark and Parker’s crown only. a flageolet. John’. 10 February 2009.. Parker would have been born no later than the 1740s. Charles Wigley (fl. he placed the following advertisement: 15 July 1799. About 1813 issued some publications with the imprint “London. 308 Patents for Inventions. 1801– 04. &c. London. Spring Gardens. 270–73. (late Cox’s MUSEUM) SPRING-GARDENS. Kew.B. c. Law Reports of Patent Cases. c. New Langwill Index. Borough of Southwark and Twenty-Two Miles Circular from St. f. ‘Flute-maker’ was often a generic designation for woodwind maker in the eighteenth century. Abb. Two Journeymen wanted as above. a flute. ‘Parker. 306 But perhaps 301 Notice in St. Strand. Westminster Abbey. Oracle and Daily Advertiser WANTED an APPRENTICE to a FLUTE MAKER. if Waterhouse is correct.v. December 1810. 304 Biographical Dictionary of Actors 11 (1987). citing Apprenticeship Books at Public Record Office. 343.. Spring Gardens”. then until c1815 at 3 Angel Court. Wakefield’s Merchants and Tradesman’s General Directory for London. c. 307 Waterhouse. Spring Gardens. Bassoon. Music Publishing. 301 John Parker (fl. 84 Strand. New Langwill Index. 182.

Spring Garden. a warehouse or depot’ (Oxford English Dictionary). The following advertisement appeared in Morning Chronicle. E. not to mention his ingenious way of telling customers that he never gave discounts. 5 April 1798. together with a profitable cyder cellar. now crosses The Mall near Admiralty Arch and Trafalgar Square. 3. All the exhibitions are likewise to be disposed of. Models. WorkBaskets of Straw and Paper manufactured by French Emigrants.indd 133 07/05/2010 14:12 . who advertised their warehouse at 53 Great Portland Street. The premises comprise rooms. requiring space and light. the Stock on Hand will be sold under Prime Cost. This Assemblage of Taste consists of Jewellery. The combination of fashionable fancy goods emporium and exhibition rooms continued for a decade. at a Sun. including French plate looking glasses. Cutlery. and various paintings and panoramas (June 1806).. during the present Season. and as the lowest Price is affixed to every Article. Wigley had upgraded his promenade rooms to ‘Royal’. SELL by AUCTION. 20 April: GREAT BARGAINS. Shopkeepers.—C.—Exhibition and Sale Room. a painting of London and environs by Thomas Girtin (August 1802). warehouses. satin. between 1794 and 1797. 11 June 1804. Oracle and Daily Advertiser. unexpired. Henri Maillardet’s automatons (May 1798–June 1802). 311   In 1807. The original meaning of the word ‘magazine’ was ‘A place where goods are kept in store. assemblies. 133 the queen. every Evening commencing at Seven o’clock. picture gallery.   The upper Promenade Room will shortly be opened to exhibit (gratis) several capital Paintings. 4 January 1797. 27 October 1803. Samuel Page’s ‘true original invisible girls’ (October 1803). at the Repository of Fashion. Bishop and Wigley. 9 November 1801. B. Hardware. that he is retiring from Business. A number of exhibitions were announced over the years. 13 August 1796.   This advertisement displays Wigley’s extravagant style of writing. 28 February 1795. 21 June 1802. Wigley’s various Exhibitions. to be shipped for the East Indies. Worthy the Approbation of his polite and fashionable Visitants. WIGLEY. 164. and in good repute and business. and ingenious Articles. A similar advertisement in Sun. which will close at the end of this season. renders it impossible for him to make any Abatement. a model of a temple in crystal. Morning Herald. Japan and Tunbridge Ware. The London Directory for the Year 1788. Johnson’s British Gazette and Sunday Monitor. 6 August 1802. continued to be served wholesale as usual’. found to be his greatest professional Recommendation: His Determination not to deviate from the System he has adopted. Morning Chronicle. 24 June 1798. Toys.. 27 June 1806. 28 November 1796. Milliners. during the Series of Years he has been in Business. Morning Chronicle. lectures. competent for the purpose of auctions. those Ladies and Gentlemen who are induced to become Purchasers. WIGLEY. 13 February 1808: THE spacious and well-arranged PREMISES. and Duke and Duchess of York (April 1798). except the Panorama of Boulogne by Serres. a storehouse for goods or merchandise. But the name is suspiciously like a firm of haberdashers. and now occupied by Mr. 11 April 1799. inspiring a visit by 310 The auction was announced ten months later. Lasocki — woodwind makers THE great Encouragement that has reverted to C. centrically situate in Spring-gardens. together of the annual value of 300l. to the Company who honour the Proprietor with their Presence. 29 May 1798. Gold and Silver Trinkets. 311 Times. adds: ‘Merchants. Inventor and Manufacturer of ELASTIC SPRING BANDS. 25 July 1794. and velvet (June 1804). Daily Advertiser.   N. Wigley announced the first of a series of retirements that were to spread out for the next eighteen years. Oxford Street. and domestic apartments. princesses. and other useful and ornamental Articles. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Morning Chronicle. Oracle and Public Advertiser. 16 May 1799.   There is no mention of Wigley and Bishop in the advertisements. long established. or exhibitions. A London Directory (1799). Mantua-makers. his STOCK of GOODS. The said premises held for 10 years. and will. and a Variety of other Goods that were never before blended in one Collection. and are listed in London directories between 1788 and 1799. pictures in silk. And during the Day Time. famous in the twentieth century as the home of the London County Council. Travelling Cases and Rocking Horses in the greatest Variety. and Boarding Schools. the Proprietor. Spring Gardens. miniature historical portraits by Samuel Percy (April 1799). and Daniel Orme’s painting of The Landing of the Princess of Wales at Greenwich. begs to inform his Friends and the Public. will be accommodated on that Scale of Honour which the Proprietor has. hath enabled him to prepare A M A G A Z I N. in Times. 310 By 1803. 170. 5 April 1798.

Cardogan-place. various toys. announced by Wigley on 11 November 1818 (‘positively the last week but one of its remaining’). grand illuminated panoramic views (June 1809). 14  October 1816. three large French plate glasses. Geneva. Tunbridge ware. he advertised: ROYAL BAZAAR. as it is wished that only two trades alike should be admitted in the Establishment. by Barbara Owen and Arthur W. 17 March 1809. Paris. THE remaining Part of his elegant and valuable STOCK of JEWELLERY. rocking horses. ivory and tortoiseshell tea caddies. Times. optical show glasses for magnifying prints. Morning Chronicle.—Mr. 10. Counters. 11 November 1818. the advertisement (Morning Chronicle. shows that he had held on to at least some of his rooms in Spring Gardens. fireworks... Merlin’s chairs and swings. for SUBSCRIPTION CONCERTS and BALLS. Passion Week Exhibitions (April 1808). and their having been honoured with the presence of the Queen and all the Princesses. a performance by a ‘learned pig’ (February 1817). in the early part of May. a needlework portrait of the Duke of Wellington (June 1817). for the display of Property as a 312 313 The Theatre of Arts. counters. When that apparently failed. 26. 29 November 1811. 20 February 1817. at other hours. Times. the whole being intended for the support of industrious families—Terms and Regulations to be had at the Rooms. with metal frames. respectfully makes known to Amateurs of Music and Dancing. 25 May 1816. and miscellaneous effects.. 14 April 1813.—By Mr. 20 December 1811. Spring Gardens. patent lamps. 313   When Wigley made another attempt at selling up in 1815. and that the sale of the articles should be superintended by Females. THE GLASS CASES. Miller a month later (Morning Chronicle. together with a quantity of musical instruments. Show-Glasses. Springgardens. 12 March 1813. a quantity of household furniture. the remainder of Wigley’s jewellery stock-in-trade was auctioned: Jewellery. an advertisement in Times. Orme-Hume. &c. that his LARGE ROOM has been fitted up. pepper-corn rent.134 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) BAZAAR.v. usually consisting of ranges of shops or stalls. and early possession had. WIGLEY. May be viewed by leave of the tenant. ‘Panharmonicon’. ABBOTT (successor to Mr. s. an instrument that plays eight pieces of music (November 1811–December 1813). and numerous other articles. 15 June 1809. 20 April 1812. The terms for situations will be liberal. In Morning Chronicle. For particulars inquire at the Rooms from 12 to 4 o’clock.. 16 August) showed that he had been selling musical instruments besides his fancy goods: . retiring from business. where all kinds of merchandise are offered for sale’ (Oxford English Dictionary). Mahogany air tight Show Cases. of the proprietor. Great Room. retiring from business. 3. or in other words. a ‘permanent market. he tried converting the premises into what he called a bazaar. Charles Wigley. as the flow of advertisements continued unabated: a panoramic view of Edinburgh by John Augustus Atkinson and Maillardet’s Wonderful Mechanical Productions (June 1807). and novelty in the undertaking. The well known respectability of these Rooms. or private Families forming Parties for the ensuing Winter Amusements. 17 December). will no doubt insure them a complete success.. was sold to a Mr.312 auctions of ‘property belonging to distressed manufacturers’ (April 1812). superior to any Bazaar yet opened. and may be ENGAGED on reasonable terms for one night or more. WIGLEY. the Panharmonicon. G. 18 April 1808. Spring-gardens—The Public are respectfully informed by the Proprietor. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. although by now he resided elsewhere: TO PROFESSORS of MUSIC and DANCING. Malta. Mr. 6 June 1807. J.indd 134 07/05/2010 14:12 . Five months later. 4 June 1817. drawers. and a collection of paintings (March 1819). But Wigley does not seem to have succeeded in selling up. and various other fittings-up of those extensive Premises. Morning Chronicle. at a great expense. Early application for Stands is requested. an auction of paintings by George Morland (March 1809). by order of Mr. Conduit-street. that his spacious Rooms will be ready early in June next.. proprietor of the Royal Rooms. Sloane-street. whose Parents shall be the Manufacturers. Four months after that (Morning Chronicle. Theatre of Arts: representations of Marseilles. Hermon). 1 December 1813.. 12 March 1819. Wigley’s parallel musical endeavors are first men- See Grove Music Online. a Storm at Sea (November 1818). 20 April 1819). at Wigley’s Great Rooms. the remains of the stock of the proprietor. and now promised the patronage of Prince Coburg. at his Spacious Room.

Table. Charing-cross. Duke of Clarence (the future William IV).. ‘music Sun Fire Insurance: Guildhall Library. or otherwise Mrs. and as had been previously agreed. pedal. in Gothic and other cases of every description. Ford. he promised in Morning Chronicle. they adjourned to a coffee house. when Mr. Flute. 92–93. he conceived one hundred less would be a fair estimate. Fisher accordingly accompanied Mr. if not approved. After some conversation upon the subject. in order that he might become the purchaser of her furniture. Lasocki — woodwind makers 135 tioned in a fire insurance policy he took out on 10 October 1804. Wigley to close the bargain with our actress alone. Fisher had stated that the property was worth 220 added. equally cheap’. listed both: ‘Repository of Fashion. Having completed the survey. called upon the latter.—Finger and Barrel Organs. Three months earlier (Liverpool Mercury. long-time mistress of William. Jordan. at Five. &c. without proceeding to make an inventory. 315 ‘C. leaving Mr. G. 151 Strand’. and requested he would accompany him to estimate the household goods. being fitted to the rooms. was applied to by Mrs. and appropriated to the display of public exhibitions. 151. And the same address is repeated on 21 October 1809 and 16 February 1810. when the former gentleman. and the cheapest in London. father of the celebrated Clara Fisher. several Secondhand Grand and Square Ones. and Chamber Organs. Eight. 6 August 1819). when he was described as ‘music seller and dealer in musical instruments. Wigley. at 25 Guineas. was in his estimation worth 500. in Elegant Gothic cases.   Wigley had in fact already moved along the Strand: although a fire insurance policy of 30 August 1816 still places him at no. which had previously mentioned only his premises in Spring Gardens. Charles Wigley. Jordan. 151. in elegant cases. and Ten Guineas. in one or two months. 314 315 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.   By 27 December 1811 (Morning Chronicle) he had removed to 151 Strand.. with the additional keys.—A great variety of fine-toned PIANO-FORTES. was listed among the sellers of John Eager’s pamphlet evaluating Johann Bernhard Logier’s ‘new system of musical education’ in Morning Chronicle. adjoining SomersetHouse. the auctioneer. recounting her selling up before she moved to France to flee her creditors in 1815: Mr. Strand exactly opposite St. pillar legs. Fisher. 20 June 1812) adds: ‘A large assortment of Bird. 314 This address was confirmed in an advertisement in Morning Chronicle. and three drawers. Fisher retired. Mr. Ms. Clement’s Church. 151. Duncombe. equally cheap. C. The above-mentioned gentleman who was well acquainted with Mr. A similar advertisement the following year (Morning Chronicle.’ at 204 Strand. who possessed the spacious apartments formerly existing in Spring Gardens. 19 November 1819. without intimating the name of the individual to whom the property belonged. 11936/431/767829. to which the lease of the premises was thrown into the bargain. warranted. at a dwelling in Sloane-square. &c. 1830). of histrionic fame.—Likewise. Strand’. 28 December 1813: ‘These instruments are warranted to stand well in tune. gave his estimate from the cursory glance.indd 135 07/05/2010 14:12 . &c. another policy of 28 July 1817 describes him as of 84 Strand. Mr.. and may be exchanged. of whom he had some previous knowledge. and Musical Instrument Manufacturer. at WIGLEY’s Musical Instrument Manufactory. Wigley back to Sloane-square. Jordan (London: J.. and five doors from Essex-street’. or Mrs. which the last mentioned gentlemen assured the writer. Wigley through the apartments. 204.   Wigley’s attitude to business is demonstrated in the following anecdote from a biography of the Irish actress Dorothy Jordan (1761–1816). Wigley. they were well worth three hundred pounds. 29 December 1808: ‘Wigley’s Musical Instrument Warehouse. Ever one to exploit an advertisement.’ That year the Post Office directory. pictures. perhaps a son. being from habit perfectly conversant with the value of furniture. to his no small astonishment. The Great Illegitimates!! Public and Private Life of that Celebrated Actress. No. Spring-gardens. yielding to Mr. Fisher informed his friend that supposing an individual wanted the articles as they stood. Mr. which was done for the reduced sum of one hundred guineas. Confidential Friend of the Departed. if he could reconcile the transaction to his conscience. Fisher then accompanied Mr. who he then found to be the proprietress of the articles he had been requested to appraise. though he might go as far as 220. Miss Bland. the purchaser. a very snug profit.—The above Piano-Fortes are of the best quality. announcing that he manufactured keyboard instruments: PIANO-FORTES. the carpets. notwithstanding Mr. Strand. was among the authorized teachers advertised for Logier’s system. Wigley. was introduced to Mrs. but if to be removed.

a machine organ by Wigley. He may have shortly been in a little financial trouble. trios. comprising several very excellent square pianofortes in modern cases. Spanish guitars of English and foreign manufacture. 11936/476/933206. clarionets. and Bainbridge’s patents. mahogany flute and flageolet cases. who is retiring from business. single and double flageolets of Scott and Purkis’s. 22. adjoining to which is a commodious back room. the genuine stock of Mr.   The following year. 11936/477/948022. To Musical Instrument Makers. very fine toned violins and violoncellos. collected by the proprietor at a great expense. without reserve. a few books. 2 small bassoons. May be viewed. St. 1700–1820. tambourines. Paul’s churchyard. Regentst. a very excellent shop. 10 June 1820: ‘music warehouse. including only flageolets made by his competitors. Strand’. The advertisement shows his great variety of stock. 27 July 1825: Important Business Premises. Makers of the Piano: Vol. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. The lease on the imposing premises was advertised ten days later. each) had on the premises (where the wine may be viewed and samples obtained. No. very superior and costly ditto of box wood. A large quantity of the best Roman violin strings. scullery. plain German flutes. they shall submit by AUCTION. at 12. with open communication. on the Premises. with handsome hall and light staircase. retiring to the Continent. 22. tabors. 2: 1820–1860. and To-morrow. ground floor. the 28th of July. Regent-street. Vol. 317 The version on 21 July has the alternative wording: ‘retiring from business’ and adds ‘about 25 Dozens of very fine old Port Wine’. military and hunting horns. &c.   THE House contains. pianoforte. 1. 318 his instruments 316 Sun Fire Insurance: Guildhall Library. operas. despite the earlier litigation. subject to a low rent of 240l.—A very commodious Leasehold Dwelling-house.—WANTED. from a new address on Regent Street. on the Premises. by order of the Proprietor. a very superior ditto by Father Smith.136 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) &c. 3000l. basement. Paul’s churchyard. concert trumpets. &c. playing 16 tunes. May be viewed 2 days preceding the sale.’ but he did not place any further advertisements. 11936/471/921666.indd 136 07/05/2010 14:12 . and the Public. trombones. mahogany and zebra wood cases. with commanding and attractive frontage. most advantageously situate. a distinct private entrance in Argyll-place. however. in Times. whereof 20 years were unexpired at Midsummer last. with 8 stops and swell. and 11936/488/978167. a large variety of fifes. flute and clarionet joints. &c. flute and flageolet preceptors. on the third floor. at 12 o’clock each day. 84. the whole of the valuable STOCK in TRADE. 2 large kitchens. Wigley’s Music Warehouse. 224.— Large and valuable Stock of Musical Finger and Wind Instruments. 18 July 1825. W. and of Toplis and Son. Mss.’ and that address is also found in policies from 3 December 1818 and 22 March 1821. with excellent wine and beer cellars. and paved area. unless previously disposed of by private contract. being No. Regent-street. 317 he advertised his final retirement from business. July 28. the corner of Argyll-place. The plates for Wigley’s flute pocket companion and flageolet tutor. corner of Cecil-street’. and well adapted for a business of the first importance. with 2 barrels. He still appears at that address in the Post Office directory for 1824. first floor. 224. Professors. 316 The new address is confirmed in an advertisement in Morning Chronicle. in Times. violin bellies and crooks.   TOPLIS and SON respectfully announce that. 3 sleeping rooms. a capital finger organ by Leynham.—By TOPLIS and SON. on the second floor. in handsome mahogany gothic case. with 8 stops and shifting movement. as on 10 February 1821 he advertised in Morning Chronicle: ‘MORTGAGE. with bows (among them are many of peculiar excellence). Printed Music. To-morrow. with commanding Shop. seller. with 6 and 8 silver keys. Strand. St. keyed bugles. by order of the Proprietor. 2 handsome drawing rooms communicating by folding doors. catalogues (6d. the 27th of July. Mr. 318 Clinkscale. Charles Wigley. A collection of vocal and instrumental music.  Although Wigley is not mentioned in Clinkscale’s standard book on piano makers. on ample Freehold Security. THIS DAY. superior Roman Violin Strings. and particulars had on the premises.—Direct to C. Charles Wigley. very brilliant toned pianofortes with the additional keys. in London. corner of Argyle-place. three best bed rooms. and ivory. 84. ebony. and of Toplis and Son. Wigley is still listed in the Post Office directory for 1826 as ‘Musical-instrument-manufacturer. The above desirable premises are held on lease for a term. in elegant rosewood. and distinct private entrance. Regent-street. three bird organs. including Mazzinghi’s and Nathan’s airs. and numerous valuable effects. and quantity of drum heads. per annum. at Mr. a panharmonicon ditto.

Daily Advertiser. 20 May 1824. Boston . Charles’ fiveyear-old son performed on the bugle in a concert in 1805 (Times. Patent and common German Flutes.. at his stationary store. at a trifling Expence. 20.’ See ‘The London Woodwind Instrument Maker John Jost [sic] Schuchart (Schuchardt). ‘a square piano by Wigley’ (1817). Charleston . and WhipMaker. Haymarket c. and the Resolution. New York Dodds & Clause. because he is listed in the Post Office directory for 1810 under ‘Merlin’s. be adapted for a small Church or Chapel’ (1825). 924.indd 137 07/05/2010 14:12 . then in 1813 under ‘Merlin’s Museum. Wigley. 319   Humphries and Smith also mention a John Wigley: ‘Music and musical instrument seller.’ The receipt describes him as ‘einen Instrumentmachern aus London’ (an instrument maker from London).. Spring-gardens’. made by Wigley.. Italian Hautboy.. opposite the store of Messrs James and Thomas Lamb. Capt. advertised ‘Martin’s best flutes’. and have now ready for sale. 10 November 1806. ‘New Light on the Early History of the Keyed Bugle’. oboes. ‘a square piano-forte by Wigley’ (1829). lower priced do. 23 January 1818. Hanover Square. Newcastle Courant.. 11 Princess Street. Ahrens speculates that ‘he originated from Middle Germany. respectfully informs his customers.v. delivered three oboes himself for the court orchestra on 15 August 1725. City Gazette and Daily Advertiser.. of London. Captain Brine. by T. Hanover-square’. Morning Chronicle. with Silver Keys.. Kingston. 24 April 1830. 1805– 10’.’ George Astor was already selling Italian oboes in 1793. ‘Wigley (John)’.. with additional keys by Wigley’ (1820).. in the Smaragda... Captain Wells. Potter’s Flutes. GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki.. No. that he has received by the Minerva. On 28 November. Best tipt Flutes. Water-Street. including ‘FROM G ASTOR. Clarinets. 11 June 1829. at his shop. Ivory-Turner. c. Columbia Centinel.. ‘An elegant full-toned Barrel Organ. 321 Addendum (1) Since this article was written. and the public in general. or ‘Florio flutes’: 1 May 1780. plays 50 tunes’ (1818). Christian Ahrens has reported a pair of documents from the court in Gotha. Calcutta Gazette advertised a new shipment from England. ‘Pianofortes with the additional keys (new and second-hand). a few best Florio’s Flutes with additional Keys and spare pieces. d[itt]o. perhaps an older brother.. 1786– 1805. by Wigley. 321 For more details. tipt and extra Keys. 11. and on 1 February. with bell [and] Silver Keys. and other late arrivals.’ ADDENDUM (3) A further perusal of American advertisements from the 1780s and 90s has turned up extra items relating to flutes made by Richard Potter.. ‘Martin’s plain and tipt German flutes.. from London. by .. informs his friends and customers. among with are the following. which may. 3 October 1826. Prince’s-street. signing for them as ‘Johann Just Schuchardt.. ‘Piano forte by Wigley’ (1826). Morning Chronicle... The Diary or Loudon’s Register. 320 Humphries and Smith. Boston Nathaniel Blake. Scott. 15 April 1795. new within six months’ (1806). Times. ADDENDUM (2) Adam Martin’s instruments were already being exported in 1790. Music Publishing. German and 319 Hampshire Telegraph and Sussex Chronicle. On 4 January. presumably a place not too far from Gotha because he was able to travel to that town for delivering his oboes. Bradford.. Lasocki — woodwind makers 137 clearly sold. see Lasocki. State-street. D[itt]o. showing that Schuchart Sr. 27 June 1817. opposite the Coffee House. that he has for sale. patent German flutes. in town and country. ‘patent flutes’. as they are mentioned in several advertisements for auctions: ‘a fine toned Barrel Organ. ‘a handsome brilliant-toned piano-forte. London: 15 Coventry Street. 12 May 1794.320 John seems to have been a relative of Charles... to be sold by Valentine Nutter. ‘capital Patent Barrel Organ. Columbian Centinel .’ GSJ 62 (2009): 287-88. Times. with Drum and Triangle by Wigley. 16 November 1793. in the Romulus. s. from London. a very general assortment of musical instruments. 14 March 1820.’ (1824).. imported for sale. 14 October 1795. Times.. 4 June 1825. Jamaica. 7 October). William Callender.. have received by the Factor from London. ‘a pianoforte by Wigley’ (1830). New York Mercury Just imported.

No. Wightman’s. that he has received by the last arrivals.. respectfully informs his friends and the public. 18 December 1798. (bap1611. South-Carolina State Gazette and Timothy’s Daily Advertiser.. Potter’s patent flutes. Broad-Street.. have imported in the ship Fox. d1754) A1707. Linley & Moore. relict of William Howe. Known Woodwind Makers in the Turners Company of London. and silver Tubes. musical Instruments. City Gazette and Daily Advertiser. Patent and other Flutes. 28 June 1797. Four-keyed Flutes of the best kind. J.. John Paff . F1663 Thomas Garrett (d1712) A1669.. consisting of ... Mercantile Advertiser Sarah Howe. Expects a further supply of the above articles by the ship Perseverance. Columbian Centinel.138 Florola [Florio?] Flutes... F1691 Joseph Bradbury A1684 Christopher Keene (d1698) A1660. Mercantile Advertiser.. and his scholars in particular. an elegant assortment of Potter’s Six-Keyed Patent Flutes.. Saliment. no.. 39 Liberty-Street.. next door to Mr. Meeting-Street. d1647) William Whitehill (d1705) A1626.. with silver tubes. David Bradley. New York George E. a patent Flute by Potter. respectfully informs his friends. that they have opened for sale at the Store of Mr. lately received. received by the Columbia.. the public in general. F1629 William Carter A1653. Charleston . from London. 4 June 1799.. 320 Pearl-street.. The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) 19 July 1799.. New Haven Continuation of I.. Charleston James Jacks & Co.. F1660 William Shaw Jr... No. 13. with six silver Keys. Shaw. Federal Gazette & Baltimore Daily Advertiser Music Store. 16 June 1800. Organ Builder... 228. F1649 Samuel Drumbleby (bap1629) A1648. 28 November 1799. Patent Flutes. Connecticut Journal. has . F1677 Thomas Stanesby Jr.. William Shaw Sr.. an elegant assortment of .indd 138 07/05/2010 14:12 . Boston Messrs.... Names in bold are Turners for whom we have corroborative evidence that they were woodwind makers. (bap1692. opposite Fanieul Hall (Market Place) the following musical instruments. 9 February 1799.... F1667 John Hall A1669. German Patent and Plain Flutes. for sale. F1676 William Smith (d1711) A1677. at the above place. Jewellers and Watch-Makers... 109. received from London. (d1734) A1682. respectfully inform their friends and the public... in the house of Mr.. Douglass. also. for sale. 1604–1750 A = year apprenticed. F1750 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. F1728 Caleb Gedney (1729–1769) A1743.. South Fourth-Street— next door to the Indian Queen Tavern: R. F1632 A1641... No. Common do.. via Baltimore. F1655 William Debnam A1655. Carr has received from the ship Alexandria. from London .. Beers’s list of books. that he hath just opened for sale. Appendix 1.. Hampton.. (d1652) William Lowen (d1654) A1621... Philadelphia Gazette New Music Store.. 12 November 1800. F = year freed. by the Fidelity.. F1690 Thomas Stanesby Sr. patent four-keyed Flutes. No.Facet [sic] and Florio’s new invented German Flute. New-York . Gay-street. and other vessels..

Peter 75–77. 27 Tottenham St & 62 Sun St 79 Cornhill. Robert 84. Dr. 139 Barnes. Antonio 81 Besozzi. Nathaniel 109. Captain 95 Besozzi. Joseph 138 Bradford. 90 Brine. Josiah 110 Banks. 26 Wych St 79 Cornhill 79 Cornhill & 27 Tottenham St 79 Cornhill. Nicholas 104–5 Brown. Jan Barend 89 Biggs. Charles 89 Blake. 128 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Thomas 109 Betts. Johan Georg 88 Bremner. 27 Tottenham St & 62 Sun St 79 Cornhill. 139 Astor. William 103 Bate. David 138 Braun. William 110 Book. Astor & Co. 131–32 Bressan. John 112 Bach. Addresses of the Astor Family and Associates in London. a1781–1796 George Astor 1796–1798 1798–1800 1800–1809 1809–1813 1813–1814 1814–1818 a1818? 1818–1822 1822–1826 1822–1823 1824–1826 1826–1831 1831–1832 1832–1837 1837–1840 George Astor. 137 Bradley. 122–25 Astor. John 100 Beuker. Elizabeth 122–25. 95 Arnold. John Augustus 134 Austin 115 Ayres. Brian 83 Bradbury. Benjamin 121–22.indd 139 07/05/2010 14:12 . John Jacob 113–15. Mr 134 Abel. William 130. 132. 27 Tottenham St & 62 Sun St Warren St → Edmund St 79 Cornhill. Carlo 81 Besozzi. 136 Banger. Philip 81. Samuel 110 Amati. William 126 Bainbridge. John. John 124 Barritt. 115–23. 27 Tottenham St & 62 Sun St 79 Cornhill Lasocki — woodwind makers Appendix 2. Gaetano 82 Bettesworth. Carl Friedrich 109 Adkins. T. Jr. & Sons 115 Brooks. 83 Beers. Nicolò 100 Anciuti. George Astor George Astor. George 125 Bishop 132 Bishop & Wigley 133 Bizey. William Henry 123–24. James 101 Booth. George 81. Samuel 106–7 Astor. Thomas 110 Bird. Johann Christian 109 Bailey. Isaac 138 Berton. Thomas 105. Christian 137 Allen. 137 Blake. George. 121–22. Captain 137 Broadwood. 139 Astor. Cecil 80–83 Ahrens. 128–29. 96. William Henry Astor & John Lucas Christopher Gerock & Elizabeth Astor William Henry Astor & John Lucas William Henry Astor Christopher Gerock Christopher Gerock & Robert Wolf Christopher Gerock Robert Wolf 61 Lambs Conduit St → 3 Ann St → Cheapside → New St 79 Cornhill 79 Cornhill 79 Cornhill 79 Cornhill 62 Sun St INDEX OF NAMES Abbott. William 110 Boydell. 139 Astor. 113. Giovanni Maria 89 Anderton. Benjamin Banks & George Horwood George Astor Elizabeth Astor Elizabeth Astor & George Horwood William Henry Astor 139 Elizabeth Astor. 27 Tottenham St & 62 Sun St 79 Cornhill. Robert 123 Boxam. 139 Atkinson.

138 Carter. Thomas 122 Dodds & Clause 137 Douglas. John 105. Richard 100 Eager. Giuseppe 82 Fielding. Jakob Friedrich 81 Haeger. F. Mr 78 Douglass. Mr 138 Dowdall (Kusder). Maurice 73. August 81 Grenser. Robert 102 Hampel 117 Handel. Benjamin 95. Charles 95 Girtin. Mr 79 Dittmer. Mary 74 Hall. A. Nancy 101 Grundmann. William 103 Burney. 87. William Maurice 103 Callender. Caleb 85. Mr 84 Haskew. Mr 98 Budd. Captain 114 Darcey. 88. Thomas 99 Curtis. Michael 112 Cox. Thomas 133 Giustinelli. Allen 102 Green. Eric 78 Haliday. Thomas. 107 Halfpenny. George Frideric 116 Hare. 103 Cahusac. William 138 Ding. William 99–100 Danser. John 97–99 Cramer. Johann Christian 81–81 Fisher. John 74. Ernst Ludwig 107 Gerock. Captain 110 Goulding. Jr. Thomas 92. Jane 79 Drumbleby. 75 Frichot. 107–8. Joseph 120 Hall 130 Hall. 136 Coe. Ann 96 Gedney. 138 Gedney. Simon 101 Collard. 120 Gaillard. J. 102 Collins. John 97 Hare. 102. 84 Davies. Catherine 95–96 Gerber. 127–28 Goulding. Edward 103 Budd. 104 Cotton. 88–89 Brown. William 138 Clagget. Mr 85 Harvey. Benjamin 105 Carr. Mr 135 Florio. 118. Anthony 74 Grenser.William 122 Dobson. Thomas 138 Gedney. 87 Cotton. Mr 77 Browning. Joseph 97 Harris 77 Harris. Louis Alexandre 118. Mr 96 Gilbert. David 110 Debnam. 102 Hallet. 110 Callender. Phipps. Matthias 74–75 Hall & Bury 86 Hallet. 96. 124. Charles 117 Clementi. Sr. George 87 Colquhoun. George 109 Gilmore. John 111. 102. George 83–86. Joseph 77 Harris. 90–91. 102 Fischer. John 79. 94. John 135 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Robert 84 Cogswell. 139 Gerock. Thomas 110 Curtis. 110. 138 Hall. William 103–4 Cowlan. 118. Pietro Grassi 102. Mr 86 Duke. Samuel 138 Duke.140 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Ferlendis. Samuel 127 Byrne. Clara 135 Fisher. W. 104. Joseph G. John Denis 114 Haka. John 85 Brown. 113–14 Coley. 103 Budd. Jacob 124 Gibson. 131 Culliford. William 137 Caravoglia 82 Carr. 78 Garrett. Mary 99 Curtis. 127 Bury. Widow 78. 95 Hale. Henry Richard 79 Collier. Martha Novak 123. 127–30 Grant. Muzio 110 Clinkscale. Mr 109 Brown. 106. & D’Almaine 81. 115 Cahusac family 96 Cahusac. Thomas.indd 140 07/05/2010 14:12 . Joshua 111–12 Colquhoun. Jr. Charles 73. Heinrich 81 Groce. 106 Hart. 107–10 Foster 109 Freeman. Robert 77 Harrison & Co. 102–3 Cahusac. John 77 Harris. Sir John 93. Christopher 121. Giuseppe 82 Glover. George 93. Henry 85. 125–26. 95–96. Richard 76.

82–83 Milhouse. Michel Charles 76 Lee. Johann Conrad 95 Heitz. Richard III 83 Milhouse. Herbert 79 Hildisch. James 101 Horne. Alice 74 Kirkman 107–9 Köhler. Nicholas 75 Heerde. 110 Lot. Thomas 123 Percy. 137 O’Loughlin. Thomas 89 Loudon. 91. E. 108 Mazzinghi. 137–38 Powell. Mr 86 P. Lasocki — woodwind makers Hasse 95 Hawksmoor. 84–86. John & M. John 121. B. Mr 134 Miller. Malcolm 132 Metts. John 130–31 Pretorius. Jr. Edward 74 Newton. William 120. Mr 86 Leynham 136 Linley & Moore 138 Lintern. 123. 115–16. William 80–83 Miller. John 85–90. 114. 137 Martin. Nicholas 95 Lawson. Hannah 80. Daniel 133 Os. Samuel 114 Love. 96. Johann Bernhard 135 Longman & Broderip 110–11. Gregorio 82 Pearce. Henry 97 Lewer. Sarah 90 Jordan. James 107 Logier. 105–6. 77 Moore. Mr 102 Hook. William Thomas 81 Parker. Robert 103 Le Cène. Washington 113–14 Jacks. Samuel 133 Phillips. 139 Horwood. James 110 Nutter. Sarah 138 Howe. 104–8. Mr 78 Pierre. 128 Porter. Michiel 76 Parke. Christopher 74. George 121–23. 80. Norman E. Colonel John 75 Morland. 91–93 Myers. James 76 Palanca. B. Robert 96–98. Richard. 127. Charles 97–98. Henri 133–34 Manwaring. 103. 125 Pearson. 96 Lamb. Mary Margaret 75 Milhouse family 77–78. Richard. Niall 113 Orme.. Grave van 95 141 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. 138 Johnston. Henry John 85. 139 M’Lean. 138 Paisible. Jan van 76 Heise. Adam 112. Joseph 136 McGregor. Mr 83–84 Ibbetson. 94. 137 Hyens/Hyne. 100. George 85. 118. Ardal 79. James 115 Patria. John 117. Robert E. Arnold 117 Mysliveček. Carlo 81 Parent. Kenneth Wiggins 114 Potter. 138 Humphries. A. 120 Kusder. John I 117. Pieter van 95 Oswald. Thomas 130 Preston & Son 126 Preston. William 75 Howe. Charles 94 Low. George 134 Muræus. Constant 120 Porter. 104 Power. A. Sr. 130–32. 131 Longman & Clementi 110 Longman & Lukey 78. 126–27 Nathan 136 Needham. Mary 122 Hosmar. 125–26 Milhouse. I. Claude 75 Mignon. John 96 Moetjens. 123 Mignon. James 74 Lowen. Matthew 106 Mason. Mr 134 Heyde. Valentine 105. 125 Miller. Philip Ludwell 94 Lee. 80 Paff. David 85 Macanulty. 80 Milhouse. Richard 94–96. Henry 77–79. 138 Kennarston. George 103 Irving.indd 141 07/05/2010 14:12 . 94 Legge. Josef 109 Napier. Mr 105 Michel. 82–83 Milhouse. James 106. 106 Maillardet. A. John 111 Hermon. Mr 86 Norton. John 132 Parton. James & Thomas 137 Langford. William 93–94 Martin. William 105. William 138 Lucas. 101 Horwood. Dorothy 135 Keene. Johann 89 Hepburn.

105 Zeidler. B. Antonio 100. 138 Shaw. 98–101 White. Samuel 104 Vernon. James 110 Wheeler. Barnett 132 Scheurleer. 85–86. Frederick 109 Rayment. H. 92. Robert 110 Wright. 138 Stracey. 100. Captain 137 Selhof. Mr 86 Saliment. A. 118. Nicolas 77 Sharp. 138 Shaw & Chisholm 111 Shudi & Broadwood 116 Silk. 77. William 138 Wightman. William 104 Simpson. Michael 73 Toplis & Son 136 Tromlitz. William 76 Tacet. William C. 137 Solum. 79 Ricci. 95 Robinson. Homan 106 Varnell. Robert 103 Whetten. Thomas 128 Rausch. 130–32.indd 142 07/05/2010 14:12 . 138 Smith. Frederick 125 Wolf. 138 Shaw. John 76. Joseph 102. Adam 102 Turner. Mr 93 Wells. 126. Mr 109 Wolf. William 74 Woodward. Sr. William 113 Whitaker. 109–10. Robert 124. Peter 101 Wells. Sir Sampson 93 Wyne. 96. F. Mr 101 Von Hagen. 90–95. Wilhelmus 117 Young. Mr 100 Rivington. William 78. John 113 Whetten. Peter 98 GSJ63 073-142 Lasocki. Jr. 127. William 105 Proser 96 Pyott. 97–98. Geoffrey 128 Ribock. Sr. Robert 97 Thorowgood. Henry 96–101. 138 Wood. William 77 Tarasov. 97 Walton. Simon 75 Rolander 89 Rutherford. 79–80. Mr 138 Wigley. 107–9 Talbot. R. Thomas 132 Rendall. 96. 77–78. Thomas 121 Smith 84 Smith. Robert 95 Wheeler. Ann 97–98 Simpson. 110. Joseph 122 Wright. Father 136 Smith. 84 Waterhouse. 103. Nikolaj 132 Thompson 102 Thompson. John 110 Wood. Francesco Pasquale 109 Rice. J. J. Elizabeth 97 Walsh. James 128 Wood. Captain 137 Wells. Charles 98 Thompson. William. John 79 Spurrier & Phipps 107. John Just 79. Ann 98 Thompson. 78 Schuchart. 124. Mr 94 Richards. Duke of Clarence 135 Williamm. 132 Watkins. Richard 114 Williamson. 110 Tilmouth. 137 Scott & Purkis 136 Scott. 121. 130. 109 Stainer. William. G. John 97–98. Thomas. 85. 138 Stanesby. C. P. Lance 117 Whitehill. 118 Rivington & Brown 84. 109 Strong. James 76–77 Tans’ur. John Christopher 107 Zoffany. 135 William. Michael 100 Worland. 104–5. Charles 85. Johann George 107 Tunno. Charles 132–37 Wigley.142 The Galpin Society Journal LXIII (2010) Thompson. Johann 85 Zumpe 108 Prichard. George 138 Sampson & Spurrier 108 Samuel. Ann 91 Schuchart. John 96 Whitaker. 100 Skinner. 110. Thomas 109 Walsh. 106 Waggstaff. Maurice Philips 96. James 94. 118. 126 Winchcombe. 103. William 105. Jr. Thomas 103 Turpin. G. 109 Stanesby. Jacob 98. Mr 107 Whitehead. 85. 105. T. Phillip T. John 104 Varnell. Henry 102 Watstone & McKenzie 84 Welker. William 75. 90–95 Schuchart. Thomas. Granville 85 Shaw. Nathaniel 117 Winstanley. George 76 Stradivari.